Garrison Lackey MKT 3013 Principles of Marketing R.

Justin Goss

Factors Predicting The Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement Advertisements Celebrities are used by many businesses to promote their products to viewers such as you and I. Estimates show that approximately 25 percent of American commercials do use celebrity endorsers. With these celebrities promoting products, the results are more favorable in advertisement ratings and product evaluations and can and do have positive impacts on financial returns for companies who do use them. The advertisers use these celebrities to endorse these products for companies because they are highly viewed by people as trustworthy, believable, persuasive, and likable. We all look at celebrities every move and always seem to know what they are doing this day of age with media telling us what is going on in there lives all the time. The idea of having these celebrity endorsers is to draw in viewers who know about these famous people and get them to see that they are using this product so it must be the appropriate pick. Although studies have shown that celebrities who endorse several products are viewed as less credible endorsers than those who endorse only a single product. Louie and Obermiller also show that celebrities who are blamed for negative events can have horrible effects on the product they are promoting. Although these celebrities seem to like and heavily promote the product, it may not always be what it seems because psychological work in attribution suggests a large endorsement fee should be viewed as a string incentive toward endorsement behavior. The celebrity system plays a larger role in American culture, whereas the Norwegians are not as influenced by them. We see

on a daily basis that attractiveness plays a big role in these endorsements, but there are different ways of showing this that we may not realize. For example, physical attractiveness may be useful when selling cosmetics but not when selling computers. Although attractiveness has been viewed more so on the physical nature it also viewed more generally as a positive attitude toward the endorser. An experiment was done regarding research methodology that included 66 students (41 females, 25 males) at the University of Tromso. This experiment was trying to figure out what effects the endorser had on the Omega watch she was trying to promote. Cindy Crawford was the celebrity chosen to endorse this brand and the students were showed a close up picture of her and the watch and given multiple things to rate after viewing this. On average the

participants believed that the endorser liked the product less than a typical person would like the product. The finding of anti-correspondence bias particularly needs replication considering that it contradicts a large existing literature on attritional biases. Another experiment was don in Oslo, Norway had 66 students who were recruited at a higher education conference. The participants were given a black and white copy printed advertisement in which Pierce Brosnan endorsed Goodlife cologne from Davidoff. An interesting theoretical result from these studies was the lack of correspondence bias in participant’s inferences about the endorser, in both experiments it showed a reversal of correspondence bias, as participants viewed the endorser as liking the product less than people in general. Celebrities play a large role in the endorsements we see on television commercials and play a large role in the advertising world. I believe that companies who do use these celebrities do have a greater advantage in bringing in higher revenue because in this day in age people idolize these people and try to do things and be like them.