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NASA TP 1732

NASA Technical Paper 1732

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Effect of Cage Design on. Characteristics -of. High-Speedget-Lubricated 35-Millimeter-Bore. Ball Bearing,
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Fredrick T. Schuller, Stanley I. Pinel, and Hans R. Signer

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OCTOBER 1980

NASA Technical Paper 1732 Effect of Cage Design on Characteristics of High-Speed-Jet-Lubricated 35-Millimeter-Bore Ball Bearing Fredrick T. Schuller. Ohio I. Signer Lewis Research Cetzter C l e v e l a d . Stanley and Hans R. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Scientific and Technical Information Branch 1980 . Pinel.

an outer-ring-land-guided cage is recommended because its outer-ring land surfaces are more efficiently lubricated by means of centrifugal oil flow effect and because they are generally cooler thanthe corresponding surfaces of an inner-ring controlled cage (ref. Provisions were made for jet lubrication of the bearing and for outer-ring cooling. A bearing with a double-outer-land-guided cage generated higher temperatures than one with a singleouter-land-guided cage. bearing wear and ultimate failure at a high DN value occurred on the land surface of the cage.0 million DN (refs.50 gal/min) and a jet velocity of 20 m/sec (66 ftlsec).Inthesecircumstances jet lubrication is the more practical method of bearing lubrication. angularcontact ball bearing with a double-outerland-guided cage. in these tests the lubricant was fed to the bearings through radial holes in the inner ring. (DN is defined as theshaft speed in rpm multiplied by the bearing bore in mm. the fabrication of radial holes and axial grooves for lubricant passages through the inner ring can become complex and cost restrictive. Results were compared with results previously obtained from tests of a similar bearing but having a single-outer-land-guided cage.and double-outer-land-guided cage bearings. Cooling the outer ring did not appreciably affect the cage slip or power loss for either bearing configuration. Power loss increased with speed and lubricant flow rate for both the single. Other than cage design. Pecent cage slip for a double-outer-land-guided-cage bearing ranged from 1. Percent cage slip was minimal for both bearing configurations for all speeds and flow rates tested.08 to 0. was accomplished up to 2. Identical ranges of shaft speeds and lubricant flow rates were used. high-temperature bearing tester with a 35-mm-bore.7 times that fora singleouter-land-guidedcage bearing. jet-lubricated roller bearing tests described in reference 7. As indicated inreference5. For satisfactory high-speed operation of a small bore jet-lubricated bearing. using a jet-lubricated bearing. Because of the dimensional limitations of the inner ring in smaller bore bearings. Tests were run at flow rates ranging from 303 to 1894 cm3/min (0. andan oil-in temperature of 394 K (250" F).85 x lo6 where failure occurred. The power loss of the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing was always higher than that of the single-landguided design at similar test conditions. 6). One of the prinicipal elements of a bearing that affects its satisfactory high-speed operation is the bearing cage. The bearing had a nominal unmounted 24" contact angle. whereas an innerring-land-guided cage limited the DN value to 1.5 million. where the best overall performance was reported for bearings with outer-ring-land-guided cages.5 to 2. 1 to 4). therefore. Test conditions included a combined load of 667 Newtons (150 Ib)thrust and 222 N (50 lb) radial. Outer-ring coolingof the double-outer-landguided cage bearing to thermally balance the bearing temperature resulted lower in overall bearing operating temperatures at all speeds and lubricant flow rates employed. Large-bore ball and roller bearings have been successfully tested at speeds to 3.48 N/sec (1 to 10 lb/sec) total air flow requires bearings that operate at a DN range up to 2.Summary Parametric tests were conducted in a high-speed. nominal shaft speeds of 48 OOO to 72 OOO rpm. Consequently. the cage design is expected to greatly affect the limiting speed. 1. However. and cage lubrication was the principal factor that brought about the failure. The bearing designs and lubrication techniques used for these engines are two of several elements that must be refined and optimized for reliable performance and long life. The lubricant was neopentylopolyol (tetra)ester meeting the MIL-L-23699 specifications.n reference 5.45 to 44. This hypothesis was borne out for the 75-millimeter. employing a double-outer-land-guidedcage and jet lubrication. . Introduction The next generation ofturbojet engines inthe small class 4. Power loss increased with speed at a faster rate as the lubricant flow rate increased. an outerring-land-guided cage limited the DN value to 2. Successful operation of the 35-mm-bore ball bearing.65 x lo6 where failure occurred. the two bearings were dimensionally the same.) These bearings must be capable of performing satisfactorily at the high temperatures that are common to highspeed operation.5 million DN.

. and outer ring cooling on the described in detail in references 8 and 9. The test bearing was lubricated by two jets on the nonloaded side of the inner ring.efficiency with a 20-m/sec (66-ftIsec) jet velocity Reference8reports results of a high-speed jetoverother velocities investigated. The test bearing is assembled into a separate housing. Cagespeedwas measured with a of the experiments performed in reference 8. ~ small-oore-oearlng test machine. Radial load is applied to the test bearing through knife-edge bearings. Nominal oil-in temperature.) from the face of the bearing were aimed at the inner raceway. (Ref. and nominal shaftspeeds from 48 OOO to 72 OOO rpm. 35-mm ball bearing with a cage having a single outer land. which effectivelyminimize friction.0 mm (0. A sectional drawing is shown in figure 2. The Shaft speed (inner ring speed) was obtained with a experimental work described herein is a continuation magnetic probe.281-in.14-mm (66 ft/sec) with an oil-in temperatureof 394 K (0. In separate tests. 4340 steel ( " 4 1 5 ) heat treated to a Rockwell C Apparatus High-speed Bearing Tester A general view of the air-turbine driven test machine is shown in figure 1. that velocity was used in all the tests reported.50 gal/min) at a calculated jet velocity of 20 m/sec bearing contained 16 balls with a nominal 7. not reported herein. it was determined that a 20-m/sec (66-ft/sec) jet velocity insured the most efficient lubrication of the test bearing.assembled in the shaft. located approximately 3.08 to outer-land-guided cage as shown in figure 3(a). test bearing housing. measure inner-ring temperatures by means of a The objectives of this study were to determine the rotating telemetry system. The test semiconductor straingage mounted in a cavity of the bearing is identical in size and contactangle to thatin housing. The inner and outer rings and (250" F). The lubricant was neopenhardness of the balls and rings was Rockwell C62 at tylpolyol (tetra)ester meeting the MIL-L-23699 room temperature. The 0. The cage was made from AISI specifications. 5 reportsa similar 2 Figure L . The jet outlets. and thrust and radial load application andthe instrumentation for cage speed measurement. which incorporates the hardware for lubrication. Test conditions included combined radial and thrust N (50 lb) and 667 N (150 lb). 35-mmLubricant was introduced to the bearing by dual bore angular-contact ball bearing with a doublejets at flow rates from 303 to 1894 cm3/min (0.) diameter. Bearing data fora thrust only and a supplied to the outer ring by means of holes and grooves in the bearing housing as shown in figure 2.Hlgn-spew. operation of a 35-mm-bore angular contact bearing. Thrust force is applied through a combination of a thrust needle bearing anda small roller support bearing to minimizetest housing restraint during torque measurements. only the cage and outer ring have been altered to accommodate a double-outer-land. The shaft is mounted horizontally and is supported by two preloaded angular-contact ball bearings.065 gal/min) at a 394 K (250" F) electrode vacuum melted AISI "50 steel. Two thermocouples. The high-speed bearing tester is lubricant flow rate. Outer-ring temperatures were obtained by two thermocouples installed in the parametric effects of cage design. Test bearing torque is measured with strain gages attached to the bearing housing.12 in. oil removal.) Cooling oil is lubricated. shaft speed. Outer-ring oil flow cooling rates were 0 to the balls were manufactured from consumable246 cm3/min (0 to 0. The test bearing was an ABEC7 grade. reference 8. loads of 222 Test Bearing respectively. combined thrust and radial load are compared.

Schematic of high-speed. The outside diameter of both the double.074 in. was a nominal 52. / /Outer-ring thermocouple Discharge-oil thermocouple Figure 2 .0015-in. hardness of 28 to 36 and having 0.0203.Lubricant jet for test bearing. shown in figures 3(a) and (b).).). Figure 3. small-bore-bearing test machine. Inner-ringcooling oil 7 Radial 1 I 1 / . Test Procedure (b) Single-outer-landquided cage.0381-mm (0. This type I1 oil is qualified to the MIL-L-23699 specifications as well as internal to the oil specifications of most major aircraft engine producers. After warming the test machine by recirculating heated oil and calibrating the torque measuring 3 .and single-outer-landguided cages.9 x (7N m x oz-in. The effective land area of the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing was approximately three times that of the singleouter-land-guided cage bearing.to 0. Lubricant Thrust jet Oil 2 ‘ The oil used for theparametric studies was a neopentylpolyol (tetra) ester.68mm(2. The inner ring of both bearings was geometrically and dimensionally the same. The cage balance was within 4.0008-to 0.in Table 11. The double-outerland-guided cage weighed 16 percent more than the single-outer-land-guided cage used in the bearing in reference 8.Outer ring (a) Double-outer-landquided cage. . -Angular contact b a l l bearing.) thick silver plating (Ah4S2412) all over. The major properties of the oil are presented . Additional specifications are shown in table I .

.. The shaft speedwas then slowly brought up to a nominal 28 OOO rpm...... 62 (2. the oil-in temperature and lubricant flow rate was set and the speed was increased to the desired value...................08 to 0.......... 0... ) 0..................... 4(c)) to 25 K (45" F) at a maximum flow rate of 1894 cm3/min (0........... mm (in.................... the two bearings were identical....... Bearing ball specifications: Number ..) .... 214 (-75) Volatility (6.. wt% ............. 7.....026) Material ..................22 477 K (400" F) .. ) : Bore ... mm ( i n ....... 533 (500) Autogenous ignition temperature....... 52 Assembly: Internal radial clearance... mm (in.................... 4(b)) this differential increases to 21 K (38" F)..660 (0......................... 0......... - Antiwear................. 8) and the double-outerland-guided cage decrease with an increase in lubricant flow ratefor each test speed....................15 (0.. If it became apparent during thecourse of testing that the conditions would result in distress of the bearing or rig or that the conditions would 491 K (425" F)........ .. 5..931 system.5 372 K (210' F) ............. 694 (800) Pourpoint................................... The elevated temperatures of the bearing with the double-outer-land-guided cageare partially due to the heat generated by the shearing of oil over an area ' A M S 6415..... Results and Discussion Parametric tests were conducted in a high speed bearing tester with a 35-mm-bore ball bearing having a double-outer-land-guided cage. and antifoam Kinematic viscosity........... at 311K(100"F) ..................... Effect of Cage Design On Bearing Temperature The effect of lubricant flow rate on bearing temperature at three different speeds is shown in figure 4............... -TEST BEARING SPECIFICATIONS Bearing dimensions........................... K ( O F ) ....................4409) Width ......493) Thermal conductivity at 372 K (210' F)....54 Outer ... Outer ring cooling was not employed at this time.................... K ( O F ) ..50 gallmin).... mm ( i n ................ 64 9 0 0 ...... 47 600.... 1.... Figure 4 shows that the temperature differential between the two bearings of different cagedesign increases with speed... Tests results obtained are compared with those of a previously run single-outer-land-guided cage bearing.. 3).......... aAISI 4340.................... Threelubricant o of 303 to 1894 cm3/min (0........................ After the test runs described above.......................... At each speed and flow condition a separate test was run during which the outer-ring cooling flow wasadjusted to achieve equal inner.14 (0. ) .................31 Flashpoint...... Bearing temperatures for both the singleouter-land-guided cage (ref. A series of tests was run by starting atthe lowest speed..016) Diametral ball-pocket clearance........... 24 ......... and 72 250 rpm... TABLE 11................ 0..... This indicates that the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing becomes less desirable at high speeds...... At 47 600 rpm (fig. 60 Rockwell (minimum) C hardness Race conformity................................ temperatureof the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing without outer ring cooling is approximately 13 K (23" F) higher than the single-outer-land-guided cage bearing..28) Grade ...0029) Contact angle................................. and at 72 250 rpm (fig.......... 28... When bearing and test machine temperatures stabilized (20 to 25 min)....50 gallmin)......... and progressing through 65 OOO and 72 OOO rpm before changing the lubricant o i l flow rate............... a 4 ... 4(a)) and a lubricant flow rate of the outer ring 1894 cm3/min (0........ .35 (1..500 gal/min) were applied.........5 hr at 477 K (400" F)).........................The double-outer-landguided cage bearing generatedthe higher bearing temperature at each speed tested...........................3780) Outside diameter........... generate a bearing temperature above the test point was aborted or omitted... At 64 900 rpm (fig............. K ( O F ) ... Other than cage design and the inside diameter of the outer ring (fig..) .............. a combined test load of 222 N (50 lb) radial and 667 N (150 lb) thrust and a total lubricant flow rate of 1894 cm3/min (0.............................and i l flow rates outer-ring temperature..................................................................................... 10 Material .... 3..406 (0....088) Specific gravity at 372K (210' F) ..... 2140 (0......................................................TABLE I....2 Specific heat at 372 K (210" F). bCEVM "50 ......... 0............ -PROPERTIES OF TETRAESTER LUBRICANTS Additives ........ cS.. J/kg K (Btu/lb O F ) ................................. 14 (0. the resulting data were compared with those of a similar bearing with a single-outer-land-guided cage..... deg ........ mm ( i .. bAMS 6490............. 16 Diameter............... nominal 48 OOO rpm...................5512) Cage specifications: Diametral land clearance. percent: Inner............... silver plated 28-36 Rockwell C hardness . J/m sec K (Btu/hr ft OF) ..... ..............50 gallmin) with a nominal jet velocity of 20 m/sec (66 ft/sec) were used............ corrosion and oxidation inhibitors.. reported in reference 8..074 (0..............

lubricant flow rate.3 . where QT 0 I ..2 .O J 270 L 490 (a1Shaltspeed. thus. and radiation to the surrounding environment. K ( O F ) oil inlet temperature. Generally. K (OF) 5 .. Total heat absorbed by the lubricant was obtained from the standard heat transfer equation. allows the free flow of lubricant into the bearing and a less restrictive exit of oil. power loss within the bearing.5 Oil f l a v rate to test bearing. J/kg K.Effect a i oil i l a v on test bearing temperature fortwo bearing configurations with and without outer-ring cpding. 64 9W rpm. the heat rejected to the lubricant was determined. tin total heat transfer rate to the lubricant.4 . oil inlet and outlet temperatures were obtained for all conditionsof lubricant flow. In the second.t . 47 6M) rpm. Because many applications require (for best performance and optimal operating clearance) a minimal temperature gradient between the bearing inner and outer rings. as expected. In the first. outer-ring cooling resulted in a decrease in the overall bearing operating temperature regardless of speed. 72 250 rpm. 410r . convection.L “7- 4 : r 201 10. 667 N (1% lb4 radial. Adding outer-ring cooling flow in an amount to thermally balance the inner and outer ring affected the outer ring much more thanthe inner ring. reducing churning and subsequent internal heat generation in the bearing. in contrast.0531 Two approaches wereused to determine bearing power loss. adding heat due to excessive churning within the bearing. outer-ring torque was measured. To obtain a measure of this heat rejection and. Combined load thrust.- Innerring Identical ouler andinner ring about threetimes that of the single-outer-land-guided cage bearing. or type of cage design. These results are also shown in figure 4 with the required outer ring cooling flow labeled at each data point. Bearing conliguration 0 Single-ouler-ring-guided cage Irel. J/min (Btulmin) mass flow rate.1 I . gallmin I I I I M Cp tout Icl Shaftspeed. Figure 4 . Bearing power loss is dissipated in the form of heat rejected to the lubricant by conduction. The single land. 222 N 1% Ibl. Bearing Power Loss ::[ 290 Ibl Shaftspeed. (Btu/lb O F ) o i l outlet temperature. tests were conducted to find the outer-ring cooling-oil flow rate that produced a thermally balanced bearing. Another disadvantage of the doubleouter-land-guided cage is that the oil entering and lubricating the rotatingmembers of the bearing has a tendency to become trapped by the extra land. 81 -. kg/min (lb/min) specific heat (from o i l company specifications).

Combined Imd: thrust.- P u '. 1894 cm3/min (a 50ga11min). 0 0 .and d o u b l e . including the heat (power) absorbedby the outer-ring cooling oil. Elastic contact forces are considered in a raceway control type solution. the epicyclic cage speed. 7) are in agreement except for magnitude. the power loss determined from heat rejected to the oil. radial. 5 L 1 .08gallmin). Cepi.0 d $ W L m 5 m (a) Lubricant flow rate. values of power loss were converted from J/min to kW.o u t e r . Figure 5 shows that power loss obtained from torque readings and figure 6. 65 Ow 75 Ow rpm (c) Lubricant flow rate.The horsepower loss of a double.5 vi 1. 667 N (150 Ib).l a n d .08 gallmin). For convenience. Figure 7 compares powerlosses obtainedfrom torque readings with those from heat rejected to the lubricant for double. were not considered in this computer solution of epicyclic cage speed. A comparison of power losses shows that the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing has a decided disadvantage comparedwith the single-landguided-cage design.5 2 3 . The results from both methods of obtaining bearing power loss (fig. Figures 5(a) and 6(a) show that a very high lubricant flow rate (1894 cm3/min (0. and radiation to the surroundingenvironment and (2) the problemof locating thermocouples in ideal positions for a most accurate reading of oil-in and oil-out temperatures. 5(c) and 6(c)).41 1.tothe excessive oil churning in this design bearing.Double-outer-ring-guided cage ----Single-outer-ring -guided Bearing configuration Without outer-ring cwling With outer-ring cooling cage (ref. 303 cm3/min 10. in part. . The epicyclic cage speed was combined with the measured 6 .4 1. 222 N (50 Ib). Outer-ring cooling does not appreciably affect power loss for either bearing configuration.6 (b) Lubricant flow rate. 758cm3/rnin (a20gallminL Effect of Lubricant Flow Rate on Cage Slip In order to determine percent cage slip. 1. Thermal and lubricant effects.5' I c q 2. Power losses determined from heat rejection to the lubricant were lower than those obtained from torque readings over the speed range tested.oL ! . (figs. Figure 5. at the various test speeds was obtained from a computer program which took into consideration centrifugal force effects on contact angle. compared with that of a single-outer-land-guided cage bearing is shown in figures 5 and 6. and the drag resulting from a total land area three times that of the single land design.g u ic db a ee g da er i n g configurations. No outer-ring cooling was employed in these particular tests.0 1. The higherpowerloss ofthe double-outer-land-guided cage bearing is due.0 . loss increases with Figures 5 and 6 show that power speed and lubricant flow rate for both the single. Two reasons for this are (1) the difficulty of accurately accounting for all the heat dissipated by conduction.2 35 Ow 45 Ow 55 WO Shaft speed. .Power loss cblained from torque readings as a function of shaft speed for two bearing configurations with and without outer-ring cooling.and a single-land-guided-cage bearings. 81 3. convection.50 gallmin)) can be undesirable because of the increased power loss in the bearing over that for a low flow rate (such as 303 cm3/min (0.

0 (a) Lubricant flow rate.5r .4 / // / 2.5- 2. 0 8 aallmin).0- 3.- z 2.6 (b) Lubricant flow rate.4 (ref. rpm (cl Lubricant flow rate. Figure 7. 758 cm31min 10.6 3. 222 N (50 Ib).2- 1. radial. 303 Cm3/min ( 0 . 758 cm3/min (Q20gallmin). .8 - 1.2 3. 1894 cm31min (Q50gallmin). 8) 0 A " " Bearing configuration Power loss from torque measurement Paver rejected to lubricant Double-outer-ringquided-cage Single-outer-ringquided-cage 3.2. 5 L 45-5000 55000 755000 655000 Shaft speed. combined load t h r u s t 667 N (150Ibh radial.5L 1.8 2. .5 - z -LO'E c 1. . 0 8 gallmin). "r '.1894cm31min (0.0 ' . 222 N ( 5 0 IbL .0 - 2.6 I (b) Lubricant flow rate.5 1.5 :I LL 2 L 1.5 1. No outer ring cooling. 303cm3/min ( 0 . -2 1 45 000 55 OOO 65 WO Shaft speed. rpm u 75 000 (c) Lubricant flow rate.8) - 3.4 1. Figure 6.0 0 " " .Power rejected to the oil as function d shaft speed for two bearing configurations with and without outer-ring cooling. 667 N (150 Ib).0 d ' I 1.0 I 3 .8 1.0 ':r .0 2.0 1. Combined load thrust. .20 gallmin). 1 8 9 P L g2.5 . (a) Lubricant flow rate.0 1.50 gallmin).Paver loss as function of shaft speed for two bearing configurations.'r 40' Bearing configuation Without outer-ring coding With outer-ring cwling Double-outer-ringquidedxqe Single-outer-ring-guided-cage (ref.

72 260 rpm. 64910 rpm. 8 and 9). The doubleland-guided cage. reduces cage speed (increases slip) to a greater extent than with the (less surface area) single-outerland-guided cage.Effect of oil flow rate on cage slip for two bearing configurations. The results of this investigation indicate thata bearing canoperateat reduced temperatures with outer-ring cooling (fig. Combined load: thrust. increasing cage slip.experimental cage speed. especiallywith thedoubleland design. because of its greater surface area. toobtain cage slip as follows: 100 Percent cage slip = (1 . and thus traction. 222 N (50 Ib). Figure 8. There was no sign of significant wear on the cage surfaces andthe silver plate had not worn through.7 times that fora singleouter-land-guided cage bearing over the range of lubricant flow rates and speeds tested. 5 to 7) or increasing cage slip (figs. 47 600 rpm. The small increase in slip with flow rate is primarily due to additional drag on the balls. 8 A ” . at the inner raceway contact. Visual examination of the bearing after running showed no damage to the raceways or the balls. radial.5 to 2. Cap.4 rate. (b) Shaft speed. gallmin . Increased shaft speed also increases the drag at the land area.3 . This increased drag. “ ” Without outer-ring cooling With outer-ring cooling Double-outer-ring-guided-cage Single-outer-ring-guided-cage (ref.2 oil f l w .5 (c) Shaft speed. 8t 0 I . indicating that the cage slip was not of sufficient magnitude to affect the satisfactory operation of the bearing.1 . The effect of outer ring cooling on percent cage slip is also shown. Percent cage slip for adouble-outer-land-guided cage bearing ranged from 1. 667 N (150 Ib). has more drag as it rotates against the outer ring. . The observed increase in percent cage slip with increased shaft speed for both configurations could be expected due tocentrifugal forces decreasing the ball load. Cooling theouter ring to produce a thermally balanced bearing did not appreciably affect the percent cage slip data for either of the two bearing configurations. . and the oil churning discussed earlier. with and without outer-ring cooling.9 ) cepi percent Bearing configuration 0 C 0 . 8 ) The effect of lubricant flow rate on percent cage slip for a single and double-outer-land-guided cage bearing configuration is shown in figure 8. (a)Shaft speed. It also showed a higher rate of cage slip with increased flow. For all speeds and flow rates tested figure 8 the percent cage slip was minimal for both bearing configurations. The double-outer-ringguided cage bearing showed a higher percent cage slip than the single-outer-ring-guided cage at all speeds and lubricant flow ratestested. Figure 9 shows that percent cage slip increases with speed at about the same rate for each of the three lubricant flow I-ates tested. 4) without sacrificing power loss (figs.

Lewis Research Center. The bearing was jetlubricated and the outer ring was cooled. The power loss for the doubleouter-land-guided cage bearing wasalways higher than that of the single at similar test conditions. Test conditions included a combined load of 667 N (150 lb) thrust and 222 N (50 lb) radial. Cooling the outer ring did not 8appreciably affect the cage slip for either of the two bearing configurations. nominal shaft speeds of 48 O00 to 72 O00 rpm. 1980. 12 increased with speed at a faster rate as the lubricant flow rate increased. Power loss (bJ Oil flw rate. Results were compared with those obtained in a previous investigation with a singleouter-land-guided cage bearing. Cleveland.Wgal/min). Ohio. Mgallmin). meeting the MIL-L-23699 specifications. The lubricant was neopentylpolyol (tetra) ester. The following results were obtained: a1. 1894 cm3/mln (0. 758 cm31min fa 20gallmin). was accomplished up to 72 600 rpm (2. 6. Successful operation of a 35-mm-bore ball bearing. Percent cage slip for a double-outer-land-guided 6cage bearing ranged from 1. and an oil-in 2 temperature of 394 K (250" F). The bearing had a nominal contact angle of 24". 9 . 8 1 lubricant flow rate employed. I : Summary of Results eL / " " P (c) Oil f l o w rate. Combined load thrust 667 N ( 1 5 0 ib). The double-outer-land-guided cage bearing E generated substantially higher temperatures than the Bearing P configuration ./'0 Without outer-ring cwling 3. .5 to 2. 303 cm3/min W. 505-04. March 24. Cooling the outer ring of a double-outer-land/ outer-ring With cwling 2guided cage bearing decreased the overall bearing d . 4.5 million DN) at a combined load of 667 N 6(150 lb) thrust and 222 N (50 lb) radial. 222 N ( 5 4Ib). 10 5. (0. high-temperature bearing tester with a 35-mm-boreangular-contact ball bearing with a double-outerland-guided cage. over the entire range of shaft speeds and lubricant flow rates tested. radial. 4.ci 4 single-outer-land-guided cage bearing.Parametric tests were conducted in a-high-speed.7 times that for a singie-outer-iand-guided cage bearing of similar dimensions.Effect of shaft speed on cage slip for two bearing configurations with and without outer-ring cding. For all speeds and flow rates tested the percent cage slip was minimal for both bearing configurations.Doubleduter-ring-guided-cage Single-outer-ring-guided-cage operating temperature regardless of shaft speed and (ref. over the entire range of speed and lubricant flow rates tested.50 gal/min) with a 20 m/sec (66 ft/sec) jet 10 r velocity. e 2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Figure 9. employing a double-outer-land-guided cage and jet lubrication.08 to 0. 8 . Power loss increased_ with speed_ and lubricant 2 1 _ _ _ 1 _ 1 0flow rate for both bearing configurations. The bearing was jetlubricated at flow rates from 303 to 1894 cm3/min la) Oil flw rate.

. Report NAL-TR-284. Bamberger.” National Aerospace Laboratory. 1979. R. Lubr. . E. Hans: Effect of Speed and Load on Ultra-High-speed Ball Bearings.V. NACA Report 1177.V. Z. Y. H. Pinel... NASA TTF-15017. Small Bore Bearing Test Machine.) NASA CR-135083. Inc..F. Hans: Operating Characteristics of 120-Millimeter-Bore Ball Bearings at 3 x IO6 DN.: Operating Characteristics of a Large-Bore Roller Bearing to Speeds of 3 x IO6 DN.. and Signer. E. May 1972. 3. 1966. Tokyo (Japan). Bamberger.I. Macks. Industrial Tectonics.: Parametric Study of the Lubrication of Thrust Loaded 120-Millimeter Bore Ball Bearings to 3 Million DN. Technol. Anderson. E. 515-524. Matt. E. H.. and Zaretsky.N. F. S. 1975. E. Translation of “Koh dn Chi Ni Okeru Gyokujikuju No Seino Ni Kansuru Kenkyu.J.J..T. no. NASA TP-1413.: Development of a High Speed. Bamberger.: Performance of High Speed Ball Bearings with Jet Oil Lubrication. July 1974. Zaretsky... NASA Contract NAS3-17358.: Study on the Performance of Ball Bearings at High DN Values.. K. 2. Pinel. 5 .. p. H. and Nemeth.R. 4. M. 3.. pp. Miyakawa. Schuller. NASA TP-1657. vol. Schuller. Signer. NASA TN D-7870. Signer. E. Zaretsky.R. 7. Giannotti. ASLE p a p a 66AM-lB4..T. R. S. Aug. 1976. and Yokoyama. 120. NASA TN D-7837.N.V. 1974. Signer.N. and Signer. (IT1 P-1249. 6.References 1. 1980. 9.: Operating Characteristics of a High-Speed-Jet-Lubricated 35-Millimeter-Bore Ball Bearing with a Single Outer Land Guided Cage. J.N. F. 96. Seki.. E.I.: Comparison of Performance of Experimental and ConventionalCage Designs and Materials for 75-Millimeter-Bore Cylindrical Roller Bearings at High Speeds..J. 1954. W. 8..

Higher temperature were generated with the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing. of Pages 22. 7. SponsoringAgencyCode National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington. Stanley I. Schuller. Abstract Parametric tests were conducted with a 35-mm-bore angular contact ball bearing with a double-outer-land-guided cage. Signer. Report Date 1 OCTOBER 1980 6. California. Key Words (Suggested byAuthor(s)) 18. Lewis Research Center. Springfield. Pinel. TitleandSubtitle I I Accession No. SupplementaryNotes Frederick T. PerformingOrganizationCode 8. 17. PerformingOrganizationReportNo. (of this report) I 20. Distribution Statement High speed bearings. Price' - Unclassified Unclassified 12 22161 A02 NASA-Langley. EFFECT OF CAGE DESIGN ON CHARACTERETICS OF HIGH-SPEED-JET-LUBRICATED 35-MILLIMETERBORE BALL BEARING Fredrick T. Industrial Tectonics. and bearing power loss and cage slip were greater. Pinel and Hans R. Virginia . Test conditions included a combined thrust and radial load at nominal shaft speeds of 48 000 to 72 000 rpm. 9. NASA TP. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center Cleveland. C. Recipient's Catalog 3. 5 million DN. and an oil-in temperature of 394 K (250' F).WorkUnitNo. Signer 5. Schuller.1732 4. SponsoringAgencyNameand Address 13. 1980 * For sale by the National Technical information Service. Inc.1. Provisions were made for jet lubrication and outer-ring cooling of the bearing. Ohio 44135 12. Compton. No. Report Government 2. D. Author(s1 E-289 10.unlimited STAR Category 37 19. I I No. Cooling the outer ring resulted in a decrease in overall bearing operating temperature. Rolling element bearings. Jet-lubricated DN bearing cage design high Unclassified . (of this page) 21. Stanley I. Ball bearings.. 20546 15. Successful operation of the test bearing was accomplished up to 2. Security Classif. - 16.ContractorGrantNo. Test results were compared wit! those obtained with similar bearing having a single-outer-land-guided cage. No.Type of ReportandPeriodCovered Technical Paper 14. Security Classif. Performing Organization Name and Address 505-04 11. and Hans R.

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OCTOBER 1980

NASA Technical Paper 1732 Effect of Cage Design on Characteristics of High-Speed-Jet-Lubricated 35-Millimeter-Bore Ball Bearing Fredrick T. Schuller. Ohio I. Signer Lewis Research Cetzter C l e v e l a d . Stanley and Hans R. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Scientific and Technical Information Branch 1980 . Pinel.

an outer-ring-land-guided cage is recommended because its outer-ring land surfaces are more efficiently lubricated by means of centrifugal oil flow effect and because they are generally cooler thanthe corresponding surfaces of an inner-ring controlled cage (ref. Provisions were made for jet lubrication of the bearing and for outer-ring cooling. A bearing with a double-outer-land-guided cage generated higher temperatures than one with a singleouter-land-guided cage. bearing wear and ultimate failure at a high DN value occurred on the land surface of the cage.0 million DN (refs.50 gal/min) and a jet velocity of 20 m/sec (66 ftlsec).Inthesecircumstances jet lubrication is the more practical method of bearing lubrication. angularcontact ball bearing with a double-outerland-guided cage. in these tests the lubricant was fed to the bearings through radial holes in the inner ring. (DN is defined as theshaft speed in rpm multiplied by the bearing bore in mm. the fabrication of radial holes and axial grooves for lubricant passages through the inner ring can become complex and cost restrictive. Results were compared with results previously obtained from tests of a similar bearing but having a single-outer-land-guided cage.and double-outer-land-guided cage bearings. Cooling the outer ring did not appreciably affect the cage slip or power loss for either bearing configuration. Power loss increased with speed and lubricant flow rate for both the single. Other than cage design. Pecent cage slip for a double-outer-land-guided-cage bearing ranged from 1. Percent cage slip was minimal for both bearing configurations for all speeds and flow rates tested.08 to 0. was accomplished up to 2. Identical ranges of shaft speeds and lubricant flow rates were used. high-temperature bearing tester with a 35-mm-bore.7 times that fora singleouter-land-guidedcage bearing. jet-lubricated roller bearing tests described in reference 7. As indicated inreference5. For satisfactory high-speed operation of a small bore jet-lubricated bearing. using a jet-lubricated bearing. Because of the dimensional limitations of the inner ring in smaller bore bearings. Tests were run at flow rates ranging from 303 to 1894 cm3/min (0. andan oil-in temperature of 394 K (250" F).85 x lo6 where failure occurred. The power loss of the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing was always higher than that of the single-landguided design at similar test conditions. 6). One of the prinicipal elements of a bearing that affects its satisfactory high-speed operation is the bearing cage. The bearing had a nominal unmounted 24" contact angle. whereas an innerring-land-guided cage limited the DN value to 1.5 million. where the best overall performance was reported for bearings with outer-ring-land-guided cages.5 to 2. 1 to 4). therefore. Test conditions included a combined load of 667 Newtons (150 Ib)thrust and 222 N (50 lb) radial. Outer-ring coolingof the double-outer-landguided cage bearing to thermally balance the bearing temperature resulted lower in overall bearing operating temperatures at all speeds and lubricant flow rates employed. Large-bore ball and roller bearings have been successfully tested at speeds to 3.48 N/sec (1 to 10 lb/sec) total air flow requires bearings that operate at a DN range up to 2.Summary Parametric tests were conducted in a high-speed. nominal shaft speeds of 48 OOO to 72 OOO rpm. Consequently. the cage design is expected to greatly affect the limiting speed. 1. However. and cage lubrication was the principal factor that brought about the failure. The bearing designs and lubrication techniques used for these engines are two of several elements that must be refined and optimized for reliable performance and long life. The lubricant was neopentylopolyol (tetra)ester meeting the MIL-L-23699 specifications.n reference 5.45 to 44. This hypothesis was borne out for the 75-millimeter. employing a double-outer-land-guidedcage and jet lubrication. . Introduction The next generation ofturbojet engines inthe small class 4. Power loss increased with speed at a faster rate as the lubricant flow rate increased. an outerring-land-guided cage limited the DN value to 2. Successful operation of the 35-mm-bore ball bearing.65 x lo6 where failure occurred. the two bearings were dimensionally the same.) These bearings must be capable of performing satisfactorily at the high temperatures that are common to highspeed operation.5 million DN.

. and outer ring cooling on the described in detail in references 8 and 9. The test bearing was lubricated by two jets on the nonloaded side of the inner ring.efficiency with a 20-m/sec (66-ftIsec) jet velocity Reference8reports results of a high-speed jetoverother velocities investigated. The test bearing is assembled into a separate housing. Cagespeedwas measured with a of the experiments performed in reference 8. ~ small-oore-oearlng test machine. Radial load is applied to the test bearing through knife-edge bearings. Nominal oil-in temperature.) from the face of the bearing were aimed at the inner raceway. (Ref. and nominal shaftspeeds from 48 OOO to 72 OOO rpm. 35-mm ball bearing with a cage having a single outer land. which effectivelyminimize friction.0 mm (0. A sectional drawing is shown in figure 2. The Shaft speed (inner ring speed) was obtained with a experimental work described herein is a continuation magnetic probe.281-in.14-mm (66 ft/sec) with an oil-in temperatureof 394 K (0. In separate tests. 4340 steel ( " 4 1 5 ) heat treated to a Rockwell C Apparatus High-speed Bearing Tester A general view of the air-turbine driven test machine is shown in figure 1. that velocity was used in all the tests reported.50 gal/min) at a calculated jet velocity of 20 m/sec bearing contained 16 balls with a nominal 7. not reported herein. it was determined that a 20-m/sec (66-ft/sec) jet velocity insured the most efficient lubrication of the test bearing.assembled in the shaft. located approximately 3.08 to outer-land-guided cage as shown in figure 3(a). test bearing housing. measure inner-ring temperatures by means of a The objectives of this study were to determine the rotating telemetry system. The test semiconductor straingage mounted in a cavity of the bearing is identical in size and contactangle to thatin housing. The inner and outer rings and (250" F). The lubricant was neopenhardness of the balls and rings was Rockwell C62 at tylpolyol (tetra)ester meeting the MIL-L-23699 room temperature. The 0. The cage was made from AISI specifications. 5 reportsa similar 2 Figure L . The jet outlets. and thrust and radial load application andthe instrumentation for cage speed measurement. which incorporates the hardware for lubrication. Test conditions included combined radial and thrust N (50 lb) and 667 N (150 lb). 35-mmLubricant was introduced to the bearing by dual bore angular-contact ball bearing with a doublejets at flow rates from 303 to 1894 cm3/min (0.) diameter. Bearing data fora thrust only and a supplied to the outer ring by means of holes and grooves in the bearing housing as shown in figure 2.Hlgn-spew. operation of a 35-mm-bore angular contact bearing. Thrust force is applied through a combination of a thrust needle bearing anda small roller support bearing to minimizetest housing restraint during torque measurements. only the cage and outer ring have been altered to accommodate a double-outer-land. The shaft is mounted horizontally and is supported by two preloaded angular-contact ball bearings.065 gal/min) at a 394 K (250" F) electrode vacuum melted AISI "50 steel. Two thermocouples. The high-speed bearing tester is lubricant flow rate. Outer-ring temperatures were obtained by two thermocouples installed in the parametric effects of cage design. Test bearing torque is measured with strain gages attached to the bearing housing.12 in. oil removal.) Cooling oil is lubricated. shaft speed. Outer-ring oil flow cooling rates were 0 to the balls were manufactured from consumable246 cm3/min (0 to 0. The test bearing was an ABEC7 grade. reference 8. loads of 222 Test Bearing respectively. combined thrust and radial load are compared.

Schematic of high-speed. The outside diameter of both the double.074 in. was a nominal 52. / /Outer-ring thermocouple Discharge-oil thermocouple Figure 2 .0015-in. hardness of 28 to 36 and having 0.0203.Lubricant jet for test bearing. shown in figures 3(a) and (b).).). Figure 3. small-bore-bearing test machine. Inner-ringcooling oil 7 Radial 1 I 1 / . Test Procedure (b) Single-outer-landquided cage.0381-mm (0. This type I1 oil is qualified to the MIL-L-23699 specifications as well as internal to the oil specifications of most major aircraft engine producers. After warming the test machine by recirculating heated oil and calibrating the torque measuring 3 .and single-outer-landguided cages.9 x (7N m x oz-in. The effective land area of the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing was approximately three times that of the singleouter-land-guided cage bearing.to 0. Lubricant Thrust jet Oil 2 ‘ The oil used for theparametric studies was a neopentylpolyol (tetra) ester.68mm(2. The inner ring of both bearings was geometrically and dimensionally the same. The cage balance was within 4.0008-to 0.in Table 11. The double-outerland-guided cage weighed 16 percent more than the single-outer-land-guided cage used in the bearing in reference 8.Outer ring (a) Double-outer-landquided cage. . -Angular contact b a l l bearing.) thick silver plating (Ah4S2412) all over. The major properties of the oil are presented . Additional specifications are shown in table I .

.. The shaft speedwas then slowly brought up to a nominal 28 OOO rpm...... 62 (2. the oil-in temperature and lubricant flow rate was set and the speed was increased to the desired value...................08 to 0.......... 0... ) 0..................... 4(c)) to 25 K (45" F) at a maximum flow rate of 1894 cm3/min (0........... mm (in.................... the two bearings were identical....... Bearing ball specifications: Number ..) .... 214 (-75) Volatility (6.. wt% ............. 7.....026) Material ..................22 477 K (400" F) .. ) : Bore ... mm ( i n ....... 533 (500) Autogenous ignition temperature....... 52 Assembly: Internal radial clearance... mm (in.................... 4(b)) this differential increases to 21 K (38" F)..660 (0......................... 0......... - Antiwear................. 8) and the double-outerland-guided cage decrease with an increase in lubricant flow ratefor each test speed....................15 (0.. If it became apparent during thecourse of testing that the conditions would result in distress of the bearing or rig or that the conditions would 491 K (425" F)........ .. 5..931 system.5 372 K (210' F) ............. 694 (800) Pourpoint................................... The elevated temperatures of the bearing with the double-outer-land-guided cageare partially due to the heat generated by the shearing of oil over an area ' A M S 6415..... Results and Discussion Parametric tests were conducted in a high speed bearing tester with a 35-mm-bore ball bearing having a double-outer-land-guided cage. and antifoam Kinematic viscosity........... at 311K(100"F) ..................... Effect of Cage Design On Bearing Temperature The effect of lubricant flow rate on bearing temperature at three different speeds is shown in figure 4............... -TEST BEARING SPECIFICATIONS Bearing dimensions........................... K ( O F ) ....................4409) Width ......493) Thermal conductivity at 372 K (210' F)....54 Outer ... Outer ring cooling was not employed at this time.................... K ( O F ) ..50 gallmin).... mm ( i n ................ 64 9 0 0 ...... 47 600.... 1.... Figure 4 shows that the temperature differential between the two bearings of different cagedesign increases with speed... Tests results obtained are compared with those of a previously run single-outer-land-guided cage bearing.. 3).......... aAISI 4340.................... Threelubricant o of 303 to 1894 cm3/min (0........................ After the test runs described above.......................... At each speed and flow condition a separate test was run during which the outer-ring cooling flow wasadjusted to achieve equal inner.14 (0. ) .................31 Flashpoint...... Bearing temperatures for both the singleouter-land-guided cage (ref. A series of tests was run by starting atthe lowest speed..016) Diametral ball-pocket clearance........... 24 ......... and 72 250 rpm... TABLE 11................ 0..... This indicates that the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing becomes less desirable at high speeds...... At 47 600 rpm (fig. 60 Rockwell (minimum) C hardness Race conformity................................ temperatureof the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing without outer ring cooling is approximately 13 K (23" F) higher than the single-outer-land-guided cage bearing..28) Grade ...0029) Contact angle................................. and at 72 250 rpm (fig.......... 28... When bearing and test machine temperatures stabilized (20 to 25 min)....50 gallmin)......... and progressing through 65 OOO and 72 OOO rpm before changing the lubricant o i l flow rate............... a 4 ... 4(a)) and a lubricant flow rate of the outer ring 1894 cm3/min (0........ .35 (1..500 gal/min) were applied.........5 hr at 477 K (400" F)).........................The double-outer-landguided cage bearing generatedthe higher bearing temperature at each speed tested...........................3780) Outside diameter........... generate a bearing temperature above the test point was aborted or omitted... At 64 900 rpm (fig............. K ( O F ) ... Other than cage design and the inside diameter of the outer ring (fig..) .............. a combined test load of 222 N (50 lb) radial and 667 N (150 lb) thrust and a total lubricant flow rate of 1894 cm3/min (0.............................and i l flow rates outer-ring temperature..................................................................................... 10 Material .... 3..406 (0....088) Specific gravity at 372K (210' F) ..... 2140 (0......................................................TABLE I....2 Specific heat at 372 K (210" F). bCEVM "50 ......... 0............ -PROPERTIES OF TETRAESTER LUBRICANTS Additives ........ cS.. J/kg K (Btu/lb O F ) ................................. 14 (0. the resulting data were compared with those of a similar bearing with a single-outer-land-guided cage..... deg ........ mm ( i .. bAMS 6490............. 16 Diameter............... nominal 48 OOO rpm...................5512) Cage specifications: Diametral land clearance. percent: Inner............... silver plated 28-36 Rockwell C hardness . J/m sec K (Btu/hr ft OF) ..... ..............50 gallmin) with a nominal jet velocity of 20 m/sec (66 ft/sec) were used............ corrosion and oxidation inhibitors.. reported in reference 8..074 (0..............

lubricant flow rate.3 . where QT 0 I ..2 .O J 270 L 490 (a1Shaltspeed. thus. and radiation to the surrounding environment. K ( O F ) oil inlet temperature. Generally. K (OF) 5 .. Total heat absorbed by the lubricant was obtained from the standard heat transfer equation. allows the free flow of lubricant into the bearing and a less restrictive exit of oil. power loss within the bearing.5 Oil f l a v rate to test bearing. J/kg K.Effect a i oil i l a v on test bearing temperature fortwo bearing configurations with and without outer-ring cpding. 64 9W rpm. the heat rejected to the lubricant was determined. tin total heat transfer rate to the lubricant.4 . oil inlet and outlet temperatures were obtained for all conditionsof lubricant flow. In the second.t . 47 6M) rpm. Because many applications require (for best performance and optimal operating clearance) a minimal temperature gradient between the bearing inner and outer rings. as expected. In the first. outer-ring cooling resulted in a decrease in the overall bearing operating temperature regardless of speed. 72 250 rpm. 410r . convection.L “7- 4 : r 201 10. 667 N (1% lb4 radial. Adding outer-ring cooling flow in an amount to thermally balance the inner and outer ring affected the outer ring much more thanthe inner ring. reducing churning and subsequent internal heat generation in the bearing. in contrast.0531 Two approaches wereused to determine bearing power loss. adding heat due to excessive churning within the bearing. outer-ring torque was measured. To obtain a measure of this heat rejection and. Combined load thrust.- Innerring Identical ouler andinner ring about threetimes that of the single-outer-land-guided cage bearing. or type of cage design. These results are also shown in figure 4 with the required outer ring cooling flow labeled at each data point. Bearing conliguration 0 Single-ouler-ring-guided cage Irel. J/min (Btulmin) mass flow rate.1 I . gallmin I I I I M Cp tout Icl Shaftspeed. Figure 4 . Bearing power loss is dissipated in the form of heat rejected to the lubricant by conduction. The single land. 222 N 1% Ibl. Bearing Power Loss ::[ 290 Ibl Shaftspeed. (Btu/lb O F ) o i l outlet temperature. tests were conducted to find the outer-ring cooling-oil flow rate that produced a thermally balanced bearing. Another disadvantage of the doubleouter-land-guided cage is that the oil entering and lubricating the rotatingmembers of the bearing has a tendency to become trapped by the extra land. 81 -. kg/min (lb/min) specific heat (from o i l company specifications).

Combined Imd: thrust.- P u '. 1894 cm3/min (a 50ga11min). 0 0 .and d o u b l e . including the heat (power) absorbedby the outer-ring cooling oil. Elastic contact forces are considered in a raceway control type solution. the epicyclic cage speed. 7) are in agreement except for magnitude. the power loss determined from heat rejected to the oil. radial. 5 L 1 .08gallmin). Cepi.0 d $ W L m 5 m (a) Lubricant flow rate. values of power loss were converted from J/min to kW.o u t e r . Figure 5 shows that power loss obtained from torque readings and figure 6. 65 Ow 75 Ow rpm (c) Lubricant flow rate.The horsepower loss of a double.5 vi 1. 667 N (150 Ib).l a n d .08 gallmin). For convenience. Figure 7 compares powerlosses obtainedfrom torque readings with those from heat rejected to the lubricant for double. were not considered in this computer solution of epicyclic cage speed. A comparison of power losses shows that the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing has a decided disadvantage comparedwith the single-landguided-cage design.5 2 3 . The results from both methods of obtaining bearing power loss (fig. Figures 5(a) and 6(a) show that a very high lubricant flow rate (1894 cm3/min (0. and radiation to the surroundingenvironment and (2) the problemof locating thermocouples in ideal positions for a most accurate reading of oil-in and oil-out temperatures. 5(c) and 6(c)).41 1.tothe excessive oil churning in this design bearing.Double-outer-ring-guided cage ----Single-outer-ring -guided Bearing configuration Without outer-ring cwling With outer-ring cooling cage (ref. 303 cm3/min 10. in part. . The epicyclic cage speed was combined with the measured 6 .4 1. 222 N (50 Ib). Outer-ring cooling does not appreciably affect power loss for either bearing configuration.6 (b) Lubricant flow rate. 758cm3/rnin (a20gallminL Effect of Lubricant Flow Rate on Cage Slip In order to determine percent cage slip. 1. Thermal and lubricant effects.5' I c q 2. Power losses determined from heat rejection to the lubricant were lower than those obtained from torque readings over the speed range tested.oL ! . (figs. Figure 5. at the various test speeds was obtained from a computer program which took into consideration centrifugal force effects on contact angle. compared with that of a single-outer-land-guided cage bearing is shown in figures 5 and 6. and the drag resulting from a total land area three times that of the single land design.g u ic db a ee g da er i n g configurations. No outer-ring cooling was employed in these particular tests.0 1. The higherpowerloss ofthe double-outer-land-guided cage bearing is due.0 . loss increases with Figures 5 and 6 show that power speed and lubricant flow rate for both the single. Two reasons for this are (1) the difficulty of accurately accounting for all the heat dissipated by conduction.2 35 Ow 45 Ow 55 WO Shaft speed. .Power loss cblained from torque readings as a function of shaft speed for two bearing configurations with and without outer-ring cooling.and a single-land-guided-cage bearings. 81 3. convection.50 gallmin)) can be undesirable because of the increased power loss in the bearing over that for a low flow rate (such as 303 cm3/min (0.

0 (a) Lubricant flow rate.5r .4 / // / 2.5- 2. 0 8 aallmin).0- 3.- z 2.6 (b) Lubricant flow rate.4 (ref. rpm (cl Lubricant flow rate. Figure 7. 758 cm31min 10.6 3. 222 N (50 Ib).2- 1. radial. 303 Cm3/min ( 0 . 758 cm3/min (Q20gallmin). .8 - 1.2 3. 1894 cm31min (Q50gallmin). 8) 0 A " " Bearing configuration Power loss from torque measurement Paver rejected to lubricant Double-outer-ringquided-cage Single-outer-ringquided-cage 3.2. 5 L 45-5000 55000 755000 655000 Shaft speed. combined load t h r u s t 667 N (150Ibh radial.5L 1.8 2. .5 - z -LO'E c 1. . 0 8 gallmin). "r '.1894cm31min (0.0 ' . 222 N ( 5 0 IbL .0 - 2.6 I (b) Lubricant flow rate.5 1.5 :I LL 2 L 1.5 1. No outer ring cooling. 303cm3/min ( 0 . -2 1 45 000 55 OOO 65 WO Shaft speed. rpm u 75 000 (c) Lubricant flow rate.8) - 3.4 1. Figure 6.0 0 " " .Power rejected to the oil as function d shaft speed for two bearing configurations with and without outer-ring cooling. 667 N (150 Ib).0 d ' I 1.0 I 3 .8 1.0 ':r .0 2.0 1. Combined load thrust. .20 gallmin). 1 8 9 P L g2.5 . (a) Lubricant flow rate.0 1.50 gallmin).Paver loss as function of shaft speed for two bearing configurations.'r 40' Bearing configuation Without outer-ring coding With outer-ring cwling Double-outer-ringquidedxqe Single-outer-ring-guided-cage (ref.

72 260 rpm. 64910 rpm. 8 and 9). The doubleland-guided cage. reduces cage speed (increases slip) to a greater extent than with the (less surface area) single-outerland-guided cage.Effect of oil flow rate on cage slip for two bearing configurations. The results of this investigation indicate thata bearing canoperateat reduced temperatures with outer-ring cooling (fig. Combined load: thrust. increasing cage slip.experimental cage speed. especiallywith thedoubleland design. because of its greater surface area. toobtain cage slip as follows: 100 Percent cage slip = (1 . and thus traction. 222 N (50 Ib). Figure 8. There was no sign of significant wear on the cage surfaces andthe silver plate had not worn through.7 times that fora singleouter-land-guided cage bearing over the range of lubricant flow rates and speeds tested. 5 to 7) or increasing cage slip (figs. 47 600 rpm. The small increase in slip with flow rate is primarily due to additional drag on the balls. 8 A ” . at the inner raceway contact. Visual examination of the bearing after running showed no damage to the raceways or the balls. radial.5 to 2. Cap.4 rate. (b) Shaft speed. gallmin . Increased shaft speed also increases the drag at the land area.3 . This increased drag. “ ” Without outer-ring cooling With outer-ring cooling Double-outer-ring-guided-cage Single-outer-ring-guided-cage (ref.2 oil f l w .5 (c) Shaft speed. 8t 0 I . indicating that the cage slip was not of sufficient magnitude to affect the satisfactory operation of the bearing.1 . The effect of outer ring cooling on percent cage slip is also shown. Percent cage slip for adouble-outer-land-guided cage bearing ranged from 1. 667 N (150 Ib). has more drag as it rotates against the outer ring. . The observed increase in percent cage slip with increased shaft speed for both configurations could be expected due tocentrifugal forces decreasing the ball load. Cooling theouter ring to produce a thermally balanced bearing did not appreciably affect the percent cage slip data for either of the two bearing configurations. . and the oil churning discussed earlier. with and without outer-ring cooling.9 ) cepi percent Bearing configuration 0 C 0 . 8 ) The effect of lubricant flow rate on percent cage slip for a single and double-outer-land-guided cage bearing configuration is shown in figure 8. (a)Shaft speed. It also showed a higher rate of cage slip with increased flow. For all speeds and flow rates tested figure 8 the percent cage slip was minimal for both bearing configurations. The double-outer-ringguided cage bearing showed a higher percent cage slip than the single-outer-ring-guided cage at all speeds and lubricant flow ratestested. Figure 9 shows that percent cage slip increases with speed at about the same rate for each of the three lubricant flow I-ates tested. 4) without sacrificing power loss (figs.

Lewis Research Center. The bearing was jetlubricated and the outer ring was cooled. The power loss for the doubleouter-land-guided cage bearing wasalways higher than that of the single at similar test conditions. Test conditions included a combined load of 667 N (150 lb) thrust and 222 N (50 lb) radial. Cooling the outer ring did not 8appreciably affect the cage slip for either of the two bearing configurations. nominal shaft speeds of 48 O00 to 72 O00 rpm. 1980. 12 increased with speed at a faster rate as the lubricant flow rate increased. Power loss (bJ Oil flw rate. Results were compared with those obtained in a previous investigation with a singleouter-land-guided cage bearing. Cleveland.Wgal/min). Ohio. Mgallmin). meeting the MIL-L-23699 specifications. The lubricant was neopentylpolyol (tetra) ester. The following results were obtained: a1. 1894 cm3/mln (0. 758 cm31min fa 20gallmin). was accomplished up to 72 600 rpm (2. 6. Successful operation of a 35-mm-bore ball bearing. Percent cage slip for a double-outer-land-guided 6cage bearing ranged from 1. and an oil-in 2 temperature of 394 K (250" F). The bearing had a nominal contact angle of 24". 9 . 8 1 lubricant flow rate employed. I : Summary of Results eL / " " P (c) Oil f l o w rate. Combined load thrust 667 N ( 1 5 0 ib). The double-outer-land-guided cage bearing E generated substantially higher temperatures than the Bearing P configuration ./'0 Without outer-ring cwling 3. .5 to 2. 303 cm3/min W. 505-04. March 24. Cooling the outer ring of a double-outer-land/ outer-ring With cwling 2guided cage bearing decreased the overall bearing d . 4.5 million DN) at a combined load of 667 N 6(150 lb) thrust and 222 N (50 lb) radial. 222 N ( 5 4Ib). 10 5. (0. high-temperature bearing tester with a 35-mm-boreangular-contact ball bearing with a double-outerland-guided cage. over the entire range of shaft speeds and lubricant flow rates tested. radial. 4.ci 4 single-outer-land-guided cage bearing.Parametric tests were conducted in a-high-speed.7 times that for a singie-outer-iand-guided cage bearing of similar dimensions.Effect of shaft speed on cage slip for two bearing configurations with and without outer-ring cding. For all speeds and flow rates tested the percent cage slip was minimal for both bearing configurations.Doubleduter-ring-guided-cage Single-outer-ring-guided-cage operating temperature regardless of shaft speed and (ref. over the entire range of speed and lubricant flow rates tested.50 gal/min) with a 20 m/sec (66 ft/sec) jet 10 r velocity. e 2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Figure 9. employing a double-outer-land-guided cage and jet lubrication.08 to 0. 8 . Power loss increased_ with speed_ and lubricant 2 1 _ _ _ 1 _ 1 0flow rate for both bearing configurations. The bearing was jetlubricated at flow rates from 303 to 1894 cm3/min la) Oil flw rate.

. Report NAL-TR-284. Bamberger.” National Aerospace Laboratory. 1979. R. Lubr. . E. Hans: Effect of Speed and Load on Ultra-High-speed Ball Bearings.V. NACA Report 1177.V. Z. Y. H. Pinel... NASA TTF-15017. Small Bore Bearing Test Machine.) NASA CR-135083. Inc..F. Hans: Operating Characteristics of 120-Millimeter-Bore Ball Bearings at 3 x IO6 DN.: Operating Characteristics of a Large-Bore Roller Bearing to Speeds of 3 x IO6 DN.. and Signer. E. May 1972. 3. 1966. Tokyo (Japan). Bamberger.I. Macks. Industrial Tectonics.: Parametric Study of the Lubrication of Thrust Loaded 120-Millimeter Bore Ball Bearings to 3 Million DN. Technol. Anderson. E. 515-524. Matt. E. H.. and Zaretsky.N. F. S. 1975. E. Translation of “Koh dn Chi Ni Okeru Gyokujikuju No Seino Ni Kansuru Kenkyu.J.J..T. no. NASA TP-1413.: Development of a High Speed. Bamberger.: Performance of High Speed Ball Bearings with Jet Oil Lubrication. July 1974. Zaretsky... NASA Contract NAS3-17358.: Study on the Performance of Ball Bearings at High DN Values.. K. 2. Pinel. 5 .. p. H. and Nemeth.R. 4. M. 3.. pp. Miyakawa. Schuller. NASA TP-1657. vol. Schuller. Signer. NASA TN D-7870. Signer. E. Zaretsky.R. 7. Giannotti. ASLE p a p a 66AM-lB4..T. R. S. Aug. 1976. and Yokoyama. 120. NASA TN D-7837.N.V. 1974. Signer.N. and Signer. (IT1 P-1249. 6.References 1. 1980. 9.: Operating Characteristics of a High-Speed-Jet-Lubricated 35-Millimeter-Bore Ball Bearing with a Single Outer Land Guided Cage. J.N. F. 96. Seki.. E.I.: Comparison of Performance of Experimental and ConventionalCage Designs and Materials for 75-Millimeter-Bore Cylindrical Roller Bearings at High Speeds..J. 1954. W. 8..

Higher temperature were generated with the double-outer-land-guided cage bearing. of Pages 22. 7. SponsoringAgencyCode National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington. Stanley I. Schuller. Abstract Parametric tests were conducted with a 35-mm-bore angular contact ball bearing with a double-outer-land-guided cage. Signer. Report Date 1 OCTOBER 1980 6. California. Key Words (Suggested byAuthor(s)) 18. Lewis Research Center. Springfield. Pinel. TitleandSubtitle I I Accession No. SupplementaryNotes Frederick T. PerformingOrganizationCode 8. 17. PerformingOrganizationReportNo. (of this report) I 20. Distribution Statement High speed bearings. Price' - Unclassified Unclassified 12 22161 A02 NASA-Langley. EFFECT OF CAGE DESIGN ON CHARACTERETICS OF HIGH-SPEED-JET-LUBRICATED 35-MILLIMETERBORE BALL BEARING Fredrick T. Industrial Tectonics. and bearing power loss and cage slip were greater. Pinel and Hans R. Virginia . Test conditions included a combined thrust and radial load at nominal shaft speeds of 48 000 to 72 000 rpm. 9. NASA TP. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center Cleveland. C. Recipient's Catalog 3. 5 million DN. and an oil-in temperature of 394 K (250' F).WorkUnitNo. Signer 5. Schuller.1732 4. SponsoringAgencyNameand Address 13. 1980 * For sale by the National Technical information Service. Inc.1. Provisions were made for jet lubrication and outer-ring cooling of the bearing. Ohio 44135 12. Compton. No. Report Government 2. D. Author(s1 E-289 10.unlimited STAR Category 37 19. I I No. Cooling the outer ring resulted in a decrease in overall bearing operating temperature. Rolling element bearings. Jet-lubricated DN bearing cage design high Unclassified . (of this page) 21. Stanley I. Ball bearings.. 20546 15. Successful operation of the test bearing was accomplished up to 2. Security Classif. - 16.ContractorGrantNo. Test results were compared wit! those obtained with similar bearing having a single-outer-land-guided cage. No.Type of ReportandPeriodCovered Technical Paper 14. Security Classif. Performing Organization Name and Address 505-04 11. and Hans R.

. .: . . . 092680 S00903DS DEPT O F THE A I R FORCE AF UEAPONS LABORATORY ATTN: . . POSTMASTER: If Undeliverable (Section 1 5 8 Postal Manual) Do. _ I. $300 . I - NASA ." 1 .' . .. . " \ I . . . ? KIRTLAND AFB N R 87117 . Postage and Fees Paid National Aeronautics and Space Administration : NASA451 20546 Official Business Penalty for Private Use. ' . "_ . ' . . ..- National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington.D. . 5 1 1U.. " -. Not Return ' i . . SPECIAL FOURTH BOOK CLASS M A I L DS. TECHNICAL L I B R A R Y (SUL) .

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