# DEPARTMENT: MECH ME 2251/HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

UNIT – I: CONDUCTION

SEMESTER: IV SUBJECT CODE / Name:

PART -A (2 Mar !" 1. What is Fourier's Law of heat conduction? (May 05, May 06, Dec 09, May 10, May 11 !. Differentiate "etween heat transfer and ther#odyna#ics. (May 10 \$. What is coefficient of %her#a& conducti'ity? (Dec 09, Dec 1! (. Write the three di#ensiona& heat e)uations in *artesian co+ordinate syste#. (May 06, May 05 5. Write the three di#ensiona& heat e)uations in cy&indrica& co+ordinate syste#. (May 0, 6. What is -ewtonian heatin. or coo&in. /rocess? (May 09 0. Define heat f&u1. (Dec 00 ,. Define ther#a& Diffusi'ity. (May 09 9. Discuss the #echanis# of heat conduction in so&ids. (May 09 10. What is 2oisson's e)uation for heat f&ow? (May 10 11. What critica& radius of insu&ation? M34 0(, -o' 0(, -o' 06, Dec 0, 1!. List the ty/es of "oundary conditions. (-o' 05 1\$. What is a Fin? What are the different ty/es of fin /rofi&es? (-o' 0(, May 00, Dec 0,, -o' 11 1(. Define efficiency of the fin. (-o' 0(, -o' 05, May 00, Dec 0, 15. Define effecti'eness of the fin. (-o' 0(, -o' 05, May 00, Dec 0, 16. What are 5eis&er chart? (May 00 10. What is #eant "y %ransient heat conduction? (May 09 1,. What is &u#/ed ana&ysis (Dec 0,, May 10, May 11 19. What is 6iot nu#"er? (May 10 !0. What is conduction heat transfer. (May 1! !1. What are the two #echanis#s of heat conduction in so&ids? (-o' 11 PART –B (1# Mar !" 1. Deri'e the heat conduction e)uation in cy&indrica& co+ordinates usin. an e&e#enta& 7o&u#e for a stationary isotro/ic so&id. (May 00,May 10 !. Deri'e the heat conduction e)uation in *artesian co+ordinates. (Dec 06 \$A%%S \$. 3 *o&d stora.e roo# has wa&&s #ade of !\$c# "ric8 on the outside, ,c# of /&astic foa# and fina&&y 1.5c# of wood on inside. %he outside and inside air te#/eratures are !!9* and +!9* res/ecti'e&y. %he inside and outside heat transfer co+efficient are !9 and 1! W:#; <. %he ther#a& conducti'ities of "ric8, foa# and wood are 0.9,, 0.0! and 0.1! W:# < res/ecti'e&y. =f the tota& wa&& area is 90 #;, Deter#ine the rate of heat re#o'ed "y refri.eration and te#/erature of the inside surface of the "ric8. (May 11 (. 3 co#/osite wa&& consists. of !.5 c# thic8 &ayer of "ui&din. "ric8, 8 > \$55 W:#< and \$.! ## thic8 /&aster, 8 > 0.110W:#<. 3n insu&atin. #ateria& of 8 > 0.0, W:#< is to "e added to reduce the heat transfer throu.h the wa&& "y (0?. Find its thic8ness. (Dec 11 5. 3 reactor@s wa&& \$!0 ## thic8 is #ade u/ of an inner &ayer of fire "ric8 (8 > 0.,( W:#A * co'ered with a &ayer of insu&ation (8 > 0.16 W:#A * . %he reactor o/erates at a !5 A *. Deter#ine the thic8ness of the fire"ric8 and insu&ation which .i'es #ini#u# heat &oss. *a&cu&ate the heat &oss /resu#in. that the insu&atin. #ateria& has a #a1i#u# te#/erature of 1!00A *. (Dec 0, 6. 3 co#/osite wa&& is for#ed of a !.5 c# co//er /&ate (8 > \$55 W:# < , 3 \$.! ## &ayer of as"estos (8 > 0.110W:# < and a 5 c# &ayer of fi"er /&ate (8 > 0.0(9 W:# < . %he wa&& is su"Bected to an o'era&& te#/erature difference of 5609* (5609* on the *u /&ate side and 09* on the fi"er /&ate side . Csti#ate the heat f&u1 throu.h this co#/osite a&& and the interface te#/erature "etween as"estos and fi"er /&ate. (May 0,

0. 3n e1terior wa&& of house #ay "e a//ro1i#ated "y a 0.1 # &ayer of co##on "ric8 (8 > 0.0 W:#A * fo&&owed "y a 0.0( # &ayer of .y/su# /&aster (8 > 0.(, W:#A * . What is the thic8ness of &oose&y /ac8ed roc8 woo& insu&ation (8 > 0.065 W:#A * shou&d "e added to reduce the heat &oss or .ain throu.h the wa&& "y ,0 ?. (May 0(, Dec 06 ,. 3 co#/osite wa&& consist of 10 c# thic8 &ayer of "ui&din. "ric8, 8 > 0.0 W:# < and \$ c# thic8 /&aster, 8 > 0.5W:# <. 3n insu&atin. #ateria& of 8 > W:# < is to "e added to reduce the heat transfer throu.h the wa&& "y(0?. Find its thic8ness. (Dec 0(, Dec 05 9. 3 furnace wa&& consists of three &ayers. %he inner &ayer of 10 c# thic8ness is #ade of fire"ric8 (k >1.0( W:# < . %he inter#ediate &ayer of !5 c# thic8ness is #ade of #asonry "ric8 (8 > 0.69 W:# < fo&&owed "y a 5 c# thic8 concrete wa&& (8 > 1.\$0 W:# < . When the furnace is in continuous o/eration the inner surface of the furnace is at ,009 * whi&e the outer concrete surface is at 509*. *a&cu&ate the rate of heat &oss /er unit area of the wa&&, the te#/erature at the interface of the fire"ric8 and #asonry "ric8 and the te#/erature at the interface of the #asonry "ric8 and concrete. C&%INDER 10.3 150 ## stea# /i/e has inside dia#eter of 1!0 ## and outside dia#eter of 160 ##. =t is insu&ated at the outside with as"estos. %he stea# te#/erature is 150A * and the air te#/erature is !0A * h (stea# >100 W:#; *, h (air > 100 W:#; *, < (as"estos > 0., W:#A * and < (stee& > (! W:#A *. 5ow thic8 the as"estos shou&d "e /ro'ided in order to &i#it the heat &osses to !.1 <w:#;. (Dec 1! 11.3n a&u#inu# /i/e carries stea# at 1109 * %he /i/e and < > 1,5 W:#A *. 5as an inner dia#eter of 100 ## and outer dia#eter of 1!0 ##. %he /i/e is &ocated in a roo# where the a#"ient air te#/erature is \$09 * and the con'ecti'e heat transfer co+efficient "etween the /i/e and air is 15 W:#; *. Deter#ine the heat transfer rate /er unit &en.th of /i/e. %o reduce the heat &oss fro# the /i/e, it is co'ered with a 50 ## thic8 &ayer of insu&ation (< > 0.!0W:# 9* . Deter#ine the heat transfer rate /er unit &en.th fro# the insu&ated /i/e. 3ssu#e that the con'ecti'e resistance of the stea# is ne.&i.i"&e. (May 1! 1!.3 stee& tu"e with 5 c# =D, 0.6 c# DD and 8 > 15 W:#A * is co'ered with an insu&ati'e co'erin. of thic8ness ! c# and 8 > 0.! W:#A *. 3 hot .as at \$\$0A * with h > (00 W:#; A * f&ows inside the tu"e. %he outer surface of the insu&ation is e1/osed to coo&er air at \$0A * with h > 60 W:#; A *. *a&cu&ate the heat &oss fro# the tu"e to the air for 10 # of the tu"e and the te#/erature dro/s resu&tin. fro# the ther#a& resistance of the hot .as f&ow, the stee& tu"e, the insu&ation &ayer and outside air. (May 05, May 09 1\$.3n e&ectrica& wire of 10 # &en.th and 1 ## dia#eter dissi/ates !00 W in air at !59*. %he con'ection heat transfer coefficient "etween the wire surface and air is 15 W:#!<. *a&cu&ate the critica& radius of insu&ation and a&so deter#ine the te#/erature of the wire if it is insu&ated to the critica& thic8ness of insu&ation. (May 06, Dec 06 1(.3 \$ c# DD stea# /i/e is to "e co'ered with two &ayers of insu&ation each ha'in. a thic8ness of !.5 c#. %he a'era.e ther#a& conducti'ity of one insu&ation is 5 ti#es that of the other. Deter#ine the /ercenta.e decrease heat transfer if "etter insu&atin. #ateria& is ne1t to /i/e than it is the outer &ayer. 3ssu#e that the outside and inside te#/eratures of co#/osite insu&ation are fi1ed. (May 00 (May 06

15.3 /i/e consists of 100 ## interna& dia#eter and , ## thic8ness carries stea# at 1009*. %he con'ecti'e heat transfer coefficient on the inner surface of /i/e is 05 W:#!*. %he /i/e is insu&ated "y two &ayers of insu&ation. %he first &ayer of insu&ation is (6 ## in thic8ness ha'in. ther#a& conducti'ity of 0.1(W:#9 *. %he second &ayer of insu&ation is a&so (6 ## in thic8ness ha'in. ther#a& conducti'ity of 0.(6 W:#A *. 3#"ient air te#/erature > \$\$9*. %he con'ecti'e heat transfer coefficient fro# the outer surface of /i/e > 1! W:#;*. %her#a& conducti'ity of stea# /i/e > (6 W:#9 *. *a&cu&ate the heat &oss /er unit &en.th of /i/e and deter#ine the interface te#/eratures. Eu..est the #ateria&s used for insu&ation. SPHERE 16.3 stee& "a&& of 5 c# dia#eter was initia&&y at (509* and is sudden&y /&aced in en'iron#ent at 1009*, heat transfer coefficient "etween the stee& "a&& and the f&uid is 10 W:#; <, For stee& coo&in. after 1! hr. FINS 10. 5eat is conducted throu.h a ta/ered circu&ar rod of !00 ## &en.th. %he ends 3 and 6 ha'in. dia#eters 50 ## and !5 ## are #aintained at !09 * and !!0 9 * res/ecti'e&y, < (rod #ateria& > (0 W:#9 * . Find (i 5eat conducted throu.h the rod, and (ii %he te#/erature at #id/oint of the end. 3ssu#e there is no te#/erature .radient at a /articu&ar cross section and there is no heat transfer throu.h the /eri/hera& surface.(May 1! 1,. 3 !5 ## dia#eter rod of \$60 ## &en.th connects two heat sources #aintained at 1!0A * and !!0A * res/ecti'e&y. %he cur'ed surface of the rod is &osin. heat to the surroundin. air at !0A *. %he heat transfer co+ efficient is 10 W:#; A*. *a&cu&ate the &oss of heat fro# the rod if it is #ade of co//er (8 > \$\$5 W:#A * and stee& (8 > (0 W:#A * . (Dec 0, 19. *ircu#ferentia& a&u#inu# fins of rectan.u&ar /rofi&e (1.5 c# wide and 1 ## thic8 are fitted on a 90 ## en.ine cy&inder with a /itch of 10 ##. %he hei.ht of the cy&inder is 1!0 ##. %he cy&inder "ase te#/erature "efore and after fittin. the fins are !00A * and 150A * res/ecti'e&y. %a8e a#"ient at \$0A * and h (a'era.e > 100 W:#; <. Csti#ate the heat dissi/ated fro# the finned and un finned surface areas of cy&inder "ody. (Dec 0( !0. 3 *y&inder 1 # &on. and 5 c# in dia#eter is /&aced in an at#os/here at (5A *. =t is /ro'ided with 10 &on.itudina& strai.ht fins of #ateria& ha'in. 8 > 1!0 W:# <. %he hei.ht of 0.06 ## thic8 fins is 1.!0 c# fro# the cy&inder surface. %he heat transfer co+efficient "etween cy&inder and at#os/here air is 10 W:#;<. *a&cu&ate the rate of heat transfer and te#/erature at the end of fins if surface te#/erature of cy&inder is 150A *. (May 05 !1. 3n a&u#inu# rod (8 >!0( W:#< ! c# in dia#eter and !0 c# &on. /rotrudes fro# a wa&& which is #aintained at \$009*. %he end of the rod is insu&ated and the surface of the rod is e1/osed to air at \$09*. %he heat transfer coefficient "etween the rod's surface and air is 10 W:#;<. *a&cu&ate the heat &ost "y the rod and the te#/erature of the rod at a distance of 10 c# fro# the wa&&. (May 06 !!. Find out the a#ount of heat transferred throu.h an iron fin of &en.th 50 ##, width 100 ## and thic8ness 5 ##. 3ssu#e 8 > 5, W:#A * and h > 1! W:#;* for the #ateria& of the fin and the te#/erature at the "ase of the fin as *2 > 0.(6 8B:8. < , F>0,00 (May 10 8.:#G. <> \$5W:# <. *a&cu&ate ti#e re)uired for the "a&& to reach a te#/erature of 1509* 3&so find the rate of (Dec 00

,0 A *. 3&so Deter#ine the te#/erature at ti/ of the fin if the at#os/here te#/erature is !0A *. (Dec 06 !\$. 3 6 c# &on. co//er rod (8 > \$00 W:# <) 6## in dia#eter is e1/osed to an en'iron#ent at !09 *. %he "ase te#/erature of the rod is #aintained at 1609 *. %he heat transfer co+efficient is !0 W:#; <. *a&cu&ate the heat .i'en "y the rod and efficiency and effecti'eness of the rod. %UMPED ANA%&SIS !(. 3 s&a" of 3&u#inu# 10 c# thic8 initia&&y at 5009* is sudden&y i##ersed in a &i)uid at 1009* for which the con'ection heat transfer co+efficient is 1!00 W:#;<. Deter#ine the te#/erature at a center &ine and the surface 1 #inute after the i##ersion. 3&so ca&cu&ate the ener.y re#o'ed /er unit area fro# the /&ate durin. 1 #inute of i##ersion. %a8e 2 > !000 "ar, */ > 0.9 8H:8.. D<, 8>!15W:# <, I > ,.(J 10+5 #;:s. (Dec 1! !5. 3n 3&u#inu# /&ate (8 > 160 W:#; * , F > !090 8.:#G, *2 > 0.,, 8H: 8.A * of thic8ness L > \$ c# and at a unifor# te#/erature of !!5A * is sudden&y i##ersed at ti#e t > 0 in a we&& stirred f&uid #aintained at a constant te#/erature %K > !5A *. %a8e h > \$!0 W:#; A *. Deter#ine the ti#e re)uired for the centre of the /&ate to reach 50A *. (Dec 05 !6. 3 s&a" of 3&u#inu# 5 c# thic8 initia&&y at !009* is sudden&y i##ersed in a &i)uid at 009* for which the con'ection heat transfer co+efficient is 5!5 W:#;<. Deter#ine the te#/erature at a de/th of 1!.5 ## fro# one of the faces 1 #inute after the i##ersion. 3&so ca&cu&ate the ener.y re#o'ed /er unit area fro# the /&ate durin. 1 #inute of i##ersion. %a8e 2 > !000 "ar, */ > 0.9 8H:8.. D<, 8>!15W:# <, I > ,.(J 10+5 #;:s. (May 00 !0. 3 &ar.e iron /&ate of 10 c# thic8ness and ori.ina&&y at ,009* is sudden&y e1/osed to an en'iron#ent at 09* where the con'ection coefficient is 50 W:#!<. *a&cu&ate the te#/erature at a de/th of ( c# fro# one of the faces 100 seconds after the /&ate is e1/osed to the en'iron#ent. 5ow #uch ener.y has "een &ost /er unit area of the /&ate durin. this ti#e? UNIT – II: CONVECTION PART -A (2 Mar !" 1. What is the ratio of the hydro dyna#ic "oundary &ayer to ther#a& "oundary &ayer in the case of &a#inar f&ow o'er a /&ate? !. Differentiate "etween -atura& L Forced con'ection. \$. Etate 6uc8in.ha#'s 'theore#. (. Define the 6u&8 te#/erature. 5. Define 'e&ocity "oundary &ayer thic8ness. 6. Define ther#a& "oundary &ayer thic8ness. 0. Define Meyno&d@s nu#"er, Nrashof nu#"er and 2randt& nu#"er. ,. What is the si.nificance of Nrashof nu#"er? 9. What is the si.nificance of cetane nu#"er? 10. What is the si.nificance of di#ensiona& nu#"er? (Dec 09 (Dec 0(, May 10, May 1! (Dec 0, (Dec 10, May 0, (Dec 05, May 11 (Dec 0(, May 00, May 10, May 11 (May 05, Dec 0,, Dec 11 (May 10 (May 10 (May 00 (May 06 (May 00

11.3n e&ectrica&&y heated /&ate dissi/ates heat "y con'ection at a rate ,000 W:#; into the a#"ient air at !5A*. =f the surface of the hot /&ate is at 1!5A *, *a&cu&ate the heat transfer co+efficient for con'ection "etween the /&ate and the air. (May 05, May 06
+5

1!.3ir at !0A * and 1 at#os/here f&ows o'er a f&at /&ate at a s/eed of ! #:s. *a&cu&ate "oundary &ayer thic8ness at distance (0 c# fro# &oadin. ed.e of /&ate. 3t !0A * 'iscosity (air > 1.,5 J 10 8.:#s. (Dec 1! 1\$.3 s)uare /&ate (0 J (0 c# #aintained at (00 < is sus/ended 'ertica&&y in at#os/heric air at \$00 <.Deter#ine the "oundary &ayer thic8ness at trai&in. ed.e of the /&ate. 1(. E8etch the "oundary &ayer for a 'ertica& /&ate in case of free con'ection. 15. Distin.uish "etween &a#inar and tur"u&ent f&ow 16. List the /ara#eters that inf&uence the heat transfer coefficient. PART –B (1# Mar !" 1. 3ir at !00 82a and !009* is heated as it f&ows throu.h a tu"e with a dia#eter of !5 ## at a 'e&ocity of 10 #.:sec. %he wa&& te#/erature is #aintained constant and is !09* a"o'e the air te#/erature a&& a&on. the &en.th of tu"e. *a&cu&ateO i %he rate of heat transfer /er unit &en.th of the tu"e. "u&8 te#/erature of air o'er a \$ # &en.th of the tu"e. (Dec 1! (Dec 1! \$. 3 ine wire ii =ncrease in the (Dec 1! (May 09 (May 1! (Dec 11

!. 3 0.5 # hi.h f&at /&ate of .&ass at 9\$A * is re#o'ed fro# an annea&in. furnace and hun. 'ertica&&y in the air at!,A *, 1 at#. *a&cu&ate the initia& rate of heat transfer to the air. %he /&ate is 1 # wide. ha'in. a dia#eter of 0.0! ## is #aintained at a constant te#/erature of 5(A * "y an e&ectric current. %he wire is e1/osed to air at 1 at#. 3nd 0A *. *a&cu&ate the e&ectric /ower necessary to #aintain the wire te#/erature if the &en.th is 50 c#. (Dec 1! (. 3ir strea# at !09 * is #o'in. at 0.\$ #:s across a 100 W e&ectric "u&" at 1!09 * =f the "u&" is a//ro1i#ated "y a 60## dia#eter s/here, esti#ate the heat transfer rate and /ercenta.e of /ower &ost due to con'ection. (May 1! 5. 3t#os/heric air fat 1509 * f&ows with a 'e&ocity of 1.!5 #:s o'er a !# &on. f&at /&ate whose te#/erature is !59 *. Deter#ine the a'era.e heat transfer co+efficient and rate of heat transfer for a /&ate width 0.5 #. (May 11 6. 3 6 # &on. section of an , c# dia#eter horiPonta& hat water /i/e /asses throu.h a &ar.e roo# in which the air and wa&&s are at !09 *. %he /i/e surface as at 009 * and the e#issi'ity of the /i/e surface is 0.0. Find the rate of heat &oss fro# the /i/e "y natura& con'ection and radiation. the dra. force e1erted "y oi& on the /&ate and the rate of heat transfer for 1#. (Dec 11 ,. 3 #eta&&ic cy&inder of 1!.0 ## dia#eter and 9( ## &en.th is heated interna&&y "y an e&ectric heater and its surface is coo&ed "y air. %he free strea# air 'e&ocity and te#/eratures are res/ecti'e&y Qnder 3&so find steady is the te#/erature (Dec 11 1!,.(9*. con'ection Deter#ine heat 10 #:s and !6.!9*. o/eratin. conditions, heat dissi/ated "y the cy&inder is \$9.1 W and its a'en.e surface the con'ection heat transfer coefficient fro# the a"o'e e1/eri#ent. coefficient fro# an a//ro/riate corre&ation and co#/are "oth. transfer (May 11 0. Cn.ine oi& at 609* f&ows with a 'e&ocity of ! #:s o'er a 5 # &on. f&at /&ate whose te#/erature is !09*.Deter#ine

9. 3ir at !09 * at \$ #:s f&ows o'er a thin /&ate of !# &on. and 1# wide. Csti#ate the "oundary &ayer thic8ness at the trai&in. ed.e, tota& dra. force, #ass f&ow of air "etween J > \$0c# and J > ,0 c#. %a8e v > 15 J 10 and F > 1.10 8.:# . the radiator as a 'ertica& /&ate.
\$ 6

(May 10 (May 10

10. *a&cu&ate the con'ecti'e heat transfer fro# a radiator 0.5 # wide and 1 # hi.h at ,(9 * in a roo# at !09 *.%reat 11. *y&indrica& cans of 150 ## &en.th and 65 ## dia#eter are to "e coo&ed fro# an initia& te#/erature of !09* "y /&acin. the# in a coo&er containin. air at a te#/erature of 19* and a /ressure of 1 "ar. Deter#ine the coo&in. rates when the cans are 8e/t in horiPonta& and 'ertica& /ositions. 1!. Cn.ine oi& (8 > 0.1( W:# <, v > ,0 J 10
+6 !

(May 09,May 0,

# :s f&ows with a #ean 'e&ocity of 0.! #:s inside a 1.!5 c#
!

dia#eter tu"e which is e&ectrica&&y heated at the wa&& at a unifor# rate of !.(5 <w:# . %he heat transfer is ta8in. /&ace in the fu&&y de'e&o/ed re.ion . *a&cu&ate the te#/erature difference "etween the tu"e wa&& surface and the #ean f&ow te#/erature. and 569*. *a&cu&ate the fo&&owin. 1 >!,0 ##. i 6oundary &ayer thic8ness. ii Loca& friction co+efficient. iii 3'era.e friction co+efficient. i' %hic8ness of ther#a& "oundary &ayer. ' Loca& con'ecti'e heat transfer co+efficient. 'i 3'era.e con'ecti'e heat transfer co+efficient. 'ii Mate of heat transfer "y con'ection. 'iii %ota& dra. force on the /&ate. (Dec 0, 1(. 3 *y&indrica& "ody of \$00## dia#eter and 1.6 # hei.ht is #aintained at a constant te#/erature is \$6.59 *.%he surroundin. te#/erature is 1\$.59 *. Find the a#ount of heat .enerated "y the "ody /er hour =f *2 > 0.96 8H:8.9 *R F > 1.0!5 8.:# R 8 > 0.0,9! W:#9 c, ' > 15.06 J 10 (Dec 0, 15. 3ir at (00 < and 1 at# /ressure f&ows at a s/eed of 1.5 #:s o'er a f&at /&ate of ! # &on.. %he /&ate is #aintained at a unifor# te#/erature of \$00 <. =f the /&ate has a width of 0.5 #, esti#ate the heat transfer coefficient and the rate of heat transfer fro# the air strea# to the /&ate. 3&so esti#ate the dra. force actin. on the /&ate. 16. C1/&ain for f&uid f&ow a&on. a f&at /&ateO (1 7e&ocity distri"ution in hydrodyna#ic "oundary &ayer (! %e#/erature distri"ution in ther#a& "oundary &ayer (\$ 7ariation of &oca& heat transfer co+efficient a&on. the f&ow. (May 00 10. %he water is heated in a tan8 "y di//in. a /&ate of !0 c# J (0 c# in siPe. %he te#/erature of the /&ate surface is #aintained at 1009*. 3ssu#in. the te#/erature of the surroundin. water is at \$09 *, Find the heat &oss fro# the /&ate !0 c# side is in 'ertica& /&ane. (May 00 (May 0,
\$ +6 +1 1:\$

(May 09

1\$. 3ir at !09 * and at a /ressure of 1 "ar is f&owin. o'er a f&at /&ate at a 'e&ocity of \$#:s. =f the /&ate is !,0 ## wide

#;:s and S > 1:!9, < . 3ssu#e -u > 0.1! (Nr.2r

1,. 3ir at !09 * is f&owin. a&on. a heated /&ate at 1\$(9 * at a 'e&ocity of \$#:s. %he /&ate is ! # &on. and 1.5# wide. *a&cu&ate the thic8ness of hydrodyna#ic "oundary &ayer and s8in friction co+efficient at (0 c# fro# the &eadin. ed.e of the /&ate. %he 8ine#atic 'iscosity of air at !09 c is 15.06 J 10 #;:s.
+6

(Dec 05, Dec 06

19. 3t#os/heric air at !05 < and a free strea# 'e&ocity of !0 #:s f&ows o'er a f&at /&ate 1.5 # &on. that is #aintained at a unifor# te#/erature of \$!5 <. *a&cu&ate the a'era.e heat transfer coefficient o'er the re.ion where the "oundary &ayer is &a#inar, the a'era.e heat transfer coefficient o'er the entire &en.th of the /&ate and the tota& heat transfer rate fro# the /&ate to the air o'er the &en.th 1.5 # and width 1 #. 3ssu#e transition occurs at Mec > !1&0 .
5

(May 06

!0. Write down the #o#entu# e)uation for a steady, two di#ensiona& f&ow of an inco#/ressi"&e, constant /ro/erty -ewtonian f&uid in the rectan.u&ar coordinate syste# and #ention the /hysica& si.nificance of each ter#. (May 06 !1. 3 &ar.e 'ertica& /&ate 5 # hi.h is #aintained at 1009* and e1/osed to air at \$09*. *a&cu&ate the con'ection heat transfer coefficient. te#/erature of /i/e as 1659*. Deter#ine the heat &oss /er unit &en.th of the /i/e. UNIT – III: PHASE OF HEAT TRANSFER AND HEAT E'CHAN(ER PART -A (2 Mar !" 1.Discuss the ad'anta.e of -%Q #ethod o'er the LM%D #ethod. (Dec 1! !.What is nuc&eate /oo& "oi&in.?(May 0(, Dec 0,,Dec 1! \$.What is f&ow "oi&in.?(Dec 0,, Dec 1! (.5ow does "oi&in. differ fro# e'a/oration?(Dec 11 5.What are the different ty/es of fou&in. in heat e1chan.ers?(Dec 11 6.What are the ty/es of heat e1chan.ers?(Dec 05,May 1! 0.5ow does "oi&in. differ fro# e'a/oration?(Dec 11 ,.What are the different ty/es of fou&in. in heat e1chan.ers?(Dec 06, Dec 11 9.Define Dro/ wise condensation.(Dec 0(, Dec 05, May 06 10.Define Fi&# wise condensation.(Dec 0(, Dec 05, May 06 11.What are /ara&&e& and counter f&ow heat e1chan.ers(Dec 0(, May 05 1!.5ow the heat e1chan.ers are c&assified "ased on f&ow arran.e#ent?(Dec 05 1\$.What is LM%D?(May 11 1(.What is effecti'eness of a heat e1chan.er?(May 10 15.Ni'e the e1/ression for -%Q?(May 09, May 10 16.What is fou&in. factor?(May 00 10.What is #eant "y condensation?(May 00 (May 06 (Dec 05 !!. 3 stea# /i/e 10 c# outside dia#eter runs horiPonta&&y in a roo# at !\$9*. %a8e the outside surface

PART –B (1# Mar !" 1. Water is "oi&ed at a rate of \$0 8.:h in co//er /an, \$00 in dia#eter, at at#os/heric /ressure. Csti#ate the te#/erature of the "otto# surface of the /an assu#in. nuc&eate "oi&in. conditions (May 1! !. 5ot oi& with a ca/acity rate of !500 W:< f&ows throu.h a dou"&e /i/e heat e1chan.er. =t enters at \$609 * and &ea'es at \$009 * *o&d f&uid te#/erature enters at \$09 * and &ea'es at !009 *. =f the o'era&& heat transfers co+ efficient is ,00W:#; <, Deter#ine the heat e1chan.er area re)uired for (i /ara&&e& f&ow and (ii counter f&ow.(May 1! \$. %he "otto# of co//er /an, \$00 ## in dia#eter is #aintained at 1!09 * "y an e&ectric heater. *a&cu&ate the /ower re)uired to "oi& water in this /an. What is the e'a/oration rate? Csti#ate the critica& heat f&u1.(Dec1! (. Water at the rate of ( 8.:s is heated fro# (09 * to 559 * in a she&& and tu"e heat e1chan.er. Dn she&& side one /ass is used with water as heatin. f&uid (# > ! 8.:s , enterin. the e1chan.er at 959 * %he o'era&& heat transfer co+ efficient is 1500 W:#; 9 * and a'era.e water 'e&ocity in the ! c# dia#eter tu"es is 0.5#:s. 6ecause of s/ace &i#itations the tu"e &en.th #ust not e1ceed \$ #. *a&cu&ate the nu#"er of tu"e /asses 8ee/in. in #ind the desi.n constraint. (Dec 1! 5. Dry stea# at !.(5 "ar condenses on a 'ertica& tu"e of hei.ht of 1 # at 1109 *. Csti#ate the thic8ness of the condensate fi&# and &oca& heat transfer co+efficient at a distance 0.!# fro# the u//er end of the /&ate.(May 10 6. 3 10 "y 10 array of horiPonta& tu"es of 1.!0 c# dia#eter is e1/osed to /ure stea# at at#os/heric /ressure. =f the tu"e wa&& te#/erature is 9,9*, esti#ate the #ass of stea# condensed assu#in. a tu"e &en.th of 1.5 #. (Dec 11 0. =n a cross f&ow heat e1chan.er, air is heated "y water. 3ir enters the e1chan.er at 159* and a #ass f&ow rate of 8.:s whi&e water enters at 909* and a #ass f&ow rate of 0.!5 8.:s. %he o'era&& heat transfer coefficient is !50 W:# .<. =f the e1chan.er has a heat transfer area of ,.( #!, find the e1it te#/eratures of "oth the f&uids and the tota& heat transfer rate. 9. C1/&ain the 'arious re.i#es of /oo& "oi&in.. (Dec 11 (May 10 (May 00,May 09 ,. Define LM%D for a /ara&&e& f&ow heat e1chan.er statin. the assu#/tions.

10. Water is to "e "oi&ed at at#os/heric /ressure in a #echanica&&y /o&ished stain&ess stee& /an /&aced on to/ of a heatin. unit. %he inner surface of the "otto# of the /an is #aintained at &D,9*. %he dia#eter of the "otto# of the /an is \$0 c#. 3ssu#in. *sf > 0.01\$0. *a&cu&ate (i the rate of heat transfer to the water and ii the rate of e'a/oration of water. (May 0, 11. 3 'ertica& /&ate 0.5 #! in area at te#/erature of 9!9* is e1/osed to stea# at at#os/heric /ressure. =f the stea# is dry and saturated esti#ate the heat transfer rate and condensate #ass /er hour. %he 'ertica& &en.th of the /&ate is 0.5 #. 2ro/erties of water at fi&# te#/eratures of 969* can "e o"tained fro# ta"&es.(May 00 1!. 5ot e1haust .ases which enters a finned tu"e cross f&ow heat e1chan.er at \$009* and &ea'e at 1009c, are used to heat /ressuriPed water at a f&ow rate of 1 8.:s fro# \$5 to 1!59*. %he e1haust .as s/ecific heat is a//ro1i#ate&y 1000 H:8..<, and the o'era&& heat transfer co+efficient "ased on the .as side surface area is Qh > 100W:#!<. Deter#ine the re)ui red .as side surface area 3h usin. the -%Q #ethod. %a8e */,c at %c> ,09* is (190 H:8..< and */,h > 1000 H:8..< . (May 00

1\$. 3 tu"e of !# &en.th and !5## outer dia#eter is to "e condense saturated stea# at 1000* whi&e the tu"e surface is #aintained at 960*. Csti#ate the a'era.e heat transfer co+efficient and the rate of condensation of stea# if the tu"e is 8e/t horiPonta&. %he stea# condenses on the outside of the tu"e. (May 06 1(. =t is desired to "oi& water at at#os/heric /ressure on a co//er surface which is e&ectrica&&y heated. Csti#ate the heat f&u1 fro# the surface to the water, if the surface is #aintained at 110* and a&so the /ea8 heat f&u1.(May 06 15. 3n a&u#iniu# /an of 15c# dia#eter is used to "oi& water and the water de/th at the ti#e of "oi&in. is !.5c#.%he /an is /&aced on an e&ectric sto'e and the heatin. e&e#ent raises the te#/erature of the /an to 1100*. *a&cu&ate the /ower in/ut for "oi&in. and the rate of e'a/oration. %a8e *sf > 0.01\$!. (Dec 05 (May 05 16. Dry saturated stea# at a /ressure of !.(5 "ar condenses on the surface of a 'ertica& tu"e of hei.ht 1 #. %he tu"e surface te#/erature is 8e/t at 1100*. Csti#ate the thic8ness of the condensate fi&#. 10. 3 counter f&ow concentric tu"e heat e1chan.er is used to coo& en.ine oi& T* > !1\$0H:8. <U fro# 1600* to 600* with water a'ai&a"&e at !50* as the coo&in. #ediu#. %he f&ow rate of coo&in. water throu.h the inner tu"e of 0.5# is !8.:s whi&e the f&ow rate of oi& throu.h the outer annu&us, Duter dia#eter > 0.0# is a&so !8.:s. =f Q is !50W#!<, how &on. #ust the heat e1chan.er "e to #eet its coo&in. re)uire#ent? (May 05 1,. 3 /ara&&e& f&ow heat e1chan.er has hot and co&d water strea# runnin. throu.h it, the f&ow rates are 10 and !58.:#in res/ecti'e&y. =n&et te#/eratures are 050* and !50* on hot and co&d sides. %he e1it te#/erature on the hot side shou&d not e1ceed 500*. 3ssu#e hi > h0 > 600W:#!<. *a&cu&ate the area of heat e1chan.ers usin. V > -%Q a//roach. (Dec 05 19. =n a dou"&e /i/e counter f&ow heat e1chan.er, 10,0008.:hr of an oi& ha'in. a s/ecific heat of !095H:8.+< is coo&ed fro# ,00* to 500* "y ,0008.:hr of water enterin. at !50*. Deter#ine the heat e1chan.er area for an o'era&& heat transfer co+efficient of \$00W:#!<. %a8e */ for water as (1,0H:8.+<. (Dec 0(

!0. =n a counter f&ow dou"&e /i/e heat e1chan.er, water is heated fro# !50* to 650* "y an oi& with a s/ecific heat of 1.(5 <H:8. < and #ass f&ow rate is 0.9 <.:s. %he oi& is coo&ed fro# !\$00* to 1600*. =f the o'era&& heat transfers co+efficient is (!0 W:#! 0*, ca&cu&ate the fo&&owin.. a.%he rate of heat transfer ".%he #ass f&ow rate of water c. %he surface area of the heat e1chan.er. (May 0(

UNIT – IV: RADIATION PART -A (2 Mar !" 1. What is Etefan's 6o&tP Mann &aw? !. Distin.uish "etween "&ac8 and .rey "ody? \$. What is #eant "y <irchhoff's &aw? (. Define Madiation heat transfer 5. What are radiation shie&ds? (May 1! (Dec.0(, Dec.05 May 06,May 00,May 09, May 1! (May 10,Dec 1! (Dec 1! (May 0,,Dec 11

6. What is tota& he#is/herica& e#issi'ity? 0. What is #eant "y ther#a& radiation? of 0.5W. 9. Define =rradiation and Madiosity. 10. C1/&ain e&ectrica& ana&o.y? 11. Define e#issi'e /ower.TC "U. 1!. What is #eant "y a"sor/ti'ity? 1\$. What is #eant "y ref&ecti'ity? 1(. What is the /ur/ose of radiation shie&d? 15. What is #eant "y sha/e factor and #ention its /hysica& si.nificance? 16. Discuss the radiation characteristics of car"on dio1ide and water 'a/our. PART –B (1# Mar !"

(Dec 11 (May 0,,May 11 (Dec 0,, May 10 (May 05,Dec 0, (May 00 ( Dec.05 (Dec.0( (Dec.0( (May 0( (May 05 ( Dec 05

,. Find the te#/erature of the sun assu#in. a "&ac8 "ody, if the intensity of radiation is #a1i#u# at the wa'e &en.th

1. 3 .ray, diffuse o/a)ue surface (K > 0., is at 1009 * and recei'es an irradiation 100W:#;. =f the surface area is 0.1 #;. *a&cu&ate Madiosity of the surface -et radiati'e heat transfer rate fro# the surface *a&cu&ate a"o'e )uantities, if surface is "&ac8. heat e1chan.e /er s)uare #eter of these /&ates. (Dec 1! (Dec 1! ii iii i

!. C#issi'ities of two &ar.e /ara&&e& /&ate #aintained at ,009 * and \$009 * and 0.\$ and 0.5 res/ecti'e&y Find the net \$. %wo rectan.&es 50J 50 c# are /&aced /er/endicu&ar with co##on ed.e. Dne surface has %1 > 1000 <R V >0.6R Whi&e the other surface is insu&ated and in radiant "a&ance with a &ar.e surroundin. roo# at \$00 < . Deter#ine the te#/erature of the insu&ated surface and heat &ost "y the surface at 1000 <. (Dec 1! (. %wo "&ac8 s)uare /&ates of siPe 1.0 "y 1.0 # are /&aced /ara&&e& to each other at a distance of 0.( #. Dne /&ate is #aintained at a te#/erature of 9009 * and the other at (009 *. Find the net e1chan.e of ener.y due to radiation "etween the two /&ates. (May 1! 5. %he surfaces of a dou"&ed wa&&ed s/herica& 'esse& used for storin. &i)uid o1y.en are co'ered with a &ayer of si&'er ha'in., an e#issi'ity of 0.0\$.%he te#/erature of the outer surface of the inner wa&& is 15\$9 * and the te#/erature of the inner surface of the outer wa&& is !09 *. %he s/heres are !10 ## and \$00 ## in dia#eter, with the s/ace "etween the# e'acuated. *a&cu&ate the radiation heat transfer throu.h the wa&&s into the 'esse& and the rate of the e'a/oration of &i)uid o1y.en if its rate of 'a/oriPation is !!08H:8..(May 1! 6. 3 furnace is a//ro1i#ated as an e)ui&atera& trian.u&ar duct of sufficient &en.th so that end effects can "e ne.&ected. %he hot wa&& of the furnace is #aintained at 900 < and has an e#issi'ity of 0.,. %he co&d wa&& is at (00 < and has the sa#e e#issi'ity. Find the net radiation heat f&u1 &ea'in. the wa&&. %hird wa&& of the furnace #ay "e assu#ed as a reradiatin. surface. (Dec 11 (Dec 11 0. *onsider two concentric cy&inders ha'in. dia#eters 10 c# and !0 c# and a &en.th of !0 c#. desi.natin. the o/en ends of the cy&inders as surfaces \$ and (, esti#ate the sha/e factor, F\$+(.

,. %wo 'ery &ar.e /ara&&e& /&anes e1chan.e heat "y radiation. %he e#issi'ites of the /&anes are res/ecti'e&y 0., and 0.\$. %o #ini#iPe the radiation e1chan.e "etween the /&anesR a /o&ished a&u#iniu# radiation shie&d is /&aced "etween the#. =f the e#issi'ity of the shie&d is 0.0( on "oth sides, find the /ercenta.e reduction in heat transfer rate. (May 11 9. %wo /ara&&e& /&ates of 1 1 1 # s/aced 0.5 # a /art in a 'ery &ar.e roo# whose wa&&s are at !09 *. %he /&ates are at 9009 * and (009 * with e#issi'ities 0.! and 0.5 res/ecti'e&y. Find the net heat transfer to each /&ate and to the roo#. 10. Deter#ine the 'iew factor F 1+! for the fi.ure shown "e&ow. (May 10 (Dec 0,

11. Deter#ine the radiant heat e1chan.e in W#; "etween two &ar.e /ara&&e& stee& /&ates of e#issi'ities 0., and 0.5 he&d at te#/eratures of 1000< and 500 < res/ecti'e&y, =f a thin co//er /&ate of e#issi'ity 0.1 is introduced as a radiation shie&d "etween the two /&ates. 1!. Ehow+fro# ener.y+"a&ance consideration that the radiation 3( and #ade u/ of /&ane surface areas 3! 3(F(1>3\$F\$1X3!F!1 L F1(>F1!XF1\$. and 3\$ to a (Dec 0, heat transfer fro# a /&ane co#/osite surface area /&ane surface area 3& is .i'en "yO (May 0,

1\$ Qsin. the definition of radiosity and irradiation /ro'e that the radiation heat e1chan.e "etween two .rey "odies is .i'en "y the re&ationO (May 00

1(. 3 surface at &DD< with e#issi'ity of 0.10 is /rotected fro# a radiation f&u1 of 1!50 W:#; "y a shie&d with e#issi'ity of 0.05. Deter#ine the /ercenta.e cut off and the shie&d te#/erature. 3ssu#e sha/e factor as 1. (May 00 15. %wo /ara&&e& /&ates of siPe 1 # 1 1 # are s/aced 0.5 # a/art are &ocated in a 'ery &ar.e roo#, the wa&&s of which are #aintained at a te#/erature of !00*. Dne /&ate is #aintained at a te#/erature of 9000* and the other at (000*. %heir e#issi'ities are 0.! and 0.5 res/ecti'e&y. =f the /&ates e1chan.e heat "etween the#se&'es and (May 0( surroundin.s, find the net heat transfer to each /&ate and to the roo#. *onsider on&y the /&ate surfaces facin. each other. 16. %wo 'ery &ar.e /ara&&e& /&ate with e#issi'ities 0.5 e1chan.e heat. Deter#ine the /ercenta.e reduction in the heat transfer rate if a /o&ished a&u#iniu# radiationshie&d of V > 0.0( is /&aced in "etween the /&ates. (May 05 10. *a&cu&ate the net radiant heat e1chan.e /er #! area for two &ar.e /ara&&e& /&ates at te#/erature of (!00* and !00* res/ecti'e&y. VThot /&ateU > 0.9 and V Tco&d /&ateU > 0.6. =f a /o&ished a&u#iniu# shie&d is /&aced "etween the#, find the /ercenta.e of reduction in the heat transfer. VTshied&U > 0.(. (May 0( 3 radiation shie&d 1,. %wo &ar.e /ara&&e& /&anes at ,00 < and 600 < ha'e e#issi'ities of 0.5 and 0., res/ecti'e&y.

ha'in. an e#issi'ity of 0.1 on one side and an e#issi'ity of 0.05 on the other side is /&aced "etween the /&ates. *a&cu&ate the heat transfer rate "y radiation /er s)uare #eter with and without radiation shie&d. *o##on on the resu&ts. (May 0(

UNIT – V: MASS TRANSFER PART -A (2 Mar !" 1. What is *on'ecti'e #ass transfer? !. Descri"e the 'arious #echanis# of #ass transfer? \$. What is the /hysica& #eanin. of Lewis nu#"er? (May 1! (May 1! (Dec 11

(. Etate Fic8@s &aw of diffusion. 5. What is free con'ecti'e #ass transfer. 6. Define forced con'ecti'e #ass transfer. 0. Define the fo&&owin.O =i Mass concentration " Mo&ar concentration ,. What is the Mo&ar Diffusion 'e&ocity 9. What is Diffusion #ass transfer? 10. What is *on'ecti'e #ass transfer? 11. What is e)u#o&ar counter diffusion? 1!. C1/&ain the /hysica& #eanin. of Ech#idt nu#"er. 1\$. Define Fourier nu#"er L 6iot nu#"er for #ass transfer. 1(. What is #eant "y #ass transfer co+efficient? 15. What are the #odes of #ass transfer? 16. What is #o&ecu&ar diffusion? 10. What is con'ecti'e #ass transfer? 1,. Define Eherwood -u#"er. 19. Ni'e two e1a#/&es of con'ecti'e #ass transfer. !0. Define the Mass *oncentration. !1. Define the Mo&ar *oncentration. !!. Define the fo&&owin.. TiU Mass fraction. TiiU Mo&e fraction

(May 09,Dec 1! (Dec 1! (Dec 1! (May 10 (May 10 (May 0, (May 0, (May 0, (May 0, (May 00 (May 00 (May 06 (May 06 (May 06 (May 0( (May 0( (Dec 0(,Dec 05 (Dec 0(,Dec 05 (Dec 0( , Dec 05

PART –B (1# Mar !" 1. Dry air at !0',* and 1 at# f&ows o'er a wet f&at /&ate 50 c# &on. at a 'e&ocity of 50 #:s. *a&cu&ate the #ass transfer co+efficient of water 'a/our in air at the end of the /&ate. %a8e the diffusion coefficient of water 'a/our in air is Das > 0.!6 J =D+a #!:s. \$ ## wa&& thic8ness. What is the intia& rate &ea8a.e for the syste#? (Dec 00, May 10,May 1! (May 1! !. 5e&iu# .as at !500 and a /ressure of ( "ar is stored in a s/herica& si&ica container of 150 ## inside dia#eter and \$. %he tire tu"e of a 'ehic&e has a surface area 0.6! #! and wa&& thic8ness 1! ##. %he tu"e has air fi&&ed in it at a /ressure !.( 1 105 -:#!Y %he air /ressure dro/s to !.\$ 1 105 -:#! in 10 days. %he 'o&u#e of air in the tu"e is 0.0\$( #\$Y *a&cu&ate the diffusion coefficient of air in ru""er at the te#/erature of \$15<. Nas constant 'a&ue > !,0. Eo&u"i&ity of air in ru""er tu"e > 0.005#\$ of air:#\$ of ru""er tu"e at one at#os/here (Dec 1! (. Dry air at !00* TF > 1.! 8.:#\$, ' > 15 1 10+6 #!:s. D > (.! 1 10+5 #!:sU f&ows o'er a f&at /&ate of &en.th 50c# which is co'ered with a thin &ayer of water at a 'e&ocity of 1#:s. Csti#ate the &oca& #ass transfer co+efficient at a distance of 10c# fro# the &eadin. ed.e and the a'era.e #ass transfer co+efficient.
0

(May 06
+6 !

5. 3ir at 1 at# and !5 * containin. s#a&& )uantities of iodine f&ow with a 'e&ocity of 6.! #:s inside a \$5 ## dia#eter tu"e. *a&cu&ate #ass transfer co+efficient for iodine. %he ther#o /hysica& /ro/erties of air are ' > 15.5 1 10 # :s, D > 0.,! 1 10 # :s.
+5 !

(May 06

6. 3n o/en /an !0c# in dia#eter and ,c# dee/ contains water at !5 * and is e1/osed to dry at#os/heric air. =f the rate of diffusion of water 'a/our is ,.5( 1 10 8.:h, esti#ate the diffusion co+efficient of water in air.
+(

0

(May 05

0. 3ir at !09 * with D > (.166 110+5 #;:s f&ows o'er a tray (&en.th \$!0 ##, width (!0## fu&& of water with a 'e&ocity of !., #:s. %he tota& /ressure of #o'in. air 1 at# and the /artia& /ressure of water /resent in the air is 0.006, "ar. =f the te#/erature on the water surface is 15 9 *, *a&cu&ate the e'a/oration rate of water. (May 0, ,. 3 'esse& contains "inary #i1ture of D! and -! with /artia& /ressure in the ratio 0.!1 and 0.09 at 159 *. %he tota& /ressure of the #i1ture is 1.1 "ar. *a&cu&ate the fo&&owin. i ii iii i' Mo&ar concentrations Mass densities Mass fractions Mo&ar fraction for each s/ecies (Dec 0,