Progam Studi Teknik Informatika Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Komputer Dinamika Bangsa Jambi

Tugas Bahasa Inggris
Dosen Kelas : Imelda Yose. S,PD : 02PT1

Nama Anggota Kelompok : - Fahrizal Hidayat (8020130158) - Nur Hamid (8020130156) - Yanto (8020130030)

What is a computer?
According to Elias M. Awad , the computer is calculating device that processes the data presented in the form of data is discrete ( digital ) and continuous data ( analogue ) . In addition , the computer also is an electronic device that is able to carry out tasks such as accept input , process the input according to the program , keep the commandments , and the results of processing , and provides output in the form of information .

What are the benefits of computer in everyday life ?
Benefits of computers in everyday life very much, for example, just in the business field, in the computer business is very helpful for example in the use of Microsoft Excel to calculate income and expenses in a company and microsoft powerpoint to present the documents in meetings, and still a lot of usefulness.

What are the types of computer ?
1 . PC ( Personal Computer ) PC desktop computer usually called for in regular use put on the table . Approximately 93 % of the population of computer users to use this kind of computer . PCs are available in various shapes and designs , and usually runs with the Microsoft Windows operating system ( Windows XP , Vista , 7 ) . Indeed, the use of the PC operating system other than Windows is possible , but along with its development , especially in this era , Microsoft Windows PCs are always identical .PC can be used for a wide variety of needs because of the nature and development that is compatible with a variety of computer applications . Therefore the use of a PC can be found everywhere , from the office , home , school and library . 2 . Laptop or Notebook Just as the name implies , can be interpreted as a notebook pocket book . Laptop is a small version of a PC that has the advantage can be taken anywhere and easily inserted into the bag . Laptops can also be used on the go ( mobile ) because of its use of batteries that can be recharged using the same electric current as well as mobile phones . 3 . netbook Along with its development , which is considered quite expensive laptops as too many features and technologies are too costly for a mobile computer , and then undergo a change . Beginning with the advent of netbooks Asus eee then start popping new types of low-cost netbooks are quite affordable for every circle . Reduction technology features make the netbook is only able to run a simple programming functions . The use of netbooks also have a prima donna among gadget lovers .

4 . Digital computer The types of subsequent computer is a digital computer . This type of computer is a computer that we know today . Data received by the digital computer is the data that is in the form of digital data . Meanwhile , the function of the digital computer is to process the quantitative data in the form of numbers, letters , and so forth . 5 . Hybrid computer The types of hybrid computer is the computer next . Hybrid computer has more capabilities than analog computers and digital computers . The intended use of computer data processing quantitative and qualitative nature . Or in other words , a hybrid computer processing quantitative data so that a qualitative data. Vice versa .

6 . Portable computers One of the types of computers that began to bloom in the market is a portable computer . One type of portable computer is a tablet computer . Size portable computer smaller than the type of PC . This makes it easy to carry portable computers everywhere.Another advantage of the use of portable computers need not always be connected to the electricity for portable computer battery system . This type of portable computer also has other advantages , which can be associated with a modem that can access the internet . Portable computer also usually equipped with WiFi . 7 . Subnotebook The types of computers that are rarely known to the public is the type of subnotebook computers . This type of subnotebook computers have different sizes when compared to notebooks . This subnotebook size can be smaller than a notebook because of the type of subnotebook computers there are some devices that are not installed .

What are the components of a computer?
a. Input Unit: This unit is used for entering data and programs into the computer system by the user for processing. b. Storage Unit: The storage unit is used for storing data and instructions before and after processing. c. Output Unit: The output unit is used for storing the result as output produced by the computer after processing. d. Processing: The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the type of data provided. It is then sent back to the storage unit. CPU includes Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and control unit (CU)

Ex : Input Unit a. Keyboard: The keyboard is very much like a standard typewriter keyboard with a few additional keys. The basic QWERTY layout of characters is maintained to make it easy to use the system. The additional keys are included to perform certain special functions. These are known as function keys that vary in number from keyboard to keyboard. Mouse: A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. A mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard and flat surface. Its name is derived from its shape, which looks a bit like a mouse. As you move the mouse, the pointer on the display screen moves in the same direction. Ex: B.Storage Unit A.Primary Memory can be further classified as RAM and ROM. 1.RAM or Random Access Memory is the unit in a computer system. It is the place in a computer where the operating system, application programs and the data in current use are kept temporarily so that they can be accessed by the computer’s processor. It is said to be ‘volatile’ since its contents are accessible only as long as the computer is on. The contents of RAM are no more available once the computer is turned off. 2.ROM or Read Only Memory is a special type of memory which can only be read and contents of which are not lost even when the computer is switched off. It typically contains manufacturer’s instructions. Among other things, ROM also stores an initial program called the ‘bootstrap loader’ whose function is to start the operation of computer system once the power is turned on. B.Secondary Memory 1.CD ROM Secondary storage devices are of two types; magnetic and optical. Magnetic devices include hard disks and optical storage devices are CDs, DVDs, Pen drive, Zip drive etc. 2.Hard Disk Hard disks are made up of rigid material and are usually a stack of metal disks sealed in a box. The hard disk and the hard disk drive exist together as a unit and is a permanent part of the computer where data and programs are saved. These disks have storage capacities ranging from 1GB to 80 GB and more. Hard disks are rewritable. 3.Compact Disk Compact Disk (CD) is portable disk having data storage capacity between 650-700 MB. It can hold large amount of information such as music, full-motion videos, and text etc. CDs can be either read only or read write type. 4.Digital Video Disk

Digital Video Disk (DVD) is similar to a CD but has larger storage capacity and enormous clarity. Depending upon the disk type it can store several Gigabytes of data. DVDs are primarily used to store music or movies and can be played back on your television or the computer too. These are not rewritable. Ex: C.Output Unit Output device receives information from the CPU and presents it to the user in the desired from. The processed data, stored in the memory of the computer is sent to the output unit, which then converts it into a form that can be understood by the user. The output is usually produced in one of the two ways – on the display device, or on paper (hard copy). •Monitor: is often used synonymously with “computer screen” or “display.” Monitor is an output device that resembles the television screen (fig. 1.8). It may use a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) to display information. The monitor is associated with a keyboard for manual input of characters and displays the information as it is keyed in. It also displays the program or application output. Like the television, monitors are also available in different sizes. • Printer: Printers are used to produce paper (commonly known as hard copy) output. Based on the technology used, they can be classified as Impact or Non-impact printers. Impact printers use the typewriting printing mechanism wherein a hammer strikes the paper through a ribbon in order to produce output. Dot-matrix and Character printers fall under this category. • Sound cards and Speaker: An expansion board that enables a computer to manipulate and output sounds. Sound cards are necessary for nearly all CD-ROMs and have become commonplace on modern personal computers. Sound cards enable the computer to output sound through speakers connected to the board, to record sound input from a microphone connected to the computer, and manipulate sound stored on a disk.

How does a computer work?
Powering on the computer
When you first press the power button the computer sends a signal to the computer power supply, which converts the alternating current (AC) into a direct current (DC) to supply the computer and its components with the proper amount of voltage and electricity. Once the computer and its components have received ample power and the power supply reports no errors it sends a signal (using transistors) to the motherboard and the computer processor (CPU). While this is happening, the processor will clear any leftover data in the memory registers and give the CPU program counter a F000 hexadecimal number. This number is the location of the first instruction and tells the CPU that it's ready to process the instructions contained in the basic input/output system (BIOS).

BIOS and the POST
When the computer first looks at the BIOS, it begins the power-on self-test (POST) sequence to make sure the components in the computer are present and functioning properly. If the computer does not pass any of these tests, it will encounter an irregular POST. An irregular POST is a beep code that is different from the standard one or two beeps. For example, an irregular POST could generate no beeps at all or a combination of different beeps to indicate the cause of the failure. If the computer passes the initial POST, it will next look at the first 64-bytes of memory located in the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip, which is kept alive by the CMOS battery even when the computer is turned off. This chip contains information such as the system time and date and information about all the hardware installed in your computer. After loading the CMOS information, the POST will begin inspecting and comparing the system settings with what is installed in the computer. If no errors are found it will then load the basic device drivers and interrupt handlers for hardware such as the hard drive, keyboard, mouse, floppy drive. These basic drivers allow the CPU to communicate with these hardware devices and allow the computer to continue its boot process. Next, the POST will check the real-time clock (RTC) or system timer and the computer system bus to make sure both of these are properly working on the computer. Finally, you'll get a picture on your display after the POST has loaded the memory contained on the display adapter and has made it part of the overall system BIOS. Next, the BIOS will check to see if it's currently performing a cold boot or warm boot (reboot) by looking at the memory address 0000:0472, if it sees 1234h the BIOS knows that this is a reboot and will skip the remainder of the POST steps. If 1234h is not seen, the BIOS knows that this is a cold boot and will continue running additional POST steps. Next, it tests the computer memory (RAM) installed in the computer by writing to

each chip. With many computers, you'll know it's performing this step if you see the computer counting the total installed memory as it's booting. Finally, the POST will send signals to the computer floppy, optical, and hard drive to test these drives. If all drives pass the test, the POST is complete and instruct the computer to start the process of loading the operating system.

Booting the operating system
After the computer has passed the POST, the computer will start the boot process. This process is what loads the operating system and all of it's associated files. Because Microsoft Windows is the most commonly used operating system, this section will cover the process of loading Microsoft Windows. The BIOS first hands control over to the bootstrap loader, which looks at the boot sector of the hard drive. If your boot sequence in CMOS setup is not setup to look at the hard drive first, it may look at the boot sector on any inserted floppy disk drive or optical disc first before doing this. In this example, the Microsoft Windows XP NT Loader (NTLDR) is found on the boot sector and tells the computer where to find the remaining code on the hard drive. Next, Windows loads the file, which displays the Windows splash screen and loads the Windows registry. After loading the registry, Windows begins to load dozens of low-level programs that make up the operating system into memory. Many of the initially loaded programs are what allow Windows to communicate with the essential hardware and other programs running on the computer. After the registry has loaded the initial basic hardware devices, it begins to load Plug and Play devices, PCI, and ISA devices. After loading all these devices, Windows then moves to loading full support of the hard drive, partitions, and any other disk drives and then moves to all other drivers that have been installed. Finally, after successfully completing the above steps any additional required services are loaded and Windows starts.

Hardware devices communicating with the computer
After the computer has loaded the operating system, hardware attached to the computer must be able to communicate with the CPU. Hardware communication is done by using an interrupt request (IRQ). Each time a hardware device needs the attention of the computer the interrupt controller sends the request (INTR) to the CPU so it temporarily stop what it is doing to process the request of the hardware device. Anything that was being currently done by the CPU is put on hold and stored as a memory address in the memory stack and is returned to after the interrupt request is processed.

How does the software work ?
Software application is a subclass of computer software that uses computer skills to perform a task directly the desired user . Usually compared to a software system that integrates a variety of computer skills , but does not directly implement the ability to do a task that benefits the user . The main examples of software applications are word processors , spreadsheets , and media players . Some applications are merged together into a package are sometimes referred to as a package or suite of applications (application suite ) . Examples are Microsoft Office and , which combines a word processor , spreadsheet , and several other applications . Applications in a package usually has a user interface that has similarities making it easier for users to learn and use each application . Often times , they have the ability to interact with each other so that the benefit of users. For example , a worksheet can be embedded in a word processor document even though the application was made on a separate worksheet .

How does a computer process information?
Input : which is the medium used to enter data into the process . some hardware that serves asinput include: keyboard , mouse , joystick, and reset the start button on the front panel cpu , the eject button on the CD / DVD - Rom , webcam . Process : which is a tool that is used to process the data from the input that will be issued to the system output . This process plays an important role in the computer system . Media for the process that has become a complete system or often called Motherboard Mainboard . Where in the mainboard has included in it the processor that functions to process data that is located on the CPU ( Central Processing Unit ) . When interpreting the data , the processor hardware - assisted by other hardware such as RAM memory ( data read speed ) , hard drive ( storing data) , power supply ( providing electric power intake to the other hardware in the hardware - CPU ) , VGA ( when the processed data related to graphics ) , soundcard ( related to the audio - output ) , modem ( for internet ) , and so forth , where the hardware when the hardware - working , all connected through the motherboard . Output :the output of the media where the media is to display the results of data from the process .some hardware sabagai output is categorized as follows : monitor , speakers , headsets , printers , scanners , and so forth .

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