By : Beta Paramita MT 2 , M Donny Koerniawan,MT 3 , Dewi Larasati, MT 4

There are strong correlation between urban climate and the urban design physical configuration and form pattern. Urban design with climatic considerations deals with the wholistic morphology of the city, as well as with the urban details such as street width, form, configuration and orientation, building heights, city compactness or dispersion, urban open space, integration or segregation of land use. Which all related with the physical problem. Response to Daylighting will of Course depend much upon personal experience, but whenever designed try to utilize daylight in a building, they are forced to consider a number of aspect that will crucially affect the form, spatial layout and solidity of the facade. In the hot humid (tropical) climate, the destination of global design are shading and maximize the wind, with the result that building form and massing require sun protective because daylighting intensity is so high. Shadowing is one of the way to protect the direct sun, but it have to considered, there are no surface which closed permanently because the high of the humidity can destroy the material. Creating solar envelope which combine between visual ratio and optimize daylighting result building envelope. This building envelope processing from solar envelope with azimuth and altitude on the critical hours, which the value came from vertical angle light obstruction analog the visual ration each 18°, 30° and 45° This building envelope hopefully responsive with tropical (hot humid) climate, with that result urban design guideline, specially for building form and massing which comfort and humane. Key Word : Tropical Urban Design, Building Form and Massing, Solar gain, Shadowing, Visual Comfort

I. INTRODUCTION A fundamental requirement of urban space is actual physical enclosure or its strong articulation by urban form which deals with the physical quality of the environment. This quality of environment includes : compatibility of uses, presence of natural elements, distance to open space, visual interest of the street facade, quality of view, quality of maintenance, and microclimate. Urban space, like architectural spaces may be interconnected and best appreciated by moving from one to another. They may be purposefully designed to display their linkage, to highlight a special building in the space or to suggest an important direction of

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5th Sustainable Environment and Architecture Seminar, UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia 2004 Urban Designer,Researcher, Semarang. Central Java, Indonesia 3 Laboratory of Simulation and Buikding Science, Department of Architecture, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB),Bandung, West Java, Indonesia 4 Department of Architecture, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung, West Java, Indonesia

If an area is to be accentuated. shadowing. but remembering that it is an extended source. the later details of the objects. There are some basic rules to be noted concerning urban thermal performance for hot humid area : (Golany. G. combined variation of building height f. wide. the latitude of the object observation .S. widely open streets to support wind movement c. planned tree zones The provision of daylight is an important consideration for most buildings and therefore at an early stage of design it is often necessary to consider whether or not a building development will be capable of meeting day lighting design requirements. those are many of the critical issues relating to building form and massing. Light must enter through the building envelope. Sun angles define by the relativity position of sun and the observation on earth which is depend on : a. Thinking about lighting automatically ensures consideration of architectural form. from then on reviewing the connection between microclimate and quality of view to define urban form. The categories of urban space derive from the distance scale of human vision. Developments should be designed to ensure that their general form and disposition on site should allow: i) Rooms in the proposed building to be daylight. based on their size. dispersion of high rise buildings to support ventilation e. 1995) a. it will be reflected only in the manner of a diffuse reflector. then it is necessary to reduce the light level in another area. This paper. iii) The potential for day lighting on adjacent sites to be maintained. SPACE AND SHADOW Introducing natural light forces designers to think in 3 dimensions. Our eyes have a general field of view and a detailed field of view : the former sees general shape. scale and the sense of enclosure. extensive shadow d. Because the main methods of controlling and redirecting light are that of obscuration and plane diffuse reflection it is principally the architectural elements themselves that create the patterns of light. This applies to all scales within the building. ii) The daylight within existing buildings to be safeguarded. II. Urban space as a primary element of urban design and the importance of the articulation by urban forms. yet shadowed open spaces g. ventilation : open ends and dispersed form b. setback and coverage. Light from cloudy skies can distributed by reflection. This aspect of physical form by setting specifics of height. A cloudy sky is an extended light source and there are few ways of controlling and redirecting its light successfully. be it either the wall or the roof.movement. from the design of small louvers within a window to the building blocks that form the general massing of the building. Urban and architectural spaces form a hierarchy of spatial types.

Here. 45° 30° 18° 45° (1:1) full enclosure 30° (1:2) threshold of enclosure 18° (1:3) minimum enclosure This way of experiencing our surroundings is related to the concept of static and dynamic space. mention as we move about in the city our normal frontal field of view in a space determines the degree of enclosure –the sense of space-which we feel. DAYLIGHTING IN URBAN SCALE Paul D. Spreiregen. whether channel or reservoir is largely determined by the relation of viewing distance to building height as seen by our normal frontal field of view. conveys a sense of rest and completeness. . A static space is one which by its form.b. the frequency of daylight which depend on longitude of object observation SEP applied to define the height and the building envelope which border on street or open space. Azimuth will determine the angle fall horizontal while altitude will determine the angle fall vertical of sun. Sun position to a place influence the formed dark-bright pattern. SEP (sky exposure plane) Percentag of Shadow on ext α° = ALO (angle light obstruction) III. ALO derive from sun angle applied to define setback from the total building height Those are part of principles and technique relating to building form and massing. The feeling of enclosure. whereas a dynamic space implies movement and change. a static and dynamic space formed by dark-bright of exposure as a result of daylighting performance. season c. which include “scale” as it relates to human vision.

If daylighting is to be utilized in a proposed building. represent the area of culture pledge owning high historical value in growth of Semarang. Latitude. both daylighting and urban scale correlated to provides for articulating the building on site in order to provide an energy efficient and comfortable internal environment. In addition to its effect on illumination. From some block or site which is there are in Semarang old town. Emphasizing both element. aesthetically pleasing. it is necessary to determine its availability at the site. Brown) Architecturally. This connection spelled out by creating solar envelope with Vertical Sun Angle (VSA) as the element of daylighting and the degree of enclosure which meant human visual ratio 18°. IV. (GZ. South latitude enabling the height of larger ones because of volume which is more compared to north latitude. orientation and also apart between building in one environmental unity. and because of its directionality. SOLAR ENVELOPE ON CASE STUDY Solar envelope one of the strategic of building groups plan which the upper edges of the vertical planes define the maximum volume that can be built on a slope site without shading beyond the site during critical hours. This sample named Stailan Block with dwelling function. this paper discuss the connection between daylighting and urban scale. tree and land forms all act as daylight obstructions by blocking either direct sunlight or portions of the skydome that are visible from the building location. Surrounding objects such as other buildings. Lessening period of sun relation will generate a higher level top but rather sharply. 30° and 45° as the element of urban scale. Mainly. psychologically views out and the most important is environmentally respond to solar radiation. relation period. proportion. Size measure of site will degrade the ratio of shroud and volume from envelope. the position of the sun is of particular interest to the designer. Because of its potentially large contribution to illumination. size of site. taken one site for sample which owning some building mass with the variation of height. If proportion from tread generate a back of hill of North-South envelope will contain the slimmer volume to be developed than if proportion tread the generating of a back of hill East-West Case study : Stailan Block in Semarang old town as case study. . street and open space which main part of forming the group of building. solar position is important because of its effect on sun penetration for passive heating and on the design of shading devices Therefore. result the building envelope which require economical. the important element this envelope pointed to building. orientation and the shape of the edge are the variables which influnce the configuration of the envelope.

5° 34 18° 31° 47° HOUR 22 22 June Dec 16:59 16:40 15:40 17:05 16:24 15:55 VSA = Vertical Sun Angle HSA = Horizontal Sun Angle From tables above. by determining VSA. sun position determining is on 22 June and 22 December.5° 46. This determine the volume of solar envelope.5° 62° 58° 111° 112° 116° ALTITUDE 22 22 June Dec 15° 22° 25° 22° 30° 45° HOUR 22 22 June Dec 07:40 08:20 09:10 07:50 08:24 09:30 East side (341° North) VSA 18° 30° 45° HSA 22 22 June Dec 43. Progressively lower the altitude. Sun position with VSA determined 18º . knowable of HSA of site which later will be known by the altitude and azimuth. while on 22 December sun on course lowest in the sky determining slope of north part of the envelope.5° 3° AZIMUTH 22 22 June Dec 296° 296. To determine the position of sun and angle .110° 35' BT. . Semarang located among 6° 5’ .105º) x 4 minute = 20 minute Become the mid day of local time is 12. Determination of local time use the meridian reference 105º BT.20 17 341° 88 UTARA To form the solar envelope. so that happened by the time correction in fact that is (110° . Caused on 22 June is highest sun on course in the sky so that determine sloping of hill of part of south from the envelope.corner fall the shadow used a sun diagram 6º LS.7° 10' LS and 110° 5’ . 30º and 45º on 22 June and 22 December of each side of site shall be as follows : West side (17° North) VSA 18° 30° 45° HSA 22 22 June Dec 42.Geographically.5° 302 248° 247° 247° ALTITUDE 22 22 June Dec 14. hence period of sun relation to site will longer.5° 45° 51° 4° 5° 9° AZIMUTH 22 22 June Dec 64.5° 21.5° 51 3° 3.

Then. this intersection form one back part mark with lines the potential hill. 30º and 45º seen at picture below : . 30º and 45º as analogue VSA. raise up until proportioned with the plane of west and east side. 3. From this. create the frame of solar envelope ground plan by raise up the plane each of west side of site and east as high as each 18º . form the diagonal of morning and day of sun period. Intersection from that plane. 2.22 Desember azimuth periode pagi 22 Desember azimuth periode sore Punggung bukit sbg garis ketinggian maksimum bangunan 22 Juni azimuth periode pagi 22 Juni azimuth periode sore solar envelope ground plan To create the ground plan of solar envelope on site. pulled the azimuth on 22 December for the slope of South and 22 June the slope of North. that is June to determine sloping part of south from envelope. Following simulation result case study solar envelope got from the lowest and highest sun position. This envelope which have affirmed the maximum building height at every edge of site which will not shading the site which borders at certain time according to height altitude on 22 December till 22 June. 4. that is December to determine sloping north side of envelope and month when sun highest in the sky. create plane for north and south side. its steps shall be as follows : 1. later. so that form the quadrangle pyramid which representing solar envelope. With auto CAD. Each plane of every side of site will meet. Selected of month when sun reside in lowest in the sky. that is on 22 December and 22 June by VSA 18º .


V. waktu edar matahari 22 juni 21 maret 22 desember . 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 6:20 7:20 8:20 9:20 10:20 11:20 12:20 13:20 14:20 15:20 16:20 17:20 18:20 prosentase luas bygn Percentage Of Wide of Shadow VSA 18° on extreme sun. waktu edar matahari 22 juni 21 maret 22 desember 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 6:20 7:20 8:20 9:20 10:20 11:20 12:20 13:20 14:20 15:20 16:20 17:20 18:20 prosentase luas bygn Percentage Of Wide of Shadow VSA 45° on extreme sun. waktu edar matahari 22 juni 21 maret 22 desember 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 6:20 7:20 8:20 9:20 10:20 11:20 12:20 13:20 14:20 15:20 16:20 17:20 18:20 prosentase luas bygn Percentage Of Wide of Shadow VSA 30° on extreme sun. TABLES OF SHADOW PRECENTAGE OF BUILDING MASS SIMULATION.

Moore. Roadform and Townscape. From the simulation seen. it will raising the building height and heedless the degree of enclosure. Setback of buildings along routes moving north-south and east-west. Intermatra. 1979 Shirvani.9 m 1 – 5% 1 . John wiley & Sons.. 1981. the more enclosure the more VSA results the more shading area. the more wide of shadow area. Bangunan Tropis.V. Solar envelope is one strategy we may consider to use in urban renewal with climate approach. 1985 Spreiregen.. George. Maximum shade occurred in the morning and the afternoon whereas in fact needed in day time.6% 3 – 15% minimum enclosure threshold of enclosure full enclosure 3. CONCLUSION From sample which built with solar envelope strategy. 2. Jim. The envelope show the height (max). We can take conclusion as this below : 1. New York. Inc. Angin dan Cahaya (Strategi Perancangan Arsitektur) – terjemahan. Each site / block has its own guidelines to be built in their site. In tropical city. REFERENCES Brown. 1984 McClusky. Academic Press. the building envelope sign the maximum building which may be built and the percentage of shadow from its simulation. There fore. Paul D. NY. Its location in low latitude caused shading with building is inaccessible. London. setback and building orientation even open space considering for shading and draining area. the main aim of design is maximize the shading. Jakarta. The Urban Climate. 1994 Landsberg. Matahari. Ethics and Urban Design. Bandung. Gideon S. Van Norstrand Reinhold Company. but. 1994 Golany. Urban Design: Architecture of Towns and Cities. Fuller. The Urban Design Process.. 1965 . facades face as possible the north or south to avoid direct sun.19 m 30. required selection and positioning of vegetation to shade building and its surrounding. Helmut E. the more high the building. 1995 Lippsmeier. The comparison of shadow pattern yielded by building simulation as follows : The degree of enclosure Max Height percentage of wide of shadow Experince in Urban Scale 18° 30° 45° 17. Hamid. Erlangga.54 m 52. GZ.. Concept and Practice of Architectural Daylighting. New York.