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Table of Contents
GEARBOX (TRANSMISSION SYSTEM) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 INTRODUCTION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 TRANSMISSION DESIGN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2 BASIC GEARBOX CONCEPT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 SOLUTION PRINCIPLES FOR PART FUNCTIONS, EVALUATION ------------------------------------------------- 4 DESIGN OF GEARWHEEL TRANSMISSIONS FOR VEHICLES--------------------------------------------------------- 5 Gearwheel Performance Limits --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Calculating the Tooth Root Load Capacity ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 OPERATIONAL FATIGUE STRENGTH AND SERVICE LIFE ------------------------------------------------------------ 7 THE WOHLER CURVE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 SPECIFICATION AND DESIGN OF SHAFTS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 DEFLECTION IN SHAFT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES OF SHAFT ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 TRANSMISSION DRIVE SHAFT STRENGTH DESIGN -------------------------------------------------------------- 13 LOADING --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 GEARSHIFTING MECHANISMS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 SHIFTING ELEMENTS FOR TRANSMISSIONS WITH POWER INTERRUPTION ------------------------------ 16 THE GEAR CHANGING PROCESS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16 THE SYNCHRONIZING PROCESS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 DESIGN OF SYNCHRONIZERS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 • Function: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 • Service life: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION CONTROL------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 Electronic Transmission Control Unit (TCU) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 19

It is necessity to choose proper design for our machine.  Changing ratio/rotational speed. The “Operating/controlling” function can be carried out by manual shifting. to fulfill the main functions of the transmission.Page |2 GEARBOX (TRANSMISSION SYSTEM) INTRODUCTION Gearbox is used to transmit power from one shaft to another shaft with different speed or power. considering traction utilization and ease of operation. A vehicle transmission has four main functions:  Moving-off from rest. . Especially in the case of new developments. hydrodynamic or hydrostatic transmissions or mechanical continuously variable transmissions. which provides controlled application of the power. A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system. Often transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. a utomation or an automatic system with associated control unit. The “Changing ratio/rotational speed” function can be carried out using spur gears. The “Shifting/ establishing power flow” function can be divided into the two functional principles positive engagement or frictional engagement. Gearbox is an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a live axle. electromechanically or hydraulically. planetary gears.  Shifting/establishing power flow” and  Operating/controlling the gearbox”. TRANSMISSION DESIGN The transmission design is derived from the functional principles applied. Their selection depends on the power to be transmitted. the design engineer has to decide on the design or combination of designs of the transmission. The “Moving-off from rest” function can be carried out mechanically.

or rear-mounted range units To decide on the type of transmission for a particular application. The multi-stage design enables short gearboxes to be constructed. drive at the rear). The term “countershaft transmission” is defined in Section 6. A stage generally involves power flow from one shaft to another. In the standard powertrain configuration (engine and transmission in the front. unlike standard drive vehicles. The term “stage” refers here to a gear pair or the power flow from one gearwheel to another. Figure Show designs of four-speed countershaft transmissions. The number of gear stages they have depends upon the number of gears. . the two-stage countershaft transmission with coaxial input and output shaft is virtually universal. Multi-stage coaxial transmissions are used principally in commercial vehicles with front.4. Single-stage transmissions are primarily used in front-wheel drive vehicles. The shifting elements involved also by definition constitute part of the transmission.Page |3 BASIC GEARBOX CONCEPT Geared transmissions are categorized by their technical design or the number of ratio stages making up the individual gears: • Single-stage transmissions. first the basic ratio change options need to be defined. Multi-stage (more than two-stage) transmissions are just as suitable as single-stage transmissions for front-engine front-wheel drive vehicles. since they require no coaxial transmission of the power flow. • Two-stage transmissions and • Multi-stage transmissions.

EVALUATION In the concept phase of developing a transmission...favorable. Example of solution principles for the functions “Enable moving-off” and “Change ratio”. 0. solution principles are established see also Figure.4. 2.. The number of viable alternatives is however significantly reduced when a technical/economic evaluation is carried out. The disadvantage that this eliminates all but geared transmissions becomes a secondary consideration...Page |4 SOLUTION PRINCIPLES FOR PART FUNCTIONS.moderate...8 suggests that the gear pair commends itself as by far the most cost-effective element for torque conversion.very unfavorable. Friction clutches are still the best available compromise for moving-off and for speed synchronization.8 for the main functions “Enable moving-off” and “Change ratio”... This is given as an example. 5. A large number of transmissions can be created by combining the individual principles used for the main functions. and does not claim to be comprehensive.very favorable A complete evaluation of all proposed solutions for the main and ancillary functions of the transmission should be carried out after the concept phase. The hydrodynamic torque converter also has many advantages ... as shown in the morphological matrix . 1. 3.. This can be demonstrated using the example given in Table 6. Table 6.unfavorable. The proper design phase can begin when this evaluation has been completed.not possible.

as well as noise considerations and bearing forces. causes of failure.e. • Macro pitting and micro pitting.Page |5 DESIGN OF GEARWHEEL TRANSMISSIONS FOR VEHICLES Gearwheel Performance Limits The starting point for gearwheel design calculations is their performance limits. • gear scuffing (hot scuffing) and • wear (cold scuffing) . i. The performance limits of a gear pair are basically determined by four different types of damage: • tooth failure.

bending stress and shear stress in the tooth. The tooth is most at risk when the normal force Fn along the line of action (with its components Fr and Ft) acts at the tooth tip or the tooth’s outer contact point (Figure). Investigations have shown that bending stress is generally the only stress that is critical for calculation purposes (σv ≈ σb).Page |6 Calculating the Tooth Root Load Capacity To calculate the tooth root load capacity. the maximum (local) stress of the root area must be checked. The tooth forces cause compression stress. The tooth cross section to which the bending stress relates is the product of the face width b and the root thickness chord sFn. .

where the respective gears are engaged in the power flow for varying periods of time (upper Figure). Economy throughout the entire period of use must also be considered as a boundary condition. individual useful/service life calculations must be made proportionally. This requires utilization of the material that is as strong as possible with respect to fatigue. \Fig. as well as low manufacturing and operational costs.Page |7 OPERATIONAL FATIGUE STRENGTH AND SERVICE LIFE The goal of an automotive transmission design that has operational fatigue strength is reliably to calculate that fatigue strength for a certain period of use in accordance with the expected load. With transmissions with various gear ratios. The load and hence . Proportion of time the various gears of a 5-speed passenger car and an 8-speed commercial vehicle transmission are engaged when travelling on a mountainous rural road The service life of a vehicle transmission depends on the service life of the individual components and their collaboration.

which is determined by the single-stage test. In contrast to the Wohler curve. the service life curve is based on a load profile ( graph shown in next page) . the stress ratio R is held constant for all stress levels Various ways of determining component service life. the vehicle and the road. In the single stage test. It is determined by boundary conditions specified in a single stage test. the shape and surface of the component as well as on environmental conditions.Page |8 the stress on and service life of all transmission components depends essentially on the driver. THE WOHLER CURVE The load capacity of a component is contingent on the material and its condition. the result is represented in the form of a Wohler curve.

The typical curve shape is shown in Figure The resulting numbers of oscillation cycles to failure are random variables.Page |9 Wohler curve of permissible material stress The Wohler curve describes the acceptable number of vibration cycles Ni up to the point of test part failure for different stress amplitudes. However. i. The Wohler curve for 10% failure probability allows us to estimate the B10 service life of a component.e. 1% and 50% curves are also common. . The most common are Wohler curves for 10% failure probability. they are spread around an average value. This is the service life at which on average 10% of the components have already failed.

countershaft and main shaft) of a twostage countershaft transmission for standard drive.P a g e | 10 SPECIFICATION AND DESIGN OF SHAFTS The size of a gearbox is largely determined by the diameters of the transmission shafts. A Two-stage coaxial countershaft transmission. Shaft configurations in vehicle transmissions. The specification and design of transmission shafts is of special significance in the layout of vehicle transmissions. Strength and resistance to deformation must therefore be carefully considered during the design process. and thus its size. Configuration of Shafts in Vehicle Transmissions Figure (a) shows the shaft configuration (input shaft. Figure (b) shows the shaft configuration for a single-stage countershaft transmission intended for front-transverse mounting. Shaft diameters are a key factor in determining the center distance of a gearbox. b single-stage countershaft transmission for front-transverse Mounting .

b one-sided contact pattern . the shaft deflection must be checked very accurately additionally to the strength calculations. i. increasing stress on the teeth (Figure in next page) To avoid this. preferably taking into account the deformation of the housing and bearings. and are usually subjected to asymmetrical loads. a Uniform contact pattern.e. This results in large deflections f and large bending angles ϕ The resultant inclination of the teeth causes a one-sided contact pattern.P a g e | 11 DEFLECTION IN SHAFT Vehicle transmissions have long shafts with long distances between bearings. the active width of the driving face is reduced. Defelection f and bending angle ϕ in shafts with large distances between bearingsand asymmetrical loading Contact pattern.

4 use additional notches in the  transition zone. use distance sleeves  for axial restraint at the middle of the shaft.  locate heavily stressed gearwheels close to bearings to reduce deflection and bending moment.  smooth rectangular ring-grooves by using relief notches or by rounding off the  inside edges of the groove (Figure a ). 2 use large rounding  radius.P a g e | 12 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES OF SHAFT The problems specific to vehicle transmissions described in the previous section lead to three main requirements for transmission shaft design: a) Avoid notches b) Reduce bending moments c) Increase critical speeds To satisfy these requirements.  specify splined connections or oil press connections rather than feather key connections. the transitions  should preferably be of conical design or with a large radius of curvature  rather than with shaft shoulders.  shafts with a mounted hub must be made thicker at the wheel seat.  keep diameter transitions between shafts below the ratio D/d ≈ 1. and to achieve high critical speeds. 3 use radial stress relief notches.4. the following design principles should be followed:  reduce the distance between bearings by means of compact overall structural design.  reduce the notching effect at the shaft shoulders (Figure b): 1 locate relief  notches at the transition by means of rounded axial grooves. specify a  large transition radius and reduce the thickness of the hub towards the end (Figurec) . see next page  locate circles only at the end of the shaft if at all possible.

(Engaging jolts can give temporary rise to transmission input torque values more than twice as high).P a g e | 13      transverse drill holes should be smoothed by relief notches at the mouth of the drill hole. Balance shafts precisely in order to minimize centrifugal forces and associated bending vibrations and Reduce the moment of inertia of components mounted on the shaft in order to Reduce deflections and increase critical speeds. If the calculation relates to some other shaft than a transmission input shaft. by increasing the shaft diameter and using larger transition radii and by postmolding the edges of the drill holes with a smooth thrust piece (Figure d). The forces are determined in the co-ordinate system of the powertrain. TRANSMISSION DRIVE SHAFT STRENGTH DESIGN LOADING When designing a transmission. are treated as point loads. the designer initially works on the basis of the maximum engine torque Tmax. the x axis corresponding to the shaft axis. Gradual power diversion using relief notches (Figure e). such as tooth forces and bearing forces. This gives rise to the system of forces at the drive shaft shown in Figure Fig. the effective torque in the shaft must be determined from the ratio of the respective gears. Loading of the transmission input shaft of the theoretical model (single-stage countershaft transmission) . Applied external forces.

synchronizers. e) synchronizer with locking mechanism. Depending on the amount of automation. g) hydraulically activated multi-plate clutch for power shift transmission. and thus the power available. and Park are however still controlled by the driver using a shifting device. “Power matching” is one of the four main functions of a vehicle transmission. the type of drive (front-wheel or rear-wheel drive) and the operating conditions. c) pin engagement. The components used in a gear shifting mechanism depend largely on whether shifting gear involves interrupting the power flow. such as selector bars. d) synchronizer without locking mechanism. Internal shifting elements in automotive transmissions. in all other gearboxes electronics and actuator systems take over this function partially or completely. a distinction is made between  internal shifting elements: shifting elements inside the transmission. Fig. gearshift gate. such as gearshift levers. In the following discussion. The gear shifting mechanism thus plays an important role in the interface between driver and vehicle. h) hydraulically activated multi-plate brake for planetary gear . Certain transmission functions. linkage. In manual gearboxes. b) dog clutch engagement. swing forks. such as Neutral. f) servo lock synchronizer mechanism (Porsche system). four-bar linkages and cable controls. changing gear is controlled and carried out by the driver.P a g e | 14 GEARSHIFTING MECHANISMS Vehicle transmissions require devices to match the ratio. a) Sliding gear. Reverse. Other factors are the type of vehicle (passenger car or truck). Its handling has a major influence on perceived comfort. multi-plate clutches and  External shifting elements: shifting elements outside the transmission. to the prevailing driving conditions.

External gearshift system of an automatic transmission: an AT for standard drive .P a g e | 15 Fig.

This involves the interaction of external shifting with internal shifting elements such as detent devices. synchronizer ring with counter-cone and locking toothing 4. transmission shaft . 2. a crisp. synchronizer hub with selector teeth and friction cone.12. THE GEAR CHANGING PROCESS This section describes the gear changing process using as an example a notional vehicle with a 2-speed coaxial countershaft transmission. 6. An exact and smooth-running operation of the gearshift lever is needed. synchronizer body with internal toothing for positive locking with the transmission shaft and external dog gearing for the gearshift sleeve. Fig. gearshift sleeve with internaldog gearing and ring groove. a fluid shifting process. 1. guides and synchronizers. Idler gear with needle roller bearings. Single-cone Synchronizer (ZF-B). Passenger cars must have attributes such as short shift strokes.see also Figure 9. 5.P a g e | 16 SHIFTING ELEMENTS FOR TRANSMISSIONS WITH POWER INTERRUPTION Shifting by hand entails more than bringing gearwheels into the power flow. 3. sporty shifting feel and low shifting forces.

5 compression spring. 9. 6 ball pin. 1 Idler gear running on needle roller bearings. These are narrower than the grooves in the synchronizer body.12. ring a certain amount of freedom to twist radially. 4 synchronizer body with internal toothing for positive locking with the transmission shaft and external toothing for the gearshift sleeve. based on the ZF-B synchronizer (Figure 9. 7 thrust piece. Fig.13. “B” standing for Borg-Warner system). 2 synchronizer hub with selector teeth and friction cone. 8 gearshift sleeve with internal dog gearing . The synchronizer ring 3 is guided by stop bosses in the synchronizer body.12. 3 main functional element. The synchronizer body 4 is fixed to the transmission shaft. which allows the synchronizer. synchronizer ring with counter-cone and locking toothing.P a g e | 17 THE SYNCHRONIZING PROCESS Single-cone synchronizers based on the “Borg-Warner” system are widely used in manual transmissions. Borg-Warner system single-cone synchronizer (ZF). The various phases of the synchronizing process are shown in Figure 9.

P a g e | 18 DESIGN OF SYNCHRONIZERS Synchronizers are subject to high levels of stress. The principal criteria according to which synchronizers are designed are the following: • Function: − synchronizable masses. A single operator error may permanently damage or destroy the synchronizer.3). − Cold shifting behaviour. • Service life: − Mechanical stress on the selector teeth. shifting comfort. − Mechanical stress on the synchronizer ring. This applies particularly to commercial vehicle synchronizers.15 shows the factors affecting its functioning and service life. − Thermal stress on the friction surfaces and − Nominal service life (see Table 9. shifting in new condition (“green shift ability”). − locking safety and − Abuse. . Figure 9.

Together with the stored program (software). Electronic and software functions do not only complement mechanics. Electronic Transmission Control Unit (TCU) The electronic control unit (electronic hardware) is the “computer Centre” of every transmission with controlled functions. It receives electric signals from all sensors as well as signal information from other electronic control systems.P a g e | 19 ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION CONTROL Innovations in the area of transmissions have been primarily made by means of the integration of electrics. compute control algorithms and control the actuators exclusively microcomputer systems are used. the structure and operating conditions of a transmission control unit will be explained in the following. these microcomputer systems control all functions of a transmission system. they also open up further possibilities. provides control values for the actuators and sends control information to other vehicle systems . functions can be obtained of which one system alone could never have been capable. hydraulics. In this way. To evaluate signals. A great amount of transmission functionality is realized by software. The aim is to create superordinate functions in the vehicle by means of information networking. evaluates them. converts them. electronics. actuators and sensors. .

P a g e | 20 System diagram for an automated manual transmission (AMT) using the example of a 16speed commercial vehicle transmission .