Chapter 1- The Age of Discovery

September 12th, 2011

Aboriginal Culture Areas • Aboriginal peoples were the first people in Cana a • !ive in Cana a for more than 10,000 years by the time "uropeans ha arrive • Aboriginal evelope their own way of life base on the lan an the resources foun there #Seven Cultural Areas 1$ The Arctic 2$ The Sub-Arctic %$ The &acific 'orthwest Coast ($ The "astern )oo lan s *$ The +reat !a,es- St$ !awrence !owlan s -$ The &lateau./nterior 0$ The &lains Aboriginal Cultures -Develope their own istinct cultures in each part of Cana a Culture-is the way of a group of people -/t inclu es everything about the way people live1 their homes, clothing, art, tools, aily routines an seasonal activities$ Also, it inclu es i eas an beliefs -!an an resources also influence culture culture 2 ifference e3ist epen ing on where the groups live 4 "urope !oo,s )est -5y the 1(006s, "uropeans began loo,ing way.route to bring goo s from the "ast -They saile west hoping to iscover a route to Asia "3plorers from Spain -/n 1(72, /talian e3plorer Christopher Columbus saile for the Spanish ,ing an 8ueen1 -/t too, two months for Columbus to reach lan -he was convince he lan e in /n ia 2this is why calle the Aboriginals /n ians41 -Columbus actually arrive in Central an South America1 -9e returne to Spain with gol an silver that ha belonge to the Aboriginals instea of sil, an spices from Asia :ther Spanish "3plorers;

<asco 5alboa- /n 1*1%, he crosse a narrow strip of lan in &anama an iscovere the &acific :cean1 -The worl was larger than previously thought =er inan >agellan- /n 1*17, he saile along the coast of South America an iscovere a passageway to the pacific 2calle ? Strait of >agellan? Ai s to 'avigation 1$The Compass -A tool that containe 'orth, South, "ast, )eston it1 -The compass containe iron o3i e which has magnetic properties which allowe the iron nee le to always point 'orth 2p$104 2$The Astrolabe -Showe sailors about how far north or south of the e8uator they were positione 1 -/t showe sailors lines of latitu e1 -/t i this by measuring the angle between the sun or the north star an the hori@on "3plorers from "nglan Aing 9enry the <// hire an /talian 'avigator name Bohn Cabot 2+iovanni Caboto41 • Saile west aboar the C >athew?1 • Deache lan in the 'orth Atlantic on Bune 2(th, 1(70- arrive in 'ewfoun lan an Cape 5riton1 • Discovere the +ran 5an,s$ "3plorers from &ortugal +asper Corte - Deal an brother >iguel E e3plore 'ewfoun lan an !abra or • /n 1*20 =agun es establishe a colony on Cape 5reton

=rance • !ast "uropean nation to have voyages of iscovery ue to wars1 • /n 1*2% an 1*2(, they sent +iovanni e <erra@anno to fin a route to Asia1 • Travele %000,m of coastline an reali@e the way to Asia was bloc,e by a large continent1 • =rancis / 2,ing of =rance4, Fealousy over Spanish an "nglish success sent Bac8ues Cartier to iscover a route to Asia1 • /n 1*%(, Bac8ues Cartier saile westwar across the Atlantic to iscover gol an riches1

• 9e reache the shores of 'ewfoun lan 1 Cartier ma e contact with Aboriginal people the >ontagnais or the /nnu1 • 9e e3plore many straights an rivers$

#The Si3 'ations -was a confe eracy of aboriginal nations 2101*4; the >ohaw,, :nei a, :non aga, Cayuga, Seneca, an Tuscarora$ Cartier6s Secon <oyage • Cartier was the first to ta,e possession of lan for =rance1 • 9e was also the first to e3change for furs with the aboriginal people1 • Secon voyage, Cartier too, Donna Conna6s sons bac, with him, he ha three ships an 100 sailors • 9e set sail in 1*%* an this time he name the St$ !awrence Diver1 • 9e saile as far as he coul go 2!a Chine Dapi s4 the settle in Stra acona for the winter1 • 9is first winter was ifficult because they were unprepare for it1 • >any ie an their ships were trappe in thic, ice1 • 9e reali@e that 'ewfoun lan was an islan , that a strait separates 'ewfoun lan an Cape 5reton1 • 9e also reali@e that the area coul be use for a future =rench "mpire an ,new what it too, to survive a winter in the 'ew )orl Cartier6s Thir <isit • /n 1*(1, Sieur e Doberval le a voyage to 'ew =rance with Cartier as a gui e an a crew of newly release criminals1 • 9owever, in this voyage, the =rench were greete by the /ro8uois who were not frien ly because of Donna Conna6s absence1 • Cartier built two forts an travele up the !achine Dapi s but was unable to go further without the help of the /ro8uois1 • Cartier spent another ifficult winter in Stra acona an arrive in =rance with Cfool6s gol ? 2iron purite4 an 8uart@ Chapter 2- =ur Tra es an >issionaries The 5eaver A national symbol of Cana a

The beaver was critical in the early fur tra e which was vital in the exploration and development of the nation The Aboriginals They were ,ey players in helping "uropeans gather furs an to learn survival s,ills nee e in the harsh country

#Castor +rass# • Defers to the more valuable beaver pelts that ha been softene by being worn an e3pose to sweat an smo,e Historical Significance-because it was difficult to find great quantities of these pelts, traders were forced to explore deeper into the continent in search of new aboriginal groups and sources of supply Castor Sec • A less valuable but more plentiful pelt that ha been ta,en from a recently ,ille animal$ The coarse outer hairs were still intact Historical Significance- This poorer quality pelt hurt traders profiles and forced them to find more pelts in order to make up in quality when the pelts lacked in quality >onopolies • /n 'ew =rance, this referre to the practice of having e3clusive rights to an activity$ "3ample- the fur tra e, fishing etc$ for a particular area grante by the =rench >onarch$ /t can also mean having a ominant position in a mar,et or having virtual control of its commo ity Historical Significance- This was the price for the settlement of New France !n return for the profitable monopolies, companies such as the "ompany of #ne Hundred $ssociates were expected to pay for the establishment of colonies in New France %ost companies wanted the monopoly profits and had interest in the de&elopment of the colony <oyageurs • They were =rench tra ers who ha official permits to pursue the fur tra e$ The term is often use to escribe the tra ers an pa lers of the canoes who travelle eep into the northwest to search for furs an to buil tra ing posts Historical Significance- These traders explained the &ast water highways of what is now known as "anada from the St 'awrence to the foothills of the (ockies, and sparked a deep penetration of the land by the French Their trading posts often became ma)or "anadian settlements, and their competition with the *nglish pro&oked conflict

>issionaries • >en an woman usually organi@e in religious or ers of nuns an priests who came to 'ew =rance to sprea the Christian =aith to the Aboriginal peoples an to serve the spiritual nee s of the colonists Historical Significance- The missionaries established missions in remote areas, founded schools and hospitals, and left excellent written records of their work and the birth and death records of their time The impact on the $boriginal people had both positi&e and negati&e features Besuits • A religious or er of the Catholic Church note for their intelligence, physical courage, an e ication to sprea ing faith Historical Significance-They played an important role in the de&elopment and exploration of what is now known as "anada Their written records, The +esuit (elations are a rich ,rimary (esource for historians They also ser&ed as a bridge to the culture of the $boriginals They had mixed relations with the $boriginals #n one hand, they brought farming techniques, medical assistance and compassion, and also tried to curb the greed of the fur traders #n the other hand, the +esuits tried to change $boriginal cultural &alues and beliefs, and unintentionally exposed $boriginals to *uropean dieses )hy were priests such important in ivi uals in the lives of the settlers of 'ew =ranceG • &riests were very important in the lives of the settlers because they provi e spiritual comfort in a very religious age1 they were community lea ers who coul spea, to all groups in society1 they were often well e ucate 1 an along with religious woman, they helpe organi@e schools an hospitals$ They bapti@e babies, an praye for the sic,, con ucte masses, an burie the ea $ They also wor,e har to evelop goo relations with the Aboriginal peoples an to restrain the wil frontier nature of some of the colony6s young men 5irch bar, Canoe • )as important for the Aboriginal people because it was the fastest mo e of travel in 'orth America1 • /t was use for hunting, travel, fishing, tra e, an war1 • =or the "uropeans, it provi e access to the interior of 'orth America an ma e transportation an the search for pelts easier1 • /t is a symbol of Cana a because it is historically accurate Chapter %- The Crown Ta,es Charge The Sun King- Options

1$ The Aings options inclu e; • =in ing a new company to settle the lan 1 • "n ing the /ro8uois threat1 Curtailing the influence of fur tra ers an merchants1 • =in ing new, more capable officials1 • Ta,ing more irect control of the situation$

2$ Strategies • The colony must ma,e greater efforts to populate an settle the lan 1 • &eace with the /ro8uois must be establishe 1 • The furs tra ers an merchants must have less influence1 The ,ing nee s to have more powerful an loyal representatives in the colony$

%$ /f these problems are not resolve , it is possible, even li,ely, that the colony will fail or be efeate by the /ro8uois or con8uere by the other "uropean coloni@ers, such as the "nglish$ Key Terminology +overnor- An official in the government of 'ew =rance, appointe by the Aing to oversee security in the colony$ 9istorical Significance- The governors were critical in the establishment an survival of 'ew =rance 5ishop- The official chosen to supervise the spiritual an social nee s of the colony; schools, missions, hospitals, an churches$ 9istorical Significance- The =rench ma e many converts among the Aboriginal peoples an built the ,ey social institutes of society$ /nten ant- The official appointe by the Aing to supervise the ay to ay affairs of the colony, inclu ing law an or er, tra e, transportation, an in ustry$ 9istorical Significance- /nte ants such as Bena Talon ma e the colony a success espite many ifficulties$ 9abitants- The farmers of 'ew =rance 9istorical Significance- They create farms out of the wil erness an ensure permanent settlement Census- An official count of the population$ 9istorical Significance- Bean Talon carrie out the first census in Cana ian history$

=illes e Doi- They were orphan girls or poor country girls sent to 'ew =rance to ta,e husban s an raise families 9istorical Significance- They were vital in increasing the population of the tiny colony Tithe- A form of ta3 pai to the church in 'ew =rance for the support of priests an churches 9istorical Significance- /t helpe the church ta,e root an buil hospitals, schools, an places of worship Chronological-/n the or er of which it happens 9istorical Significance- This is the manner that history is generally recor e , stu ie , an un erstoo $ Deca es- A eca e is a ten-year perio of time, e3ample- the 1720s, the 17%0s 9istorical Significance- This han y metho for escribing an i entifying ten-year units of time$ Centuries- is a unit of time of 100 years 9istorical Significance- This unit is an important an popular tool for measuring historical perio s$ "3ample- the twentieth century Technological Age- This is the current age$ A historical perio of many years, even centuries, mar,e by important scientific iscoveries an technological innovations$ 9istorical Significance- /t represents an attempt to i entify an escribe large perio s of time$ #)hy i Aing !ouis establish a new +overnment for 'ew =ranceG Answer; The maFor problems that le to the establishment of irect royal control were; • The threat pose by the /ro8uois attac,s, • The low population an slow pace of settlement1 • Disputes between fur tra ers an settlers1 • The fur tra e was losing money1 • 'ew =rance6s vulnerability to attac, by the other "uropean nations )hat were the maFor problems reveale by the first censusG • The shortage of woman1 • There were few s,ille wor,ers • There were few sol iers Bean Talon was a great /nten ant because;

9e was the first Doyal /nten ant so there were no pre ecessors on whose reputation he ha to buil 1 • 9e was an active lea er who propose a wi e range of plans for the economic evelopment an social health of the colony1 • 9e attempte to see a situation for himself an was a C han s on? type of lea er1

/n =rance

:n the test; Aing of =rance +overnment of =rance -----------------------------------------------------------------+overnor

/n 'ew =rance;

5ishop /nten ant S:<"D"/+' C:H'C/! -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+overnor /nten ant 5ishop Appointe Councillors !"SS"D :==/C/A!S -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+overnors of >ontreal Capitals of >ilitia Seigneurs &riests an Trois-Diveres -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Citi@ens of 'ew =rance Chapter (- "very ay in 'ew =rance Self-Sufficient- The ability to live in epen ently an pro uce what you nee Historical Significance- The ability to be self-sufficient ensured more rapid and permanent settlement in New FranceDoot Cellar- An un ergroun for storing pro uce, especially vegetables Historical Significance- The ability to store food for use o&er the long harsh winters was crucial for sur&i&al Caleche- )as a type of four-wheele buggy use in 'ew =rance

Historical Significance- !t made for easier tra&el and transportation of people and some goods o&er the difficult terrain and poor roads CaFeu- A heavy ba ge or raft that was use to transport heavy loa s on waterways Historical Significance- .ater transport was the most efficient method of transporting shipments in New France !t sped up settlement 5arline- A homema e sleigh that was use by the 9abitants to cross fro@en rivers an la,es in the winter Historical Significance- !t made winter tra&el possible and increased communication and transportation of people and goods in New France "very ay !ife in 'ew =rance Transportation • )as always a maFor issue an concern in 'ew =rance • The forest was impenetrable an there were few roa s which were rough to travel1 • The canoe was light an swift an allowe the settlers to use the la,es an rivers, also calle Imoving highways6 • The snow an col winter ma e travel more ifficult$ Sleighs allowe travel on roa s or fro@en waterways Towns of 'ew =rance Juebec • The most important an fortifie town1 /t was larger, more fashionable1 an the centre of activity >ontreal /t was the centre of fur tra e1 A freer, frontier type of town

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Trois-Divieres • /t was locate between the two maFor towns of Juebec an >ontreal1 • /t was a prosperous town with a canoe ma,ing in ustry an iron wor,s • Travelers passing through were sources of news

9omes

Clothes =ee

• •

Social life

)ealthy &eople !arge, many rooms1 fine furniture, often from =rance <ariety, goo materials, fashionable +reat variety, same elicacies, often coo,e by servant >any types of entertainment1 ban8uets1 visitors

9abitants >o est, few rooms1 homema e furniture Simple, homespun, few outfits, practical 9earty, simple1 grown on farms, hunte or fishe by habitants >any family, community an religious celebrations

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9abitants Settlements in 'ew =rance • • • • • • • 5ase along rivers /nvolve consi erable physical labour1 )as family oriental1 Centere on religious values )as epen ant on woo as a basic material for homes1 )as simple but comfortable1 Consiste of a few large towns Chapter *- Conflict an Change in 'ew =rance Divals- =rance vs$ 5ritain Three Trouble Spots 1$ The 9u son 5ay Company 2$ 'ova Scotia an 'ewfoun lan %$ The :hio Diver <alley The Seven Kear )ar The 5ritish colonies to the south were more populous than the =rench colonies; 5ritish colonies- 2 1 100 0-04, 'ew =rance 2 -0 000 4

This suggests that the 5ritish colonies will have more sol iers an pro uce more foo an war materials • 'ew =rances large territory woul be ifficult to con8uer but it woul also be ifficult for 'ew =rance to efen 1 • !ouisburg an Juebec woul guar the main waterways of 'ew =rance$ 5oth are poor an can receive both supplies an fighting ships o They can resist a 5ritish invasion or siege o /nterior forts woul supply guar lines, the fur tra e an small settlements, an maintain contacts with the Aboriginal • +uerilla warfare is a war fought by small ban s militia or irregular forces such as the Aboriginal allies o The interior of 'orth America is very ifficult for large armies to travel an battle1 smaller, faster groups woul be more successful • The 5ritish coul use their powerful navy to hunt an sin, =rench ships sailing to 'orth America1 o Their navy coul also lay siege to !ouisbourg an Juebec who were isolate , provi ing them with the opportunity to lan an inva e1 • The Aboriginal allies were important because they ,now the terrain an are s,ille warriors, an stri,e terrain in the hearts of the enemy1 • Comman ing an army is a ifficult, comple3 tas,1 • The 5ritish have a clear a vantage$ They have easy access to the +reat 5ritain, an their 'orth American colonies are larger an richer$ The 5ritish navy easily transport nee e supplies Threats to =rench Security an )ealth • The 5ritish were siphoning off furs estine for >ontreal an robbing the colony of a main source of wealth1 • The 5ritish were now locate to the north an south of the =rench 2starting to encircle the small colony41 • The post on the bay also lea to greater Aboriginal contact

=ortress of !ouisbourg /t was constructe to protect the =rench fishing interests in the Atlantic an guar the +ulf of St$ !awrence1 • /t was a vital part of the naval lifetime to =rance itself

5attle in the :hio Diver <alley- +eneral 5ra oc,

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9e lost the battle because he use "uropean tactics in an unfrien ly 'orth American environment1 9eavily e8uippe , ensely pac,e , re -uniforme troops were easily slaughtere by the =rench an Aboriginal guerilla fighters

Differences between the 9u son6s 5ay Company6s Tra ing >etho s an those of 'ew =rance • The 9u son6s 5ay Company6s tra ers encourage the Aboriginal trappers to come to them on their posts; o They were only intereste in tra ing an not pushing settlement on missionary wor, o They were private entrepreneurs • =rench tra ers pushe eep into 'orth America to fin furs1 • They were willing to transport fur themselves1 • They settle an i missionary wor,1 • The government was heavily involve in the fur tra e

9istorical /mportance; • The =rench ha greater irect contact with the Aboriginal people an their government was irectly involve in the fur tra e rivalry1 • /t was li,ely that the 5ritish forces woul favour naval attac,s while the =rench woul pursue lan engagements in the interior Comparisons between )olfe an >ontcalm Strengths )ea,nesses • Creative • Sic,ly frail • "nergetic • 'ot as e3perience as some officers • /ntelligent • Dis,y behaviour • Koung • "3cellent on 5attlefiel • "3perience • Somewhat conservative • >any victories • !ost the most • /ntelligence important battle • +allant • =oolhar y at the en • Anew his limits • &atient

)olfe

>ontcalm

Kear 10** 10** 10** 10*10*10*0 10*L 10*L 10*L 10*7 10-0

Timeline of >aFor "vents in Seven Kears )ar "vent <ictory Defeat of +eneral 5ra oc, =rench Capture of =ort 5ritish "3pulsion of the Aca ians 5ritish 5oth countries eclare war Capture of =ort :swego =rench Capture of =ort )illiam =rench 9enry Capture of =ort Du8uesne 5ritish Capture of =ort =rontenac 5ritish =all of !ouisbourg 5ritish =all of Juebec 5ritish Surren er of >ontreal

Criteria Date +oal Territory !anguage Deligion !aw +overnment

Doyal &roclamation 10-% Assimilate the Cana ian :l bor ers were re uce :fficial !anguage- "nglish :fficial =aith- &rotestantism 5ritish law replace =rench law 5ritish +overnor an Council

Juebec Act 100( )as the loyalty of the Cana ians "3ten e bor ers Support for =rench language &rotecte Doman Catholic churches an faith Aept =rench law 5ritish governor an bicultural council

/t was ifficult to ma,e Juebec a colony li,e the other 5ritish 'orth • Juebec was =rench an the others were "nglish1 • Juebec was Doman Catholic an most of the other colonies were &rotestant1 • Juebec ha been recently con8uere , while the others ha been foun e by 5ritish settlers1 • Juebec6s culture was 8uite ifferent1

Juebec was somewhat isolate from the other 5ritish colonies to the south1 • Juebec ha warre against the other 5ritish colonies an resentments lingere 1 • Juebec ha forge a uni8ue culture since the first settlements of Champlain1 Juebec was e3tremely close-,nit, conservation society an woul not change easily or 8uic,ly1 • 5ritish policy on Juebec change rapi ly from 10-% to 100(

)hy the =rench Culture has survive to this ay • The =rench language insulate the =rench from the Isea6 of "nglish people on the continent1 • The Doman Catholic faith protecte the tra itions of =rench society1 • )hen the American Devolution bro,e out, Juebec was remove from the influence of the thirteen colonies1 • Juebecers were very close an value their uni8ue culture1 • =or a long time, =rancophone6s2=rench4 outnumbere Anglophones2"nglish4 in Cana a1 • Hn er Confe eration, Juebec became its own province with guarantees for language an religion