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A constructivist, active-learning curriculum for high school physics Contact(s): Leonard, William J. MOP is a one-year curriculum for high school physics. It is the result of a materials development project supported by the National Science Foundation, and its design was guided by educational research findings. The curriculum integrates topics traditionally taught at different times of the year, and students are expected to develop conceptual understanding of physics while improving problem-solving proficiency.

What is MOP?

A description of the intent and nature of the Minds-On Physics curriculum During the past two decades, study after study has pointed out the shortcomings of high school physics courses: (a) The vast majority of students who take high school physics emerge with only a shallow understanding of miscellaneous facts and formulas; (b) What knowledge students do acquire is usually plagued with misconceptions, many of which persist despite instruction; and (c) With rare exception, students are unable to apply what they learn to explain, or to reason about, the world around them or to solve interesting, nontrivial problems. These unintended outcomes of physics instruction are the result of a mismatch between the way physics is typically taught and the way students go about the business of learning physics. The Minds•On Physics (MOP) curriculum materials were specifically written to address this situation. In developing MOP, we have endeavored to take account of research on the teaching and learning of physics, which has grown steadily during the past twenty years. This research has brought to light many of the cognitive difficulties students face in trying to learn physics (see Supplement B in the Teacher's Guide to accompany MOP: Motion). It has also demonstrated the value of an active learning environment and cooperative group work for improving student learning and maintaining student interest (see Supplements A and B in the Motion Teacher's Guide). MOP is designed to be consonant with findings from many different strands of educational and cognitive research - prior conceptions, expert vs. novice differences, the cognitive load associated with different styles of questions, problem solving vs. conceptual understanding, active learning, cooperative group learning, and the effects of metacommunication on the learning process. We believe that MOP will provide teachers with an approach to physics instruction that is better matched to the learning needs of students, and thereby improve the quality of the educational experience for both students and teachers. MOP is an activity-based, full-year curriculum for high school physics. It is intended to be an excellent preparation for college-level science, and is well matched with the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. (See Supplement C in the Motion Teacher's Guide for a comparison with the 1996 standards.) The MOP activities were designed to help students learn to use physics concepts to analyze and solve problems, and to curb students' natural tendency to learn by rote and to engage in formula manipulation. Most of the activities are well suited for use in cooperative group settings. Through careful construction and sequencing, MOP activities encourage students (a) to explore their existing understanding of physics-like concepts, (b) to refine their understanding of formal physics concepts and to investigate connections among related concepts, (c) to use physics concepts and principles to analyze and reason about physical situations without recourse to equation pushing, (d) to develop problem-solving skills that are anchored in an understanding of fundamental concepts and principles, and (e) to put together seemingly isolated pieces of physics knowledge into a unified, meaningful whole. Our goal is to enable students to obtain a deeper understanding of physics concepts and a greater facility for applying them to novel situations - or at the very least to point them in the right direction. Although the MOP activities place a premium on conceptual development, the MOP curriculum should not be viewed as a traditional conceptual-physics curriculum. Many MOP activities require a fairly high level of analytical reasoning and mathematical skill, more comparable to traditional problem-solving physics courses than to conceptual-physics courses. Similarly, MOP engages students in conceptual reasoning at a much deeper level than is typically the case in a conceptual-physics course - for that matter in any type of high school physics course. MOP is a challenging and rigorous course! Nevertheless MOP is flexible enough to be used with a wide range of students. For example, MOP activities have been used in 8th and 9th grade physical science courses, and they have been used in graduate-level teacher preparation courses. This is possible because of the way MOP activities are sequenced. Initial activities focus on the students' understanding of concepts. Later activities help students build and refine a scientific understanding of physics concepts. Only then are students asked to do the more challenging activities that require complex analysis and reasoning skills. The quantitative/mathematical development of a topic only occurs after students have had sufficient opportunity to develop a thorough conceptual understanding. We believe that MOP can provide all students with the skills needed to succeed in physics, and that the materials help create a classroom environment that is active and inclusive.

Another reason many different levels and types of classes can use MOP is that the depth of coverage is determined by the teacher and the students, not the activity. This is the beauty of having questions at the core of the curriculum. Students at different stages of development will necessarily interpret them differently, and their answers will always reveal the depth and breadth of their understanding. And teachers can probe as much or as little as they desire into their students' thought processes. Activities are the heart and soul of the MOP curriculum materials, but the MOP program is more than a set of student activities and associated materials. It is an approach to learning physics. Underlying the approach is a set of four basic principles:

Knowledge is constructed by each learner, not transmitted to him or her by someone else. The construction of knowledge is an effortful process requiring significant time and engagement by the learner. The construction of knowledge often takes place within the context of social interaction. The construction of knowledge is greatly influenced by the knowledge the learner already possesses.

In recognition of these principles, MOP advocates an action-oriented approach to learning physics. This means that MOP encourages little (if any) lecturing by the teacher, and requires minimal reading by the student prior to working on an activity. Instead, after a brief introduction to a new topic, students are quickly engaged in activities that require them to interact with other students and the teacher. Working in groups students use concepts to analyze problem situations and answer open-ended questions, explore the meaning of concepts through inquiry and handson activities, and share personal reflections on prior experiences. The approach treats students as sentient individuals, each one having a unique way of looking at a situation or solving a problem. The MOP approach builds on what students know, and it emphasizes processes, such as analyzing, reasoning, explaining and strategizing, over coverage of "physics facts." Content of MOP. The MOP materials are contained in six volumes of student activities and six corresponding Teacher's Guides. The first three volumes of activities are the core of the MOP curriculum and can be covered in 1/2 to 3/4 of the school year. The first volume contains activities covering Motion. The second volume is on Interactions. The third treats Conservation Laws & Concept-Based Problem Solving. Taken together, we refer to these three volumes as mechanics. The remaining three volumes constitute supplemental activities, which can be done for the final 1/4 to 1/2 of the school year. They are Fundamental Forces & Fields, Complex Systems, and Advanced Topics in Mechanics. The goal of each is to show how the concepts in mechanics can be applied to many other topics. The materials require very little specialized or sophisticated equipment. In mechanics, most of the manipulatives that might be needed are common household items, such as balls, string, washers, marbles, and bathroom scales. However, it is helpful if teachers have access to basic equipment, such as dynamics carts, air tracks, and spring scales. Within the supplemental activities, some of the equipment needed is a little more specialized, but it should still be simple and familiar, such as batteries, magnets, wire, and nails. Assessment. Traditional ways of testing students do little to uncover conceptual difficulties or to measure understanding of physical laws and principles. New ways of assessing students' progress must necessarily be developed alongside new approaches to teaching physics. New assessments need to encourage students to focus on those features that are important for deep understanding. In the Instructional Aids for Teachers, we provide a wealth of examples showing how to probe students' conceptual understanding and measure their progress with the new approach. Role of Teachers. The MOP approach requires a different role for teachers. No longer are teachers dispensers of information. A teacher who uses the MOP approach spends less time preparing lectures and more time structuring experiences for students. Many activity questions actually have two or more justifiable answers, each of which depends on the assumptions made by the students answering the questions. Thus, emphasis should be shifted from answers and whether they are right or wrong, and placed on intelligent discussion of the questions and whether the answers are consistent with the assumptions and reasoning used. In this mode, a teacher serves as a facilitator, counselor, or coach, rather than a lecturer, turning students' attention toward those ideas that will eventually help them reach a satisfactory conclusion. Materials and Support for Teachers. We have worked with teachers for many years. We are well aware of the difficulties teachers face in adopting a new curriculum, particularly if it is radically different from what they have used in the past. Realistically, it could take a teacher two to three years to become completely familiar with the MOP curriculum, and to make it their own. We have included with the MOP curriculum considerable support materials to make the transition easier and more manageable for teachers. We hope that MOP will enrich your physics teaching and will help your students not only to learn more physics and to learn it better, but also to improve their thinking and learning skills. If we had to pick one word to emphasize, it would be communication. Two-way communication between the teacher and students is critical to the success of the educational endeavor. No set of fixed materials can ever be the total solution to an educational problem. Only teachers can act flexibly enough to meet all the needs of their students, and only through open dialogue between

teachers and students can teachers determine fully the needs of their students, and students receive the feedback they need to remain constructively engaged in the learning process. Development of the Minds•On Physics curriculum materials was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), under grants MDR-9050213 and ESI-9255713.

MOP vs. Standards

Does Minds*On Physics answer the call of the National Science Education Standards When the standards say... Science is for all students. Learning is an active process. Minds•On Physics replies... Everyone can learn physics. The MOP program presents physics as an exercise in analyzing and solving problems. Since students learn in different ways, MOP offers a wide variety of activities so that every student experiences success.

Teachers should focus and support inquiries while MOP minimizes lecturing and maximizes student-student / interacting with students. student-teacher interaction. Teachers should orchestrate discourse among students about scientific ideas. MOP activities and discussion are student-driven; students are active participants in their own learning.

Achievement data collected should focus on the MOP advocates a departure from the static, such as memorizing science content that is most important for students facts, to the dynamic, such as reasoning skill development. to learn. Equal attention must be given to the assessment of MOP activities are a continuous formative assessment of student opportunity to learn and to the assessment of thinking. student achievement. Assessment tasks should be authentic. All students should develop abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. MOP mimics professional science. MOP activities promote individual skills needed to do science, including both operational and critical thinking skills.

We developed Minds•On Physics with curriculum reform in mind. The program builds upon and expands students' knowledge about the physical world, getting students to think about and do science in a way that is meaningful to them. Attachment Size

MOP vs. Standards, Long Version (PDF) 60.07 KB

**Frequently-Asked Questions
**

Questons and answers about the Minds*On Physics curriculum These questions are loosely based on ones asked by the Chicago Public Schools Board when they were considering adopting the MOP curriculum. How does your program or materials line up with the Illinois Learning Standards or the NRC's National Science Education Standards? See our comparison of the Minds•On Physics approach with the NSES (1996) . A more detailed comparison can be found in the PDF attachment at the bottom of that page. Do you have any data about student achievement in districts that have been using the program for a minimum of two years? No, but the evaluation team headed by Allan Feldman said the following in their executive summary based on the beta field-testing: When the MOP approach is used with the MOP materials as a comprehensive curriculum... students gain access to knowledge and skills that allow them to develop expert-like, concept-based problem solving abilities that are inaccessible with traditional curricula. In addition, students who used MOP regularly showed a greater awareness of their metacognitive process in solving physics problems than did students who used MOP only occasionally. (Feldman & Kropf, MOP Executive Summary, p.2, 7/23/97)

UMPERG [as of the writing of MOP --. and wrote Teacher's Guides for the three volumes of new activities. The second is a traditional teacher. The approach emphasizes analysis and reasoning over both pure conceptual understanding and pure numerical problem solving. and South Africa. metacognition. All four are Physics PhDs with extensive teaching and research experience. The accompanying teacher support materials consisted of answers with short explanations to all of the module questions. and the knowledge store and problem-solving techniques of experts and novices. well trained in physics and not overly creative in his teaching. have written numerous articles on educational issues. In the field-testing phase (1993-97). and a list of field or pilot test sites? The development process can be divided into three phases: piloting. He is involved in lots of innovative programs. The third is a biology teacher with almost no content knowledge teaching physics. with credentials in expert-novice studies. TN and New Orleans. The materials were developed using a cognitive framework based on multiple strands of educational research.D. We added 30 more teachers in Massachusetts. and done more than 70 science demonstration shows for nearly 2000 school children in the U. and Suggested Points for Class Discussion. Jose Mestre. The developers are researchers in physics education. For instance. and bilingual research. gave UMPERG more advice about the materials. including misconceptions. school-of-last-resort for students in Hartford. The teacher support materials became "Answers and Instructional Aids for Teachers" with tidbits such as Preparation for Students. please refer to our model-based design paradigm as described in section IV of the technical report ASK-IT/A2L: Assessing Student Knowledge with Instructional Technology. These activities were developed under NSF grant ESI-9255713.Can you give us some relevant background about the instructional framework of the materials and the research that guided the materials development? The instructional framework for MOP is called Concept-based Problem Solving. The teachers reviewed the module activities drafted by UMPERG. The teachers piloted the modules. A slightly shorter version can be found under the title Analysis-based Problem Solving: Making analysis and reasoning the focus of physics instruction. but he is brilliant in . schema acquisition. making comments. and we developed another 80 activities for the supplemental curriculum. and we added a "Student Reader" to summarize the ideas raised in the activities. The pilot teachers are also very different. field-testing. but they develop deeper understanding and more robust problem-solving skills. Another is a suburban HS with a diverse student population. covering only about 1/3 of the school year. from the University of Massachusetts. They have conducted more than 60 workshops and mini-courses on learning and instruction. One is an excellent private school in NW Massachusetts. we divided the modules into smaller activities that could be started and completed during the same class period. and publishing. Anticipated Difficulties for Students. The last Teacher's Guide was published earlier this year. we had field-tested more than 100 activities. and is always willing to try something new. with a large. given almost 200 talks on physics instruction. we organized the activities into a "core" curriculum and a "supplemental" curriculum having three volumes each. 100% minority. Can you give us a detailed description of the development process. minority student population. Tennessee. though not predominantly. bottom-rung. In the publishing phase (1997-2003). Students spend a lot less time solving problems. For more detailed information about the actual development process. and William Leonard. having meetings with local teachers every 6 weeks or so to gather insights and share experiences. CT. and Louisiana to field-test the materials. and suggestions that were then used to revise the modules before piloting them. Robert Dufresne. A third is an average urban HS in Springfield. We also began developing additional activities in order to span a full year. One has an Ed. LA occurred less frequently but were just as informative. including the names of the primary developers and the pilot/field testing process. MA. and allowed UMPERG into their classrooms to see how they were used and to talk to students. We also organized and expanded the existing Answers and Instructional Aids for Teachers into more complete Teacher's Guides. The field-tested activities became the core curriculum. we had developed and tested 24 modules. Meetings with teachers in Chattanooga. Supplement B of the (MOP) Motion Teacher's Guide is entitled Concept-based Problem Solving: Combining educational research results and practical experience to create a framework for learning physics and to derive effective classroom practices . At the end of the pilot project in 1992. one to accompany each volume of activities. The modules were developed under the National Science Foundation grant MDR-9050213. and the fourth is an inner city.ed] is William Gerace. corrections.) The pilot sites were in four very different settings. We started in 1990 with a team of four physics education researchers (UMPERG) and four high school teachers from a range of settings and with a range of skills and experience. The approach is described in several sources. At the end of this phase.S. cognitive overload. (These shows demonstrate how physics is manifest in everyday situations with common items. and has even coauthored his own instructional manual for teachers.

Describing Position 9 4 . 190 pages) How to Use This Book xi Acknowledgments xiii Activities 1 . Also. Time 19 6 .Using Graphs of Position vs. and we learned much from him about adapting our materials to group work. TN. we show teachers that there are many paths to success and many different ways to do physics. New Orleans.Describing Velocity 31 9 . These includes advice for using the MOP curriculum. analyzing. toy cars.Using Graphs of Velocity vs. such as balls. but one cadre was located in and around Chattanooga. Attachment Size MOP Evaluation Executive Summary 41. Time 15 5 . There are even a few students I know who have used the "Complex Systems" volume to help them with their Junior level (University) Statistical Physics class. and rubber bands. which means the teacher decides the depth and level of coverage.Generating Sketches of Position vs. such as 8th and 9th grade physical science. does not have the algebraic skills to solve a traditional problem. The fourth is an energetic and highly adaptable physics and astronomy teacher. we show how to help that student reason through to an answer. Most are located in Massachusetts. answers and instructional aids for every activity in the student book. photocopy-ready answer sheets for students to use with the activities.Generating Sketches of Velocity vs. TN. MI. and approaches. items that students are familiar with and almost any school system can afford. MA. which together span a complete full year curriculum for high-school physics. Springfield. and MOP has recently been adopted by Grand Rapids. supplemental discussions on pedagogic practices. Time 23 7 . Every student has a unique set of skills. LA.5" x 11"). If you look at MOP. you will see an emphasis on thinking. as supplementary materials in introductory college physics. we show them how to think and live and do physics without any expensive equipment. which anyone can be encouraged to do at any age with almost any background. however. MOP has been used in many different contexts. and removable. If a student. MOP is activity-based. and in graduate level teacher preparation courses.Translating Graphs of Position vs.creating group activities. 8.Communicating the Position of an Object 3 2A .25 KB MOP Contents Tables of contents for the books of the MOP series The MOP curriculum consist of four reusable Activities & Reader books for students (paperback. There are 34 in all. in Minds•On Physics. An executive summary is available.Describing Displacement 27 8 . 8. for example. and Hartford. past experiences. LA. Time 39 7 . and so. 11th and 12th grade college prep physics. and another was located in and around New Orleans.Looking Ahead 1 2 . How does the program or materials address diversity in the student population? Diversity is not limited to ethnic and cultural diversity. A list of the field-test teachers can be found in the Acknowledgments of any one of the Student Activities books. MOP has been used in schools with large minority student populations in Chattanooga.Communicating the Position of an Object (Alternative Version) 3 . MOP has also been used in "bridging" programs for under-prepared black university students in South Africa.5" x 11"). Time 35 10 . Have you done an external evaluation of the materials by objective and respected sources? The evaluation of Minds•On Physics was done by a team of researchers led by Allan Feldman of the Univ ersity of Massachusetts School of Education. CT. For each of the student books there is an accompanying Teacher's Guide (spiral bound. 1: Motion Activities & Reader (ISBN 0-7872-3927-5. If a school system does not have a large equipment budget. and reasoning. you will see common everyday manipulatives.

Time 85 22 . Time and Displacement vs.4 component representation R4 directed line segment R4 why we use three different representations R4 o Using graphs to describe the position of objects moving in one dimension R5 1.Recognizing Graphs of Acceleration vs.Translating Graphs of Acceleration vs.Relating Strobe Diagrams to Plots of Position vs.Graphical Representations of Motion: Reflection and Integration 115 31 .7 o Displacement in two dimensions R7 1.Comparing Graphs of Velocity vs. Time and Velocity vs. Time 13 .Generating Sketches of Acceleration vs.Evaluating Procedures for Solving Kinematics Problems 119 32 .17 equation for displacement when velocity is constant R17 R11 . time R14 graphs of position vs.2 Displacement R6.Solving Constant-Velocity Problems Using Different Methods 65 17 . Time 105 28 .Solving Constant-Acceleration Problems 129 35 . and Acceleration vs. Time 57 15 . Time 81 21 .Relating Graphs of Position.Translating Graphs of Velocity vs. Time 109 29 .Relating Kinematic Quantities with Kinematic Functions 101 27 .Recognizing Accelerated Motion 73 19 . Time 93 25 . and centimeter (cm) R2 three representations for position R2 magnitude & direction representation R2 component representation R3 directed line segment representation R3 representing the position in two dimensions R3 magnitude & direction R3. Time and Velocity vs.3 Velocity R8-18 o Introduction R8.0 Introduction R1 o six terms used to describe motion R1 1.7 o Introduction R6 o Displacement in one dimension R6.Relating Strobe Diagrams to Graphs of Acceleration vs. Velocity.Relating Graphs of Position vs.Summarizing and Structuring Kinematics Ideas 133 47 Reader: Chapter 1—Describing Motion R1 1.Generating Procedures for Solving Kinematics Problems 127 34 .Finding and Comparing Velocities 53 14 . time R15 o Using algebra to relate position and velocity R16. Time 87 23 .7 symbol for displacement: "delta-x" R6 definition of displacement R6 an example of displacement in all three representations R6. time R15 meaning of the slope of position vs.9 difference between speed and velocity R8 how we recognize when something has a velocity R8 definition of average velocity (in one dimension) R8 definition of velocity (or instantaneous velocity) R9 definition of speed R9 o Representing velocity (in two dimensions) R9-11 using all three representations for velocity R10 how to estimate the components of velocity using a directed line segment o Representing velocity at different times (in one dimension) R12 o Relationships between graphs of position and velocity R12-15 constant.Relating Graphs and Kinematic Functions 97 26 .Calculating Average Acceleration 89 24 . kilometer (km). Time 43 12 . 11 .Executing Procedures for Solving Kinematics Problems 125 33 .1 Position R1-5 o Describing the position of an object R1-4 definition of the term origin R1 units of position: meter (m). negative velocity R13 changing velocity R14 meaning of the area below velocity vs. positive velocity R13 constant.Solving Constant-Velocity Problems 69 18 .Describing Changes in Velocity 75 20 . Time 61 16 .More Relating Graphs of Position vs. Time and Velocity vs.Translating Between Different Representations of Accelerated Motion 111 30 .

velocity. time is the velocity R26.33 1. 354 pages) A Letter from the Authors vii .25 using directed line segments for velocity R24 using a number line for velocity R25 o Relationships between graphs of acceleration. time R28 o Deriving the kinematic equations for constant acceleration R28-33 acceleration = 0 R29 how to find the displacement using a velocity graph R29 equation for the position at time t R29 acceleration <> 0 R30-33 how to find velocity using an acceleration graph R30 equation for the velocity at time t R30 how to find position using a velocity graph R31 equation for the position at time t for constant acceleration R31 equation for the squared velocity after displacement "delta-x" R31 how to use graphs to solve problems R32.23 definition of acceleration (or instantaneous acceleration) R24 o Representing and interpreting acceleration in one dimension R24. time R27 meaning of the area below acceleration vs. time R35 meaning of the slope of velocity vs. and position (vs.19 1. time R35 meaning of the area below acceleration vs.27 meaning of the slope of velocity vs.5 Kinematics R34-36 o Introduction R34 o Definitions R34 position R34 displacement R34 average velocity R34 velocity R34 speed R34 average speed R34 average acceleration R34 acceleration R34 o Relationships between graphs of motion quantities R35 meaning of the slope of position vs. time R35 diagrammatic representation of these relationships R35 o Derived equations relating the motion quantities (for constant acceleration) R35 equation for the velocity at time t R35 equation for the position at time t R35 equation for the squared velocity after displacement "delta-x" R35 definitions of symbols used in these derived equations R35 o Conclusion R36 why problem solving is so difficult R36 how to simplify kinematics problems R36 why understanding motion is so important R36 o 1-TG: Teacher's Guide to Motion (ISBN 0-7872-3928-3.19 definition of average speed R18 why the average speed for a trip is not the average of the speeds during the trip R18 why the average speed for a trip is not the magnitude of the average velocity R18. time R35 meaning of the area below velocity vs. time when velocity is constant R17 Avoiding pitfalls when working with velocity concepts R18. time) R26-28 calculations of the slopes of tangent lines R26 verification that the slope of position vs.4 Acceleration R19-33 o Introduction R19-21 how the term acceleration is used in physics compared to how the term is used in everyday language R19 four examples of motion: R19-21 a car moving at constant velocity R19 a car with changing speed but constant direction R20 a car with constant speed but changing direction R20 a thrown ball has changing speed and direction R21 o Defining acceleration for straight-line motion (motion in one dimension) R21-24 symbol for acceleration: ax R21 definition of average acceleration R21 why "negative acceleration" does not mean "slowing down" R22. equation for position vs.

Time Generating Sketches of Velocity vs. Collaborative Group Techniques Supplement B. Time Solving Constant-Velocity Problems Using Different Methods Solving Constant-Velocity Problems Recognizing Accelerated Motion Describing Changes in Velocity Recognizing Graphs of Acceleration vs. 224 pages) How to Use this Book xi Acknowledgments xiii . Time Generating Sketches of Position vs. Time Finding and Comparing Velocities Relating Graphs of Position vs. Velocity. Time and Velocity vs. A Comparison of the Minds•On Physics Approach with the NRC's National Science C1Education Standards C10 Answer Sheets end 2: Interactions Activities & Reader (ISBN 0-7872-3929-1. Time and Velocity vs.Getting Started with Minds•On Physics Answers & Instructional Aids for Teachers 1 2 2A 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Looking Ahead Communicating the Position of an Object Communicating the Position of an Object (Alternative Version) Describing Position Using Graphs of Position vs. Time Relating Graphs and Kinematic Functions Relating Kinematic Quantities with Kinematic Functions Relating Graphs of Position. Time and Velocity vs. and Acceleration vs. Concept-Based Problem Solving: Combining educational research results and practical B1experience to create a framework for learning physics and to derive effective classroom practices B26 Supplement C. Time Translating Graphs of Position vs. Time More Relating Graphs of Position vs. Time Translating Graphs of Velocity vs. Time Calculating Average Acceleration Relating Strobe Diagrams to Graphs of Acceleration vs. Time Translating Between Different Representations of Accelerated Motion Graphical Representations of Motion: Reflection and Integration Evaluating Procedures for Solving Kinematics Problems Executing Procedures for Solving Kinematics Problems Generating Procedures for Solving Kinematics Problems Solving Constant-Acceleration Problems Summarizing and Structuring Kinematics Ideas xi 1 1 7 9 11 17 23 29 33 39 45 51 57 63 73 77 83 87 93 97 101 109 115 121 127 133 141 149 157 167 173 183 187 191 195 199 205 A1A4 Supplement A. Time and Displacement vs. Time Describing Displacement Describing Velocity Using Graphs of Velocity vs. Time Generating Sketches of Acceleration vs. Time Translating Graphs of Acceleration vs. Time Relating Strobe Diagrams to Plots of Position vs. Time Comparing Graphs of Velocity vs.

42 What is meant by an empirical force law? R41 features common to all empirical laws R41 Table I: Summary of the empirical laws for common forces R42 role of magnitude vs. empirical laws R42.Reasoning with Newton's Laws 257 60 .Calculating the Values of Physical Parameters and Quantities 281 65 .Recognizing and Interpreting Free-Body Diagrams 209 51 .Introducing Vectors 137 37 .More Comparing Magnitudes of Forces 195 48 .1 INTERACTIONS AND FORCES R37-46 o Interactions R37 how to tell when two objects are interacting R37 What if the effect is not visible? R37 o Forces R37.Recognizing Forces in Realistic Situations 185 46 .43 What is meant by a fundamental force law? R42 the process of determining empirical force laws R42.Comparing Magnitudes of Forces 191 47 .Looking for New Principles 307 Reader: Chapter 2 — Describing Interactions 2.Finding Changes in Vector Quantities 161 41 .Labeling Parts of Solutions and Executing Solution Plans 285 66 .Changing Vector Representations 149 39 .40 determining the direction of a force R40.Representing Vectors Using Components 145 38 .Relating the Forces Exerted on an Object to its Motion 247 58 .Activities 36 .Drawing and Using Free-Body Diagrams 215 52 .Understanding Friction Forces 199 49 .Analyzing Physical Situations Using Newton's First and Second Laws 235 56 .More Analyzing Physical Situations Using Newton's First and Second Laws 243 57 .More Reasoning with Newton's Laws 261 61 .Adding Vectors 155 40 .Developing Solution Plans and Solving Force Problems 293 67 .Interpreting Measurements of Forces 173 44 .Recognizing Interactions 165 42 .Going Beyond Newton's Laws 303 70 .Solving Problems with Newton's Laws 273 63 . direction in the empirical laws R42 o Fundamental laws for forces vs.Solving Force Problems: Reflection and Integration 297 68 .43 limitations of empirical laws R43 o Fundamental laws for forces R43 .Summarizing and Structuring Interactions 233 55 .Identifying Interactions 169 43 .0 Introduction R37 o What is meant by dynamics? R37 o Why is acceleration such an important concept? R37 2.Analyzing Forces without Empirical Laws 277 64 .Summarizing and Structuring Dynamics 301 69 .Calculating Forces Using Empirical Laws 205 50 .Describing Physical Situations Using Free-Body Diagrams 227 54 .41 o Empirical force laws R41.More Interpreting Measurements of Forces 179 45 .Using Newton's Laws to Determine the Magnitudes and Directions of Forces 267 62 .Making Distinctions Between Newton's Second and Third Laws 251 59 .Analyzing Physical Situations Using Free-Body Diagrams 223 53 .38 relationship between interactions and forces R37 many different ways to say that two objects are interacting R38 how a force might change during a time interval R38 o Measuring forces R38 explaining why springs are preferred for measuring forces R38 importance of knowing what a scale is actually measuring R38 o Units of force R38 introducing the pound (lb) and the newton (N) R38 converting from one unit of force to another R38 o Identifying forces R39-41 identifying the objects interacting R39 identifying the type of interaction R39.

48 definition of weight R47 how to measure the weight of something R47 definition of mass R47 how to measure the mass of something R47 comparing the mass and the weight on the earth versus on the moon R47.48 gravitational mass versus inertial mass R48 o Newton's three laws of motion R48-50 Newton's first law of motion R48 verbal statement of Newton's 1st law R48 definition of net force R48 Newton's second law of motion R49 verbal statement of Newton's 1st law R49 mathematical statement of Newton's 1st law R49 definitions of inertial mass and gravitational mass R49 definition of equilibrium R49 Newton's third law of motion R50 verbal statement of Newton's 3rd law R50 mathematical statement of Newton's 3rd law R50 relationship between forces and interactions R50 explanation of the terms action and reaction R50 difference between a reaction force and a balancing force R50 o Newton's laws and reference frames R50.2 NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION R47-52 o Mass vs. the fundamental forces covered in this course R43 Table II: Summary of the fundamental laws for two common forces R43 o Free-body diagrams: A way to help us inventory forces R44.3 DYNAMICS R52-60 o An agenda for dynamics R52.53 o Kinematics versus dynamics R53 o Reasoning with Newton's laws R53-56 equilibrium situations (net force is zero) R54.45 optional features of a free-body diagram R45 guidelines for drawing a free-body diagram R45 o The net force R46 definition of net force R46 2.51 confirming Newton's laws using a constant-velocity frame R50 contradicting Newton's laws using an accelerating frame R50 definition of inertial frame R51 o Newton's laws and free-body diagrams R51.45 the thinking behind a free-body diagram R44 some valid free-body diagrams R44 features of a free-body diagram R44.55 non-equilibrium situations (net force is not zero) R56 o Solving problems with Newton's laws R56-59 goal of this approach to learning physics R56 importance of analysis and reasoning skills R56 role of analysis and reasoning while problem solving R56-58 overview of problem solving in physics R59 diagrammatic representation of the problem-solving process R59 meaning of the diagrammatic representation R59 o Summary R59 o Limitations of dynamics R59.52 Newton's 2nd law in component form R51 applying the definition of the net force using components R52 2. weight R47.60 conditions needed to solve dynamics problems R59 some situations in which the motion cannot be determined using dynamics alone R60 o Conclusion R60 Appendix: Table of Common Forces Contact Forces A1-4 o Normal force A1 o Tension force A1 o Spring force (also called Elastic force) A2 o Buoyant force A2 o Friction forces A3 kinetic A3 static A3 o Air resistance force (also called Drag force) A4 .

Action-at-a-distance Forces A5. 372 pages) Overview of the Minds•On Physics Materials How to Use This Book Answers & Instructional Aids for Teachers: 36 Introducing Vectors 37 Representing Vectors Using Components 38 Changing Vector Representations 39 Adding Vectors 40 Finding Changes in Vector Quantities 41 Recognizing Interactions 42 Identifying Interactions 43 Interpreting Measurements of Forces 44 More Interpreting Measurements of Forces 45 Recognizing Forces in Realistic Situations 46 Comparing Magnitudes of Forces 47 More Comparing Magnitudes of Forces 48 Understanding Friction Forces 49 Calculating Forces Using Empirical Laws 50 Recognizing and Interpreting Free-Body Diagrams 51 Drawing and Using Free-Body Diagrams 52 Analyzing Physical Situations Using Free-Body Diagrams 53 Describing Physical Situations Using Free-Body Diagrams 54 Summarizing and Structuring Interactions 55 Analyzing Physical Situations Using Newton's First and Second Laws 57 Relating the Forces Exerted on an Object to its Motion 58 Making Distinctions Between Newton's Second and Third Laws 59 Reasoning with Newton's Laws 60 More Reasoning with Newton's Laws 62 Solving Problems with Newton's Laws 63 Analyzing Forces without Empirical Laws 64 Calculating the Values of Physical Parameters and Quantities 65 Labeling Parts of Solutions and Executing Solution Plans 66 Developing Solution Plans and Solving Force Problems 67 Solving Force Problems: Reflection and Integration 68 Summarizing and Structuring Dynamics 69 Going Beyond Newton's Laws 70 Looking for New Principles Answer Sheets vii ix 211 211 221 225 231 239 249 255 261 267 275 283 289 295 303 311 319 327 335 343 351 375 381 389 395 411 421 427 433 445 455 459 465 471 end 56 More Analyzing Physical Situations Using Newton's First and Second Laws 365 61 Using Newton's Laws to Determine the Magnitudes and Directions of Forces 403 .6 o Gravitational force A5 near the surface of the Earth A5 Universal Law of Gravitation A5 o Electrostatic force A6 o Magnetic force A6 2-TG: Teacher's Guide to Interactions (ISBN 0-7872-3930-5.

1 SYSTEMS R61 o What is a system? R61 o Sizes of systems R61 3.Analyzing Collisions Using Newton's Third Law 325 75 .Investigating Collisions in which Two Objects Stick Together 313 72 .Relating Forces to the Motion of Objects 353 82 .65 definition of momentum for single bodies R64 how to calculate the momentum R64 units for momentum: kg-m/s R64 what momentum means in some common situations R64 how to find the change in momentum R64.Introducing the Concepts of Impulse and Momentum 317 73 .Relating Momentum Ideas to Situations Having Two or More Objects 335 77 .Recording Your Thoughts about Energy 349 81 .Keeping Track of Energy: The Law of Conservation of Energy 403 93 .Recognizing and Comparing Kinetic Energy 375 87 .3: Conservation Laws & Concept-Based Problem Solving Activities & Reader (ISBN 0-7872-3931-3.63 definition of impulse for constant force R62 units for impulse: N-s R62 how to calculate impulse for a given force and time interval R62.3 TWO PRINCIPLES FOR DESCRIBING PHYSICAL SYSTEMS AND SOLVING PROBLEMS R66-70 o Impulse-Momentum Theorem R66.Solving More Complex Problems 445 102 .Reasoning with Energy Ideas 411 94 .Solving Problems with the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem 385 89 .Reasoning with Work and Energy Ideas 381 88 .Matching Solution Strategies with Problems 433 99 .67 comparing the net impulse and the change in momentum R66 equivalence of the units for impulse and the units for momentum R66 statement of the Impulse-Momentum Theorem for single bodies R66 o Conservation of Momentum for two-body systems R68-70 using Newton's third law to understand collisions R68 using the Impulse-Momentum Theorem to understand collisions R69 .Summarizing and Structuring Momentum and Impulse Ideas 347 80 .Computing the Work Done by Forces 371 86 .Structuring Mechanics 449 Reader: Chapter 3 — Conservation Laws 3.Relating Momentum Ideas to One-Body Problem Situations 331 76 .Recognizing the Presence of Potential Energy 389 90 .Recognizing the Presence of Work 361 84 .0 Introduction R61 o What is meant by a conservation law? R61 o Why use a conservation law instead of dynamics? R61 3.65 3.Solving One-Principle Problems 441 101 .Solving Problems Using Energy Ideas 415 95 .Comparing the Work Done by Forces 367 85 .Reasoning with Impulse and Momentum Ideas 339 78 .Writing and Comparing Solution Strategies 437 100 .Solving Problems Using Momentum Principles 343 79 .Computing the Potential Energy 399 92 .Recognizing the Appropriate Principle/Law 425 98 .Relating Work to Forces and Displacements 357 83 .2 MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE R62-65 o Impulse R62.Comparing the Potential Energy 393 91 .Recording Your Ideas about Problem Solutions 421 97 .Using Impulse and Momentum to Solve Constant-Force Problems 321 74 . 224 pages) How to Use this Book xiii Acknowledgments xv Activities 71 .Summarizing and Structuring Energy Ideas 419 96 .63 definition of net impulse for constant net force R63 how to calculate net impulse for constant net force R63 o Momentum R64.

84 o Calculating the work done by common forces R84-89 work done by the gravitational force R84 depends on the mass.5 WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY R80-90 o Definition of work R80-84 What factors affect the way a force changes the speed of something? R80 definition of work for a constant force using the component of the force parallel to the displacement R80 work is a scalar quantity R81 units for work: J (joule) R81 calculating the work done by a constant force R81 how the work done can be negative R81 What happens when the force is perpendicular to the displacement? R81 circumstances when a different definition of work is needed R82 definition of work for a constant force using the component of the displacement parallel to the force R82 definition of total work R83.87 why the tension force often does no work on an object R86 situations in which the tension force does work R86.70 3.74 using Conservation of Momentum when the impulse is small R74 Conservation of Momentum is a vector equation R74 o Solving problems with momentum ideas R75-78 using the Impulse-Momentum Theorem to solve problems R75.78 representation of problem solving using Conservation of Momentum R78 o Summary of momentum ideas and principles R79 one new state quantity: momentum p R79 two new process quantities: impulse J. time intervals. and the change in height R84 why there is a minus sign in the expression R84 work done by the normal force R85.87 the total work done by the tension force is always zero R87 work done by the friction force (static and kinetic) R88 the static friction force can do work on isolated objects R88 the static friction force can do no total work R88 why we cannot calculate the work done by kinetic friction R88 work done by the spring force R89 using a graph of force vs. potential energy R79 limitations of momentum ideas R79 3. the gravitational constant (g). displacement to find the work done R89 the graph of force vs.86 why the normal force often does no work on an object R85 situations in which the normal force does work on an object R85 the total work done by the normal force is always zero R85 how the normal force can do no work even when it delivers an impulse R86 work done by the tension force R86. kinetic energy. and change in momentum p R79 two new physical principles: the Impulse-Momentum Theorem and Conservation of Momentum R79 new energy ideas: work. statement of Conservation of Momentum for no net force on system R69 definition of total momentum R69 situations in which total momentum is only approximately conserved R69.91 What changes when total work is done on an object? R90 definition of kinetic energy R90 circumstances under which the kinetic energy changes R91 . masses. displacement is often a straight line R89 o Kinetic energy R90.76 two different ways of using the Impulse-Momentum Theorem R75 Impulse-Momentum Theorem for constant net force R75 four types of quantities: forces.4 USING MOMENTUM IDEAS AND PRINCIPLES TO ANALYZE SITUATIONS AND SOLVE PROBLEMS R70-79 o Reasoning with momentum ideas R70-74 situations involving a net impulse R70-73 using the Impulse-Momentum Theorem when there is a net impulse R71 looking at the change in momentum R71 making reasonable assumptions before making comparisons R72 using limiting cases to make comparisons R72 effect of mass on an object's response to an interaction R73 situations in which the net impulse is zero or very close to zero R73. velocities R75 representation of problem solving using the Impulse-Momentum Theorem R76 using Conservation of Momentum to solve problems R76-78 four common steps for solving Conservation of Momentum problems R76 Conservation of Momentum is a vector equation R77.

macroscopic energy R98. definition of total kinetic energy R91 3.99 definition of total energy R99 Law of Conservation of Energy R99 3. potential.8 USING ENERGY IDEAS AND PRINCIPLES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS R106-113 o Solving problems using the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem R106-109 two procedures for solving problems R106-108 representation of problem solving using the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem R108.101 similarities and differences between momentum and kinetic energy R101 o Analyzing situations using Conservation of Energy R102-106 why the law is not particularly useful without modification R102 Work-Energy Theorem (for a system of objects) R102 definition of external work R102 different ways of looking at the same situation R102-104 using dynamics and kinematics to analyze a situation before applying Conservation of Energy R104 where the energy goes during a collision R104.105 change in microscopic energy due to friction R105 different situations that may be used to derive the change in microscopic energy due to friction R105 change in microscopic energy due to air resistance R106 3. work is done R100 difficulties in identifying the forces actually doing work R100.6 TWO MORE PRINCIPLES FOR DESCRIBING PHYSICAL SYSTEMS AND SOLVING PROBLEMS R92-99 o Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem R92-94 Statement of the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem R92 depends on the total work and the change in kinetic energy R92 statement of the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem for a system of objects R92 depends on the total work and the change in total kinetic energy R92 this is a scalar equation R92 using the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem to find the speed of something R92.109 o Solving problems using Conservation of Energy R109-113 similarities and differences between the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem and the WorkEnergy Theorem R109 problems in which the total work done by external forces is zero or negligibly small R110.93 sometimes the forces doing work are hard to determine R94 more reasons why we cannot calculate the work done by kinetic friction R94 o Conservation of Energy R95-99 statement of the Law of Conservation of Energy R95 why we need two new kinds of energy: potential energy and microscopic energy R95 o Potential energy R95-98 change in gravitational potential energy R95 gravitational potential energy for objects near the surface of celestial bodies R95 using a reference height to determine the gravitational potential energy R95 gravitational potential energy does not depend upon motion R96 gravitational potential energy can be negative R96 finding the potential energy stored in a spring R97 factors affecting the spring potential energy R97. changes in state quantities R113 one new physical law: Conservation of Energy R113 two new problem-solving principles: the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem and the WorkEnergy Theorem R113 o Summary of conservation laws R113-114 reasons for using conservation laws R113 how scientists apply conservation laws to new situations R114 what we will do as we study new areas of physics R114 .7 USING ENERGY IDEAS AND PRINCIPLES TO ANALYZE SITUATIONS R100-105 o Analyzing situations using the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem R100.98 the spring potential energy is always positive R98 o Microscopic vs.111 problem in which the total work done by external forces in non-zero R112 why the Work-Energy Theorem is how we apply Conservation of Energy to a system of objects R113 representation of problem solving using Conservation of Energy R113 o Summary of energy ideas and principles R113 many new state quantities: kinetic. and microscopic energy R113 many new process quantities: work.101 whenever the kinetic energy of something changes.99 definitions of the microscopic and macroscopic realms R98 how energy is contained in the microscopic realm R98.

definitions.126 o Conclusion R126 representation of the concept-based problem-solving approach R126 3-TG: Teacher's Guide to Conservation Laws & Concept-Based Problem Solving (ISBN 0-7872-3932-1. with examples R118.122 step 1: sort the principles R121. empirical laws.0 Introduction R115 o Some questions you might ask yourself before solving a problem R115 o Why a conceptual analysis should precede equation manipulation R115 4.125 check your answer R125.Reader: Chapter 4 — Concept-Based Problem Solving 4. the relationships needed to apply concepts and principles ( physical laws. operations.120 o Interconnecting ideas in mechanics R121 using concepts to organize knowledge R121 4.125 create sketches and diagrams R124 count the number of equations and unknowns R124 challenge your assumptions R124.2 CONCEPT-BASED PROBLEM SOLVING R121-126 o How to start solving a problem R121-123 the first three steps of concept-based problem solving R121.122 step 2: choose a principle R122 step 3: apply the chosen principle and solve for the unknown R122 solution to the sample problem R122. 380 pages) Overview of the Minds•On Physics Materials How to Use This Book Answers & Instructional Aids for Teachers 71 Investigating Collisions in which Two Objects Stick Together 72 Introducing the Concepts of Impulse and Momentum 73 Using Impulse and Momentum to Solve Constant-Force Problems 74 Analyzing Collisions Using Newton's Third Law 75 Relating Momentum Ideas to One-Body Problem Situations 77 Reasoning with Impulse and Momentum Ideas 78 Solving Problems Using Momentum Principles 79 Summarizing and Structuring Momentum and Impulse Ideas 80 Recording Your Thoughts about Energy 81 Relating Forces to the Motion of Objects 82 Relating Work to Forces and Displacements 83 Recognizing the Presence of Work 84 Comparing the Work Done by Forces 85 Computing the Work Done by Forces 86 Recognizing and Comparing Kinetic Energy vii ix 483 483 491 497 507 517 535 543 553 561 567 575 581 589 597 605 76 Relating Momentum Ideas to Situations Having Two or More Objects 525 . and problem-solving techniques) R119.123 o How to finish solving a problem R124-126 four suggestions for efficient and effective problem solving R124. the most widely useful ideas in physics R117 concepts.1 A PHYSICIST'S VIEW OF MECHANICS R116-121 o Explanation R116 What is meant by a "view of mechanics" R116 what is meant by an "organizational structure" R116 what motivates a physicist's organizational structure R116 o Prioritizing ideas in mechanics R116-120 chronological list of many of the physics concepts learned so far R116 physical principles.119 other ideas relevant for solving problems (mathematical principles. and derived relations) R117.118 a priority scheme for physics ideas. the ideas needed to understand principles R117 equations.

Applying Newton's Laws 117 FF·27 .Applying Coulomb's Law to Continuous Distributions of Charge FF·15 .Developing an Empirical Force Law for Magnets 73 FF·18 .Representing the Electric Field 97 FF·23 . 207 pages) How to Use this Book xv Acknowledgments xvii Activities FF·1 .Applying Universal Gravitation to Large-Scale Objects 83 FF·20 .Reasoning with a Model for Electrical Interactions 17 FF·5 .Using the Universal Law of Gravitation 79 FF·19 .Reasoning with a Model for Magnetic Interactions 35 FF·9 .Estimating Electric Forces Using Coulomb's Law 65 FF·16 .Exploring the Gravitational Interaction 39 FF·10 .Modeling the Magnetic Properties of Moving Charges 29 FF·8 .Summarizing and Structuring the Fundamental Forces 131 Reader: Fundamental Forces and Fields 59 0.Modeling the Magnetic Properties of Materials 25 FF·7 .Modeling Universal Gravitation 51 FF·13 .Exploring the Magnetic Interaction 21 FF·6 .Representing Vector Fields Using Field Line Diagrams 111 FF·26 .Using a Mathematical Model for the Electric Force 55 FF·14 .87 Reasoning with Work and Energy Ideas 88 Solving Problems with the Work—Kinetic Energy Theorem 89 Recognizing the Presence of Potential Energy 90 Comparing the Potential Energy 91 Computing the Potential Energy 92 Keeping Track of Energy: The Law of Conservation of Energy 93 Reasoning with Energy Ideas 94 Solving Problems Using Energy Ideas 95 Summarizing and Structuring Energy Ideas 96 Recording Your Ideas about Problem Solutions 97 Recognizing the Appropriate Principle/Law 98 Matching Solution Strategies with Problems 99 Writing and Comparing Solution Strategies 100 Solving One-Principle Problems 101 Solving More Complex Problems 102 Structuring Mechanics Answer Sheets 615 625 635 641 651 659 671 685 699 711 715 725 735 745 753 765 end FF: Fundamental Forces & Fields Activities & Reader (ISBN 0-7872-5412-6. Introduction R1 o what is meant by a fundamental force R1 o a list of the fundamental forces R1 o some examples of what the fundamental forces are responsible for o the organization of the Reader R1 R1 .Applying Work and Energy Ideas 121 FF·28 .Exploring Models of Electromagnetism 1 FF·2 .Mapping Magnetic Fields 91 FF·22 .Representing the Electric Field as a Vector Field 101 FF·24 . and Predict 7 FF·3 .Using a Model to Interpret.Exploring the Idea of Weight 43 FF·11 .Distinguishing Mass and Weight 47 FF·12 . Explain.Reasoning with Coulomb's Law 69 FF·17 .Investigating the Gravitational Field 107 FF·25 .Investigating Electrical Properties of Materials 13 FF·4 .Solving Problems Using Work and Energy Ideas 127 FF·29 .Reasoning with Universal Gravitation 87 FF·21 .

Applying the atomic model of electric interactions R10. A model of the electrical properties of materials R8.4. "opposite" charges attract.11 Applying our simplified model of magnetic interactions R14 Examples of how to apply this model of magnetic interactions R14 o 1.11 explaining why neutral objects are attracted to charged objects R10 predicting the charges on pie plates R11 o 1.10 Modeling the magnetic interaction R12-14 what is meant by a nanomagnet R13 assumption 1: All matter is made up of tiny nanomagnets R13 assumption 2: "Like" poles repel. Electric phenomena R2. which are negative. neutron. magnetic materials.12 what is meant by a permanent magnet R11 what is meant by the poles of a magnet R11 what is meant by the North (N) and South (S) poles of a magnet R11 table showing how different materials interact magnetically R12 other properties of interacting materials R12 o 1. and permanent magnets R14 what is meant by a magnetic domain R14 o 1. and which are neutral R3 o 1. QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTIONS OF FUNDAMENTAL FORCES R1-20 o 1.8. and the styrofoam is defined to be negative R6 o 1.6. neutral particles do not interact R5 assumption 4: Everyday objects are neutral R6 assumption 5: Charges can be transferred R6 assumption 6: Electric interactions occur when one or both objects have excess charge R6 assumption 7: Charge is conserved R6 assumption 8: The mass of sub-microscopic particles is very small R6 assumption 9: When styrofoam is rubbed with fur.7.5. Modeling interactions R2 what is meant by the term model R2 goal of a model R2 graphic representation of modeling R2 o 1. the fur is defined to be positive.12 An atomic model of magnetic interactions R15 reasons we need to go to the atomic model R15 two moving charges are needed for the magnetic interaction R15 how to go from moving charges to nanomagnets R15 . Reasoning about electric interactions R4 an example showing how we can predict the behavior of something R4 an example showing the limitations of our current model R4 o 1.2. Magnetic phenomena R11.3 examples of electric phenomena R2 table showing how rubbed objects interact with each other R3 introducing electric charge to explain pattern of electric phenomena R3 defining which objects are said to be positive. Applying the simplified model of electric interactions R7 An example showing how the model can predict the behavior of something R7 o 1.8 types of charge on the proton.9. A simplified model of electric interactions R4-6 goal of our simplified model R4 assumption 1: All matter is made up of sub-microscopic particles R5 assumption 2: These particles have mass and charge R5 assumption 3: "Like" charges repel.1. The atomic model of matter R7. and electron R7 how the atomic model will and will not be used R8 o 1.3.9 goal of our model of electrical properties of materials R8 assertion 1: Only electrons can be transferred by rubbing R8 assertion 2: Excess electrons on a conductor flow easily R8 why some electrical demonstrations give inconsistent results R8 assertion 3: Excess electrons on an insulator do not flow very easily R9 assertion 4: Some electrons in a conductor are relatively free to move R9 conductors exchange electrons on contact R9 assertion 5: Most electrons in an insulator are not relatively free to move R9 assertion 6: The strength of the electric force depends on charge separation R9 o 1. 1. "opposite" poles attract R13 assumption 3: Every material's nanomagnets have a characteristic strength R13 what is meant by magnetic materials R13 assumption 4: The interaction of two nanomagnets depends on their strengths R13 assumption 5: The interaction of two nanomagnets depends on their separation R13 what is meant by non-magnetic materials R13 how these assumptions are applied to different materials R13 rough depictions of the nanomagnets in non-magnetic materials.

The Superposition Principle R22. C) R22 charges of the proton and electron R22 an example of how to apply Coulomb's law R22 o 2.15 Weight R18 how weight might appear to be different for different observers R18 definition of the term weight R18 why a scale sometimes cannot be used to determine weight R18 why air has weight R18 o 1.28 mathematical description of the Universal law of gravitation R27 how to find the direction of the gravitational force R27 an example showing how to apply the Universal law of gravitation R27 an example showing how to apply the Superposition Principle R28 o 2. MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF FUNDAMENTAL FORCES R21-33 o 2.10 The magnetic interaction R33 why we cannot provide a mathematical description of the magnetic interaction R33 some features you should still know about the magnetic interaction R33 3. Coulomb's law for electric forces R21.13 Applying the atomic model of magnetic interactions R16 one more assumption: the strength of a nanomagnet is due primarily to an atom's orbiting electrons R16 examples of how to apply the atomic model of magnetic interactions R16 o 1. g on its surface.1.9.31 3 general methods for applying the Universal law of gravitation R30.4.22 what is meant by a point charge R21 mathematical description of Coulomb's law R21 how to find the direction of the electric force R21 MKS unit of charge (the Coulomb.18 what is meant by local gravitation R17 how we know that gravitation is caused by the Earth R17 what is meant by "local" gravitation on the Moon R18 o 1. Scalar vs. vector fields R34 what is meant by a scalar field R34 what is meant by a vector field R34 temperature is a good example of a scalar field R34 velocity of air currents is a good example of a vector field R34 o .3. average orbital radius.7. Astronomical data R30 mass. and the Sun R30 an example of how to use astronomical data R30 o 2.14 "Local" gravitation R17. 1.20 what is meant by Universal gravitation R19 gravitational force as a function of position assuming the Earth has a uniform density R19 comparison of the gravitational forces exerted by the Earth and the Moon R20 why the local gravitational constant on the Moon is 1/6 that on the Earth R20 summary of gravitation R20 2.23 why we need the Superposition Principle R22 verbal description of the Superposition Principle R22 an example showing how to apply the Superposition Principle R23 o 2. average radius. Universal law of gravitation R27. the Moon.6. Deciding how to apply the Universal law of gravitation R30. Reasoning with Universal gravitation R32.33 o 2.17 "Universal" gravitation R19.1.8.16 Mass vs.29 what is meant by a shell R28 force law when object is outside the mass shell R29 force law when object is inside the mass shell R29 how to apply these results to celestial bodies such as the Earth and Moon R29 o 2. weight R19 differences between mass and weight R19 o 1. Applying Universal gravitation to non-point objects R28. Applying Coulomb's law to non-point objects R24 force law when objects are far apart R24 how to treat objects close together R24 o 2.31 an example showing how these methods apply to 6 situations R31 o 2. Reasoning with Coulomb's law R25.5.33 examples showing how to reason using Universal gravitation R32.26 a convenient unit of charge is the microCoulomb (µC) R25 3 examples showing how to reason using Coulomb's law R25. FIELDS R34-45 o some of the different ways the term field is used R34 o 3.29 applying Universal gravitation when objects are far apart R28 applying Universal gravitation when an object is close to a celestial body R28.26 o 2. and orbital period for the Earth.2. average density.

Finding the magnetic field for other arrangements of current-carrying wire R42 magnetic field for two parallel wires. distance from the center of the Earth R40 finding and verifying the location between the Earth and the Moon where the gravitational field is zero R40 o 3.14 Reasoning with field line diagrams R45 3 conclusions that can be reached through reasoning R45 .13 Interpreting field line diagrams R44.4.45 actual charge distribution used in this example R45 o 3.43 diagram showing the orientations of the velocity v.10 Force on a point charge moving through a magnetic field R42. principles. and models presented so far R46 o 4.8.3. The electric field R36 force on point charge q due to electric field E R36 definition of the electric field R36 using Coulomb's law to find the electric field created by a point charge R36 finding the direction of the electric field R36 how the mutual forces can be the same even though the fields are different R36 o 3.40 using shells to find the gravitational field for a celestial body R39 sketch of gravitational field strength g vs.45 an example using a pair of point charges R44.Field lines do not cross each other R45 . REASONING AND SOLVING PROBLEMS USING PHYSICAL LAWS R46-53 o a list of the useful concepts. The gravitational field R39 why we use the same symbol for "local" and "Universal" gravitation R39 definition of the gravitational field R39 gravitational field created by a point mass R39 how to find the direction of the gravitational field R39 o 3.5. Reasoning with Newton's laws R46-48 how this part of the Reader will be different from earlier parts involving forces R46 o .11 Limitations of vector field diagrams R43 many reasons why vector field diagrams are sometimes not the best way to represent fields R43 an example using the "dipole" arrangement of charges R43 o 3. straight wire R41 magnetic field for a loop of wire R41 o 3. Electric field for a spherical shell of charge R38 electric field inside a shell of charge R38 electric field outside a shell of charge R38 finding the direction of the electric field outside a shell of charge R38 an example showing how to find the electric field on a rubber ball R38 o 3. Gravitational field for non-point masses R39. Electric field for multiple point charges R37 an example of how to find the electric field for two point charges R37 vector field diagrams for the "dipole" and "dicharge" distributions of charge R37 o 3. vector field diagram for air currents in a certain region of space R34 3.7.Field lines are not the paths of objects R45 .9.The field is not strongest near field lines R45 4. magnetic field B.12 Field line diagrams R44 what is meant by a field line R44 how to find the direction of the vector field using a field line R44 field line diagrams are 3 dimensional R44 drawing showing the field lines near a positive point charge R44 how to find the comparative strength of the vector field using the density of field lines R44 why we usually draw field line diagrams in only 2 dimensions R44 limitations of the 2-dimensional field line diagram R44 o 3. and magnetic force Fm R42 2 mathematical expressions for the magnetic force on charge q R43 finding the direction of the magnetic force R43 why we cannot write an expression for the magnetic field B created by a moving point charge R43 o 3.6.1. The magnetic field R41 why we use a compass needle to determine the direction of the magnetic field R41 magnetic field for a long.45 description of the field line diagram R44 analysis of the field line diagram R44. Fields for fundamental forces R35 why we introduce fields for fundamental forces R35 how a fundamental field is defined: in terms of the force exerted on an object R35 what creates what types of fields R35 o 3.2. with currents moving in opposite directions R42 magnetic field for a coil of wire R42 o 3.

3.1.Relating Kinematic Quantities for Two-Dimensional Motion AT·9 . AT: Advanced Topics in Mechanics Activities & Reader (ISBN 0-7872-5411-8.Reasoning About Projectile Motion 35 AT·10 .Solving Problems with Energy in Rotational Systems 87 AT·23 .o o o an example involving Newton's 2nd and 3rd laws.2.49 4.Reasoning About Circular Motion 15 AT·6 .Graphing Rotational Motion 63 AT·17 . as well as momentum conservation R47 an example involving our model of materials R47 an example showing how diagrams can be useful R48 4.4.Introducing Rotational Dynamics 75 AT·20 .53 5 common steps needed to solve problems using energy ideas R53 FF-TG: Teacher's Guide to Fundamental Forces & Fields (ISBN 0-7872-3934-8. Uniform circular motion R2-4 what is meant by "uniform" circular motion R2 factors affecting acceleration: speed and radius of circle R2 starting with the definition of acceleration R2 diagram showing the change in velocity [delta]v for a small time period R3 . 172 pages) How to Use this Book xv Acknowledgments xvii Activities AT·1 .Exploring Ideas About Relative Motion 47 AT·13 .1. Reasoning with energy ideas R49-51 table showing the major energy principles. Solving problems using Newton's laws R48. Solving problems using energy ideas R51-53 the procedure for determining potential energy R51 some common reference points R51 finding the potential energy stored in the field of two point charges R51 choosing the reference point for two point charges R51 mathematical expression for the potential energy for two point charges R51 mathematical expression for the potential energy for two point masses R52 an example showing how to apply gravitational and electric potential energy R52. Contact Bill Leonard for assistance.Introducing Rotational Kinematics 67 AT·18 .Solving Problems in Relative Motion 59 AT·16 .Exploring Ideas About Projectile Motion 23 AT·8 .Solving Problems in Projectile Motion 39 AT·11 .Exploring Ideas About Circular Motion 1 AT·2 .Solving Rotational Kinematics Problems 71 AT·19 . CIRCULAR MOTION R1-10 types of situations covered by circular motion R1.1.Solving Rotational Dynamics Problems 79 AT·21 . but we haven't posted the table of contents for this volume (yet).Solving Problems in Rotational Motion 91 29 Reader: Advanced Topics in Mechanics Chapter 1. projectile motion & relative motion R1 o 1. with related concepts and their definitions R49 an example involving the Work-Energy Theorem R50 an example involving the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem R50 4.Finding Tangential Acceleration for Circular Motion 13 AT·5 .49 an example involving the magnetic interaction R48.Solving Problems in Circular Motion 19 AT·7 . Circular.Exploring Relative Motion in Two Dimensions 51 AT·14 . Projectile & Relative Motion o 3 independent sections: circular motion.Reasoning About Relative Motion 55 AT·15 .Solving Problems in Two-Dimensional Motion 43 AT·12 . 458 pages) Sorry.Identifying Energy in Rotational Systems 83 AT·22 .Finding Acceleration for Circular Motion 5 AT·3 .Finding Radial Acceleration for Circular Motion 9 AT·4 .2 1.

3. Solving problems with circular motion ideas R9.12 relationship of strobe diagram and plots to Newton's laws and force ideas R12 using plots of vx and vy vs.2. Reasoning about simple projectile motion R15-17 seeing patterns in how the speed and velocity of a projectile change R15 comparing trajectories to understand projectile motion R16 applying Newton's laws to projectile motion R17 applying conservation of energy to projectile motion R17 1.2.1.2.7 importance of finding circles that match the curvature of the path R6 radial acceleration points toward the center of curvature R6 radius of curvature is the radius of the matching circle R7 magnitude of the radial component of acceleration for motion along any path R7 direction of the radial component of acceleration R7 1. time R12 using a graph of velocity vs. Special features of simple projectile motion R14 what is meant by the term trajectory R14 3 special features of a trajectory: time of flight.2. Algebraic representation of simple projectile motion R12.10 table of ideas and principles needed to solve circular motion problems R9 example showing all the ideas that can impact a circular motion problem R10 1. Solving problems in simple projectile motion R18-20 4 relationships needed to solve problems in simple projectile motion R18 4 keys to solving projectile motion problems R18.2. Non-uniform circular motion R5. Motion along a curved path R6.2. range.1. PROJECTILE MOTION R11-22 what is meant by projectile motion R11 1. and a R13 kinematic expressions for position and velocity as functions of time for constant acceleration R13 1. time R12. time to find ax and ay R12 1. Simple projectile motion R11.4.2.3.13 1.7.6 what is meant by "non-uniform" circular motion R5 definition of the radial component of acceleration R5 definition of the tangential component of acceleration R5 magnitude of the radial component of acceleration for motion along any circle R5 direction of the radial component of acceleration R5 magnitude of the tangential component of acceleration for motion along any circle R5 direction of the tangential component of acceleration R5 finding the forces responsible for the radial and tangential accelerations R5.19 recognizing that time t is the same in all 4 relationships R18 translating given information properly into equation form R18 focusing on special features of trajectories R18 realizing when you have enough equations to solve for the unknown R18.6.13 using a graph to write an expression for horizontal position vs.4.5.12 what is meant by "simple" projectile motion R11 an example using strobe diagram of a ball thrown into the air R11.6. Algebraic representation of two-dimensional motion R13 defining symbols for the vectors r.1. time and height vs.1. Free-fall acceleration R14 difference between g and ag R14 why we use the symbol ag to denote free-fall acceleration R14 1. Reasoning with circular motion ideas R7-9 only 2 new "big ideas" in circular motion R7 integrating old ideas into new situations R7 using a free-body diagram to analyze circular motion R8 using energy ideas to analyze circular motion R8.2.o table showing the average acceleration for smaller and smaller time periods R3 1 effect of doubling the radius of the circular path R3 2 effects of doubling the speed of the ball R3 magnitude of the acceleration for uniform circular motion R4 direction of the acceleration for uniform circular motion R4 1.9 1.6 1. time to derive expressions for vertical velocity vs.1. v. and maximum altitude R14 labeled diagram of trajectory showing special features R14 what the time of flight depends on R14 what the range depends on R14 what the maximum altitude depends on R14 1. Newton's laws and uniform circular motion R4 relationship between net force and acceleration R4 1.2.1.19 .5.2.

4.24 4 people at the airport on or near a moving walkway R23 table of velocities as seen from 2 different perspectives R24 1. ANGULAR KINEMATICS R37-42 what is meant by angular kinematics R37 why we need to introduce a new set of kinematic quantities R37 2.1.33 1. Angular vs.31 throwing a ball from the ground and from a moving train R30.38 description of linear motion R37 description of angular motion R37 .33 only 3 new ideas R32 the reference frame is the key to determining positions.9. linear kinematics R37.5.34 definition of the term heading R35 Chapter 2.3.8. a situation is easier to analyze in one frame than another R32.22 o 1. Notation and language R25 labeling frames as "primed" and "unprimed" R25 labeling positions and velocities as "primed" and "unprimed" R25 reasons someone's speed can be zero even though everyone agrees he is moving R25 1. Newton's laws in different reference frames R29. while Sue is running along the shore R26 in 2 dimensions.1.2.7.3.27 numerical and symbolic representations of position transformation R27 general expressions for transforming positions R27 general expression for transforming velocity R27 3 representations of velocity transformation R27 general expression for transforming acceleration R28 2 examples of velocity transformation R28.1.29 1. Relative motion in one dimension R23. velocities. masses. each reference frame has 2 coordinate axes R26 graphical representation of position transformation R26.3. Solving problems with relative motion ideas R33-35 many common problems involve navigation R33. Reference frames R24 what is meant by reference frame R24 table of positions as measured in 2 different frames at <nobr>t = 0. motion of the ball is 1-dimensional R26 to Betty. and accelerations are the same in all frames R32 there is no preferred reference frame R32 sometimes.2. motion of the ball is 2-dimensional R26 1. Position and velocity transformations R26-29 a boat is crossing a river.30 science experiments on a train moving with constant velocity relative to the ground R29 laws of physics are the same in a frame moving with constant velocity R29 science experiments on a train slowing down relative to the ground R29. and energy R32 when the frames are inertial.6.20 how to interpret a negative root R20 1. Conservation of energy in different reference frames R30.31 change in kinetic energy depends on the frame of reference R31 work done by a force depends on the frame of reference R31 table showing how the scenarios look different in different frames R31 1. Relative motion in two dimensions R26 Jamal throws a ball into the air while riding a skateboard R26 to Jamal.3.3.3. Reasoning with relative motion ideas R32. forces. angular dynamics & energy in rotating systems R36 o 2.3.3. Solving problems in two-dimensional motion R21. 2 examples R19.3.0 s</nobr> R24 why some positions change but other positions stay the same R24 1.8.30 Newton's laws and empirical laws are different in an accelerating frame R30 small accelerations have only small effects on Newton's laws R30 definition of the phrase inertial frame R30 1.22 4 relationships needed to solve problems in 2-dimensional motion R21 2 examples R21.3.3.1. RELATIVE MOTION R23-35 situations covered by relative motion R23 some goals of studying relative motion R23 1. Rotational Motion o situations covered by rotational motion R36 o how we are going to approach rotational motion R36 o why we are going to always use a fixed axis R36 o 3 main sections: angular kinematics.

2.1.39 why the radian is different from other units of measure R38 why the radian is the preferred unit for angles R38 an example using arc length R38. ENERGY IN ROTATIONAL SYSTEMS R52-56 2.2.3. Newton's 2nd law in rotational form R48 mathematical description of Newton's 2nd law for rotations about a fixed axis R48 2.3. Solving problems in angular kinematics R41.50 the gravitational force acts "as though" through the center of gravity or balance point R49 2. linear dynamics R48 table comparing linear and angular dynamics R48 2.2. ANGULAR DYNAMICS R43-51 situations covered by angular dynamics R43 2. Angular vs.49 3 examples R49.6.2.3.47 3 factors affecting the moment of inertia R46 definition of moment of inertia (point mass) R46 definition of moment of inertia (composite object) R46 2 examples R47 2.3. Solving problems with energy ideas in rotational systems R54-56 how conservation of energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem are applied R54.4. Moment of inertia R46. Solving problems in angular dynamics R51 an example R51 relationship between angular acceleration and linear acceleration R51 2. Torque R44-46 4 factors affecting the torque R44 2 definitions of torque for rotations about a fixed axis R44 finding the direction of torque R44 SI unit of torque (N·m) R44 2 examples R45 definition of net torque for rotations about a fixed axis R46 2. Energy for linear vs.2.7. Reasoning with angular kinematics ideas R40.42 relationship between angular speed and angular velocity R41 graphs can help organize information and help solve problems R42 2.1.2.3.1.3.4.2.4. Potential energy in rotational systems R52 how energy can be stored in a rotational system R52 torque law for a torsional spring R52 potential energy for a torsional spring R52 2.55 why there is no such thing as "angular" energy R55 2 examples R55. Pivots R43 what is meant by pivot R43 an example using a hinged door R43 why we ignore forces parallel to the axis of rotation R43 what is meant by "about the pivot" or "about the point p" R43 2. Reasoning with angular dynamics ideas R48-50 for static situations. Kinetic energy of rotating objects R52 rewriting the kinetic energy using rotational quantities R52 2.2.o o o what is meant by "CCW" and "CW" R37 CCW rotations are positive R37 table comparing linear motion and rotational motion (fixed axis) R38 2. rotational motion R53 table comparing energy for linear and rotational motion R53 why we do not refer to "angular energy" R53 2.54 2 examples R53. every axis is a fixed axis of rotation R48. SOLVING PROBLEMS IN ROTATIONAL MOTION R56 general guidelines for solving problems in rotational motion R56 .3.39 2 examples applying the radian R39 why certain relationships are not proper R39 2.5.2.2.41 angular velocity and linear velocity are very different quantities R40 linear velocity depends on your location on the spinning object R41 the linear velocity can be zero even though the object is spinning R41 2.3.56 2.1.54 importance of using the center of gravity in energy problems R54 2.5. The radian R38.4. Reasoning with energy ideas in rotational systems R53.1.2.3.

Reasoning With Newton's Laws 3: Conservation Laws & Concept-Based Problem Solving (core activities 71-102) 77. Distinguishing Mass and Weight FF·13. Reasoning About Relative Motion AT·16.) 1: Motion (core activities 1-35) 1. Exploring the Gravitational Interaction FF·11. Recognizing and Comparing Kinetic Energy 91. Exploring Models of Electromagnetism FF·5. Sample MOP Activities Selected excerpts from the MOP curriculum Below are links to a few of the "minds-on" activities we have developed. CS-TG: Teacher's Guide to Complex Systems (ISBN 0-7872-5414-2) Sorry.AT-TG: Teacher's Guide to Advanced Topics in Mechanics (ISBN 0-7872-5412-6) Sorry. but we haven't posted the table of contents for this volume (yet). Representing Vector Fields Using Field Line Diagrams FF·27. Contact Bill Leonard for assistance. Reasoning with Impulse and Momentum Ideas 86. Contact Bill Leonard for assistance. Using a Mathematical Model for the Electric Force FF·20. Contact Bill Leonard for assistance. in PDF format. Exploring Ideas About Circular Motion AT·5. Time 16. Recognizing Interactions 46. Using Graphs of Position vs. Exploring the Magnetic Interaction FF·9. Reasoning About Circular Motion AT·9. Looking Ahead 4. Applying Work and Energy Ideas 4AT: Advanced Topics in Mechanics (supplemental activities AT·1-23) AT·1. Reasoning About Projectile Motion AT·14. Time 11. (Adobe Acrobat Reader or equivalent required. Computing the Potential Energy 101. Solving Constant-Velocity Problems Using Different Methods 2: Interactions (core activities 36-70) 41. Recognizing and Interpreting Free-Body Diagrams 59. Graphing Rotational Motion AT·17. CS: Complex Systems Activities & Reader (ISBN 0-7872-5413-4) Sorry. Comparing Magnitudes of Common Forces 50. but we haven't posted the table of contents for this volume (yet). Solving More Complex Problems 4FF: Fundamental Forces & Fields (supplemental activities FF·1-29) FF·1. but we haven't posted the table of contents for this volume (yet). Reasoning with Universal Gravitation FF·25. Translating Graphs of Velocity vs. Introducing Rotational Kinematics .

and other ideas that will be raised and addressed during the activity. is that this ideal is unrealistic for most teachers. . which provides advice for how to optimize the effectiveness of the activities. teachers must "learn as they go. we tell students the specific concepts. The fourth booklet --. Use of the answer sheets is particularly recommended for activities requiring a lot of graphing or drawing. however. Complex Systems & Other Advanced Topics --applies the principles developed in the first three booklets to a wide range of physical phenomena. Our experience. as well as brief explanations and comments on each question in the student activities. Teachers have little disposable time they can devote to mastering a new curriculum. Demonstrations. We hope the contents of this section will help make getting started with MOP as efficient and effective as possible. and so. Solving Rotational Dynamics Problems AT·21. Supplement C: A Comparison of the Minds•On Physics Approach with the NRC's National Science Education Standards presents a list of the core standards contained in the published 1996 National Research Council Science Education Standards and a brief description of how MOP addresses each standard.AT·20. This section also tells students what they are expected to learn. a set of four booklets for students and a corresponding set of booklets for teachers. Identifying Energy in Rotational Systems 4CS: Complex Systems Nothing available here (yet??). Only then can a teacher make well-informed decisions about how to best use the MOP materials to meet their instructional needs and goals. and the Reader organizes and summarizes the ideas of the physics content and is meant to be read after students have engaged in associated activities. Each corresponding Teacher's Guide also has two parts: Answers and Instructional Aids for Teachers. The first three booklets deal with topics in mechanics: Motion. and Hands-On Activities Global Issues: Planning the School Year with MOP Creating a Lesson Plan Around a MOP Activity Formative and Summative Assessment with MOP To get the most out of this section. Using MOP An excerpt from the MOP teacher's guides about how to use MOP effectively Introduction This section describes how to get started with MOP. Components of a MOP Activity The MOP activities all have the same basic structure: Purpose and Expected Outcome. principles. Each student booklet is divided into two parts: The Activities form an integrated set of thoughtful engagements for students. Ideally a teacher would work through all of the student activities and read through all of the accompanying materials in the MOP Teacher's Guides. andConservation Laws & Concept-Based Problem Solving. The first booklet in the teacher series contains three supplements: Supplement A: Collaborative Group Techniques provides a short list of ideas for structuring in-class group activities. Supplement B: Concept-Based Problem Solving gives a more detailed account of the MOP approach. Getting Started covers the following areas: MOP Curriculum Materials Components of a MOP Activity About the MOP Reader Contents of the Teacher Aids A Note on Laboratories. In this section. and Answer Sheets. it is best to have your copy of the MOP materials handy and refer to it as needed. Interactions.. which may be duplicated and distributed to students as desired.." It can take teachers as long as three years to become thoroughly comfortable and familiar with a new curriculum. MOP Curriculum Materials There are two sets of materials with MOP.Fields.

on occasion ask students if they learned what they were expected to learn --. Test their knowledge by asking them some basic questions. abstract. Sometimes have students consider whether they have the knowledge needed to do the upcoming activity. Any preparation that might be needed is provided in the Prior Experience / Knowledge Needed sections of the activities. Students may struggle. Prior Experience / Knowledge Needed. The Instructional Aids are intended to prepare teachers in their role as coaches of students' learning. This can be accomplished by stopping the class (after students have had a reasonable chance to get started) and asking individual students or groups of students to share with the class how they are approaching the activity. and try to give warnings about student difficulties. Since there are a number of ways to approach each activity this estimate is very rough. the Main Activity and Reflection are the most important. Answers with Short Explanations --. such as class ability or path through the material. The appropriate part of the Reader is designed to be read after the student finishes the corresponding activity (or set of activities). and arriving at an answer consistent with those assumptions. Our intent here is to assure that the majority of the students have been prepared to a certain threshold. About the MOP Reader There is no traditional textbook with MOP. The students can then use the Reader as a resource for later activities. Students will often be asked to do several activities in succession with no reading assignment. Contents of the Teacher Aids The Answers and Instructional Aids for Teachers are our way of communicating the philosophy behind each activity and/or set of activities. Typically only two or three major items are mentioned per activity.Provides an estimate of the time needed to complete the activity. and is intended to summarize. We recommend getting students to the Main Activity as quickly as possible and not overdoing the preparation of students. will affect the time required for an activity. Students may feel frustrated initially. This can be done gradually and indirectly by meta-communicating with students. This section is used to get students to bring together different but related ideas --. Occasionally an activity will contain an additional component: Integration of Ideas.Answers are an invaluable resource. We also suggest ways to interpret different patterns of students' responses as well as ways to assess student understanding. Link to the Reader --. We explain our goals and our expectations for each activity. students will grow into confident and independent learners. if necessary. .and how do they know. often more complex. situation. organize and integrate the ideas and issues raised in the activities. Clearly knowledge is cumulative and gaps in students' knowledge/skills are inevitable. it is worthwhile helping students become aware of the structure of the MOP activities. but most of their difficulties can be addressed as they proceed through the activity. The intent is that students begin by working the activities with little or no preparation from the teacher or from any other source material.to analyze a single.Identifies the physics concepts that will be dealt with in the activity and gives a brief statement of the expected outcomes. we provide any additional background needed to do the activity. After students finish an activity ask students to tell you what is the purpose of the activity from their perspective. they allow teachers to see how we think about a situation or problem. Nevertheless. We first list for students the concepts and principles they should know or be familiar with before attempting the activity. Goals and Objectives --. be prepared to provide students the support they need. misunderstandings. Our advice is not to be unduly timid about moving ahead. Then. and common responses. Frequently we also indicate how students might answer the question or how they might reason about the situation.Indicates which sections of the Reader the students may read after finishing the activity. We suggest for future reference that you keep a log of the actual time needed. They are also asked to generalize. Main Activity. students re-examine their answers to look for patterns. At the very least. being aware of one's assumptions. This section contains the specific questions and problems that probe students' understanding and prepare them to make sense out of the ideas. A short explanation or remark is always provided with an answer. we wish to stress that the focus should always be on students' thinking process and never exclusively on whether an answer is right or wrong. Other factors. After finishing the Main Activity. Preparation for Students --. Reflection. Ask the class whether the approach meets all the requirements set forth in the directions. but it serves mostly as a follow-up to the MOP activities. Another good idea is to check whether students understood the directions given in the Main Activity. Although a MOP activity has several components. but with some reassurance from the teacher and a little experience facing and overcoming the inevitable confusion associated with starting something new. Although we provide answers. Guidance for reading assignments is provided in the Instructional Aids.often dealt with using separate situations in the activity --. There is a Reader.Identifies what students need to know before they begin the activity. Only the teacher can gauge whether or not the class as a whole is ready for an activity. When appropriate we indicate how the question might be answered differently under different assumptions. For example. Our intent is to emphasize the process of analyzing each question. Time Needed for Activity --. and relate concepts to the situations they have studied. However.

should be well integrated into the course. and toy trucks.Informs teachers about difficulties students are likely to have with the activity. Faced with a particular class. a demonstration often raises many more questions than it answers. Obviously. because time is limited. Clearly. the answer they think you want. and they should be frequently asked to employ them to demonstrate physical ideas and principles in a qualitative manner. disengage. Probing for Student Understanding --. --. some of the activities involve extensive use of hands-on activities. To maximize the effectiveness of demonstrations. We list only a few items --. and which parts might be done as a class. hands-on manner serves an important function not met by typical demonstrations and formal laboratories. we encourage teachers to use a reason-predict-show-explain sequence of activities. such as balls.Contains a variety of information particularly relevant to creating a lesson plan for the activity. The questions can be used to gauge student progress on the activity as well as to identify areas of concern. many teachers feel that these two objectives are in conflict and they must strike some compromise. even worse. Students spend far too much time looking for the right answer or. Suggestions for Classroom Use.Raises some important points for discussion. In many classrooms. They are often unmotivated from the students' point of view and do not seem to impact learning of physics. it is important to reward engagement and effort.Contains a list of questions that can be used to assess student understanding. demonstrations are used to exemplify a particular concept or principle. Perhaps the only thing more difficult for students than translating their ideas into physical reality is explaining what they are trying to accomplish to another person.) In our view. Such rewards. Indeed. should not confuse students by creating the impression that all reasoning is equivalent and just a matter of taste. springs. Organization. We wish here to argue that simple. We recommend a broader use of demonstrations as a means for students to explore the features relevant for understanding physical systems and the reasoning used to analyze them. marbles. Many excellent laboratory materials have already been published and we have elected not to duplicate that effort. We would argue that your most important objective is to make your students self-aware and self-motivated learners. A class-wide discussion provides a wonderful opportunity for students to hear views of others and get feedback on their own points of view. feel inadequate to do physics and. Consequently. their own learning and development. description and explanation provided by the teacher. Suggested Points for Class Discussion --. but command of the physical representation is not a common result. formal. Students should have continuous access to these materials. and frequently culminate in time-consuming lab reports.ones we think many students will share. and without the opportunity to investigate those questions. and some of these might actually be more common than the ones we have listed. To be sure. Global Issues: Planning the School Year with MOP How you implement MOP during your school year depends strongly upon your instructional objectives for your specific class. Anticipated Difficulties for Students --. In our experience most teachers have strong preferences for the laboratory exercises that they use and just about any laboratory is compatible with MOP. of course. There are also suggestions for incorporating hands-on materials into the activity. many more student difficulties that we do not list. every teacher is constantly making choices regarding how to spend their class time. consequently. (This is sometimes called an interactive demonstration. predict what they believe will happen. . Discussing these issues and your expectations openly will help them focus on the only meaningful outcome. however. ranging from preparing students for college science courses to exposing students to the broadest possible range of physics phenomena. laboratory exercises and demonstrations also serve to develop the physical representation and a good course will employ these methods as well. simple commonplace manipulatives. and Hands-On Activities The MOP approach stresses the value of building the physical representation for physics concepts and principles. Many of the items could also be used as exam questions. It is useful to keep a log of the most prevalent ones. There are. Suggestions are made regarding which parts of the activity to do in class and which parts to do for homework. etc. Many students are intimidated by physics. and physical representations. observe the demonstration. in which students think about the demonstration apparatus. Traditional formal labs tend to be cook-book in nature. This is a very difficult task for students. however. Demonstrations. There are many possible objectives. strings. For a thinking student. and that MOP can help you accomplish this. which parts they might do in groups. with the interpretation. Providing Support to Ensure Student Progress --. There are also suggestions on which parts students might do alone.Provides some interventions that teachers can try when students get stuck. to involve large amounts of data manipulation and analysis. Sometimes there are suggestions for introducing the activity. students can come away with very distorted views about what the demonstration means. ask your students what they think they have observed after a demonstration before you tell them what they should have observed. To become convinced of this. there are a multitude of skills to be learned from good laboratory experiences. and integrating this with more formal representations. A Note on Laboratories. For this reason small group or class discussions of hands-on activities are particularly fruitful for interrelating the linguistic. and then describe the reasoning behind their predictions. unstructured explorations of physical ideas in a qualitative.

The topics of kinematics (vectors. they serve to evaluate student progress and assign a grade. (b) refine and interrelate their physics concepts. the first three booklets) should occupy between 1/2 to 3/4 of the school year. 4. the mechanics portion of MOP (i. Choose the hands-on materials that will be available. in pairs. While there is no single best path through the materials. Many teachers use graphs extensively while covering kinematics and never use them again. multi-pass approach is more effective for learning and structuring knowledge than a one-pass approach. On the other hand. Students are encouraged to (a) explore their current understanding. you might discuss the Goals and Objectives with your class. We offer the following general advice for your consideration: Emphasize the need for good communication between students and yourself and among the class as a whole. Decide how to introduce the activity. or should you do an interactive demonstration? For instance. algebra. Select points for class discussion and/or question(s) to probe student understanding. Create opportunities for students to interrelate their knowledge and skills. This has the added advantage of keeping students more interested and motivated because most students consider kinematics a resounding bore. or should you ask a probing question beforehand. Creating a Lesson Plan Around a MOP Activity Once you decide to use a MOP activity: 1.e. As mentioned in the Letter from the Authors and as elaborated in Supplement B: Concept-Based Problem Solving. that is. but the relationship between their reasoning and their answer. 8. Read over the instructional aids to get a general sense of the issues being addressed in the activity. not a recipe. Although the MOP activities are numbered. If possible. Keep course topics integrated with each other. The activities are intended to be a resource. Students who understand what is being asked of them are usually much more successful. Such exposure. It should be explained to students that it is not the answer alone that is important. how? 6. which parts will be done in class and which parts might be done for homework. Look at the explanations and comments provided with the answers to get some sense of how students might respond to the various questions and what these responses might mean. there is no need to proceed through them in strict order. and you will be in a better position to make decisions. 5. Do not let students get bogged down. and (e) organize their knowledge into a coherent structure. Even the best of students may not get the desired idea on the first pass. is only effective and long lasting if students have some firm ground of fundamental concepts to which they can relate this knowledge. or work on the example. graphs. consider interweaving motion with interactions. It often takes students considerable time to accommodate and learn how to use new ideas. rates of change. Assessments of this second type are called formative because the results have consequences for subsequent instruction. (d) develop problem-solving skills. however.) are among the most difficult for beginning students. There is no need to wait for this formal math development to finish before beginning to develop physical intuition and reasoning skills. it is preferred to identify student problems or . Formative and Summative Assessment with MOP Most assessments used by teachers are at the end of a topic and are of a summative nature. 7. Sometimes this tendency to partition is even more common with mathematical topics such as graphs and vectors. Select the portions of the activity you want to do.. Nor is there a need to do every activity or any particular activity in its entirety. invest the time to do the activity yourself. Generally. Building a solid foundation is what MOP is all about. Students often perceive an introductory physics course as a series of unrelated topics. Decide how students will engage in the activity. Should it be done as a class. The two can be developed in parallel. they are more motivated to learn kinematics. etc. or individually? When should the class discussion begin? Should students present their answers to the rest of the class and. if so. (c) enhance their analyzing and reasoning abilities. 3. Rarely do teachers ask students to find the velocity or position of a body once kinematics is over and Newton's laws are being covered. when they see why one might be concerned about the velocity and position of an object subject to a net force. in groups. Which activities should be used and how much time should be devoted to each of them is something only you can decide. Should you let students just jump in. MOP activities dealing with the same topic are sequenced in a cognitive sense. but with the intention of returning to the topic at a later time. 2. it is best not to invert related activities designed to target different cognitive stages. A spiral.Touching upon many topics and modern phenomena is a desirable goal. This is the best way to become familiar with the activity. As a special case of the above points. Think about ways you can support students' progress through the activity. Only rarely are tests designed to inform either students or teachers of the nature of student difficulties. Rather than wait for all students to demonstrate the proficiency with a specific concept that you would like. or even do part of the activity as a class exercise. Depending upon individual goals. move on.

e.e. Velocity) after finishing Activity 9. 14Jan04] Many thanks to Andrew Wertz of Littlestown HS in Littlestown. D.. their worth is determined. or feedback.C. i. [AW." Activity 8. Errata for Motion TG Activity 4.e. 22. "Link to Reader" Change the ending page of the reading assignment to R9. it is important that the assessment item resemble the tasks that they have rehearsed. question P8. Examples of how new assessments might be structured to probe students' progress and their conceptual understanding can be found in the "Probing for Student Understanding" sections of the Answers and Instructional Aids for Teachers. we'd love to hear from you. New ways of assessing students' progress must necessarily be developed alongside new approaches to teaching. Failure erodes their self-confidence and self-esteem. i. These new assessments need to encourage students to focus on those features that are important for deep understanding. If students are to demonstrate their abilities. it is our view that tests and exams should serve primarily a pedagogic rather than evaluative function. assessment. who found these mistakes.. Students need to go beyond being active. Students dislike and resent exams because they feel evaluated. p. 45. They need to develop self-evaluation skills and good exams can help them achieve this goal. Success on traditional exams does not send a much better message. Errata for Motion AR Student Reader. p. Frequently asking students to what they attribute their lack of success or inability to do a problem helps them establish self-reflection as the norm. p. 06Jun04] Student Reader. Kendall/Hunt's listing of MOP books For MOP Users If you are a teacher using Minds*On Physics. ("TG" means "Teacher's Guide" and "AR" means "Activities & Reader". The MOP approach emphasizes the need for formative. 39.misunderstandings while there is still time to do something to correct the situation. or even engaged learners. PA. Without new assessment methods.) If you think you've found a mistake that we don't list here.0s to t = 6. p. MOP Errata Corrections for errors (gasp!) in the published MOP books Believe it or not.4.S. part (a) answer Add graph D to the list of answers. "Graphs C.e. and E represent objects that are speeding up.. You should probably check out the MOP Errata page.O. we have errata lists for the following books. "Students may read pages R8-9 (the beginning of section 1. Are you a teacher who uses Minds•On Physics? If so. Traditional exam questions tend to stress answers and be numeric and formulaic in nature. too. as opposed to summative. Exams can be designed to be informative to students and can serve as valuable educational experiences for students. We know that the traditional ways of testing students do little to uncover conceptual difficulties or to measure knowledge of physical laws and principles. is the goal to be sought. Successful students come to believe that achievement in the form of grades. R4. [EH. They need to become self-invested in the entire process of education. Where to Get MOP Minds•On Physics is sold by the Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. students will remain largely unwilling to abandon formulaic approaches.. the student activities book. Please don't hesitate to contact Bill Leonard with any questions. and Ed Haley of E. i. in Springfield. top: The average velocity from t = 5. We'll add errata pages for the other books if/as the need arises. "Link to Reader" .0s is +10cm/s. p. middle: The components of the position of the ant should be given everywhere in "centimeters" not "meters". rather than intellectual development. please report it to Bill Leonard. comments.. R9." Activity 9. not −10cm/s. Another suggestion is to reserve part of an activity for a later assessment. Finally. i. Teaching self-invested and reflective students is an exciting and rewarding experience. MA.

p. question A4 answer.. both the origin and the orientation of the coordinate frame need to be specified.e." question A4 answer. 107.. 96.. who found almost all of these mistakes. 91. 217 Answer to question B2 should be: 580m @ 149°.. 216. p.4. p. 68. "• See table of values for P1 above. question P1 answer In part (a). and angle relative to East axis (column 3) should be "153°". "Students might pick only object J... Activity 27. Answer to question B3 should be: 500m @ 307°. Activity 36. p.. i. p.." Activity 25. p. "Students do not need to make precise calculations to answer questions B2B4. bullet 4 Change A2-A4 to B2-B4. question B1 answer. "• By exaggerating the curvature of the graph between #4 and #5. i. bullet 1 Change wording to "Students might plot speed vs." Add to the end of bullet 1. time (as shown below on the left). bullet 1.222. 79 question A2 answer. question P8 answer Add bullet. bullet 1: replace -37° with -53°.. bullet 2 The word 'needs' should be 'need'. time instead of velocity vs.e.e. 163 question R2 answer is really only the first half of the answer to R2. "Explanation of Activity and Examples": The page number indicating where to find the map (of King's Court) should be "143". Errata for Interactions AR Activity 37.. which would correspond to J" question A6 answer. bullet 2.. 227. (a) Which object (in part A) reaches a velocity of 1cm/s first? (b) When does this occur? (c) Which object reaches a speed of 1cm/s first? (d) When does this occur?" Activity 12. i. question R5 answer is really the answer to R4. not 134.." question A4 answer. p. bullet 1. the Total Area (i. at t = 1½s. i. 76.. after the plane has traveled 20km". angle relative to horizontal (column 2) should be "27°". Velocity) after finishing this activity. 65. 137.e." Activity 17. CA. 145.5 m. "Students may read pages R8-9 (the beginning of section 1." Activity 13.45s". question C3 answer Modify paragraph 2: "Yes. the average velocity is +1 grid/s —or— 1 grid/s. some students might not realize that the speed goes to zero between strobes 4 and 5 (as shown below on the right)." Activity 15. Activity 19. column 4) should be 292.. Activity 14. "P3. change the units to cm/s. question R4 answer is really the answer to R3." Activity 24. Answer to question B3." Fix bullet 1: "Students might have gotten question B2 wrong. question P1 answer The answers to parts (a) and (b) are reversed. "Probing for Student Understanding". "Object J has the largest displacement. Many thanks to Patrick Diehl of Ashley Hall School in Charleston.. question B4 answer Change answer to "after t = 0. to the right between 2s and 6s. question P3 In parts (a) and (c). In addition. "Students might pick object I because the curves for objects E and I look the same. 131. p. question A2 answer In part (i). 146. i....e. ". the plane travels about 5½km before losing contact with the car. question P4 answer The speed is only 1 grid/s.. Add third bullet. "At 20km/h." Activity 12." Activity 9. question A5 answer Add to the end of paragraph 1. 86. you can see that the marble is at the 1m mark just after the midpoint in time. p.Change the ending page of the reading assignment to R9.. ". "Suggested Points for Class Discussion". "i. p. question A4 answer Quadrant (column 1) should be "2 only".. question A5 answer .e. object X is at x = 7½cm. Activity 37. bullet 1. p." question A6 answer. p. p. Many thanks to Lonnie Grimes of Oakmont High School in Roseville. the answer should read. this answer agrees. p. p. p. p. question R3 answer is really the second half of the answer to R2. Errata for Interactions TG Activity 36." Activity 38.e.. p. SC. Activity 16. because object I. 46. who found this mistake.." Activity 23. ". "Students might pick only object I.

" Activity 42. p. which are included because their components are known. The rest can be considered to possibly be accelerating.b) The forces.e. perhaps because they think the ball is not accelerating at the top of its trajectory.24cm) cos(45°). i. They are. 229. Direction is opposite the motion of _m_1. Activity 47. the x-component of V can be written either -(4. p. bullet 2. 307 The first entry in the table is not the beginning of the answer to question A4. The x-component of F_g_2 should be -F__g_2 cos 60°. p. and E must have friction forces exerted on them. bullet 2 Change B3 to B2.. the normal force.All the answers for vector V are wrong. question P9 answer Change "velocity" to "velocities". "Suggested Points for Class Discussion"." The comment for the answer to question P5 does not fit any longer. Activity 38. For the rest.. There are no comments for R3. "In situation C of part A. the force law is closer to Bv. part (a) is wrong.e. 324 The answer to question B1. 308. Vectors F_g_1. and the y-component of V can be written either -(4. bullet 1 Rephrase third sentence to read.24cm) cos(45°) or -(4. "(Thus. 281 The answer to question P5 is wrong. "Probing for Student Understanding" Change part (b) of question P3 to read. question R1 answer The second bullet for air resistance is wrong." The way it will be determined (column 2) is "Multiply the normal force by the coefficient of kinetic friction." Activity 44. i.. The x-component of F_N_.. It should read. i. one can be at rest.." "At this point in the course. p. i. It should read." Activity 46. There is a force missing from the answer to question A4. The answer to question A4 begins with gravitation.24cm) sin(45°) or -(4.. They then indicate if any of these other forces behave like any of the forces introduced here.. 294. "(More Ways of) Probing for Student Understanding" Question P6 is question P4." Activity 48.. question A5 answer . "(Students indicate any forces other than the seven introduced here that they have heard of. There should be a minus sign in front of each term.. They are simply the other vectors in the situation. "Students might use a rotated coordinate system (as in B2). last sentence The word 'a' should be 'at'. and D change if scale C were removed?" Activity 45. and object H would be hanging to the right of where its string is attached to C. "Only objects A. p. A6. column 1) is "kinetic friction. "In part B. Students should be encouraged to determine which objects definitely have no acceleration. rather than outward. It should read. the object has a constant velocity." Activity 45. object G would be hanging to the left of where its string is attached to C. "Students might not include A3." Activity 54.e. B. The answer to question B2. 280 In the answer to question I7.. The answer to question B2. which depends on the relative velocities of the objects in contact.left." The answer to question R3 is missing.right. Question P7 is question P5.e. 284.e. students might think that they know the normal force using common sense. i. So.." The answer for question R4 is missing. and. 258.e. 267. i." "Students might include B1. 357. But the object being considered is the table. part (c) is confusing. "At very small speeds. "Students might not think it is possible for the spring to remain compressed between objects G and H. Kinetic Friction. B..24cm) sin(45°). p. p. The force (i.)" Activity 49. and B3 could be accelerating. add object E to the list. but a continuation of the answer to question A3. "This is the only situation in this part for which buoyancy is considered relevant." The magnitude & direction (column 3) is "(NA).. However. D. perhaps because the book is accelerating. "Even if we notate the magnitude of both tension forces as.right should be -F__N. The x-component of F_N_. part (d) is wrong. "(a. "The objects considered in situations A3. Activity 51. question B5 answer." Comment is "• We do not actually know the normal force. It should read. part (b) is wrong.. p. 297.left should be F__N. question B1 answer. 350. p. the friction is still kinetic. which is not accelerating. "If the spring was compressed rather than stretched. then the strings would be angled inward." Activity 49. so we cannot determine the force of kinetic friction." Activity 55. question R2 answer Change 'part B' to 'part A'. and the length of the vector is 4.e.. and F_T_2 are not part of the answer. The word "the" should be removed from the second line of the last bullet for the answer to question B2. perhaps because they think that the ball is at rest when it is touching the wall. Question P8 is question P6. p." "Students might not include B3. students are not expected to know the relationship between force and acceleration. p. F_N_2. The answer to question B1. p.24cm. how would the readings on scales A. and its _y-component should be -_F__g_2 sin 60°. p. In other words. It should read.

In situation A5. Total momentum is approximately conserved for situation A1. p. to the right). do parts B and D first. and the one on the right is for the Earth. In the table showing time intervals during which its velocity is constant (it's part of the 4th bullet of the answer to question A5). question R1 answer. o Students might consider only the ball in A3. p. 389. part (c) answer Of the three free-body diagrams." Activity 59. i. Errata for Conservation Laws TG Activity 74. We define the xdirection to be the horizontal in the plane of the page (i. the time interval corresponding to the 2nd time the ball is rolling across the felt should be [4. As the teams are working. so total momentum is conserved in the x. her speed might be smaller than it was before. and the planets. i. and opposite direction. p.9s' to '4. o In situation A3. and the z-direction to be the horizontal perpendicular to the plane of the page (i. compare answers and discuss areas of disagreement. p. students might not ignore the gravitational forces exerted on the Earth-ball system by the Sun. question R2. the net external force has y. and that each student's grade will depend in part on how well the other team members do. the y-direction to be the vertical. the "(a)"." Add a bullet: "• In other words. the area of each 'box' is wrong.8s'. change '4. o Students might only consider two directions. the x. p. Tell students that each of them will be asked to write out the explanation to one of the questions." Activity 59. but it is always larger than her father's.. decide which explanation each student will provide. and each box has an area of (2N) x (0. CA. p." The comments for R1 are: o Students might think that momentum is not conserved in situation A6. Activity 76. o Students might not recognize that the total momentum of the Earth-ball system is staying the same during the motion of the ball. It should be 0.. A4. bullet 3 Change 'any' to 'a'. who found almost all of these mistakes. p.. so momentum is conserved only in the x-direction..... give half credit for each individual's contribution and half credit for the contributions of the rest of the team. assuming for example that she does not push as hard as her father did before. question B3.. Assign each team 2 questions from the same part.e.01N-s.In the table showing the time intervals during which the ball is accelerating.e. p. directly toward you)." Add bullet: "• As a class. 370. gravitational. 4. and the other half will depend on his/her team's explanations. bullet 1 Change to "The action-reaction pair has five features: exerted by different objects. part (a) answer Remove 'of the'. In other words. to be done either during or after class. i. then the tension in rope 2 is larger in case II than in case I. The answer for R1 is. same magnitude. "Total momentum is conserved for situations A3 and A6." Activity 58. "(b)". p." Activity 60. part (c) answer In the second paragraph. question A3 answer The parts are not labeled." Activity 58. half of each student's grade will depend on his/her individual explanation.e.e.e. 391.. the net external force is in the y-direction. i." Activity 76. question C4 answer. Activity 56. the Moon." Activity 59. o In situation A5. 384. p. exerted on different objects. In situations A2.. question A4 answer Change 'rope 1' to 'rope 2'.. When the working time is complete. and A7. question B4 answer Add to the end of the answer to part (b): "But perhaps not as much faster and farther as before..). "Suggestions for Classroom Use" Change bullet 2 to: "Focus students' attention on learning the answers and explanations to two questions using the following group structure: Divide the class into teams of 3 or 4 students each.5s]. the one on the left is for the skydiver. Activity 58. we are assuming that the bow string exerts a force on the arrow in the yz-plane. Insert between bullets 2 and 3: "• For small classes with only a few teams.. 6. etc. because the impulse delivered to the system by gravitation is small during the explosion.005s) = 0. or put slips of paper with the numbers of 2 questions into a bowl and have teams choose.8s].and z-directions. question A2.01N-s. i. and R3 are missing. i.. change '4. i. At least one component of the total momentum is conserved for the other 5 situations. and remains the same throughout the time interval specified. the one in the middle is for the parachute. "The mass is much larger for the car.e." Many thanks to Lonnie Grimes of Oakmont High School in Roseville. ". "Students might not perceive that there is a net force on them when they walk in a circle. rather than the Earth-ball system. question C2 answer Add bullet: "• Students might think that the velocity is larger because the net force is larger.e.e.51s. 513. then repeat with parts C and E.and z-components. p. ". 387. i. 529. the third time interval during which the ball is rolling at constant velocity is [3. because the wheel is slowing down.e. . 532 The answers and comments to questions R1. 386. It is zero initially. same type (normal.and y-directions.. 402. When grading explanations.8s'.e. and "(c)" labels are missing.8s.. 392. R2.9s' to '4. give students their assignments.

that is we do not know how to calculate the work done by friction. CA. p. 618. Whatever is holding up the rope exerts _F__N_2 (assuming. question A3 In the description of the situation. because all of the macroscopic kinetic energy lost by the cart becomesmicroscopic energy of the cart.. question A1 . not "t = 1. p. that the rope is tied to a hook in the ceiling).g. Errata for Advanced Topics AR The following mistakes are in the first 3 printings of Vol. and the planets. the Moon. not "t = 2s". the Moon. the forces are internal to the cart. Activity AT·11. 30. next to last bullet) o Change to: "In situation R3. The fourth question in part (d) should be: What is the car's position and velocity at "t = 0. "Monkey exerts F__N_1 and _Ffs. the net force on each system is zero. knowing its value would be of no consequence here. 31." Activity AT·8.) Activity 83. at this point in the course." The comments for R2 are: o If students do not have the correct set of situations here. "The work done by the friction force on the cart cannot be calculated or even estimated. 616. p. p. Contents. "Analyzing the cart in situation R3.Students might think that momentum is not conserved in any direction in situation A7. there are external forces on the specified system. such as forces internal to the spring.8s".e. 620. Further." Activity 87. 4·AT / Activities & Reader. the direction of the change in momentum is the same as the direction of the net external force.." (There are no comments for R3 at this time. they have been fixed. question A3(b) bullet The comment is inappropriate for the same reason that the explanation is inappropriate.e. the second sentence should begin: "One second later.. because the work done on the cart is done. who found almost all of these mistakes. 584. question A3(b) answer The explanation is wrong. However. because the ball's are going in all directions.e. last bullet) The 'clay' should be a 'cart'. as described in the Reader. this component is in the direction of motion. And when the change of speed is positive.58s". "Providing Support to Ensure Student Progress".. bullet 7 (i. they are likely to generalize improperly. The answer to R3 is. all forces are internal. the explanation will be that there is a loss of energy from the macroscopic realm to the microscopic realm. question A1 answer The explanation (column 5) should read. because it is slowing down. The answer for R2 is. It should read. 13. i." Many thanks to Lonnie Grimes of Oakmont High School in Roseville. In order to always conserve momentum. rather than forces that are applied through zero displacement." Activity 87. and when it is. Later. "Anticipated Difficulties for Students".. Activity 87.68s". it is necessary to choose a system large enough so that there are no external forces on it. not "79cm/s". and the other planets. or mixture of printings. Activity AT·8.. 620. o Students might not realize that in A6 the net force on the wheel is zero. In other words. The change in speed can be negative. which means that the speed must be smaller after hitting the spring than before." Activity 87.. bullet 6 (i. p. because we do not know how to calculate the work done by friction. then momentum is conserved in all the situations. 31. so the energy remains with the cart. If you have a 4th printing or higher.. question B2 In the description of the situation. e. In each case. such as the normal force exerted by the wall... the direction of the tangential component of acceleration is opposite the direction of motion. If we include the Earth in each system and ignore the gravitational forces exerted by the Sun. students are expected simply to use common sense to try to answer this question. the time at which the toy car stops near the top of the incline should be "t = 0. p. The displacement of the rope is zero. Therefore. the speed of the marble three seconds later should be "80cm/s". students are not expected to be able to make this distinction between macroscopic and microscopic energy. o Students might not realize that in A3 they are expected to ignore the forces exerted by the Sun. as described in the Reader. question B3 In the description of the situation. p. Activity AT·4. focus students attention on forces that are applied through a displacement. "In situations A3 and A6. "Prior Experience/Knowledge Needed" The label of the first equation should read: tangential component of acceleration. you have. p. "For those situations in which momentum is not conserved. Activity AT·8. p. v The correct title of Activity AT·13 is "Exploring Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions". Please check the copyright page (page iv) to see which printing. 44. p. p.

69. 13. (The answer sheet in the Complex Systems TG already has the corrected figure. p. Activity CS•3. they have been fixed. Many of the values for the given information should be changed. 29m/s = 65mi/h. 106. By making the relaxed length very small. the springs should be considered to have zero or very small relaxed length. question R4 The "second" part (b) should be part (c). (Changes shown in bold type.) Activity CS•26.) The question for part (b) should read: "Write an expression for the position of the marble. In other words. there is not enough string left hanging to allow the wheel to spin as many times as it needs before stopping. the balls attached to them in situation B1 would tend to move left and right as well as up and down." (Change shown in bold type. Errata for Complex Systems AR The following mistakes are in the first printing of Vol.. In the description of the situation. Activity CS•11. 69. questions B1 & B2 A car traveling at 29m/s is moving at "65mi/h". description for part B The springs being studied in this part of the activity are said to be "relaxed". you have. which is unnecessarily complicated...". Finally. This mistake occurs twice in question B1 and once in question B2. "Explanation of Activity" 3 The mass of 10cm of oil should be "8g". the motion of the balls (in B1) becomes purely transverse. Activity CS•11. Part (c) should be part (d)..) Activity CS•12. 86. If you have a 2nd printing or higher. Print that version at 100% for a transparency. 51. the angle of the incline in situation B has been made more shallow to be consistent with the additional changes listed below.e. not "60mi/h".. the initial speed of the puck should be "250cm/s". p. 53. 51. 50.) Activity CS•22. not "18". Please check the copyright page (page iv) to see which printing. 73. In particular. 127.e. the direction in which the glass tube is rotated so that it "rests on its side" in part (a). The following diagram replaces the one accompanying the description." Part (b) should read: "Which state(s) has the lowest temperature? Explain. p. question B3 The diagram of situation A is not consistent with what is happening. question A2 Part (a) should read: "Which state(s) has the highest temperature? Explain. Instead. Activity AT·17. figure for problem A3 The following figure should make it clearer to students what is going on here. 4•CS / Activities & Reader. not "25cm/s". question A2(c) The mass of oil (fluid X) should be "16" (grams). Activity CS•11. p. question A5 In part (b). Also note that the diagram on the answer sheet is the Teacher's Guide is the same as that shown below.. or at 33% to replace the figure in students' books. p. The ball is now a marble. its speed in miles per hour should be "65mi/h". when the car speeds up. p." (Change shown in bold type. which means that both the pressure and speed are constant. Activity AT·17. and it is rolling up the incline at4m/s and slowing down at a rate of 1m/s2. "Purpose and Expected Outcome" The last sentence should begin: "When you find a system to which you cannot apply. Activity AT·21... p. Right-click or command-click and choose “Open image in new window” (or equivalent) to see a full-sized version." (Changes shown in bold type... p. or at 33% to replace the figure in students’ books. . p. p.) Activity AT·18. or mixture of printings. not "9g". Print that version at 100% for a transparency. This word should be omitted. Note that this change affects only the results of B1. The need for this change is that when the springs are relaxed initially. property #4 of idealized fluids (at the very bottom of the page) The middle of the sentence should read: ". p. i. and it is slowing down at a rate of ¼rev/s2. i. The initial speed of the wheel is now 1rev/s. Right-click or command-click and choose "Open image in new window" (or equivalent) to see a full-sized version. up and down. not "60mi/h".

who found many of these mistakes. (Right-click or command-click and choose "Open image in new window" or equivalent to see a full-sized version. p. table showing speeds of water outside holes and where the water lands The list of speeds in the third column and the list of where the water lands in the last column are wrong.) Reader/Chapter 1: Fluids. questions D3 and D4 The question in D3 should read: "Will the wave form on the lighter spring move faster or slower than the original wave form on the heavier spring?" The question in D4 should begin: "Will the wave form on the lighter spring. p. then print at 50% to replace in student books.) Many thanks to Prof. table showing speeds of water outside holes The list of speeds in the last column are wrong. R18.Activity CS•30. p. 151.. R19. then print at 50% to replace in student books." (Changes shown in bold type.) Reader/Chapter 1: Fluids. Josip Slisko of the Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at the Benemerita Public University in Puebla. . The correct table is shown below.. Mexico. (Right-click or command-click and choose "Open image in new window" or equivalent to see a full-sized version. The correct table is shown below.

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