# Development of the Strut-andTie Method for Appendix pp A of the Building Code (ACI 318-08

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James K. Wight Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Michigan

Strut and Tie Modeling
Members or regions of members may be designed by idealizing the concrete and reinforcement as an assembly of axially loaded members, interconnected at nodes, to form a truss capable of carrying loads across a region or member.

Components of Strut and Tie Models

Steps to Build Strut & Tie Model
• Isolate member or D(disturbed) - region • Compute forces or distribution of stresses on boundary • Represent stress distributions as forces • Select a truss model to transmit these forces across the member or D-region

Concept of D-Regions (force discontinuities)

h

h

2h

Concept of D-Regions (geometric discontinuities)

h1 h1 h2

h2

Basic Requirements • Model approximates stress flow • Define component dimensions and strengths • Define φ and β factors • Analyze nodes and anchorage • Select reinforcement details Modeling Stress Flow .

. then selecting a STM to “model” the stress flow.Modeling Stress Flow in D-Regions (Dapped Beam) How to Select the “Correct” Strut-and-Tie Model • Some researchers suggest using a finite element model to determine stress trajectories. • Generally. Generally a STM that minimizes the required amount or reinforcement is close to an ideal model.

• Component strengths for determining members sizes and final geometry of the model model.Required Definitions for Code • Geometric rules to follow when creating a strut-and-tie model. Other Codes with Rules for Use of Strut-and-Tie Models • AASHTO LRFD Specification • Canadian Code for Design of Concrete Structures (CSA Standard. 2004) • FIP R Recommendations d ti (1996) f for Practical Design of Structural Concrete .

Strength of Compression Struts (what to consider) • Longitudinal cracking due to transverse tension strain • Transverse tension forces • Sustained loads • Reinforcement grid crossing strut • Confinement by concrete or steel Lateral Expansion of Strut (bottle-shaped strut) .

cross-sectional area of strut f cu = 0.8 + 170ε1 Trans. ε1 = (εs + 0.85 0 85 βs f c′ AASHTO and CSA Evaluation of Effective Concrete Strength β s f c′ = f c′ ≤ 0.Effective Compressive Strength of Struts φ Fns ≥ Fu φ = 0.002) cot2θs θs = angle between strut and tie (steel) εs = strain in steel tie .85 f c′ 0. tension strain.75 Fns = f cu Ac Ac = min.

where λ accounts for lightweight concrete • 0. but crossed by minimum reinforcement grid • 0.FIP Recommendations for βs in Cracked Struts • 0.75 .80 .struts crossed by “wide” cracks ACI Recommended βs Values for Struts • 1.60 .0 – prismatic shape (constant width) over its length similar to a flexural compression zone length.struts with longitudinal cracking (splitting).struts crossed by “normal” width cracks • 0. in a B-region • 0.40 – struts in flexural tension zones .60λ – inclined bottle-shaped strut not crossed by minimum reinforcement grid.75 – inclined (bottle-shaped) strut crossed by minimum reinforcement grid • 0.

Struts in a Flexural Tension Zone A A Sect. A-A Minimum Reinforcement Grid (f’c ≤ 6000 psi) 2 γ1 γ2 1 Strut centerline Σ A si sin γ i ≥ 0.003 b si (A − 4) .

002 EW • FIP ρ ≥ 0. Reinf.001 EF. EW . Grid in other Codes • AASHTO ρ ≥ 0.003 EW • CSA ρ ≥ 0.Reinforcement “Grid” (only horizontal bars) Min.

Modification for Higher Strength Concrete • For concrete strengths above 6000 psi (41 MPa). Modification for Higher Strength Concrete Assumed Slope = 2 longitudinal/1 transverse Required R i dt transverse tie capacity = 50% of strut strength . must calculate required amount of transverse reinforcement crossing strut. • This procedure can result in a significant difference when compared to requirements of ACI Eq. (A-4).

Dimensions and Strength φAsfy .Tie Dimensions • Full width (out or plane) of member • Width (in plane) of tie is function of effective compression strength of concrete in nodes where tie is anchored • Spread reinforcement throughout tie dimensions Tie .

Strength of Ties • Strength = φ As fy.75 to also select the reinforcement may need further examination within the appropriate Code subcommittee.75* • Anchorage of ties at nodes is a major concern *A constant value of φ = 0. but the use of φ = 0.75 is to be used for sizing the strut-and-tie model. Anchorage Check Definition of Extended Nodal Zone . where φ = 0.

Nodal Zone Shape and Dimensions • Width of compression face is same as width of strut connecting to nodal zone (smaller allowable strength governs) • Height (width of face perpendicular to tie force) of nodal zone is equal to tie force divided by effective compressive strength of the concrete in the node Node Shape and Size .

CCT and CTT • Strength S h can b be enhanced h db by addition ddi i of confinement reinforcement Examples of CCC and CCT Nodes .Effective Strength of Nodal Zones • Function of type of members connected to the node • Possible combinations are CCC.

Examples of CCT and CTT Nodes Examples of CCT and CTT Nodes .

CTT node .8 0 8 .75 75 Fnn = f cu An A n = area of node face ⊥ to force Fu f cu = 0.85 β n f c′ Recommended βn Values (Nodes) • 1.CCT node • 0.6 .0 .Strength of Nodes φ Fnn ≥ Fu φ = 0 0.CCC node • 0.

dv 16 in. May 2003 640 k (includes member weight) 20 in. 212 k . Example: ACI Concrete International Magazine. 53 in. 428 k 16 in. 60 in. 107 in.g.Use of STM in the ACI Code • Appears in Appendix A in 318 318-08 08 Code. short shear walls). • Currently required for shear strength design of deep beams. corbels. Code However. in All member widths = 20 in. • Is listed as alternate procedure in several sections of the code (e.

Shear Force = φ ⋅10 f c′ ⋅ bw d φ ⋅Vn (max) = 0. dv 16 in.9×h . All. 107 in. Max. Allowable Shear Force Max shear force = 428 k Max.k. 428 k 53 in.Beam Dimensions and Initial Truss Model 640 k 20 in.75 × 10 × 4000 × 20 × 54 = 512 k (o.) 1000 Assumed that d ≈ 0. 212 k Check Max. 60 in. in All member widths = 20 in. 16 in.

4 α2 50.2 in.) = 45 in.5 in. dv = 60 in. 428 k Establish Truss Geometry: Start with left portion of the beam Assumes heights of Nodes 1 & 2 = 15 in. 5 49.2 in. And thus α1 = 42. 10 in. – 2(7.2 deg.7in.). (1140 mm) From geometry: tan α1 = (45in.2o α2 = ? 50.7 in. Thus. .Splitting of Node 2 428 k 212 k 3 2 dv = ? 212 k 1 α1 = 42./49.

4 α2 50.2o α2 = ? 50. 428 k Establish Equilibrium at Node 1 F12 F14 ΣFy = 428 . 212 k 2 1 α1 = 42. 10 in.7 in. 5 49.2 in.2 in.Initial Truss Geometry 428 k 212 k 3 dv = 45 in.F12×sin α1 = 0 F12 = 637 k ΣFx = F14 – F12×cos α1 = 0 F14 = 472 k 428 k .

85) βn fc' = 0.Geometry and dimensions of Node 1 and Strut 1-2 w14 α1 ℓb1 Establish/Check Dimensions at Node 1 φ fcu(1) = φ (0.04 ksi Rl 428 = = 1.75 × 2.85×0.34 ksi (o. bw ⋅ φ ⋅ f cu (1) 20 × 0.75×0.6 ≅ 12 in.k.80×4 = 2.72 .) bw ⋅ l b1 20 ⋅16 f (base) = w14 = F14 472 = = 11.

75 × 2.Establish/Check Width and Strength of Strut 1-2 w12 = w14 ⋅ cos (α1 ) + l b1 ⋅ sin (α1 ) w12 = 8.85 × β s × f c′ = 0. Then dv = 60 – (12 + 10)/2 = 49 in Then.6 × 20 = 757 k ≥ 637 k (o.8 = 19.7 in. assume it has a total height of 10 in.) Modified Truss Geometry and Member Forces Thus. Reestablish truss geometry and member forces! . f cu (1-2) = 0.k.75 × 4 = 2. in.55 ksi φ Fns (1-2) = φ f cu (1-2) ⋅ w12 ⋅ bw φ Fns (1-2) = 0. height of Node 1 = 12 in.89 + 10.85 × 0. Because Node 2 is a CCC node.55 × 19.

7 in. Select Reinforcement for Tie 1-4 As (req q′d .2 φ ⋅ fy 0 0.75 75 × 60 Select 13 No.6o 434 k α2 = 44. 5 49.2 in. 8 bars.3o 4 217 k α2 50. 20 in.3 in.) )= F14 434 = = 9. . 212 k 1 α1 = 44.2 in.Final truss geometry and member forces 428 k 212 k 217 k 2 212 k 3 dv = 49 in. 3 in.64 in.2 3 in. 3 in. 428 k 10 in. As = 10. 50.

) Although ℓdh is less than 22 in.Check Anchorage at Node 1 ℓa = 6 in. Check Anchorage at Node 1 l dh = 0./tan α1 ℓa = 6. (> 8d b and > 6 in.0 in. Critical section ℓb1 = 16in.1 in. . ℓa Total anchorage Length ≈ 22. In-plane p 180° hooks could be used for some bars to partially relieve this rebar detailing problem.02 ×1× 60. Tie 1-4 α1 6in. this would be a tight fit if only y 90° hooks were used.09 in.02ψ e f y db = 0.. The use of mechanical anchorage devices could also be considered. 000 × 1. 1× 4000 λ f c′ l dh = 19.0 in.

5.7. the minimum skin reinforcement requirements of ACI Code Section 10.003 b si Minimum Reinforcement Crossing Strut 1-2 for βs = 0. . I recommend that you also satisfy ACI Code Sections 11. • Because this is a deep beam.7 must be satisfied.7.Minimum Reinforcement Crossing Strut 1-2 2 γ1 γ2 1 Strut centerline Σ A si sin γ i ≥ 0. Also because this is a deep flexural member member.6.4 and 11. • Also.75 • This reinforcement is to control the growth and width of cracks crossing the strut.

428 k 10 in. 20 in. 5 49. Four #4 legs 13 #8 3 at 3 in.3o 4 217 k α2 50. 6 at 8 in.6o 434 k α2 = 44. Comments on right half of truss 428 k 212 k 217 k 2 212 k 3 dv = 49 in.2 in.2 in.Final design in left span 2 #4 per layer 3 in. 50.7 in. 212 k 1 α1 = 44. .

Analysis of fan-shaped struts 2-4 and 3-5. 2 in. . 15 at 6 in. 104 in. 5 Final design of longitudinal and transverse steel Section A 5 at 10 in. 25o 4 22in. six stirrups at s = 10 in. 2 in. 49in. 2 3 25o 22in. and tie 3-4 60in.

Gracias Preguntas? .