From the Pilgrims’ Journey to the First Thanksgiving lesson Whose Story Is It?

Unit - Reading & Writing about History

Grade 3

Visit www.doe.mass.edu !andi !ommon!ore "or the entire # lesson Whose Story Is It? unit. $his unit addresses a wide range o" Common Core standards o%er a&&ro'imately 3 wee(s and in!ludes reading) writing and (inestheti! a!ti%ities.

Lesson 4 (of 6): Students learn about how a historian !reates a histori!al narrati%e) using the e'am&le o" the *ilgrims+ e'&erien!es "rom their ,ourney to -assa!husetts beginning in Se&tember .#/0 until the "irst $han(sgi%ing in 1o%ember .#/.. In!ludes read alouds "rom &rimary and se!ondary sour!es. $his lesson is di%ided into 2 se!tions and o!!urs o%er a &eriod o" days. In ea!h segment) students !om&lete a se!tion o" an illustrated "li& boo( that tells the story se3uentially) with attention to e""e!ti%e use o" language and illustration.

This unit is also a great way for students to be ome familiar with the te!t features they will use in their "all about’ booklets in #owell Publi S hools$ starting in %rd grade&
Lesson 4 estimated time: 5 days Resources for Lesson: Joseph Bruchac. Squanto’s Journey. Susan Whitehurst. The Pilgrims Before the Mayflower Cheryl Harness. Three Young Pilgrims Excerpts for read-alouds from other books such as Joy Hakim The Story of US and William Bradford Of Plymouth Plantation Websites! """.plimoth.or#$ """.pil#rimhall.or# %ubrics for flip book

By the end of this lesson students will know and be able to: Identify who the Pilgrims were, explain why they left Europe, describe their shipboard crossing, who and what they found when they landed, the challenges they faced in the first year, and who helped them survive those challenges, Explain how a historian finds evidence for events and people’s lives in the past so that he or she can inform others about what happened. Recognize when an author has chosen to write from a particular point of view. Essential Questions addressed in this lesson: hy is writing history or a news article different from writing fiction! hat was life li"e in the #$%%s in the place we now call &assachusetts!
Standard(s)/Unit Goal(s) to be addressed in this lesson RI.'.( )se information gained from illustrations *e.g., maps, photographs+ and words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text *e.g., where, when, why, and how "ey events occur. RI.'., -ompare and contrast the most important points and "ey details presented in two texts on the same sub.ect. /011 '.2 Identify the ampanoags and their leaders at the time the Pilgrims arrived and describe their way of life. /011 '.' Identify who the Pilgrims were and explain why they left Europe to see" religious freedom3 describe their .ourney and their early years in the Plymouth colony.

1tudents may not understand that people in 9ative 8merican tribal groups already lived in 8merica before the Pilgrims arrived, and that many of them had well6developed civilizations adapted to the environment in which they lived. :hey may not understand why the Pilgrims would want to leave their former homes to ta"e a dangerous .ourney, why they needed to form a compact for living together, or how dependent they were on the "nowledge of the ampanoags in the early years of the Plymouth colony. In addition, students may not be aware that people today leave familiar surroundings for many of the same reasons the Pilgrims did7 to see" freedom, financial security, and a better life for their families. Instructional &odel Read6alouds with discussion3 reading instruction, writing instruction Instructional :ips01trategies01uggestions7 :his lesson should be done over the course of several days, during the literacy bloc". :hese lessons integrate social studies content specified in the &assachusetts /istory01ocial 1cience ;ramewor" standards with reading comprehension strategies being introduced in the whole group, practiced with teacher support in small groups, and used independently by students. Each section contains a read6aloud and independent reading by students. Reading lesson for each section: :he read aloud is considered the modeling of how to find main idea to the class as a whole *:ier # instruction+. :eachers would then meet with students in small groups using leveled text that supports their instructional reading level. :eachers would guide and support students in finding the main and idea and supporting details in the text being read in the small group *:ier 2 instruction+. hile students are wor"ing with the teacher, the rest of the class is either completing the current section of the flip boo" *explicit directions for the flip boo" can be found http700www.southamptonpublicschools.org0webpages0<Palumbo0files0flipboo"di rections.pdf+ or reading and responding to text independently. :he teacher should collaborate with the school librarian or the public library’s children’s librarian to assemble a collection of print texts and websites at various reading levels to provide access for students with disabilities, E==s, advanced students.

Instructional Resources/Tools 4oseph 5ruchac. Squanto’s Journey. 1usan hitehurst. The Pilgrims Before the Mayflower -heryl /arness. Three Young Pilgrims Excerpts for read6alouds from other boo"s, such as 4oy /a"im, The Story of S and illiam 5radford, !f Plymouth Plantation ebsites7 www.plimoth.org3 www.pilgrimhall.org 8nticipated 1tudent Preconceptions0&isconceptions

8 source for information on the ship :he &ayflower is the website of Plimoth Plantation in Plymouth, &assachusetts, www.plimoth.org. &ayflower II, a replica of the Pilgrim’s ship, is part of the recreated historical site, which also features a Pilgrim and a ampanoag village and costumed re6enactors. 1tudents will need help with the specific meaning of >compact? as an agreement among signers. 4anet 1pringer’s @uote can be found on the website7 :he -ontinued &eaning of the &ayflower -ompact7 *http700www.sail#$2%.org0history0articles0##26continued6meaning.html + :he full text of the &ayflower -ompact can be found on the website of the Pilgrim /all &useum in Plymouth, &assachusetts7 www.pilgrimhall.org0compact.htm . :he main site for the &useum, www.pilgrimhall.org also has a lin" to a tour of where the Pilgrims lived in the 9etherlands, the passenger list for the &ayflower and several ships that followed, as well as letters from the Pilgrims giving advice to potential new settlers about what to bring to the 9ew orld. 8n outline of the Pilgrim story is on the &useum website at www.pilgrimhall.org0pilstory.htm 8 short reading from illiam 5radford, the first Aovernor of the Plymouth -olony, is included. /e wrote a .ournal about the years in Plymouth. :he full text can be found on the Early 8merica 8rchive website at http700mith.umd.edu00eada0html0display.php!docsBbradfordChistory.xml 8fter students’ have written the final chapter of their flip boo" about the Pilgrims, the teacher should suggest that they review their wor" with a partner and revise any sections of their writing or illustrations that are not clear to their partner0reader, or perhaps add elements such as a maps or timelines. Pre68ssessment :o set the stage for learning about the &ayflower -ompact, students ma"e a list of rules that govern their family lives. :hey explain why their family devised these rules. :hey discuss them with partners. hat students need to "now and are able to do coming into this lesson *including language needs+7 1tudents should be familiar with literacy practices to support this unit, such as read6alouds with discussion, reading instruction, and writing instruction. Lesson Sequence

Dver the course of these content6embedded reading lessons students will be creating a boo" that ta"es the form of a historical narrative. 1tudents will create a page or two for each topic below3
• • • • • hy the Pilgrims =eft Europe 8 Eescription of the Pilgrims’ 4ourney :he &ayflower -ompact -hallenges in the 9ew orld Events =eading to the ;irst :han"sgiving

5efore beginning the first set of readings, the teacher should recap what they have done in the unit so far. ;irst, they read a fictional story which used the concept of point of view to interest the reader. :hen they read news articles, which have a different purpose of informing a reader about something that happened, and they wrote news articles themselves. Reporters write about things they can actually observe and people they can interview. Dver the next wee" the class will be reading a variety of informational texts about the past, written by historians who can’t be an eyewitness to events or interview people who are long dead. /ow do historians go about their research! hat evidence do they loo" for so that their wor" is as accurate as they can ma"e it! /ow do we "now what the >real? story is in history! -an we "now it! <eep returning to this @uestion of the historian’s craft of researching primary documents and artifacts at appropriate times as the class examines boo"s and websites. Point out bibliographies and appendices and other sections where the authors refer to sources consulted or how they did their research.

Section : !h" the #ilgri$s Left Euro%e
#. :o set the purpose for listening to the text, the teacher as"s the students to thin" about reasons why they would want to leave a place they call home with their family. 2. 1tudents discuss reasons with a partner and then share responses with the class. '. :he teacher as"s students to use a non6verbal signal *e.g., thumbs up, hands on shoulder+ during read aloud to indicate when they hear a reason the Pilgrims left England. F. :he teacher reads aloud a text to explain why the Pilgrims left England. *1uggested text7 The Pilgrims Before the Mayflower by 1usan hitehurst+

G. hile the teacher reads, s0he uses a thin" aloud strategy to identify main ideas and details of the text. $. :he teacher as"s students to list the reasons why the Pilgrims left Europe. Dn chart paper, the teacher writes the responses from the students. (. Dn the first page of the flip boo" students complete the > hy the Pilgrims =eft Europe? section, including specific evidence and details from the text to support the main idea. H. 1tudents illustrate their writing to add more information. :hey may write captions or labels as needed. ,. Iocabulary to discuss and compile in a word ban"7 religion" worshi#" freedom" liberty" emigrate
• )se the ;rayer &odel to facilitate discussion of these words, clarify misconceptions, and provide examples.

$. Iocabulary to discuss and compile in a word ban" can be ta"en from the unlined words in the text above.
• )se the ;rayer &odel to facilitate discussion of these words, clarify misconceptions, and provide examples.

http700interactive6noteboo"s.wi"ispaces.com0;rayerJmodelJvocabulary Reading lesson: See Instructional Ti%s+

Section ,: The -a"flo.er /o$%act
#. :o set the stage for learning about the &ayflower -ompact, teacher reads the following @uote ta"en from 4anet 8. 1pringer. > Three hundred and se)enty eight years ago" a little band of #eo#le we now %all the Pilgrims" who wanted to worshi# 1od in their own way and build a %ommunity based u#on brotherhood" left their friends and relations in &ngland and %ame to a strange %ountry none of them had e)er seen. But what is it that we should remember about these #eo#le2 Sim#ly this: That these #eo#le were the first to lay the foundations of our freedom as 3meri%ans. The Mayflower *om#a%t" whi%h they signed on board the tiny shi# before they e)er %ame ashore" was the seed of demo%rati% go)ernment in this land. The Pilgrims were the first to reali4e that all the #ower in a %ommunity stems" not from a king or di%tator or a small grou# of elite nobles" but from the #eo#le themsel)es.0 2. :he teacher reads some of the -ompact, points out "ey phrases, and discusses their meaning with the class7 >a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Iirginia?3 >combine our selves together into a civil body politic?, >to enact, K.ust and e@ual lawsK for the general good of the -olony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.? '. 1tudents turn and tal" to describe why it was important for the Pilgrims to establish rules of government before they even left the ship. F. Dn chart paper, the teacher writes the main points as a resource for what students write in their flip boo"s. G. 1tudents describe the &ayflower -ompact and the reasons for signing it, using evidence and details from the text. 1tudents illustrate their writing, if desired. $. Iocabulary to discuss and compile in a word ban" can be ta"en from the unlined words in the text above.
• )se the ;rayer &odel to facilitate discussion of these words, clarify misconceptions, and provide examples.

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Section &: ' (escri%tion of the #ilgri$s) *ourne"
#. :o set the stage for understanding the .ourney, the teacher reads the following @uote. *9ote, in this and subse@uent passages, academic or domain6specific vocabulary that might be discussed and defined are underlined.+ $The shi# is small" wet" and foul. The smells are horrid. There is no #la%e to %hange or wash %lothes. &a%h adult 'has( a s#a%e below de%k measuring se)en by two and a half feet. *hildren get e)en less room. +one of the #assengers is allowed on de%k, there is little fresh air below and many are si%k. -resh food soon runs out and then there is hard bread and dried meat that is wet and moldy. But the Pilgrims ha)e onions" lemon .ui%e" and beer to kee# them from getting/s%ur)y0. ;rom The Story of S by 4oy /a"im 2. :he teacher reads aloud a text to explain the difficulties that the Pilgrims encountered on their .ourney *1uggested text7 The Mayflower by 1usan hitehurst+ to support finding main idea and details. '. 1tudents turn and tal" with a partner to discuss the difficulties and dangers the Pilgrims encountered as they sailed across the 8tlantic Dcean. F. Dn chart paper, the teacher writes student responses of the events that describe the .ourney. G. 1tudents complete the second section of the flip boo" titled >8 Eescription of the Pilgrims’ 4ourney.? 1tudents list details supporting evidence and illustration that describes the .ourney.

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Reading lesson: See Instructional Ti%s

Section 2: E3ents Leading to the 4irst Than5sgi3ing
#. :o set the stage for learning, as" students, what would have happened if the Pilgrims did not meet 1@uanto and &assasoit! 2. Read Squanto’s Journey by 4oseph 5ruchac and ma"e a list of all the ways 1@uanto helped the Pilgrims survive by creating a cause and effect chart, using clues words such as because and so. ;or example7 >1@uanto taught them how to hunt, so they were able to find food.? '. 1tudents complete the last section of the flip boo" listing evidence that showed how meeting the ampanoag people helped the Pilgrims survive and celebrate the first :han"sgiving. F. 1tudents illustrate their text, showing some of the details that were instrumental in the events leading to the first :han"sgiving. G. :o close this series of lessons, recap the events that they have described in the pages they have written. Explain that they have written in a way similar to a historian7 they have learned about and investigated each topic and then written about it. 8s" how this is similar and different from the way a reporter wor"ing on a news story about an event in the present might wor". $. Iocabulary to discuss and compile in a word ban" can be ta"en from the following list of words7 e7%hange" sur)i)e" guide" entwined
• )se the ;rayer &odel to facilitate discussion of these words, clarify misconceptions, and provide examples.

Section 0: /hallenges in the 1e. !orld
#. :o set the stage for learning, as" the following @uestion7 hat if you lived in a city where the climate is warmer, and you moved to the harsh climate of 9ew England, where there were no houses or other shelters! /ave students discuss their answers with a partner. :he teacher explains that as children in &assachusetts today, you are prepared for snow because you have boots, coats, hats, and mittens. :he Pilgrims were not fully prepared for what they were about to encounter. 2. illiam 5radford, the first Aovernor of Plymouth, wrote > They now had no friends to wel%ome them/.nor houses or mu%h less towns to go /..it was winter" and they that know the winters of that %ountry know them to be shar# and )iolent/ besides what %ould they see but a wilderness before them" if they looked behind them" there was the mighty o%ean whi%h they had #assed50 6. :eacher reads Three Young Pilgrims by -heryl /arness to describe the challenges the Pilgrims faced in the first winter including building homes, ad.usting to the climate, sic"ness, meeting the ampanoag Indians, and planting crops in 9ew England. F. Dn chart paper, the teacher writes the main challenges and supporting details from text. G. 1tudents complete the next section of the flip boo" and provide an illustration that supports the description. $. Iocabulary to discuss and compile in a word ban" can be ta"en from the underlined words in the text above.
• )se the ;rayer &odel to facilitate discussion of these words, clarify misconceptions, and provide examples.

http700interactive6noteboo"s.wi"ispaces.com0;rayerJmodelJvocabulary Reading lesson: See Teacher notes for Section I+ 4or$ati3e assess$ent: -lass discussions #re3ie. outco$es for the ne6t lesson7 In the next lesson, the class will read boo"s about the children who lived in Plymouth and the surrounding area. :hese boo"s will ta"e a different approach to writing about history7 a focus on the everyday life of an individual. Su$$ati3e 'ssess$ent: :he completed flip boo"s

http700interactive6noteboo"s.wi"ispaces.com0;rayerJmodelJvocabulary Reading lesson: See Instructional Ti%s

Resources for Lesson 4
We have the following titles in Lowell Public Schools:

Joseph Bruchac. Squanto’s Journey. Susan Whitehurst. The Pilgrims Before the Mayflower Cheryl Harness. Three Young Pilgrims Excerpts for read-alouds from other books such as Joy Hakim The Story of US and William Bradford Of Plymouth Plantation Websites! """.plimoth.or#$ """.pil#rimhall.or# &nstructions for makin# flip books http!''""".southamptonpublicschools.or#'"ebpa#es'()alumbo'files'flipbookdirections.pd f* +rayer ,odel to #uide -ocabulary discussion http!''interacti-e-notebooks."ikispaces.com'+rayer.model.-ocabulary %ubrics for flip books

Rubric for flip books: Topic Development, Use of Evidence, and . / 3 $o&i! 5ittle to&i! idea 5imited or wea( Rudimentary de%elo&ment de%elo&ment) to&i! idea to&i! idea organi6ation) de%elo&ment) de%elo&ment and or details organi6ation) and or 5ittle or no and or details organi6ation awareness o" 5imited audien!e and or awareness o" 7asi! su&&orting tas( audien!e and or details tas( Sim&listi! language ;%iden!e and 5ittle or no Use o" e%iden!e Use o" e%iden!e :ontent e%iden!e is and !ontent is and !ontent is 8!!ura!y in!luded limited or wea( in!luded but is and or basi! and !ontent is sim&listi! ina!!urate Illustrations Illustrations are missing or do not !ontribute to the 3uality o" the submission Illustrations demonstrate a limited !onne!tion to the te't Illustrations are basi!ally !onne!ted to the te't and !ontribute to the o%erall 3uality

Accuracy, and 4 -oderate to&i! idea de%elo&ment and organi6ation 8de3uate) rele%ant details Some %ariety in language Use o" e%iden!e and a!!urate !ontent is rele%ant and ade3uate

Illustrations 2 9ull to&i! idea de%elo&ment 5ogi!al organi6ation Strong details 8&&ro&riate use o" language Use o" e%iden!e and a!!urate !ontent is logi!al and a&&ro&riate

# Ri!h to&i! idea de%elo&ment :are"ul and or subtle organi6ation ;""e!ti%e ri!h use o" language 8 so&histi!ated sele!tion o" and in!lusion o" e%iden!e and a!!urate !ontent !ontribute to an outstanding submission Illustrations add greatly to the te't) su&&ly additional in"ormation and are show !are in e'e!ution

Illustrations are !onne!ted to the te't and !ontribute to its 3uality

Illustrations !ontribute to the o%erall 3uality o" the wor( and &ro%ide additional in"ormation

Rubric for flip books: tandard En!lis" #onventions . / Standard ;nglish ;rrors seriously inter"ere ;rrors inter"ere somewhat :on%entions with !ommuni!ation with !ommuni!ation and 5ittle !ontrol o" senten!e stru!ture) grammar and usage) and me!hani!s and or $oo many errors relati%e to the length o" the submission or !om&le'ity o" senten!e stru!ture) grammar and usage) and me!hani!s

3 ;rrors do not inter"ere with !ommuni!ation and or 9ew errors relati%e to length o" submission or !om&le'ity o" senten!e stru!ture) grammar and usage) and me!hani!s

4 :ontrol o" senten!e stru!ture) grammar and usage) and me!hani!s <length and !om&le'ity o" submission &ro%ide o&&ortunity "or student to show !ontrol o" standard ;nglish !on%entions=

sour!e> www.doe.mass.edu !andi !ommon!ore