Presented to the













Instructor in Pianoforte in Iowa College Conservatory, Grinnell, Iowa.






\Vabash Ave., Chicago.







and their meaning. which most certainly they are not. ers who have devoted themselves to other composers. as well as his classification of the smaller ones. To those from whom this book has been withheld. satisfactory perusal of the THE contents. too. they have been mutilated by an attempt on the part of virtuosos to transform them into bravura pieces. but it prepares for all that can be found in pianoforte litera- ture. "We play too much and think too little. their study not only leads into higher realms of imagination. perhaps. must be invaluable to students of Beethoven. which is too strong to bear . and this recognition has been accompanied by universal regret at its inaccessibility. Indeed. is his exposition of playing in general. however. value of Marx's Introduction to the Interpretation of Beethoven's Piano Works has been widely recognized. never failing. I have endeavored to retain as far as possible the original phraseology of the author. from deepest pathos to most sparkling humor. of the various legato and staccato qualities which have been a sealed book to the majority of music students. to manifest the one soul which pervades them all.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. a fear of the technical may have prevented a clear insight into their soul life. except to the limited few who are sufficiently conversant with German for. That Marx was the most able commentator of Beethoven is beyond a doubt." is here so elucidated as to guide even a careless thinker. possibly because of their technical difficulties. became obliterated. There has been a very apparent deficiency and superficiality the study of Beethoven's pianoforte compositions. but very few have given their main thought to Beethoven. Added to this. and yet it cannot be disputed that his compositions comprise the greatest variety. The oft-quoted phrase. this translation is dedicated. and who desire to avail themselves of Marx's guidance. and certainly his clear presentation of the larger works which have been "as sounding brass" to so many able musicians. Again. of necesWe have numerous players and teachsity. but more because of a lack in of appreciation of their real thought and content.

both for his earnest efforts in leading me to a sufficient comprehension of Beethoven's work to desire to undertake this translation. and also for his invaluable assistance in editing the same during its publication in the Music Review. but I have striven assiduously to avoid transposed German into English. . 1894. and have therefore been compelled to use free translation now and then. previous to its FANNIE LOUISE GWINNER. August. especially in order not to interfere with the clearness of the thought. Calvin B. I wish to express my most hearty thanks to Mr.much interpolation. Ann Arbor. appearance in book form. Michigan. Cady.

He closes with the following: " This book is most warmly commended to every intelligent piano player who.PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. has appeared in a larger form. ADOLF BERNHARD MARX. and this cannot be given either by the Introduction or by the Biography. to guide. Now with the second edition of the Biography. from which this work is translated. and the Intro- duction to Interpretation could no longer remain in the background. Life and Work" prehension of his creations. a few changes had to be made here. Biography of Beethoven "Beethowas accompanied by an Appendix: "A few remarks concerning the study and interpretation of the Beethoven piano works. It Berlin. so unimportant as to their intrinsic value. on the other hand is not willing to be dependent upon the dictates of his own subjectivity and transitory mood. The Biography furnishes the necessary foundation for a comprehension of Beethoven and of his individual works. but who is desirous of developing his performance from a deep. Guidance is here given by the most able connoisseur of Beethoven's spirit. He states that a revision was necessary only because of his revision of the Biography from which a part of this work was taken. and into ambitious. thought The greatest benefit. is derived from the student's own perseverance and poetic instinct." THE TRANSLATOR. nothing satisfactory could be done tonal art within so limited a compass. March 18. who edited the same in 1875. Furthermore. of course. 1863. and will be useful by itself. is not satisfied with simply conquering technical difficulties. nor could it continue to be casually thrown in as Appendix." This Appendix was inspired by love for Beethoven. thanks to invaluable information which has come to me from many sources. only when it resounds to open ears. and who. objective comprehension of the work. The Biog- raphy. persevering minds. it is able to awaken. in reproducing a piano composition. but in the very writing of the it became evident that same. is written by Gustav Behncke. . appears as an individual work. Notes had been supplied here and there. to excite. The word of an instructor is like the voice of the herald. The Preface to the second edition. however. a thorough comprehension of the is out of the question. and the conviction that without a deep comfirst edition of my THE ven. opportunity is furnished for solving the problem more satisfactorily. and also the essential in so far as these demonstrate the proofs for the Introduction of the master. the inner relationship between the Introduction and the Biography will be recognized by those who have become convinced that works of art can only be fully comprehended through the thought and life of the composer. that this second editi9n could hardly be considered a revised edition. The changes were. and in order to make the two works coincide.

2. The Beethoven Technique Tendency of the of of the hand. tion of tempo Rhythm Rhythmic firmness. 45 newer technique toward equalizing fingers Necessity liberating hand from hand and finger from finger Stroke Position 54 between Beethoven's Melody Beethoven's melody should be played Difference Beethoven's melodies. Preparation 1. Polyphony. Beethoven's Fingering 33 Progress of Technique since Beethoven Departures from the general rules of fingering One-voiced figures divided between the two hands Two or more voices in one hand. through absence of exaggeration. Rhythmic freedom. 23 Is virtuosity essential? Technique Beethoven's opinion of virtuosity Gradations of his works from a technical standpoint.CONTENTS. Spiritual maturity Who is ready to study Beethoven? of his works according to development of spiritual maturity. through return to tempo. How How to Beethoven's Accompaniment 63 Comprising: Accompaniment which contains no characteristic contents within itself Accompaniment with substantial but subordinate voices. The Contents of the Book 14 Presupposition of knowledge and preparation Guide to interpretation Its general advisability Demand for a guide to interpretation of Beethoven Peculiar content of his works Their individuality The peculiarities of one as compared with another. The Readers of the Book Friends Strangers Page 1 1 Teachers. Meaning and demands of both Beethoven's manner of playing in this respect Preservation of rhythmic feeling amid rhythmic freedom. of Instruction 19 Methods Instruction through precept and example Virtuosi and " Klaviermasters" How Beethoven is cast aside and how he is dealt with Instruction through purely practical representation Purely theoretic instruction. How to represent it Rhythmic accents. present Conclusions drawn therefrom The una corda. Gradation Beethoven's Instrument 28 Elementary and art-aspiring technique Especial difficulties found in Beethoven The Viennese instruments in Beethoven's time as compared with those of the. . and emphatic perceive it. Tempo and Meter Tempo 67 Older significance of the same The metronome ExaggeraMozart Beethoven How to find the correct tempo. through rhythmic intonation and rhetorical pause. Introductory Remarks. complete as to close.

not self-adjustment Cursory playing through Review of the content Removal of technical difficulties Penetration.. 31 Major Sonata Op. 91 2 91 A-Major Sonata Op. 90 A-Major Sonata Op. GUIDE TO THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. 7 97 100 . observation of Beethoven's directions and of his style His ideal works. 13 G. 113 2 114 117 120 121 D-Major Sonata Op. 2 E-flat Major Sonata Op. from a first glance into the work.Form of Study 80 Cultivation of independent thought. No. F-Majoj: Sojiata_O 1_io. 106 E-flat 1 1 26 127 1 29 136 140 142 145 151 Close . No. 81 E-Minor Sonata Op. 26 n 109 1 10 1 Fantasie Sonata Op. 101 B-flat Major Sonata Op. Prefatory Remarks F-Minor Sonata Op. into its parts and members Characterization of the same Penetration into the details Consultation with others Above all.Major Sonata Op. 31 D-Minor Sonata Op. ioj} Pathetique Sonata Op.. 27. 3 C-Major Sonata Op. Fantasie Sonata Op. 53 F-Minor Sonata Op 57.104 D-Major Sonata Op. 27. 28 G-Major Sonata Op. 14 A-flat Major Sonata Op. Les Adieux Sonata Op.


I seek as readers for my little book those young people whose susceptible hearts have already been strongly moved at times by the harmonies of Beethoven. had retained faith and youth. an intimation has been awakened of the primal tones.THE READERS OF THE BOOK. of high thoughts and mighty deeds. Therefore are these youths allied and pledged to him who. was struck a blow by destiny which would have destroyed anyone else in his profesworking for justice this the master's heart . I would desire for my circle those pure-hearted youths. who in the midst of a bubbling love of life and happiness of activity. in whom. and has found assuring themes. But I would also desire those who have not yet recognized. trusting and yielding with childlike simplicity. which they strive to grasp. or in the confident and freedom of men and peoples. those that have been uplifted by these tones which have been heard like voices of prophecy from early youth tones so new and strange and at the same time so primal and so intimate with our soul life. even to his last bed of pain. there blooms another life full of imperishable fragrance. the divine reflections which all tone-poets believingly adhere to and seek after. at the hearing of Beethoven's themes. but which have never been revealed to anyone more often or more powerfully than to the master. are gladly deceived and enticed because they divine in the deceptions of the poets hearts for the eternal truths which are worth more than cold and destructive to those sophistry. its praiseworthy but dead industries. I would desire those youths who still have open ears and ONE wonder tales of poets in word or tone. Woe who are inaccessible to such happy de- ceptions! Therefore I would wish as readers those youths who still retain the belief that. primal melodies which constitute for our art the eternal. its sophistic and never-satisfying ends. inexhaustible source. in the midst of the drifting dust of everyday life with its duties and poverties. For all has beaten. who. who writes a book thinks occasionally of those whom he might desire as readers. but have heard of this wonderful man. to their own delight and that of their hearers. whether they manifest themselves in the eye of love. in tones or words or pictures.

than over a hundred who have never been endangered. of. and where to become acquainted Let them but gather courage gratified! For with themselves and with their longings. Who. trivials. my most welcome. yet in the midst of all distress he never loses his love for humanity. leading upon path which they originally desire for life in art can be their alone longed for. I have found this often enough in my and though none of us teaching. to not yet belong privilege to lift them with to guide them by a happy and the out of brambles. or deception have caused this turning away. there lives a representation of that enrichment and elevation of existence which on. or possibly have never seen it. cut off from the comforting play of his art. I desire those who. history whispers to us the secret that his tortures were the source and the inspira- tion of all his deepest revelations. Indeed. those who. indeed. So I desire also those who for one reason or another have strayed from the path of It pure art. hesitate.y art accomplishes. have lost sight of that luminous summit. In conclusion. in every soul not radically turned away from art. nor his consciousness of a high calling. when this report has reached him. History represents him as shattered. relaxation. honored guests will be from . This representation lives in every soul which thus wasting time and taste upon knows nothing only has not entirely grown cold. whose fraternity he longed for. that there will be more rejoicing over one who has been lost and is found. then. directed to has no use for. as will every earnest teacher had ever tested it. then a word spoken in time will awaken the loiterer and remind the erring one. They do and eternal truths. sion.12 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. which art. and finally content themselves with empty play in the low bushes by the wayside. even though it may be manifested If temporary forin indistinct sketches and paling colors. a What the master. either through errors of their own or through erroneous guidance of others. doubtful and not comprehending the mysteries and enigmatic words of the master. falter. powerful hand the them word onward. we would nevertheless not doubt the power of Truth and of true being. reeling under the stupefying stroke. can deny himself entrance into this mystic world? has been written in past ages. and never ceases to work faithfully for it. separated by invisible and unbreakable bonds from communion with man whom he loved. He is burdened with the curse of undeserved and unavoidable mistrust and misdeed. getfulness.

Indeed. "A few are celebrated others deserve to be. is not locked up in one. and how we are placed: many bound to deprivation from the lowest steps of fortune's ladder and poverty. creep reluctantly into our circle. are burdened with professional duties tionship. holy shrine. and concentration for study which requires not only these. again. and really act upon it. not ^Eschylus. the most proficient as well as the most humble. Consider how we teachers have come together. who ever finishes learning? this. means. They tire art. however. to whom before an entirely different career seemed allotted the splendor of a path of virtuosity. the realizahowever." When a composer is not sufficiently recognized. honored men among teachers. who dare not evade instruction and close their ears to the word of instructors. How can either of these obtain time. it does not always follow that he was at variance with the art.THE READERS OF THE BOOK. but also strength and courage! Many a one has come stealthily into our circle. and that the most remarkable teachers remain forever pupils. from which merit does not always relieve them oftenest only merit and good fortune bound in a mystical relaOthers. nor would wish to. The appreciation tion. through the intoxicating applause of concerts. 13 the ranks of teachers. he had become tired of such outer flitting life and was obliged to consider the wavering in- come. banish himself . again. And is then the absence of success really a failure? Lessing has said. as was the experience of Mozart and Beethoven. times from his fatherland? became worse. until. is more difficult for many of us. of this is comparatively simple. they are the true. and the full as in a know that through art we are brought into brotherhood that none can do without the other. seldom. those who have a sufficiently high conception of their art to realize that the en- perception thereof. more often it shows that he was not Did willing to buy sympathy by policy. which strews heavenly manna. artists and though placed teachers. of all kinds. Others. can be nothing more than co-workers in the one common cause. earthly bread and a hundred others in our fair Germany. away from the most delightful of all pleasures the impetus to creative work. Such impetus and desire throbs on in the heart even though the hope of youth has been deceptive. lest they fall from their calling and reduce themselves to povThose who recognize erty. when the. those honored men who are not too proud or too set in their ways to listen and be taught. but that we all.

like the dead letters of words. by means of the piano. Notes. The essential thing is to conceive of his creations in his spirit. how binding. Unto such readers and their friends. in order to lay open the live contents of his works. and if this sympathy is wanting. for no one who has even a conception of art would be satisfied with simply playing the notes. full soul-life is recan easily see how little dependence the composer flected! can place upon all conceivable signs and words. Only single hints can and should find acself as cess here. THE CONTENTS OF THE BOOK. How many of these are necessary or beneficial to each individual person cannot be anticipated. Of what avail are the few intensity marks from fp to ff> compared with the inexpressible shades of tone which are not only possible. to find courage and modesty and power to press on that is truly worthv of honor. Likewise we require no proof as to the need of such a work. and to express them according to his thought. but to that of Beethoven's works in particular. he may . but which really manifest themselves in rich numbers in every inspired performance! How uncertain. manifest only inadequately the spirit of the composer. too. are the verbal directions of time. he must depend upon the completing sympathy of the interpreter. enslaving. amid the whirl of life. even if he were to paint his paper nearly black with them. After all that he may possibly We have written down. as a!l depends upon the degree and character of the general preparation for pianoforte playing.14 INTERPRETATION OF BEETffOl'EX. Therefore. he would desire to reproduce the thought of the composi tion. A general essential knowledge as well as the necessary virtuosity is taken for granted. In how far it complies with the general rules of expression. this little book offers itan adviser and guide in the mysteries of Beethoven. Thus the real purpose of the book is not to present a work directed to the study of interpretation in a general sense. and in what degree it goes above them requires no explanation every intelligent reader will observe that of his own accord. in whom free. and inappropriate to circumstances and conHow far do they and ditions are the metronomic indications! the metric relationships fall short of the varied play of emotion of the enlightened interpreter.

then. but the real thought of the work of art may be manifested. and from childhood instinctively developed. Hereby is designated the twofold mission of every study of interpretation. but the particular contents of the work and the means for its outward manifestation must be truly recognized. Hummel. Mozart. . instrumental. Those who are drawn toward this sympathy and this toneplay are prepared for these works. Where not suffice. site is this requineither nor instruction can serve to make wanting. in order to reach above the bounds of self. or else a re-echoing of flitting and indefinite frames of mind. attained to idealism and became the exBefore this time they had pression of determined ideal thought.THE CONTENTS OF THE BOOK. They require the same because their contents preeminently. it must be developed and elevated. in him. but he not understood what I have wished to say. At the same time it becomes clear for what reason Beetho- works particularly require a guide to their interpretation." observe. are of a nature peculiar to themselves. The peculiar content of Beethoven's style manifests itself in the fact that through his works. The purely subjective conception may suffice only when the work of art is within the limits of thought and expression common to all. the subjective feeling no longer suffices. 15 "He has not felt. and much more than the works of other masters. as the work when it is no more common to expression of a more particular character. and more particularly pianoforte music. Chopin. with the exception only Mendelssohn. in which each one understands and can make known what lives in all. has played all correctly from the notes. justly sigh. however. such as Haydn. which are consecrated to both. We wish also to have assurance that the natural feeling will lead to the desired end. however. but demands the As soon. that all depends upon the perception of that which could not have been written down. The foundation for all this We susceptibility for artistic representation must be inborn. and therefore of art rises above this generality. that not the simply subjective or casual sensation of the interpreter. all. and beyond to the work of art which must be perceived and represented. and nearly all the others of a few works of John Sebastian Bach. Dussek. been (with a few exceptions of Bach) only a graceful play of tone figures. a nature which is not reached by a general subjective feeling as would suffice for the pianoforte works of ven's other men. does vital that which is lifeless. script Natural talent alone.

or rather forming its principal substance. a. All these lead up to one another. again it grows out of its puniness into a bass theme. Chopin. works itself continually about. Take. Haydn and Clementi The lead into Mozart. I shall consider here more minutely what I sought to do only in a general way in the other work. however short Clementi may fall. and we find principally formal development. . Weber. Hummel. without thorough training and careful preparation. b. however. Wcelfl. If. they cannot grasp them and present them comprehensively unless they comprehend their contents clearly and definitely. Beethoven's Life and Work. distinguish themselves from the large majority of all others. d. It would prove impossible to attain the com- excites prehension of such a work (and the majority are like it) by depending only on one's talent. and Thalberg (and their number might be extended). reharmonized. one who has made Thalberg his own has essentially mastered Henselt. individually different character of Beethoven's instrumental. although each one asserts more or less indiOne who comprehends Dussek will not be a stranger viduality. Mueller. and Moscheles then appear as forerunners of Mendelssohn. and more particularly pianoforte works. to Louis-Ferdinand.16 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. and finally twines itself throughout the whole mighty rich movement. and understanding them from his life and character. But how vastly is the form In what richly varied and thoughtful ways the musical ideas are used. Observe how the laid out! motive. and many others of the Mozart type. formthe first principal theme. very characteristic thoughts appear in the work. explains the reason why the works of other masters do not serve as a preparation toward the study of these.* But even such of Beethoven's works in which no ideal content can be traced. for example." There my efforts were directed towards recognizing the artist from his works. and stands in closer relation to the incomparably spirituelle Liszt as well as the genial Robert SchuI must be permitted to refer here and there in this *In order to avoid endless repetitions " work to my biography of Beethoven. 22 and 53. Now it little all the voices. E. the Sonatas Op. and interwoven! Let us examine the first part of the D-major Sonata Op. reappearing again in the subordiing nate theme. while nere I wish to depict the practical presentation at the instrument. in the same degree with which they tend toward developing each other. c-sharp. Liszt. In other words. Let us look further and we find Dussek and Louis-Ferdinand followed by A. and however distinctly different the peculiarities of these two Ger- may man masters may be. 10. (again with the exception of Bach) through the earnestness and endurance with which the master has developed them.

mann nestness the only o?ie 17 who has most often and in truth. 2. In proportion to the multiplicity of problems which Beethoven has solved. stands the number of works which a guide to interpreta- must reach. the . 27. are of lesser worth. such are: I. 4. 54. and gradually assume more determined character. 22. Op. E major Op. as the latter from those of Op. 53. it is seen that with him. but the gain is accordingly high and rich. 8. No. 132. The Symphonies i. Each one from this incompletely combined list 109 to in. makes peculiar demands. Beethoven gives in the list of his works a many-sided probare lifted up lem. with exception of those of Op. 54. as they fall short of the quartet Op. reviewed from a Beethoven standpoint. the Fantasie Op. and yet find our- selves in a new world with Beethoven. 9. 59. 101. the Concertos. 7. At a hurried glance it would seem as though the works might be divided into classes according to their tendency toward (a) mere tone-form. We may know them striven after Beethoven in earall. into the ideal kingdom of art. one work does not even sufficiently prepare another.THE CONTENTS OF THE BOOK. it will allow toneplay and emotion to intermingle. Whoever has conquered one work by Thalberg has gained the mastery of the arpeggios of all his compositions. F major Op. Thus we tion might ascribe more of the tone-form character to the XXXII C minor. 120. 2. 28. (b) general feeling. and that the two former for more rapid classification might be disposed of together. 53 stand as far off from those of Op. and one who has learned to live in a few of Mozart's sonatas is equal to all others. 6. F-sharp major Op. with exception of the fourth. The Sonatas Op. the Sonatas Op. 18. rise above the Op. 10. guarantee by no means a comprehen- In conclusion. 77 indeterminate feeling might be attributed. we find that these and similar class divisions are not feasible. while to the Sonatas F minor Op. 90. Hardly any work will follow strictly one certain direction. and we gain through each work We (with few exceptions) a new and peculiar perception. 8ia. 22. Therefore we have no alternative but to go into the separate works so far as is necessary and practicable. As soon however as we go into them more deeply. the quartets. Not so with Beethoven. and therefore do not require inVariations in dividual guidance. 5. 78. about as 3. 14. 106. hence each work must be individually sion of the Symphonies far conceived. or (c) clearly defined ideal content. We may exclude such works which. 36. All Variations.

even these cannot all be considered. After a thing has been shown in one or more places. through the study of pure pianoforte compositions. must be awakened and strengthened. II. Only occasional reference to single ones of these will find room here.1 8 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. Apart from the length of time and space required for such an undertaking. Duos. III. also requires no directions. 6. All Concertos. However. and not allowed inactive by too much assistance. to become . Op. exception of the above named. C Minor). the student's own judgment must guide him in applying In other words. The Bagatelles and other little pieces. 36 (XXXII Var. and which certainly require no special guidance. nor can they be examined sentence for sentence. which certainly no one will undertake who has not worked up to them in a general way. works which 77. exemplary Variation-study No. his power of discrimination it in similar cases. 49. the Sonatina Op. the Fantasie Op. and Trios. the Sonatas Op. 79 on account of their slight value can hardly be called genuine. The principal subjects for this book will therefore be the Sonthe with atas. it would be neither necessary nor profitable.

requiring not only a thorough insight into the technical development of the pupil. and the formal practical instruction which may combine verbal instruction and instru- and mental representation. and that." since." as Beethoven himart. and even higher. in tech nically simple passages (as. instruction The many-sidedness is of this demand. to technique instead of to the ideal in the virtuosos* and the "clavier masters. and like mechanisms. They are those who have given themselves princiif not exclusively. i. One may be ever so thoroughly "practiced" in "tone-play. methods present themselves pression: THREE word ive for instruction in ex- the representation at the instrument. or light upon some unforeseen off difficulty which. They pally. . and always will be rare. Their spirit more often rises far above the wooden keys into representations of the orchestra. are characterized cert by their undivided attention to Etudes. and the fatigue of daily to the greater number of teachers the impenetrable teaching. seems to be the most satisfactory if we only had competent teachers everywhere in sufficient numbers instructors who are amply prepared for our purpose! They are rare. For a while. especially in his pianoforte compositions. hence it would be impossible to exact from each teacher that lifelong devotion to the study of Beethoven which this phenomenal man requires in order to be understood.METHODS OF INSTRUCTION." says Beethoven. too. conand salon pieces.. Ah. barrier to becoming familiar with Beethoven's sphere. 90). indeed. for example. but an intelligent analysis of so many composers. self names them in order to specify their technical aim. e. the instructeither oral or written. from those musicians whose standpoint lies outside of that realm. Many are incapable. others unwilling to follow him. The latter. and yet stumble in Beethoven. they do not find a place in the customary clipp-clapp mill of Etudes. according to the ""Thus each one grinds what he himself has made. long enough too. The demands upon a music teacher are manifold. example. the realm of thought. in the Sonata Op." feel himself ever so firm in the saddle. Beethoven's works were discarded by this circle as being not "pianolike. Therefore from the beginning to the present day Beethoven has had opposition. based upon and most true.

not among true musicians. nor earnestly labor toward its accomplishment. If the purpose might be judged of by the conception. but among people in general. these Sonatas serve them as excellent bravura and practice pieces. thought creating artist manifests in it. and will be discussed later on. purely theoretic instruc- and practical representation stand in an undeniably similar relation. Op. however. itself. through another but its in every performance of a work creator. the exciting and reviving power of the representation at the instrument. we must consider that of art. as soon as it comes to his hearing in its true sense. for Beethoven's spirit has become too powerful. so that they do yclept Etudes not offer a sufficient reward for the effort spent in mastering them. does not produce some startling or wonderful effect. nor often appear in the form of their daily food. 27 and 57. It is self-evident that such instructors cannot hope to lead to a ripeness for Beethoven. but not until the student has become ready for this study. Later on. This putting off can only be regarded as a sly escape in those teachers who neither determine what degree of preparation is required. in addition to all the other Etudes and concert pieces. The study of Beethoven is generally promised for the future." The most skilled pupils are then given the C-sharp minor and F minor is Sonatas." that is. As compared tion with actual instruction. is termed "thankless. 49 and 79. figure above all others. which cannot even be recognized as purely Beethovenish. two things work together. besides the C major Sonata. But excuses of the above-named character will no longer be accepted. One who has not played anything else of Beethoven has certainly played the "Pathetique. the thing We all know However. also now and then one or another set of variations. not. the so-called "Bagatelles" (Op. The work becomes a benefaction to the pupil. One gives advice and instruction without representing the other the exact opposite. the which the namely. Op. This only perfectly just. the Sonatas Op. some of which give such excellent examples of his artistic depth and of his spiritual strength. With the two first-named Sonatas. if they now and then rouse themselves out of heaps of other strange things and casually give themselves to the study of a few aimlessly chosen works. the "Sonata Pathtique" is played. and . 33). 53.20 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. the custom began of carrying the Beethoven Sonatas into concerts. Among such. language of the technicians.

Lastly. but is affected by momentary mood. is 21 not even desub- Mood and jectiveness cannot be excluded. . the subjectiveness of the performer. It does not presume to make rules. and thus a ruler work up in his artistic researches. we must add pure picture Think to this argument. Only in this sense does this little book wish to go out. it has the inestimable advantage over the other. instructing word can lead the reader only in so far as it convinces and conquers him. the speed of every musical execution. 101. and thought-pictures crowd toor two quarters of an hour in which a Sonata Op. the attentive hearer point whereat theoretic education aims. thoughts. Knowing that we may never expect to obtain a of the work from the performance of it. it must be with it. of how many in At the is drawn to the thought of the him rather than his own thought and and follows performer. and phantasy and strengthening them. The guiding. If. reason. it does not care to rule. Or else these will sooner or later lead him to the best. I still would not know a word of the Sonata Op. I have strengthened reason and phantasy by the one Sonata. and should impress it on my mind ever so firmly. this method powerful enough to demand of the pupil the completion which it has had to leave unfinished. but freedom must rule the whole being Therefore man must be free. and this is to art the most important. Indeed. for the same reason that human worth and worth of a nation are inseparable from the conditions of freedom. one gether 101 or 106 hastens by. but to make the pupil independent. 106 ever so thoroughly. does not press upon him with the authority of the teacher bending over him. This is the essential thing in every branch of instruction. while on the other hand. inclination. on the other hand. It does not hold the to him in absolute conception. For art cannot be ruled by will of others. purely theoretic instruction has an advantage over all others. and remains the essential thing whatever may have been the method of instruction. in that it grants to the pupil freedom of spirit and of decision.METHODS OF INSTRUCTION. that knowledge will be of alone is of that service in all others. feelings. and our gain becomes still more doubtful. feelings of others. and au- thority over others. The latter terminable. no matter how conscientiously one strives to subordinate one's self to the idea of the work under consideration. in that it awakens the calling them into action pupil's spirit. Purely theoretic instruction is devoid of all the charms and advantages of representation. If I should hear the Sonata Op.

The work of art its must not be delivered over. however thoughtful and comprehensive they may be. Its revelations. the various colorings ing of expression. And this can be accomplished by verbal instruction. . have only one means of expression namely. For the true sense of freedom requires that man shall be free through his own reason. It has been proven to be absolutely impossible to make known in words the fine vein-work of the stream of life which in reality is ever changthe constant modulation of accents. And words do not penetrate into the vitality of a work of art. it must not be made palatable for the performer. It is true that simply theoretic instruction carries with it an impediment by no means to be overlooked. but it must be illumined out of inner self. However. offers its contents only as guide and inspiration to individual observations and reflections. the real soul-life of the composition. released from the network of darkness and of blind impetus and volatility. Thereby it hopes to bring a twofold freedom from foreign authority and release from the release bonds of subjectiveness with its moods and caprice. and made strong enough to accept it.22 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. in short. the word. this is by no means intended or desirable. but the spirit of the interpreter should be elevated to it.

No one could think of using them as a means of becoming a pianist. While his earliest works resemble those of Haydn and Mozart. for the development of general technique. is to be well in the way toward the acquisition of all the rest. We ought not to find fault with this. for the reason that this peculiarity is the newness and . The important question is: What amount of preparation must be demanded? And the answer must comprise both technique and spiritual development. It is self-evident that the study of Beethoven cannot be undertaken without considerable preparation. To have conquered a passage of Thalberg. as we have been taught to expect from almost all other piano composers. for example. but the gain. both technically and through mental development. as his works are entirely artistic.PREPARATION. but would be decidedly impracticable. before he can undertake these works. and a few of Hummel or Chopin. 90. Mueller. Cramer. or the E minor Op. such a plan would not only be unworthy of the master. 106) he seems to go even beyond the highest demands which the modern piano school exacts of technique. while in Beethoven nearly every new sentence brings with it new technical demands. in that case. Liszt. in his later ones (for example the Sonata Op. but to rejoice. even in the generally simple passages. there is sufficient material provided in the works of ers. and a hundred othAgain. These peculiar difficulties are the more noticeable from the fact that Beethoven seldom or never repeats these technically important moments in other works. Indeed. Moscheles. Clementi. we find here and there unforeseen difficulties which go far beyond the general demands of the whole (technically speaking). would be very slight. It is essential that the player be above all things a musician. Just what degree of technical preparation is essential to Beethoven may not be so easily determined. no one who is musically undeveloped would undertake the study unless perhaps he might be urged on by the reputation of the composer. and besides. 2. Technique. the A major Sonata Op.

hence their greatest daily efforts are spent in the accomplishment of this.24 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. With him the accompanying figure and passage of necessity go forth from the thought of the work. and as each transcriber chooses the passages familiar and pleasing to him. while so shake up the kaleidoscope of their ures in order to appear to conjure a new picture. and a Moscheles. must not be contented with waiting for virtuosos! As each one can learn to read and love his Goethe. though for a long time himself a concert player. But it would have been a lamentable circumstance for him and for us if we had been compelled to wait for these virtu- osos. No. and with earnestness. up to the present time very few concert players and virtuosos have manifested intelli- gence for Beethoven's works. with virtuosity and highest intelligence. transcripreminiscences." He was even of the opinion that increased mechanism in pianoforte playing would finally banish all truth of perception from music. The constant appearance of new difficulties has led to the assertion that only virtuosos are able to perform Beethoven's works. uttered in the comparatively innocent epoch of a Ries. borrowed from operas and folk songs. Ries. Not so Beethoven. This system is best set off in the arrangement of compositions of others. without awaiting declaim* Beethoven's letter to F. a Hummel. made Beethoven the center of his musical representations in crowded concert halls. They are arbitrarily brought together. intelligence and emotion generally run away from these gentlemen. Apart from these (as has also been remarked by Schindler). leaving very little time for other thought. The very vocation of virtuosos proves that their aim is to shine technically. regardless of the lack of inner relationship between them. things (Allegri di bravura) as they indulge mechanism too greatly. Czerny. who for years has. The one was in Beethoven's own lifetime." These melodies. and must therefore be formed according to the variety of the general content.* a thought which." I am no admirer of these . are intertwined with the necessary passages. the other is Bulow. Beethoven. said of virtuosos that "with agility of fingers. he unconsciously and unavoidably falls into the habit of repetition. tions. 1823: "To speak frankly. we rings over into our times with the power of a prophecy. to the work of presenting Beethoven to the lovers of art. July 16. many other composmannerisms and fig- ers only individuality of all of these works. which are sent out under the name of "arrangements. who studied and performed the works under the master's own direction. for only two have devoted themselves constantly.

From the spiritual as well as from the technical side. 45. Let me begin with the four-handed marches. 28. Though we may for the present be obliged to dispense with the technically more difficult works. because every player displays a different degree and direction of virtuosity. 90. If. we need not deprive ourselves of the simpler ones. nor can he suddenly arrive at this maturity.. inspiration. so each one. Op. 81. He hastens over them. 14. They do not arouse and fascinate his love of thinks for he they can be finished as the other things playing. 28. 54. Let us then not wait for virtuosity. 22. by D of spiritually more accessible works. 109. 13. which have heretofore occupied his time. in so far as he is able. 109. One may be able to comprehend the more intelligible works. such as Op. in a measure at least. or. loi. 7. 27. and through which alone he can approach the spiritually higher ones. and love. then. If these performances can be accompanied by discussion and analysis. we must undertake this. 54. and the Sonatas. Indeed. 10. 53. etc. works. 22. a technique which extends from the Haydn-Mozart standpoint into the very latest demands. or else refuses them and forgets his spiritual education. 27 C-sharp minor. and the XXXII Variations in^C minor. go. 7. 57. and yet by no means have a conception of the deeper works. 33. 31. familiarity with the inner thought must follow. which must be attained through gradual development. but in order to cultivate early the necessary development. but a proach is what so many neglect soul of the into the and demands devotion. he will apparently finish them quickly. It must not be overlooked that this method of grading them can only be a very general one. rather. For this reason the . 25 ing actors and rhetoricians. 31 minor. and no. 53. And if he cannot do it at once.PREPARA TION. an experienced player were to begin with these works which technically have become simple to him. the Bagatelles. ought to play his Beethoven. Op. very living means complete abandonment. 14. Beethoven's works present the appearance of regular progressive order. It has been mentioned above that Beethoven's works are progressive from a technical standpoint also. 26. Op. but let us approach Beetho- ven as soon as possible. 2. not only for the purpose of enjoyment. in. 2. 106 will follow in technically increasing order. This gradual apit is not a learning. is unable to appreciate such works. no. let him call in his more skillful friend to repeatedly play what seems coo difficult for him to master. such as Op.

81. in. But let us assist him who is needy of advice. and leading on to the highest. the Sonatas Op. One who desires to approach Beethoven ought not to be prevented from so doing. 22. 54. After the Marches Op. 119. The essential thing has been to cast away the extravagant demands of technical preparation. with interspersing of " the Bagatelles Op. 120. Where inclination and desire for mental development would inspire a love of the study of Beethoven. 36. which might comprise Op. would lead on to grade three. and in their place to indicate the means of development within the Beethoven circle. deception and loss of time are not so detrimental as are discouraging refusals and monitions which destroy individuality and therefore power and confidence in However that may artistic success. 106. and those under one Opus number (for example. As a second grade. 90. the four-handed "Polonaise Concertante" (the Finale of the Triple concerto Op. might follow in this grade. 13. 7. For also from a spiritual standpoint. 28. the Bagatelles Op. 101. works have not been presented fully. 2. And he can be assisted if he is directed to such works which are within his sphere of thought. 2. It has been admitted above that a certain amount of spiritual development is essential in order to study Beethoven with success But what degree of development? and who can cultivate the same? Who will be the searcher of hearts in these regions? I think that the pupil rather than the teacher or other guide ought to be first listened to. 31. the splendor of Beethoven's name). as has been said before. and the 32 Variations No. Beethoven's works follow upon each other. to grade two might be added the Septette. 45. 56) would be useful in grade one. He may be deceived. 10. ." the 26.26 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN.) have not even been separated according to their self-evident differences. be. beginning at the most comprehensible. 33. 31. 27. 78. the first and second Sonatas Op. 57. Opus 14. and the so-called Deniere pensee. Spiritual Maturity. 14. but by no means to be undervalued. his desire for study may be inspired by external mo- tives only (for example. 10. An aspiring pianist will at all events never give UD his technical studies. 53. besides the Variations Op. no. 109.

PREPARATION. and to grade three the 27 for four hands. in which. . 5. symphony. symphonies 8. arranged might be given to technically accomthe exemplary arrangement of Liszt. But fore. 4. 3. like the technical order mentioned beonly serve as a hint and as a foundation from which every no absolute rule can individuality must assume its own place be given.. through arbitrary addition of the third and fourth discant octave. * Care should be taken not to stray to Hummel's and Czerny's arrangement.* the fifth plished students in hands. the orchestral character of the tone poem deteriorates into mere piano clatter. for two this grading can. This has been said in order to acquaint those readers for whom this has been especially written with the nature of the book.

played "with motion" (Allegro con moto). however. WITH can it whatever degree of preparation we may approach Beethoven. nor be considered a reproach to the school of technique. that is evident from the thousand of etudes. which already exist. formula: we find for example. they be called whose aim is.BEETHOVEN'S INSTRUMENT. This can not be otherwise. flexibility and power which is required for end pianoforte playing in general. . because every individual composer. in view might be called Methods and exercises with this the elementary technique it is There is. Op. passages. the following accompanying loco m which according to the superscription of the must be sentence. This portion of technique as unlimited as musical form itself. In Beethoven's is Sonata. but which never satisfy the demand. 90. The great object of technical development is to give to arm. like Beethoven. etc. we will constantly encounter passages which require further practice. by means of might art-aspiring studies special tone-forms (accompanying-figures. a series of studies indispensable. for the left hand.) to develop and enlarge the general facility. of necessity brings forth new tone figures. hand and fingers that carriage.

and. to be sure. . A particular instance of this. has given to But also the his instruments more resistance and plasticity. which the technical preparation has not given sufficient development. c sharp-e. the highest composer for the pianoforte. at Beethoven's advice and request. This is only an example. piano. (so states Reichardt. especially in relation to the otherwise universal technical simplicity of the of which we find many. To be sure.* Some of the Beethoven difficulties arise from the difference of the instruments which we use today. this difficulty might easily have been avoided^ Beethoven might have written thus *The above that he did not write is figure " and that would have been simple. and which must be studied in its individual place. easy tone and action. too easily yielding and rebounding roll of the other Vienna instruments. not therefore was He power." Streicher instruments fell far short of the measure and deep action of the keys of today. and not to be keys. But where would there have been the transparency of the original figure. Beethoven was dependent upon the old Vienna but little depth and grand. with perfect equality of tone. and. and those which he wrote Our better instruments have broader and deeper falling for. which had light. "Streicher. to passage. discussed here. it is nevertheless evident that many demands were more easily complied with in the old instruments. 1809) has departed from the soft. d-f sharp) and the exhilaration which comes to the player by this very difficulty? Beethoven was not the man to deny the spirit which guided him for the sake of the fingers. be over the mechanism) may (with English technical even for Beethoven's music. satisfied from this direction. where the clear tonality and the flowing of the tenths (B-d." he. 29 but at the same time. is afforded in this passage *JL one of those which have caused the " Klavier masters " to say of him Klaviermassig. However great the advantage of the modern instruments old Vienna grand. the advantages of which are well known. The rendering is not without difficulty.BEETHOVEN'S INSTRUMENT.

from the Finale of the C major Sonata Op. which. there would be no other way but to change. this consideration must still not withhold the truth. and We would legato. However. Beethoven has written for the right hand. pianissimo. for easy-going and less conscientious natures might easily become the signal for further changes. glissando legato.. It would seem that to carefully fulfill the three conditions.. . and is not so difficult on the old instruments. The octave pro" " gressions are to be executed Prestissimo as well as pianissimo. movement.INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN in =ff m . for the left \ . of this suggestion. . . 53. prestissimo. and by means of slurs has determined the This can only be accomplished wjth a gliding. the fingering \ t . while with ours it seems nearly impossible. then play thus E'-iE -Ez=ii=y-r ^^rP ?gE f I well recognize the dangers sacrificing the deep bass octaves.

BEETHOVEN'S INSTRUMENT. or at least would compel the percussive effect ("pondre"). many exception. used several times. as one of the greatest players. Allegretto moderato. I may add with full conviction. is an authority in matters of technique. that to me at least. 31 without which the passage is uninterpretable. ^^^ . perhaps. This figure likewise presents itself in the Finale of the same Sonata in the first tempo. > P r at r . Besides. after years of experience with Beethoven's works.^ . who. no passage haspresented itself which was impossible to express. of a single figure.4. the above rendering is supported by the approval of Bulow. with the Finally.

care the single string. They have but one movement of the soft pedal which brings the hammer from three strings upon two. stands nevertheless unques- tionably the avantage which these have over the others. to be sure." "tutte 106. shall not be pointed or bitten off. Op." This double movement upon the different strings. and that might easily be remedied. for example.32 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. which originate partially in the construction of the new instrument. is nevertheless easily combined with the modern construction of the instrument. but not however. of English mechanism. especially in the deeper tones. Opposed to all these little difficulties. is more easily brought desirable durability. quick execution. and can This even be added without difficulty to finished pianos. but the omission of single trill tones can hardly be perceived." "duendo. A similar thing (only for one measure) occurs in the so-called Menuett of the D major Sonata Op. both with double soft pedal movement and most It is essential to demand this arrangement from piano manufacturers. in the Sonata " unacorde. out of tune. 1 and in J to play it so that the tones which fall together with the trill the original. The latter brings about an entirely peculiar tone character. various ones of his deepest passages. so indispensable to certain tone effects. which. arrangement has no defect as to durability. Here again the exact ren- dering must have been less difficult on instruments of older construction. especially in rolling. Formerly I played for years an English grand built for Prince Louis (therefore before 1806) and now I have had in my possession for more than twenty years an excellent Breitkopf & Haertel grand. but shall stand forth smooth and quiet. an additional one (through deeper pressing of the same pedal) which brings it upon one string. . and has carefully written corde. and is by no means a mere assistance Beethoven has depended upon this in for pianissimo playing. and perhaps also in other passages. Only one defect is seen in most of them. even for Beethoven. 10. and to treat with greater assiduously.

as far as possible the same succession of fingers. and whatever other general and practical rules there may be. then lightness and fluency of melody. there are others more favorable for Indeed. Even beside the well-known finger order for the major scale. because many different ends may be The most important is availability in general. so far as necessary. we may recognize that simplicity and proper sequence of fingering simplifies the practice. cannot undertake here Let us first consider his fingering. the habit of giving his pupils as many as four different fingerings which they are to practice. that we must have for each successive key that finger available which is most convenient for it. One of our most excellent teachers and players has. that. and since his time. then furthering of the particular expression. the advantages which reach beyond Bee- thoven's standpoint would certainly be mistaken appreciation. but after his purpose. advisable that each one decide in favor of some fingering. THE To undervalue technique of pianoforte playing has attained. and one fingering destroys steadiing. we must not strive after his Outward means. and must use the best means available. a high degree of perfection. when it becomes necessary. without giving one or the other the preference. the pecially second) from one key to the following may seem desirable. next in order comes ease and certainty. however. It is. especially in Beethoven. It is well known that there are few absolute rules for finger- perhaps none at all. that we must use. to thoroughly treat this subject. decisive. . We We will important for the representation of his works. up to Beethoven. There may therefore be more than one fingering for the same sentence. in the technical preparation. must have preceded the study of Beethoven. ness in the other.* Finally. in order to feelingly indi* This remark is not unnecessary. only touch those points which are particularly and those only in so far as they are indispensable. transference of the same finger (esspecial passages. lastly even the construction of the hand of each individual player requires attention. as that which may be difficult or impossible for one hand may be simple for another.BEETHOVEN'S FINGERING. because otherwise there is much time and energy wasted. in the same motive.

in the illustration from the D-minor Sonata. simplify things by adding fingering. vidualize the tones at once with certainty and the finest gradations of intensity or expressiveness. so must they be for Beethoven's tone poems. let it be distinctly understood that these and other departures are not advantageous to a pianist whose insight and skill in fingering are not yet firmly determined. we find the following progressing downwards at A and upwards at B: In the -AttV' *- ^' ''I SI"*'*!"'*"** * 7 "" S 1 I ^S * 1 SI _ - S I - =f EE=ti tzrripxijtn *An example of this may be found on page 36. or at least fell far behind. In such cases we would be acting in opposition to the thought of the master were we to resort to his means instead of better ones. as Beethoven consideration at every new attempt.* Once for all. Op. must be an important the more so. TRANS. which consist throughout of the finest sentiment. the clear insight into sequence of fingers.34 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. . But players at least not for of this class are not yet ripe for Beethoven those works which sary. If make departures of such a character neces- how much more such variations are admissible for every other composition. One-voiced Figures. as the means for success and expression. figure A-major Sonata. a followed deeper impetus than technical considerundoubtedly at the close of a composition. Now for a few examples: i. 2. first measure. attempted to when and he. See the fingering in brackets of the d chord. and are determined by the most manifold contents! Here again the fingering. he more often fell short. ation.

he has for example. very difficult. and for small hands hardly possible. At first. Czerny* calls the left hand to assistance and this thereby obviates the difficulty entirely. in the first movement of the B-flat major Op. as it stands. Whether or not the indicated himself is not known.BEETHOVEN'S FINGERING. instead of as at B. It stands out lighter and with better quality (it is marked piano and leggiermente) when * Klavierschule. while he gives the left hand rests. To Beethoven manner of playing must have been known. he writes thus for the right hand. no (Moderate. same manner of playing in the first movement of the A-flat major Sonata. in order to bring out the passage (Allegro and He requires the piano} with greater certainty and lightness. The passage is nevertheless very readily played in this manner. measure 12 of the original edition of Schlesinger). Op. The fingering was added by Beethoven execution is. Sonata. . The tempo is 35 Allegro vivace. Part 4. (A). thus himself written. however. 106 (page 8 of the original edition by Artaria).

Beethoven thus of indicating. the left hand to share it.INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. and has himself further on written at least once. Op. Nevertheless. which is so much more satismanner this Perhaps the to player. Op. as above indicated. This alternate use of the hands seems desirable even in less difficult figures providing it adds to the spiritual interpretation. In the D-minor Sonata. the upper for the right hand) such movement would be favorable to a finer rendering. the second part of the first move- we allow ment begins with these arpeggios. which (as the rests in the bass indicate) seem to be intended for who the right hand. But also for the exact opposite expression. may have been too cumbersome for him. as is indicated above (the lower fingering is for the left. the following ar- peggio figure bursts forth forte (measure 14): . and present no technical difficulties to the player is fully prepared for this Sonata. In the first movement of the F-minor Sonata. Here also the movement of the second finger (page 33) seems applicable to bringing the last tones out with finest feeling. from a continued pianissimo. 31. factory have or he may thought of the technique only this once. if the hands were to relieve each other. 57. this manner of rendering may be useful.

it is the progression in fourths. this must stand forth particularly strong and the in forte. the necessary steady power would be supported by else or third the with finger. 2. tempo allegro assai. use of both hands. According to the thought and character The renand striking. A trifle is yet to be considered here at the close of these propositions. each one striking with regular fingering. of the right hand. 37 of the movement. utmost strength in single-handed performance. Op. dering is not difficult.BEETHOVEN'S FINGERING. the advisability of which is not entirely agreed upon. '' m * 'i 'i i i i M ? I i 1 J 1 1 . in the trio of the F-minor Sonata. even the However. Rechte : Rechte I this form of representation is not fluent. Beethoven (or an unknown Players for whom will exert their person for him) has fingered this passage thus: Allegretto.

of the A-major Sonata. for three measures. and has thereby supplied the annotation for this Sonata. If we look at the would not beat variance with the character of the composihand the two voices proceeding in thirds. Op. Op. thus: 4 5 4 I 2 I 545454 2 I 2 I 2 I 545454 2I2I2I 5454545 2 I 2 I 2 I 2 beginning of the sentence. in thirds. and that the voice which forms the fourths enters later on. to whom this fingering may have seemed without foundation. 101 (page 16 of the original edition of Steiner). Czerny. more voices need for departure to be expressed with one from the fundamental rules of or. 2. to yield the hand. The playing of one-voiced . new rules are required fingering becomes greater. Two As soon as two hand. which are as authoritative as the simpler ones intended only for one-voiced passages in one hand. as belonging together and forming a foundation perhaps with It tion to refer to the left this fingering: and upper voice as the melodic one to the right For small hands this division and fingering (next to von Billow's fingering for the progression of fourths) seems most Beethoven has himself suggested it. we perceive that it begins two-voiced. has offered the following: 4 5 4 I 2 I 545454 212121 554543 212121 4543454 2121212 more simple and Biilow (in oral intercourse) has suggested a sequence.38 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. rather. in the Finale acceptable. the demand or or More Voices in One Hand.

as for a few examples for the simultaneous utterance. because the right hand gains freedom for the most delicate intonation of the mel- hand. the two keys d and Nothing seems more suitable than e to touch of the right hand. by of one hand. of two or more tones or voices. Beethoven has writ- A c. 28 (original edition by Haslinger. which would give a feeling of unrest and hardness to the touch. yet the transferring of the three tones to the left is shown at B. would be preferable. Op. wherever relieve the difficulties. 2. sentences sible. is 39 without doubt easier. because otherwise the outer tones of the upper and lower voices must be with the thumb sprung upon. b.BEETHOVEN'S FINGERING. the left hand has the following passage (A): . ten measure 2 and 3 as at example of this is given in 2. ow means In the first movement of the A-major Sonata. placing rests for the left hand. Although the rendering of this is very simple. Op. page 18). and therefore assigning the notes b-flat to the right hand. Op. the sec- ond part closes as follows: piano and pianissimo. which may serve as models for like passages. therefore. In the Finale of the D-major Sonata. it is pos- we must all hand which carries the chief from other A melody little the Adagio of the F-minor Sonata.

40 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. In the closing sentence of the C-major Sonata the left hand must be conducted thus: m < from finger plays successive white keys. and fortissimo. c-s harp f must be taken with the fingers 4 and 2. occurring four times. It is clear that the eighths must be taken with the fingers 432. . and (a b-flaf] the thumb likewise passes over the little two white keys. 22. a b. therefore the second finger must spring from d to e. measure 39. and also from black to white. If we wished. furthermore. Op. also moves white to black keys. and the inconvenient movement 4 2 from c-sharp to /would still take place. to shorten the tone a (as shown at B). In the Adagio of the B-flat major Sonata. a movement which would seem contrary to Beethoven's direction and intention. b-flat c. the little finger would be obliged to jump from a to b. finally. and.

This is not absolutely necessary. obliged to carry the entire upper voice. In the first movement of the D-major Sonata. meas- thumb is to be moved from f. Op. to giving 28.sharp to e . the use little finger manner of playing 4454. ure 48. thus: . since we might however. there is a passage for the right hand which cannot well be rendered otherwise than thus: the Likewise for the left hand. the fifth finger is to be slipped under the fourth. Op. it is more desirable than the apparently is more regular changing of fingers. and is more adapted each tone of the little melody the emphasis due to it.BEETHOVEN'S FINGERING. In the Finale of the A-major Sonata. 101 (page 14 in the original edition by Steiner).

from the same movement (page 13. A. Op. inke rr? where the second voice is introduced by the left hand and then taken up by the right hand. our attention must be directed toward those passages in which. 2. Op. A second example of this presents itself in the Finale of the B-flat major Sonata. 106 (page 44 of the original edition). in the leading through of several voices. either of necessity or in trill favor of expressive utterance. as is shown at B. Finally.42 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. An example of this presents itself in the Scherzo of the third Sonata. at the transition into G-flat major: . in order that the former may become free for introducing the third voice. Steiner edition): The might be interrupted. one of them passes from one hand into the other. The right hand requires a similar treatment in the following passage.

in the first measure given be- . the entrance of alto. which immediately repeats once. soprano. In this exquisitely delicate variation. 43 m I and still a third in A-flat major (page 46). not so the entrance of among the other voices. Op. Less comprehensible itself. low: a \tt\efugato) is plainly perceptible. and bass (it is the tenor.BEETHOVEN'S FINGERING. 120. The necessity is obvious at is the changing hands in the twentyfourth variation of the 33 Variations.

the left hand must venture upon the spring c-g. right into the midst of the other hand. :i In order not to blur the voices and to allow the tenor to enter clearly.44 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. . The second measure given above is simpler.

must carry on the play of figures in extended passages. HOWEVER p 0sers it great the progress of the new technique may be. More noteworthy (because more often is self-evident. no. more The difficult to execute) are certain 97. has. major Op. each of which. require. feudes and concertos are based upon this. ness. and in the attainment of virtuosity. 53. or most perceptibly. lightTo this end full control over the keyboard. and many others. certainty. as a Brilliancy and mastery on the part of the player single organ. through masses of tones. in the C-major Sonata. led toward treating the hand with the fingers more as a whole. B-flat major Trio. 106. also the so-called salon pieces.THE BEETHOVEN TECHNIQUE. Op. Op. All this is accomplished exclusively. the hand must be led over several octaves. Naturally the first aim of technique is to give to hands and fingers the highest attainable degree of velocity. through equality of rendering. thoroughly advisable in the first period of pianoforte playing. is melted into a whole. begins with this accompaniment: AUegro moderate. and at times forms of accompaniment. That this manner of playing is applicable also to Beethoven. may serve as examples. and the fingers first movement of the the A-flat major Soin of the trio Sonata. nata. opment. the long passages in the B-flat neglected. and power This develall elementary exercises and all etudes are directed. . in order to manifest themselves. nevertheless. Op. in accordance with the character of modern especially those of concert and salon com" compositions has been guilty of a certain one-sidedness. extensively developed runs and arpeggios. of necessity.

and with absolute. figures of the in which the passionate storm of the deeply agitated soul is still This accompaniment must be played with the perceptible. in the closing theme this is changed: the melody moves for twiceeight measures. it forms. This is not so easy. as it were. the ground work upon which the passionate melody develop themselves. in quiet. grand resignation above the continuing accompaniment. Op. the triplet accompaniment in the left hand must be played with absolute equality. _f ~~g~ ~T ==: * fL =f= % -% which must be rendered with absolute evenness of touch and power or. in measure 3. In the Finale of the F-minor Sonata.46 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. 2. as the little finger must keep equal pace with the thumb and two middle fingers. at the same time it must begin pp. However. utmost uniformity of movement and intonation (no tone rising above the other). evenness swell to a fortissimo up to measure 6. and end as follows: * . with crescendo. Prestissimo.

The melody here should be of winds. with a gentle crescendo to the first tone of the third measure.THE BEETHOVEN TECHNIQUE. then diminuendo. and then according to the indications given by Beethoven himself. and the following eight measures have the same treatment In the Trio (marked minor) of the E-flat major Sonata. Op. The melody lies as undefined as the inarticulate rustle in the simultaneous sounding together of the tones. in like manner repeated. two and three marks (=and=) greater degrees of intensity. 47 ^N^^f HT~^i * The single mark ( ) means a simple emphasis. The second part explains itself. these tone masses . the entire sentence might be interpreted by the words of the poet 'Mid rustling winds In quiet night. both hands have the following figure: Allegro 7. This again must be played with most perfect equality.

lies in the third measure. if there is any. Op. demanded. in the five repeated *fs. with a barely perceptible emphasis on the first and fifth sixteenth. The difficulty. which must increase in breadth very . to the satisfying of which this technique does not lead. at any rate. it seems even to a certain extent to lead away. In the first movement of the G-major Sonata. *=5^^gag^S5S^^j[g=i cresc.. by every teacher. * i 1 same time the first four harmonies and the first four of the melody. often in Mozart. The former i. but occasionally requires fa ess e of understanding and interpretation. requires to be played with expression. must be subdued and must flow evenly on- ward. So much will serve as an example (though by no means an exhaustive one) of the even play of the hands and fingers toward which the newer technique is principally directed. even one or more fingers in the same hand should be liberated and made independent in order to bring about a certain effect. 14. for example. however. e.INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. with gradual swelling of the four or five oTs. A stronger intonation of a melody in one hand. the accompaniment. and in every poetic and deep composer) it becomes necessary every moment that one hand yea. we meet entirely different demands. are at the moments on the contrary. The demand (taking for granted the skill of each hand for that which is under consideration) is is generally simple. In Beethoven (likewise in Bach. and is accomplished by every player. on the other hand. In Beethoven. the independence of one hand over another is simple. as compared with the accompaniment in the other. and a decreasing close. the speaking melody Allegro.

spectral nature of this poem will comply with the suggestion of playing the deeper voice still more softly than the higher one. while the left hand in similar movement does not change. and only then comes into the foreground when a certain composition requires it. 57. or difficulties. until near the end of the passage. Both hands have the same melody Allegro assai. but even that one finger may be sustaining a melodic tone. Op. it were. These means of expression depend. as If. the shadow of a shadow. in the newer technique. 49 gently. the little ringer may be able to use equal power with the third). for example. the means of outward expression will comply with the demands. An example of this is to be found at the beginning of the F-minor Sonata. without regard to means it is. In delicate passages the keys must not be struck. r|-r-j^ t*-^. analyze sentences of this kind. but must be touched with feeling. ==11 pp -1 2- K^J." t=t #- 3?' this melody must be renWhoever has penetrated into the mysterious. contents really are. of course. It is a peculiar thing that now and then it seems to be more in accordance with the idea to think the melody in one hand quite differently from that which is played. and make clear to yourself what the this is thoroughly mastered. on the contrary.THE BEETHOVEN TECHNIQUE. while the other This is a point which is very much neglected is playing legato. In order to become convinced of the necessity of this. the fingers must. simultaneously with the other. be prepared therefor. as to their various sets of voices. the same hand must supply different demands. . the tenderest feeling. upon the complete control of every finger and upon the constant thought and of playing. of necessity. while the other subordinates itself. or that one part of the hand may be playing staccato. not only in the sense that each ringer must be able to do as much as every other (so that. however. In intense passages. the . When watchfulness over the use of them. and dered legato and pp.

If the hand is bent slightly outward. The hand fingers must strike the keys with percussive power. the entire body of more or less fragile. -P D D- -V . and which may still require a bringing out of those tones which fall to the It is comprehensible that these departures from the normal balance of the hand must be used sparingly. At A "L. I first call attention to the beginning of the Andante from the G-major Sonata. all perceptible. must come to the assistance of the fingers. As soon as it becomes at little finger. its power favors the little finger. or perhaps to give them in strict time. be used very conscientiously. and only in case of absolute necessity. 53. and makes undermines. for passages which require a stretched-out and therefore flat position of the hand. when no other means are available. The characteristic is. on account of the more steep downward stroke thus produced. Occasionally. it it tone. and only by players whose technique is already established. If the wrist is lowered. Even a slight bending of the little finger in the upper joint may assist those who are able to accomplish this. 14. so to speak. and imperceptibly to touch the others a little after. In order to illustrate by simple examples. how many different kinds of touch are necessary in the simultaneous working of the fingers. at B they are to be bound together.INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. . with those of the accompaniment. however. The very same thing is seen in the first measures of the C-major Sonata. Op. all the fingers will respond with increased intensity. that in both cases the tones of the melody fall together. This last expedient should. Op. it even becomes necessary to move the important tones almost imperceptibly forward or backward. the fingers will fall straighter. if bent inward. The middle fingers are especially assisted by this. and the power of the hand will be lessened. the thumb is aided. If the wrist is raised. stroke for stroke.* " ~r - staccato the individual chords are separated from each other by rests and marks.

THE BEETHOVEN TECHNIQUE. 4. Here also. All tones falling on the same pulse must come accurately together. with Adagio sostenuto. 5. while at the same time a slight emphasis of the melodic tones is required. simply from the accompaniment. and 7 of the second measure. similar case. the that longer holding of the melodic tones will player. 5. a part of the accompaniment (three and two tones) falls to the right hand. A similar rendering is required for the melody when it meets. and 8 of the first. 3. In the eighths. but at the same time the melody must be intoned clearly and expressively above It must not be supposed by the the accompanying tone-mass. I. 2. 27. as in this instance i . ^ ttt tttt **mr * > rfi in addition to the melody. every melodic tone must be heard above the accompanying mass. and I. as also in other places. E-flat major. A Andante. Op. in the same hand. but they must be them distinguish madeclearthrough stronger intonation (again with moderation). a florid accompaniment. Allegro con brio and repeats itself in this passage. the most accurate simultaneous sounding together of the tones is essential. is found in the Fantasie.Sonata. 3. a little more difficult to render. In all instances of this kind.

and frequently in other places. Op. Similar passages are found in the Sonata Pathetique.).INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. Op. the melody enters and is carried far onward. 90: Nicht zu geschwind und sehr singbar. must be brought about very evenly. consequently. in which sympathy of expression and intelligence is maniThis must take place in every melody. The majority of players are contented with even playing and even strength for both tones. etc. But again. where after a little prelude of the accompanying voices. I will give only one more illustration from the second movement of the E-minor Sonata. lies is and in the upper voice (a. so common to modern one might say hammers out the virtuosos. in those also. fested. 27. The coming together of the tones in the right hand but they must not be uttered with the same intensity (as though \ S~*fy*P a \ were I g-sharpa. which brings out melodic tones with equal emphasis. it requires the change from principal to subordinate moments.' The melody sharp. but thereby the melody is drawn down into the sphere of the accompaniment. J to be played as octaves). rather with emphasis of the melodic tones. in which other tones enter in the same hand. from greater to lesser intensity. run- . cannot suffice. g-sharp. Every melody (with very rare exceptions) demands the elastic touch which is peculiar to the feeling and sentiment. g-sharp. the manner of playing. fsupported by the accompanying voices. of the C-sharp minor Sonata.

and the effect of the whole would be weakened rather than strengthened by a super- abundance of gradations of color. together with the nearest related voices. while the melody. like a whisper. and must be made expressive with suitable accentuation. This figure must be subdued. must be heard fuller. all events. two middle voices lead through the figure of sixteenths. fluency and unity of the whole suffer thereby. At lest too far in gradations of tone. To emphasize this upper voice over its adjoining voices would seem arbitrary. the uppermost and lowermost. we should not go : . 53 Between the pairs of voices. it must pass through with exceeding softness and evenness.THE BEETHOVEN TECHNIQUE. ning evenly on at the same time.

Life and Works. This is especially true of the Pathtique. but he had himself practiced it with delight. the interpretation of the Beethoven works. perhaps only in his works. with the wave-like motion." 3d Ed. and above all others. "a masterpiece of beautifully developed song. for he had not only learned from the great master Gluck. II. pliability. what tone singing is. he indicates thereby that beyond the representation of indeterminate sense and soul agitations (of which Reichardt has A and reheard When * " For further information see Beethoven. with a deep melancholy feeling which seemed to penetrate me also." Reichardt was particularly. and for many gestion made by Reichardt. this melting together of soul emotions. in order to recognize the same well-known work. Here the soul never becomes rigid. "The Adagio. in which the mood forms itself and makes itself manifest. page 104 f. F. he fairly sung on his instrument. a pupil.. BEETHOVEN'S MELODY. " It was the years a friend of the master.54 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. in Italy. In Beethoven's Adagio he again perceived this song. most comprehensive declamation which can be studied with the same degree of potency. in which the master performed the G-major Concerto.'' Schindler compares Beethoven's performance to a finished declamation. consider the noble old K." so relates Reichardt. Reichardt. nevertheless earwitnesses are not wanting who can enlighten HAVING us as to his manner first Let us of expression. reviewed the means. namely.* He speaks of an Academic (concert) given by Beethoven in 1808. and facility of the sympathetic voice. . 58. capable of appreciating this tone quality. Who could here be a better instructor than Beethoven himself? And though we can no longer listen to his playing. therefore to a conscious language of words. second earwitness appears to explain still further the sugSchindler. it constantly bubbles up and quiets itself amid the change of pressing on and calming. plainest. says of his playing. what this work became in his hands was so remarkable that one needed to have heard it. Op. we now approach the main subject.

and above all other voices. that penetrative insight which is directed toward the ideal and rests They lack that yielding and abandonment to the one determining idea which did not come into complete existence This refers to his until called there by Beethoven's creations. or if we could discover unnecessary repetitions and interpolations. conclusion could only be disputed. but sinks Section one (l) is (3) in quieter movement for one octave. and at the same time A few examples will show this. works as a whole. especially sideration. This. Indeed it is more comprehensive. is never the case. and the very opposite can be proven. spirit 55 had become master of all these the excited.BEETHOVEN'S MELODY. has eight measures of unbroken. independently He says that this of him. studied can be declamation Beethovenian perhaps only in his and us take Sebastian Let works. the clearly comprehending. There is radically different from the majority a certain external characteristic which can be tested before going deeper into the contents. spoken) an entirely assured emotions. The principal theme of the first Allegro of the Pathetique 3. mysterious fluctuations of the soul. determined. "perhaps" is under conmusic when pianoforte "absolutely". than other meloThis dies. will be changed into an and the from other masters. however. progressive song. Nearly all ness of a steady temperament. The thought. and determining spirit was the builder and finisher. in general. Beethoven's manner of speech is seen rather for to be conclusive throughout. have spoken) must be emphasized. if the contents were found to be trivial. that very reason is penetrative. more particularly. Yet another word of Schindler's (which I too. carries the main contents of the whole within itself. is The Beethoven melody of other melodies. The tonic progression rises actively for two octaves. Gluck. if indeed that term may be used to designate the voice which particularly. but is true even of the melody alone. were conditions and foundations. there. pianoforte compositions lack the earnestand also. . and repeats itself with a far leading transition in measure 8 of the repetition. and selections Bach. therefore must contain more and have more to say.

. up to the antith- esis. through the syncopated form.56 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. / T I I r P I I r / Vi I J SN j^^Ei^^^Egg^^S^ ^ Y J f | K""N I I -' . The E-minor Sonata. . but it is not a mere repetition. and the phrasing becomes more marked. .^ * . i. but a progression into the higher octave.a r-^4 /. into a decidedly complete period. builds its thesis. 1> r tf 1 . repeated (at 2). 90. Op.

Every- with exception of a few small works. To answer this. which it finally attains (Schindler). melody. examine Hummel's Adagios. in fact. for the soul pours out its contents in an uninterrupted current (Reichardt). strewing them in among dignified melodies. notations (page 14) cannot represent the subject exhaustively. ones. conclusive and clearly defined. and. the spirit. 31. In the above-cited passage of the E-minor Sonata these frequently very fine and half-concealed changes may be traced even in Beethoven's text. although he may not be accurate in his notation. Indeed. the player must not confine himself to single moments. Op. let us There we nowhere what takes place in agitated soul find indifference or coldness. and the searching out of them. we find these peculiarities which are indicative of the absorption out of which Each individual melody is a most importhe master created. Op. The very What means. In order to convince oneself of this by an opposite. in the entire first subject of the D-minor Sonata. are at the service of the player for such reprerealize life. - In this 4). Besides. and reveal the relation of each moment to the whole. then. at f nicety and apparent unimportance of this distinction (the passage is to be played con moto) testifies of the fineness and sharp definiteness with which the master created. and key change constantly. that every tone is called forth and permeated by the conscious spirit of the tone poet. in the first part and its repetitions (2. nowhere a . and in the Adagio of the B-flat major sonata. that therefore each tone must be felt by the player also.BEETHOVEN'S MELODY. 3. 106. strides on from one idea to the following where. pitch character of tone. at I and 3 it is marked as 1. in this place. sentation? then. Secondly. tant moment of the life of its creator. and must be reproduced in soulmanner. 10. onward toward its destination. he must observe how the same phrase at its repetition augments its ful significance. shall the player treat these melodies? First of all. its individual importance. he must press on to the inner relationship. Even the character of the upbeat varies. he must adhere to the conviction that there is nothing useless or empty. and observe the gayly festooned fiorituri which the finger-gnome of the virtuoso has placed in them. or is otherwise changed. The same characteristics 57 of conclusiveness and of restless pressing forward are shown in the Largo of the D-major Sonata. Op. 2 and 4 as J. They are not thoughts or inspirations strung together. How.

to prolong or shorten the duration of single tones. let only one thing be remarked here. and in the wave play of the various degrees of intensity. or the G-major Sonata. constantly has the effect of lingering. Establishing the intensity depends first of all upon the sentiment of the tone picture in general. it requires two or contrary. Op. a section. etc. into an indistinct and shapeless mass. more measures to form a complete unit. it seJdom is complete. f. for indeed movement and change rule movement of the restless and quieting emotions. must through intonation be made comprehensible beyond the Even the annotations rules would pulse. on the other hand. throughout and change of the determined will. More important observations will follow later. 14 cannot possibly be raised to the same intensity as would be suitable for the F-minor Sonata. in \ the first and third). principal and counter themes. the tone body would run. particularly the measurement of the degrees of intensity which seems to give expression to the rhythmic accents. Op. either letting go of its tension or being strengthened within itself. it were. all together. thesis and These members antithesis. or in . It is self-evident that a tender or light-spirited composition as for example the F- minor Sonata. Op.) the primary and secondary accent (in f the first and fourth. etc. Indeed. But rhythmic construction. so that the well-known cance in the suffice. or the B-flat major Sonata. on the ary. It is. while staccato has a tendency to a pressing forward. / and ff have an entirely different signififormer from what they have in the latter. and that the primary must be more emphatic than the secondA single measure is not always a closed whole. is by no means contained in metric progression alone. 106. as telligible. even though carried on in strict time. If this is indicated by tempo marking and through metric valuation (and it will be seen that both indications do not rule immutably). Legato playing. the player will still find opportunity enough in the varied gradations of staccato and legato playing. thereby forming the structure of the whole tone composition and making it inWithout this intonation. then. namely. which. 57. Op.58 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. These emotions reflect themselves in the movement or temporal relationship of the tones. standing still or letting go. must lie as clearly before the spirit of the player as the keys do before his eye. Of the movement. that we are to emphasize the first composite measure (J. 2. or rather before his play instinct.

Whoever understands composition must have full insight this tone formation.BEETHOVEN'S MELODY. it is not difficult for the instructed to recognize it. measures continues. The following i. however. The /' PI =fiz^=i=zife:z: -"hrC only that section 3 as a whole is to be more marked than section and that 4 should be less subdued than 2. therefore more sharply. Let us look back once more at the last illustration (from the E-minor Sonata). Of other means of we cannot speak now. only through and p for sections two and four. The four less sections. sections are to be piano legato. while that of the piano section is to be dwelt upon (J). and finds expression in the shortening of the tones marked with f. of two measures each. of intonation and intensity might be marked thus. therefore is to be made more The closing tones are formed in like manner. (^s tion begins with tender intonation. the upbeat for the forte passage is to be played staccato (^s /). Beethoven has designated them. lose a trifle of their value 1 or Each secJJ). They are ever. as is indicated in the last. less sharply formed. not the annotation of / for sections one and three. change tender. Only the last three tones of the last section . but also by the determined man- ner of playing. construction of 59 expression into the individual measure. according to the phrasing. according to directions. and closes 'diminuendo. (the p and therefore are subject of section 4 continues) and are to be to softer playing. are comprehensively determined and separated by rests. which. the coupling of Howtherefore.

be emphasized. making a pause by shortening the end tone. Beethoven has indicated these pauses (caesuras) through rests. then 2 and 2 measures (marked ff) stand forth.60 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. Casually another means has become visible. and had to depend upon the intelligence of the player) has annotated the closing tone of the first section (the first of the third measNow and then the construction lies ure) as a quarter note. for he could. unmistakable sections of 4 and 4. and are (according to Beethoven's direc- may tions) to be retarded at the same time. Two dangers must here be guarded against. 106. for illustrating the building up of the members. Wrfttzz&msi&^m although Beethoven (and justly too. but even without annoThe theme of the first sentence tations. hidden deeper. but also smaller forms (marked f ) might be made more distinct by shortening or by decreasing the vibration. let no one suppose that these rhythmic accents. and for releasing one section from another: that is. be played thus. they must be observed. In the first sections. in the following ones they are some- what pointed out through phrase marks. this melodic construction. He has followed the changing conditions of his soul. was the only determining force in the composer. in the Adagio of the large B-flat where. must of the Path6tique therefore. and which still are inadequate for defining expression. as for instance major Sonata. secondly. as his was a poetic . in order to define more distinctly the close of the long thesis and to lead to the antithesis. with exception of the first measure. Op. let no one attempt still to carry into the compositions the circumlocuitous annotations which serve here only for exemplification. in its first half. Firstly.

as strong pulse. and constantly belonging to the particular sentiment of the passage. The syncopation must receive emphasis because it is a repetition of the first c. intensification of power and movement are relative. for example. now hide and extinguish themselves. say. must be intensified. c. one might now press on. one. the tone series. For rising upward in the realm of tone. which. occasionally with violence. rising immediately from the emotions. Intensity marks have proved themselves serviceable to the sense of the composition as a whole. as it were. For these manifestations. In order. as though attempting to hie away unobserved. that is. the first passage of the Pathetique Sonata might be played. there can be no general law. and descending ones a diminishing of the same. the ordered rhythm which is the fundamental characteristic of all intelligent beings. ~b 7. every swell must begin with a weaker intensity than the preceding c received. and to the change of the rhythmic accents. They are useful also to those moments of feeling. passages leading upward will require an intensifying of power. are indicative of a quieting of the soul emotion. which. incalculable. and so a descent in the realm of tone. 61 it was under the sway of order. and because of its duration. a decrease of power and movement. and^ from here there must be another crescendo up to the highest ~c. and yet by no means all is indicated which must be observed in execution. and_out creasing tone series the strong pulses (/ and /) would need to be brought out with a slight emphasis. In most cases.* a verification of the assertion of page 14 in regard to the inadequacy of written rules lor expression Signs upon signs are heaped upon each other in the score. Both qualities lived and worked inseparably in the composer. Only one observation will often be useful often. After the first tone. The sentence ought to be marked thus: but the second part (from c) would need to begin and close with a greater degree of intensity than the of every infirs^. requires emphasis. synonymous manifestations of a more intense soul movement.BEETHOVEN'S MELODY. however. but not always. that amid a double intensification the emphasis of the first c may not be lost. entirely independent of the rhythm. is * This . In such a manner. ~e\f>~g> a-flat.

the first theme of the small F-minor Sonata (A) A ~==^~~~ s-^ B would be played with a crescendo to a-flat (with slight stress upon the first /). . ited vibratory power of the highest attempt is the string. of the made to intensify this power beyond capacity the tone. and then diminuendo. If the tones. The side theme (B) would be first e-flat played with a decrescendo. An is the limimportant consideration. However. fication of the vibrating will present themselves where intensi- power is not feasible. than the click of the hammer is more perceptible Other means. with emphasis upon the and the last f-flat. as has been remarked before. According to the same law (if indeed a general advice which admits of a hundred exceptions may be so called). often in opposition to this. however. the here elucidative law is by no means to be carried out without exceptions.62 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN.

thirdly. comprises within itself called. of the interworkings. Secondly. 63 BEETHOVEN'S ACCOMPANIMENT. the melody and actual accompaniment stand out from each other clearly defined. hension of the relationships. First. That which above was ment. and of life. but both If now appear simultaneously to the spirit of the tone poet. It is apparent that in all these cases consideration equal to that given to the so-called melody or principal voice must be . however. 57. the stormy accompanying figure was created first. rise order to show forth more thoroughly their construction and reThe result of the investigation must be comprelationship. is the case in the large F-minor Sonata. for ab- be called which is not a principal voice) is entirely inconsistent with the idea of art.BEETHOVEN'S ACCOMPANIMENT. the melody does not appear alone as a forerunner to the accompaniment. Op. a tone mass which has no specific. in polyphonic sentences. in ated. Finally. just as the knife of the anatomist separates the members which belong together. in a general way. and then only single moments of that whole which is being cre- TH. but each voice (omitting exceptions) takes equal part in the whole.b breviation. To the composer. to be made later on. accompanithree different formations. at present up in the spiritual conception. no individual voice is heard to rise above lesser voices. In the Finale of the F-minor Sonata. for instance. or a union of several countervoices which have peculiarly stamped contents which they suborSuch dinate. there is distinguishable from this pure accompaniment a counter-voice. separation of melody and accompaniment all will (as. In the example (page 45) of the B-flat major Trio. The separation of melody and harmony is only undertaken for the sake of a more careful investigation. to an undeniably ruling principal voice. they are as likely to belong to the accompaniment as to the principal voice. in order to carry it and support it. especially in the fugue. marked contents. actual accompaniment. but which obviously is determined only for the service of the principal voice.

if not recognized and made to be felt in the twenty-four measures of this one tone. they press forward. After having recognized the contents and the significance of each voice in contrast to the others. bestowed on all the parts. ss 4-- q f i i === ~~^_ ^ r are rr f r rf>r" r not mechanical percussions. In them.INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. too. Allegro. and . in each one the spirit of the poet lives and breathes. all technical means must be directed toward making each one for itself recognizable. but even the subordinate belongs to the whole. and it has not been understood. Every part belongs to the whole. Let this above all be emphasized: there must be no haste in study. The seemingly insignificant accompaniment from the Finale of the small F-minor Sonata (page 46) has proved itself to be very important. they contain life. It may be that one may have more importance than another. (quarter notes) in the bass of the D-major The repeated tones Sonata. Op. in forming the conception. the spirit of the poet lives. and recede. We must always remember that with Beethoven nothing is unimportant. so that parts which either are or appear to be important are alone considered. 28. The true Beethoven player puts his soul into every tone. the spirit has lived in it also. and has intended it to form a part of the whole. and seemingly unimportant ones are neglected. for Beethoven himself has done the same.

notes with double stems mean only "theoretic circumlocution" or pedantry. but he will strive to bring this fact to the ears of his listeners. while the to a figure or same tone in another voice serves as a beginning melody. This may not be neglected even where the separation seems apparently arbiBeethoven often demands that a tone be sustained in one trary. as in this measure (A) -fe "3ES?*2E5F*-n EFjErEefrl" f 3 T^Wr^r ^ ^ [> =: ^i ^ ###BOT_TEXT###gt; hi hi pqc of the G-major Sonata.BEETHOVEN'S ACCOMPANIMENT. which is each time to be held the length of a quarter. and. in order that it may form a quiet foundation. the small g. voice. and from destroying the quiet of the close which is here formed. thirdly.and G. Now and then it seems advisable almost imperceptibly to separate the voices which are closely bound together. . The deep G must also be held firmly. must have a continuous tone. the fingering unavoidable. *Taki ng given at of which (A) becomes duplicated in for is B granted the sustaining of the thumb and little finger upon g. 65 toward carrying it out according to its character. This small g which Beethoven so carefully supplies with two stems must be played more emphatically (sf. however. This will prevent the movable figure from becoming fundamental. the large G. in order that the more important voice may stand out. 31. between both sustained tones. This might take place in the C-minor passage of the same Adagio the melody the octaves. The left hand has three voices to provide for: first of all. the figure which at B is once more printed separately and which comes from the small g* To the ordinary player. secondly. Op. so far as the instrument allows. the sliding off of the second finger from e-flat to </is simple. and the following tones of the figure must follow softly. or to shorten one of them a trifle. which the little finger must sustain throughout.) and must be held longer. while the true musician not only sees in them the signal of the coming together of two voices.

in other places the contrast of the staccato Again. only for two measout. mental temperament again unmistakably appears. . At C the ocstands ures. and legato Where the thought has once been receffects will be helpful. the means will easily be found. ognized. they must be played more strongly. but the measures this fundasix after and played softly and delicately. . This doubling of the melodic tones is in accordance with the entire passage is to be great thought of the melody. By this means the upper voice taves must be heard above the middle tone. and the middle tone may be shortened a very little (i or A).66 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. Here the sugof this would seem gestion given at B (a frequent application but weak and careless) might be applicable.

With reference to the old markings this uncertainty has been recognized Allegro. The accomplishment musical training in general. the reason. and in case of necessity. absolute measurement of movement can be given. But what is the absolute measurement of these movements? and are passages marked tempo really all of the same rapidity of movement? These doubts were. The tempo (time) is. the most general expression for the rate of movement of a tone series. However. and the unrestrained fluctuations of fantasy? ever wishes to live and work in this realm must penetrate beyond all dictations. in order to press forward to the one and only immutable law of all this. the pulsations of Whosentiment. It is essential. especially in Beethoven's works. If only these indications were plain and always feasible! But this is by proper tempo. It is well known that the Allegro movement is to be more rapid than the Adagio. therefore. where can unbreakable \nd closely fitting laws be found in the realm of free spirit. or have departed only imperceptibly therefrom. being. TEMPO. 67 TEMPO AND METER. according pulses in a minute. to discover first the to follow it. One phase of this is now to be shown in tempo and meter. as is well known. and therefore of the life in which the same is to stand forth and operate. I.TEMPO AND METER. to respond to the demands of the idea. to have been removed by the Malzel metronome. rather simple. and has marked several compositions metrowith the same *A pendulum arrangement which. to its position. for half a century. for the composers themselves. at least the later ones among them Beethoven indicate the tempo.* by means of which. and then is brought about by Establishment of tempo seems of this no means always the case. even go against them. Beethoven declared himself in favor of the metronome. Adagio. as is known. of the contents. etc. as it were. makes determined numbers of . THE observations heretofore have been confined to general laws and annotations.

if the fire is not within the composition." This truth. A remains: namely. however. that he played his compositions differently every time. require consideration. well. that Beethoven's works were variously marked metronomically by later editors (Czerny and Moscheles) Such indications can of course only be considered as individual opinions of the editors. must therefore return to the old markings. strong as it is. which give at approximate determinations. could not ward off the haste of vanity and inner voidness which is so easily attained. it occurred that the master unconsciously gave two decidedly op" No metposite metronomic indications. known . complaining over the distortion of his compositions through exaggeration of the tempo. the amount of vibrating material (whether an orchestra is abundant or limited in numbers). the breadth of the room in which the tone waves are to be developed. etc. However valuable the instrument may be to the a safe placing of the tempo desired by him. Op. Mozart.* In the ninth symphony. It is tempo marks have changed their measureThe tempo is now taken much more rapidly. that Beethoven did not overestimate the value of the metronome. but also by the temporary mood of the performer. of the true that even the old moment." It is evident. up to Op.68 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. it must be conceded that the argument in regard to tempo can never come to a close. The tempo is determined not only by the out which of a work of art has sprung. nomically. * It is well it is not fitting to use the tone of its each has . its quality and place. therefore. and which yield artistically favorable liberty both to the subjective feeling and to the deleast We mands ments. only the large Sonata. inclusive. 95. girlish talk. Finally. and others who associated constantly with Beethoven. ronome at all! Those who have a right feeling do not need it. will not be helped by it. and those who have not. the less does it allow haste. 106. it will certainly not be brought into it through chasing. This probably explains (at least in part) the unanimous declaration of Czerny. and by the manthought ifold contents thereof. absolute determination of the tempo is not in accordance with the spirit of art. besides having authoritative value. an for composer. the deeper and richer the content. Madame von Ertmann. for example. just as for an address of a speaker who desires to press on to an important end light. among the pianoforte works. general principle. and finally declared. (page 14). the Symphonies and partially the Quartets. momentary mental conditions. because it is dependent upon subjectiveness. however. and ought therefore not to be accepted without test. said: "Then you think it is here to be made fiery.

Whoever. If the Finale marked Presto. taking for granted all the other come to a certain conclusion as to the Now every large episode ("Satz") (going beyond the song form) contains two or more principal subjects (moments). Thus it appears that the first movement of the large F-minor Sonata.. demands. were executed too rapidly. heard him play his G-major Concerto. give an absolute tempo. which from their inner being form therewith a relative whole. of the F-major Sonata. Reichardt. The old marking does not. that you wanted to have all the Allegros slower than formerly. however. the free spirit alone. when you gave us all the reasons why you feel your works differently I confess than you did fifteen or twenty years ago..TEMPO AND METER. we find in the in the most rapid tempo. In his virtuoso period. when he still played his concertos himself. . must not rashly to the of the first yield sentence. 10. which before was entirely inaudible and often confused!" The change in the choice of tempo may explain why even the degrees of velocity given by Beethoven may not be accepted without careful test. simple as is its form. wishes to tempo. on account of the depth of the contents. in 1808. because I felt the meaning of the music differently. of which he says: "It is remarkably difficult. I impressed the reason for this upon my mind a remarkable difference! How much more now stands out in the middle voices. marked Allegro assai. after the rehearsal. Every part here mentioned may contain within itself *One must imagine Beethoven's answer in the interval. which demand the utmost expression.. can decide. should not be taken too rapidly. Op. after the rehearsal for the concert ("Akademie") which took place May 7. and performed by Beethoven with astonishing skill On the other hand. or that tempo. the humor of the passage would be lost. it is of advantage to bring forward important moments. called principal and secondary theme. at any rate. or principal. secondary. . 69 It is interesting to observe that in Beethoven himself a change took place in regard to this point. It was also plainly seen. 1824: "I wanted to embrace you yesterday. and closirig theme. and not the letter. and astonishing to many at the rehearsals in Vienna. In matters of free fancy. He says to the master.* in satisfied with this that I was former not years always openly. One might say he must consider the whole in order to decide on the whole." conversation journals of the spring of 1824 most important statements of Schindler. he must consult impression with the other passages.

is marked But what can we judge from that? BePresto. as before stated. Now for a few examples: The first movement of the D-major Sonata. is Allegro assai. in B minor. more than one theme. Let us now consider the first movement of the large F-minor Sonata. not merely with one. a).70 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. the principal theme (page 49) \ might lead hasty natures ishing ation. which must be in accordance with all these moments. dolce 8va Shall this too flit by? Shall the rebellious percussions of the sixteenth passage signify no more than an arpeggio etude? Finally. The " same is true of the secondary theme of the " working out of the first motive (d. Presto **= the u movement might be taken very rapidly. here the complexity and finesse of the rhythmic structure urge moderation. and at the same time the ruling ones as regards the determining of the tempo. 90. The same advice might be given regarding the first theme of the E-minor Sonata. c-sharp. Op. of the majestic climax of the same. . Judging from the first theme. less violent than the first. All these themes are the principal moments of the composition. Now let although the admonwarning for deliberus consider the martial song of the side theme: to a flying speed. The annotation. b. Here it is well not to be too hurried in the tempo. d-flat. but soon after lows a second theme of the principal subject. and the second closing theme. and justly so. yond Allegro there are many degrees of velocity. Op. 10. and might lead to exaggeration. fol- which appears more meditative. c gives d-flat. theme d-flat. Op. let us examine the finale of the A-major Sonata.

etc. and finally to the musical thought of the player. which are really intended for display and bravura. a necessity to confer with the work? whole in order to choose the tempo rightly. purpose. either through impetuosity or delight in remarkable representations. to exaggerate the tempo have here particular For such players a rehearsal of the contents and assistance. they are not willing. they ought to be played. ritardando. so long parts of the measure well have equal length. "quickly. all known. In the works of all the composers we even find such deviations annotated (through accelerando. or expressed in the contents of the composition. nevertheless. "play the twice as fast as Op. and you will at once perceive the difference. but which one can never .eminent players). as is well known. and upon the perception thereof the quality of the performance depends. character of the composition is useless. do the sentences really become more brilliant? Do they really grant you an opportunity of showing yourselves as bravura players? Compare them with etudes and concertos.TEMPO AND METER. Indeed. It is one of the first duties of the teacher to develop in the pupil a perfect idea of rhythm. but can the listeners be able to perceive and feel all the voices which form the polyphonic netIt remains. a neglect of this threatens destruction to interAn pretation. Such performers as are inclined. you will recognize that these passages (and many others) aim at other ends. to sacrifice their idiosyncrasy. but has superscribed. 2 transform. In no other composer are these departures demanded more often than in Beethoven. The fundamental as the time is principle of measure is not expressly changed. with him one must perceive metric freedom in addition to metric ." METER. ior. 2. 57. they act unconsciously. but not too Allegro. or urged on by pride (in showing themselves . 71 Beethoven has marked it addition. Finales of the Sonatas. without thereby attaining your 2." For an accomplished player it is not impossible to play this passage as fast again as is meet. 26. and with decision. The application of this principle to the pulses is the fundamental law. "If you really. You spoil the work. unrhythmic player is a bad pianist. multitudinous departures from this metric steadiness are often required. in much so. With such players we must deal according to their own personal interest.). therefore. True as all this is. which may be depreciated and fallen short of." we must ask them. 53.

where. is a determining motive for the admission of pupils to the works of Beethoven. and that each may be made felt in its place. at least to those which demand metric freedom. for Rhythmic freedom is movement movement must follow the order and power of the incentive. as the highest but not always a justified demand of reason. may in individual moments be the expression of the inner equiponderance of the However. What signification. would be without boundary and without rest. and is therefore the expression of the liberated soul awakened to a more active life. such are Beethoven's Sonatas. others are added for which some external law demands precision of movement. if it is to the nature of music throughout is that of In fact. wavering. Op. then. that is. for music existed a few thousand years before the structure of metric life was built. internally undecided a hold through the . and many passages more or less. in which evenness acts according to inner laws. it cannot exist in the plurality of musical moments. alone. in order to moderate the emotions which.72 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. and not gained a perfectly uniform sense of rhythm cannot be admitted to the freedom of rhythmic variation without danger. the liberation from precision of the opposite of even. Op 26. these episodes. must learn the appreciation thereof in order to do justice to his train of thought. Metric variation. natural truth and natural law. and and undetermined tone language secures precision of rhythmic motion. Thus the ever-moving. this quietude cannot be contranquillity of the mind. rhythmic This must be determined in repose and rhythmic freedom? order that both may be recognized beside each other. This is the case in marches and dances. again. 22. 53. 54. sidered a normal condition in the musically inspired and excited To soul. measured effect. Here. be true. then. Metric uniformity. the case with works whose contents and purpose remain remote from deeper emotion. One who has repose. have these two extremes. evenness of movement. the Finale of the Sonata. The manifestation in tone and word and gesture must respond the and the hesitating sentiment. is a means of expression for the higher moments of life. Such life cannot be ruled by uniformity. It is also to the pressing forward the original form of utterance. Rhythmic firmness then came into use. speech.the precision of the march or dance movement determines It may also be more or less the character of the meter.



freedom and lawthis point of view, both opposites achieve their deserved right. Let us adhere to the latbecause, and in so far as, it is directed by the composer.
us be courageous

and dutiful enough to depart from this, we are convinced that through where measurements, real intention of the composer can the other in no and this, way, be expressed. That he has not always given particular directionsin fact, has done so comparatively seldom ought not to be an obstacle to us; for we know how impossible it is for a composer to represent his conceptions, even approximately, were he

to freer

to paint his

paper black.

Here, again, it is essential to recognize the intention of the and beyond it, into composer, to penetrate through the work What position did Beethoven himself take ii regard his spirit. The earliest witness is Ries, who from 1801 to 1805, to this? from the age of fifteen to twenty, was Beethoven's piano pupil. He says of Beethoven: "In general he himself played his compositions very capriciously; however, he generally remained fairly within the bounds of even measure, and only occasionNow and then he held back the tempo ally hastened the tempo.

crescendo and ritardando, which gave a very beautiful and Here unyielding rhythm appears as the overstriking effect." "At times" his tempo was said to have been element. ruling hastened; "at times" to have been delayed, and "with most
in his

striking effect."


He says: "WhatSchindler expresses himself differently. I have heard Beethoven play, was free from all restraint in as cona tempo rubato* in the true sense of the word, time, tents and situation demanded, without, however, having the
Here freedom of toward a caricature." in Beethoven's element as the overruling designated and of at the the same time exaggeration suspicion playing; abuse (caricature) is warded off. Both informations accord, inasmuch as both of them testify



to the application of

rhythmic freedom,

only that by Ries this

stated as exceptional, but by Schindler as the overruling manner of playing. How shall this departure be explained? Ries heard Beethoven up to 1805, when he had not yet writ-

*The tempo rubato was a fashion of the eighteenth century, dating from the last half, and came from the singers of Italy and France. It was intended to replace the free, deep feeling which was wanting in the compositions themselves; this tempo rubato was therefore an untruth, With this fashion (which amid and was soon compelled to yield to the reaction of reason. other things became visible in Pergolese's Stabat Mater) Beethoven had nothing in common; when he resorted to free he followed entirely the inner impetus the demand of the thing movement.


that time

ten his most important and spiritually freest works.

Beethoven's thought




was not yet developed to fullest freeshown by the uninterrupted and incalculably rising

progress of his works. Presupposably, Beethoven, especially in his lesson hours, must have considered the position of his pupils,

and did not allow himself

to play freely, in order not to give a

misleading example. Finally, Ries himself never attained that high artistic 'development which would have required freedom of expression, or at least would have been conducive to the same. This is proved by his otherwise valuable works, and renderings at the piano, also his opinions of the Eroica, the Overture to the Ruins of Athens, etc. As an entirely different personality, with overruling mental development, Schindler several years later came to Beethoven, and as friend and pupil remained with him Jto the end. He could therefore observe the advanced so writes Schindmaster from every side. "His older friends," " of his spirit from have the who followed ler, development this that he took manner of playassert only up every direction, life in the third of his with 1813), and period (beginning ing that he had entirely departed from the former less expressive manner." a restrictive one, and a farHere, then, are two testimonies us of a conviction which to one in order convince reaching is it rooted in the nature of so securely requires no further proof, the case.* Besides, we also have, still further, a few authentic In the autograph copy of revelations from Beethoven himself. the song "Nord oder Slid," in Artaria's possession, there is dis" 100 according to Malzel; tinctly written in Beethoven's hand, but this can refer to the first measures only, for sentiment has also its peculiar rhythm; but this cannot be entirely expressed That in the very face of a prein this grade" (namely, 100). scribed degree of velocity, feeling may have an individual right, "its own rhythmic progress," is not scientific, but has been expressed very plainly and beautifully by the master. Enough (if not too much) has been said about the right of free rhythm, the departure from evenness of movement in order to give to sentiment the means of expression in such moments when it has wandered out of the equilibrium of its movement. Metric variance, or departure from the fundamental pulse measurement, can manifest itself in but two ways: in accelerating
* The author had come to this conviction long before the appearance of Schindler's work, and had manifested the same with word, script, and deed. He rejoices, therefore, over his agreement with this worthy man who enjoyed the distinction of being Beethoven's pupil and




Either of these modes may take place in or retarding the time. or lesser degree, can rule for a longer or shorter time, and greater

both can change places with each other. The. essential thing is contained in the two conceptions, accelerating and retarding. But where does hastening and delaying, where the interchanging of parts, take place? An accelerando is naturally essential where the mental poise Such a case is existent steps beyond the original measurement. The melody moves in the Adagio of the C-sharp minor Sonata. it and with dignity; persists throughout in an even soul quietly movement, therefore in equal pulse progression. Naturally the accompanying triplets of eighths must be carried out in perfectly even movement. But now the melody closes at the 28th measure. The following four measures may be considered supplementary; at any rate, from measure 32 the triplet movement (and this in prolonged duration) forms the only content. Not until measure 37 does the melodic motive of the supplementary phrase make itself known, and in measure 42 the melody returns again. The portion from measure 32 to measure 37 lacks the
support of a definite melody; it desires it and strives after it, until it approaches the same in measure 37, and seizes it in measure 42. Lack of support, and desire, determine here a more

movement, which, however,



from becoming pas-

be but the expression of a restlessness soon to be overcome. It therefore rises only a little beyond the fundamental tempo of the passage, and having risen almost imperceptibly, returns shortly into its old tempo. Like moments might be found in the first movement of the D-major Sonata, Op. 10, or the Scherzo (asking pardon for the form name) of the other Phantasie Sonata, after the Trio, where the quarter notes are


dissolved into eighths. retarding takes place where the intensity and excitement which has given the tempo to one passage diminishes. This



requires no special explanation; a single illustration will suffice, this is furnished in the first sentence of the Sonata "Les Adieux" (Op. 81). Toward the end of the first movement, the
calls of



are about to part, in the following passage,

decrease of can to take intensity (decrescendo) only begin place at measure A which is to vanish into a mere echo. strives after the 13 with its full effect. original tempo. Especially worthy of mention is the application of tarrying or delaying as an expression of meditation or emphasis. for the realization of which increased intensity does not suffice and is ment not adequate in itself. first sen- -0-8 1 . as early as measure 19. Hurrying and delaying often become necessary in order to lead back from an opposite moment to the original time. Op. The means of determining expression is the gradually delayed move ment. but this cannot be entirely restored. For this reason it seems advisable to gradually give up the above-indicated holding back. the return of the sequel (measure 37) might be used to lead back from the hurried moveinto the original time. and so that the return may not become a sudden plunge.76 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. 10: Presto. and gradually to die away. however. appear to be repeated more and more distantly. in this and one at A and finally in their continuation at B (especially from A on for nineteen or twenty-one measures). The following figure of eighths. So also in the passage cited from the C-sharp minor Sonata. This may be observed in the tence of the D-major Sonata.

TEMPO AND METER. Immediately after. in certain moments. d. with full right. upon the first triplet of every measure. we must know how to return to this tempo. f-sharp. a) ually held back. e. the here the retard at the end of the sentence seemed applicasame can be done as well at the beginning or the mid- This is perceived in the triplet progression of the C-sharp minor Adagio which has been mentioned on a previous page. the free The original time may be compared to a movement to the waved line. Upon these high tones. though we may depart. b. c-sharp. 77 be struck with an accent. of which each one is marked ff. 1 T how an intensity of power. or in other words. as important as an even balance to one who is running or walking. the tones (e. The annotation and like cases. The tempo beginning with measure 3 must be intensified. In all these one can observe what is hinted on page 76. To attain this with increased intensity only. and freedom should never be carried into exaggeration. they must be (d. from the even or original time. straight line. must be gradthe passage repeats itself rises again from a to a-sharp. climax of the triplet figure. f-sharp. i. therefore. but the whole sentence is to be increased. First. e. gratified? for this is (page 71) a required thing. e. which twines about the former like the life-signifying snakes around the firm . increase of velocity supports or takes the place of the when this does not suffice or is inapplicable. f-sharp} remarkably and held back. and as necessary as a return of quiet to the mind. But how beside this metric freedom is the pulse feeling and the fundamental evenness of time preserved. is only an incomplete indication. great power would not be attainable. at the progression of the first tone to the second. Second. the demand of the musician for firmness. and how. would lead to a coarseness of touch. even balance should never be yielded up without good reason. g. If ble. and the figure would be greatly improved if there were a little retard dle. in the and lastly..

there are generally parFinally. on the contrary. Beethoven inclined so strongly to the former idea. g. and we Strangely. page 60) as the close of a section. entirely indifferent to the contents. Schindler." The former serves (as has been remarked. Order and comprehension depend more upon these accents which designate the construction of the whole. He designates (as has been shown at page 57) not only the metric construction through intensifying the important pulses of the measure. himself from pulse regularity. yet. to the single feet. according to the testimony of Ries. the mechanical or abstractly intelligent spirit. staff of Mercury. as a whole. g. and that he made frequent use of the "caesura and rhetorical pause. but he brings out also the ing awake the metric higher significance of the passage. and when it is done. Only very exceptionally the original time is lastingly given up. g. which stand in the same relation to measure construction as a verse. begins thus: with a motive of two measures. that however much he loved and sought dancing. still weighty means of keepeven in passages where he frees feeling. \ e-flat. in the time keeping. testified that he emphasized the rhythmic accent with preference. the latter as a close to larger parts. of which the . The first sentence find it in the C-minor Symphony. such a rhetorical pause has even been written out. which only knows how to create order by giving to like metric parts a strict tempo. he never succeeded in dancing strictly in time. and this is done by means of rhythmic accent. Thus in accentuation is manifested the artistic. and which encompass themselves and melt together in the contents than upon the holding fast to this entirely external evenness of tempo. in order to or also through a rhythmically entirely unassigned stop. through gathering together and rounding off the parts. the poetic player finds ticular directions.78 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. call attention to the entrance of an important movement.

the last tone is twice as long. This motive is repeated with f f. . which is out of proportion with the length of the tones. thus the motive is extended through three measures. However. and not until the third measure does the hold appear. Hereby he departs authentically from even measurement into tone is metric freedom. f. and to the master himself. last t 79 prolonged by a hold. which before appeared on Beethoven has written a pause for this tarrying the second. d. Only then does the real Allegro passage begin.TEMPO AND METER. the first five measures served only as introduction.

If this subordination is forced. may in the future be mentioned only for his sake. yet it must not be allowed to Every that of the others. left to himself. and because our names. can we secure genuine men and Only in this way The way seems longer and more laborious in the beginning. and artistic success is simply impossible. We must not only because among our still awkward and stupid pupils perhaps another Beethoven may be hidden. freedom. too. NOW Spiritual understanding and technical control. as the first one was hidden among Pfeiffer's and Neefe's pupils. have never desired to place over my pupils. FORM OF STUDY. the objective content of the work. mechanical performance. the most for a life- authority particularly of I me. Many considerations here make their demands. Art without freedom of expression is a nonentity. without which gifted pupil cannot attain his full development. and every authey tried to attribute to have incessantly directed and led them according to that which the voice of their own feeling and thinking. but must idea of the composer. one's own near feeling to the subject. must resign all authority. to the content of the work. but have constantly warned them of thority. self-judgment and self-determination. and naivete. who time have taught so much. artists. for a few words concerning the manner in which one can most successfully live into a work and make it one's own. . like those of Pfeiffer and Neefe. He cannot work for accommodate himself to the himself. but also because even the most ordinary pupil must be granted his human and artistic claim of do this. It is particularly essential that the destroy of the individuality performer be neither disturbed nor mutilated. however high we may stand or may think we stand. I. and the subjective mood and direction of the each of these opposites has its undeniable right. claim must be made valid. he destroys self-determination. but it soon proves itself to be the shortest.8o INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. and thus the study becomes a lifeless. if perchance the teacher presses his own subjectiveness between that of the student and that of the work. and that which alone leads cheerfully to the end. We teachers of either word or pen. performer.

FORM OF STUDY. errors in playing. the mastery of which the entire passage again. step for step culty. which has two directions. Hereby A acquaintance with the work is begun undisturbedly. work of art serves to con- quer the same. and in absolutely naive manner. a passage may appear. becomes the object of special technical study. whether or not his technical skill be equal to the difficulties of this tempo. entirely through one or more times. the player must have been impressed with those passages which manifested technical difficulties. he who wishes to acquire it ought first to play all the movements. causing misconstructions. These misconstructions by which we mean errors which arise only from momentary inattention must be observed and avoided. from mo- ment to moment. and without accepting advice from elsewhere. At the first playing. while later. and is Thus every passage conquered in the same or like manner. a part. repetitions. through difficult. temporary tarrying in the movement on account of these difficulties is inadmissible. a single small motive (or a few motives) shows itself as the root of the whole. either preparatory to or assisting in the work. insight into the structure of a is conquered. At the first glance an entire part may often seem frewhile upon closer investigation only a portion is the real seat of the diffiquently only a very small portion Furthermore. full of newness and difficulty. study directed to the content of the work. the first glancing through. it is necessary to investigate whether the passage does or does not return in the course of the composition. for as a rule. not at the same time. it is only because this can be disposed of more rapidly. 8r When the study of a particular work is undertaken. in their proper order. as a result of which the student has secured a more or its less correct and complete approximate representation This first of direction and content. allowing no not even through consciousness of interruption or hindrance. possibly. cursory attack of the work must then be followed by the real and more accurate study. at the first playing. every sentence and every passage of a composition is applied two or more times. If such a technical difficulty has been found. and that which is directed toward the technical. but one to follow the other. If here in this book the technical is placed first. Both ends should be pursued side by side. inclusive of its which requires practice. This is more methodical and . Here. This first playing must be done at once in the tempo which seems to the player to be the correct one.

and the student begins to dis- As judgment begins criminate characteristically. Take. in the Adagio and Finale. I do not ask if others arrived at this point more for indeed. Op. 90. into the second part of "Faust. the noble Louis Berger once suggested that it be left off entirely.82 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. and many things in the last Quartets did not appear to me until I wrote the second edition of that work. the larger portions of the work will appear in their correct light. more surely and deeply. the Allegretto? Many a capable player has demonstrated that he has not understood it. the content of the Sonata Op. stands out against the first enerCan there still be an internal unity between them? getic one! Again. 27. the E-minor Sonata. just began to be plain 109. though it may have been very general and uncertain in the This impression should be kept in mind by a charbeginning. and though the first glimpses may be uncertain. and the all is scattered over many demands. the writer of this book. However glimpses may have great or inadequate the impression of these first been. Only gradually do we penetrate into the truth and into its fundamental origin. for example. jects thirty years? to dawn. take the A-flat major Sonata. or yielding up to it as though it were a law which could not be broken. without at first exerting oneself hypercritically. 26. we have thereby stepped across the . how many have lived rapidly. To me. Both movements may be obvious at first. which begins with its contemplative variations and eventually introduces the Funeral March upon the Death of a Hero. Op." or into the truth of the Passion according to Matthew. work goes Even and must have called forth a judgment. one might soon hope to find oneself at home in the Csharp minor Sonata. acteristic word. instead of beingtechnical practice the artistic study of the first performances must have made helpful together. than when the internally varied demands are mixed whereby the second takes away from the first. but how about the middle movement. who have been acquainted with these subslowly. others more and perhaps. and how is the Finale to be interpreted? Similarly. after an acquaintance of thirty years. the (so-called) Scherzo just before the March. in its melting tenderness. or found more in it. on that account. with its two movements: how the second. when I wrote the " Beethoven". By the the side of this on. power of directed to one end at a time. however. indeed. some of us more rapidly. Op. much less certain. at least a general impression. they will soon reveal light.

have noticed their differences. again. for these passages are marked by closing bars and annotations. and will thereupon recognize and be able to gain a deeper insight into the content. the broad close at B-flat and the passage differ E-flat minor will certainly reveal itself by the new content. he certain not be of the content. This entire observation is. The very first glance reveals two different parts. the introduction. beginning though entirely may with measure 16 or 17. principal theme. The passages Grave and Allegro the close is and a passage of the Allegro according to tempo and content. They are the various parts or themes of which we find two or more in or every large composition. and how can their relationship be made manifest? In the Allegro. 83 threshold of the tone structure. call it in . and especially by the dialogical form (bass and soprano alternate in the melody). counter theme. and the first part of the Allegro. second. but form an inseparable whole (neither closes itself). This is followed by a reminiscence of the introduction. which is then followed by the second part (according to general. In these. so to speak. and must they therefore bear an internal relationship to each other. have in the spirit looked into the great halls. marked Grave.FORM OF STUDY. the first theme (HauptAlsatz) becomes visible at once to the connoisseur of form. Let us take. self-evident. closes. for example. But without this knowledge the more attentive searcher might penetrate readily into this tone structure. a suggestion of the Grave again appears. closing theme. the first movement of the Pathetique Sonata. they are opposites. He may possibly. Where expected. and third. but according to the language of art we would need to say the second and third part) of the Allegro. parts first. How can the character of each be discerned. we find members and parts which serve as end and support to investigation. in amateur fashion. so as to be comprehensible to even an entirely inexperienced eye. Whoever understands composition will without difficulty at least has obtained an insight into form recognize the larger parts of the whole. or the apparent absence of relationship. have drawn into consideration their relationship. and we are therefore ready to take up the study of indi- vidual parts or passages. everyday expression.

and lastly. significant but subordinate. the second.84 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. therefore. because they naturally cannot appear independently. closes the first part. the principal subject again appears in C minor. Op. after a broad close on G. nificantly manifest sentences. repetition of the first theme. however. Casually. but is in reality the side theme (Seitensatz). and yet related: clear. has not attained either of these qualities. Just as clearly must the following E-flat passage appear to him as a new theme. while the middle member. the first two of which are There are three different. it second theme. five noticeable and sigdiatonic). and oftener in a Each one of these returns two or new form. Hereby the content of the entire Allegro is fully shown as its A to will again find in part inner being. more times. measure 17 to 21. Thus the content of the Pathtique Sonata (at least the first movement) may have become somewhat distinct parts. the third is composed of two entirely different passages (the arpeggio and the There are. is formed out of the first. Between them we find intermediate themes. again the principal subject of the Allegro. and whether or not he may find therein a closing theme. formed itself out of the first sentence. and then the third part begins. How. Thus. 31. for instance. then. and whoever has recognized the three parts second (and third) that figure which. serving themselves only. might be compared with this. the principal sentence from measure I to 9 appears firm and closed as to its key and rhythm. then the Grave. The entire content of the first part appears again. the structure of the first movement of the D-minor Sonata. or whether he may know of the necessity of such at all. in all. is the first sentence to be understood? and how the second. coming out of the first? How does the second sentence appear in its transformations in the second part? How can the character of each of these five sentences be perceived and brought into varied functions and relationships? and what change in the tone color of interpretation does the transfor- mation of these sentences demand? . carried into E-flat major. he certainly will perceive the tendency to a close as felt in the E-flat major part. This continues until. be- ginning with measure 25.

announces itself and its motive (A) plainly enough. a fifth sentence (F) appears. to the motive of the closing theme (Schlussatz). I and again. opens the second part. before us. 7. It soon yields. in order to form itself into . not counting the middle members. a movement which to the unfamiliar glance is by no means so transparent as the one cited before. Op. then. F. seven different sentences. they might be called the closing themes. and returns again. Less clear to an unfamiliar eye might be the following passage. What is the meaning of each? How may they be distinguished? How are they united into a perfect whole. only its motive (A). until. rather. or. after a long delay on the bass tone. The second example is found in the first Allegro of the E-flat major Sonata. a second sentence (C) ter then clearly presents in the new itself. The principal theme. in B-flat major. and how do they work themselves out? The principal theme (Hauptsatz). Still two more distinctly distinguishable sentences close the first part. and the latremains recognizable even in its transformation (B).FORM OF STUDY. designate these four sentences as side themes. after the completion of which a third (D). however. Only The connoisseur of form would the beginnings will be cited. We have. key (C major) a fourth (E). The Allegro starts out without introduction.

By this means the player has conjectivity. the working out of Lastly. motive of the principal theme. which soon vanishes away. namely. and in contemplative transformation. with its principal theme in E~flat major. and how cerwill lead into the conception of Thus the in which hastens by along in uncertainty. the most persuasive of all. 2 and 3. while in others (for example. eliminating the more extended part which has been attached to it. without which there is no life possible in art or in art culture. take even an inexperienced student only a very few minutes. and to test these verdicts . after a few playings over. either verbally or otherwise. the motive of the closing theme appears in F minor and G minor. sentences I and 2. feeling of the work. the melting of all details into a single unit. while the former travels again into A minor and D minor. these (D) is not yet satisfied. will not soar quered the work in so far as was possible to his individual suband though he may have failed now and then.* This much in order to show how the construction and relationship of these passages can be tain points may the entire content. tent. in a few (for example. appears again. new sentence (the a at first the eighth). we find it unsteady. he has preserved an independence. steps into C minor. and perhaps the next moment brings a happier one. and the return to the principal key is through a single somewhat This completes the indefinite chord. as a sort of sequel. second part. and now the third begins. often a hastily seized word suffices. This subject. but instead of the broad close which presented itself in the Pathetique Sonata. be gained which made intelligible. where the close was expected.86 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. These eight sentences must be conceived of characteristically. and the characterizing of parts should never be accomplished searchingly or laboriously. a freedom of emotion and judgment. and combined therewith. every sentence in detail. the continuation of I and 2 and 5) we are impressed with the relationship. A dissection such as has been suggested would. the final study appears. The time has then come when it is necessary to be advised by others. 3 and 4. so full of conever-changing forms. after which the entire series of seven sentences But the third of first part appear in their original order. Of all these themes the first and third receive the most attention. in order to bring about the final close. 4 and 5) the dif- ferences are brought to the surface. All these appear in foreign keys. after which the of the closing theme returns. The close appears in D minor.

Schindler has communicated several facts worthy of mention. 81. the Funeral March upon the Death of a Hero. because he devoted years of his life to interpreting . with absolutely positive testimony. for two reasons: first. for it is not what / wish. regards tone. Added to these comes Czerny. that he created life. but that he often undertook to utter internally-related mental conditions. as it were. that he constructed ideally. the testimonies of pupils and When come to the rescue.FORM OF STUDY. and this must be sought out by one's individuality as well as by help of experienced advisers. not what you will. Op. is always Beethoven himself. unless we had penetrated through to the idea of their creations. we still could not imagine that we had conceived of a Goethe or a Raphael. The same is true of Beethoven. The names of the Eroica. and the Pastoral symphony (here the designation of single movements according to their content) are well known. but what Beethoven desired. upon hearing the differing opinions of teachers and advisers. lived through with the master the origin of the Finale of the F-minor Sonata. as a Goethe in words and a Raphael in forms. Besides his own revelations. the titles "Les adieux. 87 by one's own conception. in friends regard to the leading representations of the Beethoven compositions. le retour" of the three movements of the Sonata. in process. In single works (for example. 101) the multitudinous and impressive annotations indicate that he was led on by special and powerful mental conditions and representations. Op. that he often allowed himself to be influenced and carried away by external ininfluences. thought content of his tone structures in writing. But granted that we might avail ourselves of all subjective impressions. but He has frequently given the often) we have sufficient proof. in the A-flat major Sonata. Beethoven a complete edition of his works was had the idea (so writes Schindler) of indicating the thought content wherever he had not yet done so. and by giving played superior of all- We himself up to an indeterminate feeling. Every advice must be listened to and tested. 1'absence. Nor should these first conceptions be dropped at once. as regards Beethoven. and other names or designations. as is natural. Ries had. the Sonata. and he especially may appear truthful. they should not be adhered to stubbornly or anxiously. know also that he not only as his with works sentiment. The most advisers. on the other hand. That he frequently took upon himself demands such as are indicated above (not always. and finally the decision falls back upon the spirit of the interpreter. testify to this.

and which was so foreign to himself. or out of the visions brought out of his own native fantasy. Czerny's statement in rest. Beethoven's compositions." Thus far Czerny's statement is powerful.'* edge of the circumstances Czerny adds that "he was not communicative on this subject. spirit of art.major Sonata. page 62. secondly. in confidential moods. and that we could only reach the true key to his compositions and their interpretation. idealism. *" Piano School. and he thus observed how the master was often guided by determined representations. chapter 2. who asserts that Beethoven did not seem to delight especially in determined or detailed verbal interpretations of others. which were to guide the interpretation. because. through the certain knowlif this were everywhere possible. Czerny* states very positively: "It is true that Beethoven became inspired to many of his most beautiful works through his reading matter. It is not only the expression of feeling that one hears. . as cate the content. he proved himself to be one in whom fantasy. but one sees pictures and hears the stories of events. that they can only indi- ing. for just as the poet could not fully substitute the painter. on 2: the other hand. he could not of himself conceive of the ideal life which Beethcven lived. for he had opportunity of listening to Beethoven's communications. or the musician the poet and painter." part 4. through which Beethoven later created a form of composition in which instrumental music became the expression also of painting and poesy. Indeed. only occasionally. Czerny's statements in regard to single parts are as reliable. so that he would not have been able to introduce into the works or words of the master fantasies of his own. had not become the ruling motives. remains to be tested in every case. during a life of untiring and endless activity for development of technique. Again." which statement is confirmed by that of Schindler. and this might easily be perceived. a certain spiritual modesty would prevent the artist from dissectit were.88 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. Whether. after having been taught them by the master himself. Czerny says of the Adagio of the C. for here misconceptions and many other things may have passed along with the Even in the above-named Adagio. his picture with words. Even though he might have done so unconsciously. Op. "In this Adagio the dramatic direction is developed. so he above all others must feel that no words can fully interpret and exhaust his tone picture. and was therefore an ear-witness of the state- ments of the master.

when he asserts. in the beggar garment of trivial circum- Czerny. has asserted that Beethoven often followed determined representations in his works. Many of his most beautiful works arose in this manner. 31: "The theme of this tone poem Beethoven improvised when he (1803) saw a rider gallop past his window. The first is observation of the playing of soulful pianists. as ear-witness. that is tigation. Let the interpreter become with the idea of the poet. remains to be investigated. it would be difficult to discover in this internally agitated but externally calm. filled how thought and will act the original point of invesupon the executing More cannot be said of this. he everywhere truly gave the Beethovenian instruc- whether he may have misconceived and therefore misrepresented many things. Finale of the D-minor Sonata. upon the play spirit. further means and methods of bringing the feeling and with it the power of interpretation nearer to the intentions of the tone poet. however. the spiritual understanding. any rate. tenderly formed tone figure. and that this comprehension assists tions. in regard to the as a storm at sea. The second is observation of . the ideal foundation out of which the tone structure has grown." The very historic origin of the passage stands opposed to its interpretation Elsewhere Czerny states. then. namely. acts upon the interpretation. the clattering stroke of the gallop and the hastening by of the rider. The benefits derived are so self-evident as to require no further explanation. of the fingers. and of possessing oneself of the finest means which would be absolutely impossible for verbal instruction. one cannot arrive at a full comprehension of his compositions. in founding the proper interpretation. such a picture may convey to the player a suitable idea to the interpretation of this large tone picture. or how How this takes place. the contemplative picture of the tone poet at would become clad stance.FORM OF STUDY 89 regard to the same cannot be considered as being well founded." Apart from the fact that this sonata was composed in 1802. Whether. let his soul become kindled thereby. however. Op. in regard to the Finale of the large F-minor Sonata: "Beethoven (who with such delight painted scenes from nature) may perhaps have thought of the singing of the sea on a stormy night. Most true is his statement that without recognition of the leading and determining representations. while from the distance comes a cry for help. There are. then let it work out as it will. And even if this were possible.

and in that it allows one tone to melt into another. Let the pupil listen to great violinists. but from an unconscious impulse to perceive them more deeply. more ments. let him become filled and the as living representation of their playing. possibly unconsciously carried orchestral representations over to the piano. can use the results of his research for the expression at the piano. as it were Sing Beethoven's melodies and you will feel them Beethoven consoulfully. Wieniawski. composers stantly sang from an external requirement for representing the tones. Beethoven. not composing. violin playing of artists who have a delicate enough conception. while the piano can only utter tones which soon die away. and therefore play them so. first . and which only have the appearance of melting together. Whoever can decipher him in such passages. is with the feeling him seek A third means offered to all who can sing. most have while done so. The violin for expression of melody is far superior to the piano. The very work which we will investigate will serve as a sample. Joachim. for the voice also controls the potent means for a soulful representation of the melody. one feels more deeply in singing with body and than one does in playing or in listening to an soul. Without doubt. such as Laube. in that it is able to sustain a tone for a long time.90 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. A last means for perceiving Beethoven more comprehensively is given to those who have an idea of the sound of various instruinstrument. added to this. who lived so deeply in the world of instruments after his fifteenth year. to unite two or more tones absolutely. then let far as possible to carry them over to the piano.

THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. one might say feminine Tenderness and elegiac sentiment pervades fundamen- out of which.* because a repetition here seemed incongruous. he should apply them in other works which offer similar instances. however. or at least a very *" Beethoven. It is clear. Indeed. is light. never should such research be taken from it ITseem here. 2. for the attempt has been made to give the most essential points in this work. it only implies an intensified sforzato. then. the first works will be analyzed more in detail than the later ones. a richer network of voices exists nowhere. it rises to passionate excitement. might seem even detrimental. Even the first. Op. however. in that it would limit the scope of individual research on the part of the student. and which is of an entirely different texture from the fortissimo in other works. Prefatory Remarks. most cursory glance teaches that great it intensity. In the Finale it only indicates the highest intensity which is applicable to this Sonata. nor will stated on page 18. which. no absolute need for the reader to return to the biography. is Wherever such an annotation is absolutely out of the question. it is supposed. and having convinced himself as to their correctness. for this would him. Part page . is somewhat unnecessary and circumlocutional. its form does not possess massiveness. Works. tal idea. Life and I. a real fortissimo. In view of this. will have been impressed by what has been said of the preceding. There is. then. that not all works will be considered any of them be taken up entkely. by accomplishing results for him. edition. The analysis of every work here is planned with reference to what has been said in the biography. He ought." third 100.f spirit is its A tenderly flowing this Sonata. to test those things which have been indicated in the individual works. restricted mostly to one voice (with simple accompaniment) or to two voices. gi THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. given in the first sentence. that the greatest. The disciple and friend of art should be inspired and guided to investigations of his own. t Biography. F-minor Sonata. In accordance with this.

The The very principal subject (Hauptsatz) lies mainly in the melody of the How upper voice. and. The in the first two measures are the heart or motive thereof. as it were. however. the accompaniment is entirely subordinated. by acis by way of compensation for intensity (page Here 76). until finally the highest tone. in passages marked^ for example I here absolutely impossible. metric freedom must be reduced to the smallest limits. is taken with increased power. That which has been denied in this direction must be attained by nicest gradation of the admissible degree of intensity. the beginning of this melody is to be played has been shown. not. while two following measures the same is repeated in a higher is therefore intensified. through accelerating and retarding the movement. Here. impeded. then are carried again into a higher sphere. be made noticeable. the progress is the last tones of the principal sentence become deeper. degree of intensity Prestissimo. rendering of the passage might be expressed thus: tt The tit c f as c f as ^/ { g c e y The and descending line* indicates increase and decrease of intensity. and the close comes in position. the most careful to the time measurement with reference again character of the composition must be observed. first movement represents at once the fundamental character of the entire Sonata. hesitatingly (for no satisfactory close has been attained). and the transitions from accelerated and retarded tempos must only be felt. centuation. c.INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. great. the movement hastens and delays in similar manrising *It ought to be a wave line. however. Even the passionate excitement of the Finale does not withdraw from it this characteristic. .

the metric feeling must be kept alive by rhythmic intonation. This must speak out. measure 7. and for the g.) The figure of eighths in which this terminates. and the execution must be the same as before. in serve especially to The accents (') imperceptible gradations. through gentle holding back and a different accentuation. All this must take place without hesitation. as for instance. measure 4. c. trifle. a serious speaker would say. and the following measures serve but to strengthen the same. and the scale . The passage. it is absolutely true!" The tempo is reestablished in the following measure (by means of the figure of eighths in the bass). especially the c and the followsink an andante movement. c. repeats itself. b-flat. "It is true. both of which qualities are increased a second time. f-flat. according to degrees of intensity and movement. At the repetition the first tones (awould receive flat. then a new pressing forward follows. measure 6. The close of the sentence falls upon measure 8 of the repetition. same is true of the following quarters. (This is spoken of on page 62. measure 5. demand gentle emphasis and a slight retard. The which into almost ing eighths. a melody. measure 2. a-flat. and the appoggiaturas are should be retarded a more to be played tenderly and a little retarded. with special emphasis. differently turned. though closely related to the principal subject (Hauptsatz). and lastly the soaring runs of eighths in accelerated movement. A like change in movement and intensity will be found applicable in all melodies in which the wave-like progress of feeling finds expression.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. b-flat. / e-flat. while the tones. e-flat. d-flat) special emphasis. ner. can only be feasible with the first melody which is here to be considered. as it were. hesitates at the repetitions from d. a-flat. a-flat. urges forward with power and movement. lift out single tones. g. as it were. 93 however. d. This venturesome undertaking of drawing on paper. d-flat. and its aim is to progress downward. it is opposite in character. composer also hesitates to continue on his path. as that of the preceding was to rise. Here the side theme (Seitensatz) appears.

94 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. in their contrasting forms. moment ship of decides over its Not the single significance. and yet it is by no means exhausted. Considerable seems to have been said here concerning this movement. /. The second part repeats the principal subject and then the side theme. for in its continuation the sentence are increased up to the were. upon which the melody begins again. This will suffice for the first part. and the Soul in every tone. g. f-flat. The side theme buries itself in the bass. It only. especially in . that is. and at movement up to its true significance. the four pulses i-T~TT~i last. while the closing subject (Schlusmore follows deliberately and with stronger emphasis. in syncopations. and insimple scale through two or three octaves deed it must thus stand out amid the relationship of the whole. as it The Finale. Even the accompaniwatchword must be short ment of the principal subject demands attention. and the more. nowhere do we find massive power or highest vibration of self. requires further special attention. Thought and expression are naturally the same. g-flat. but the internal relation- Thus the painter cannot all. into an up-surging and down-falling viThis produces a storm-like effect. prestissimo. and and still and only the tempo. it were. single intonations. satz) it is really nothing but the I speak of the run of eighths as soaring. but that of a tenderly constituted soul. breathes storm and passion. as brating mass. the contrast of light and darkness. intensity (page 58) applicable. passage would receive new and the gradual raising of the temperament. lift the that the triplets of eighths example r at the beginning. intensifying calming of both movement from the aside intensity. light itself. must melt. life. and this must be indicated by the first tones of each phrase (a-flat. but he may delude us through paint light. The tempo must be taken so rapidly in the accompaniment for the entrance of the side theme. can. sinks until it loses ite-flaf].

and again calms itself in the following two meas- This tempo is also applicable to passages in which the accompaniment (at the close of the first and third parts) becomes ures. After the shattered condition of the principal theme. swells without interruption for six measures smoothly to a fortissimo. so that in their hesitating obedience. angry strokes become intensified when marked piano. it is nothing less than the expression of greatest devotion. the soul requires support in order not to fly away. as well as when forte. and the music has of course a like desire. for it (the melody) seems to desire to stay. Control is still wanting. significant of its own accord. only the close returns to the first tempo. and all flies along amid the storm.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. ~a- + -*- 21 . which then continues up to the closing subject. This sentence must not lose its tempo. beginning with A-flat (measure 5). but while the accompaniment holds fast to it. It remains steady in the first entry of the principal theme. where the accompaniment begins pianissimo. in which the refractory. Nevertheless. and must be broken off abruptly. then lets it die away. this brings forth the closing theme. ^ which introduces every phrase violently. There must be a retard at the second appearance of the principal theme. a so-called tempo rubato is formed (page 73). . the tempo cannot be held steadily throughout. after the impetuous raging of the side theme. It appeals to us as does the first fleeting and almost threatening thought of a frightened soul to a helper and avenger above. the tones (quarter notes) of the melody allow themselves to be dragged along against their will. 95 the closing theme (page 46). That for which the closing theme has paved the way is accomplished in the second side theme (which follows the first part). with its satiated and repeated melody.

The player . for to speak through its this externally. At I there appears almost irresistibly the idea of the clarinet. The move- ment must here be made more gentle (but inconspicuously). In this second side theme we find what has been menthe influence of orchestral representations upon tioned before. piano the^transposition is well founded. also in varied form. part. and Its repetition. the touch must be tender. more ideally. 8. and 2 than for also finds less vibration for I. with its soulful. 2. 6. second side theme I. and new theme. swelling sound: at 2 the thought is directed to the flute. and that Beethoven consciously carried inNevertheless. The player must not accomplish according to the dictates of reason. A song 4. becomes a benefaction of comfort and inner recovery. with triplets of second side theme (i to 8) is written most simply. 3. anyone who is at all conwill instruments will recognize the echo of be able to take this recognition as a model (trio part) consists. This transition to the third part. and absolutely full of feeling. It is not necessary to find evidence for this. however. the composition. even without fulfillment. which alone by itself. versant with orchestral them on the piano. four plus four measures. but should endeavor to express their character. Repetition of 3 and 4. not it is hardly supposable strumentation in mind. 5. at 4 the related but more elastic violin. in the first figure of ten measures. but which is smaller and not so warm. which is so closely reThe lated to the former.96 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. It is worth while investigating whether or not we hear the oboe at 3. The first theme in octaves and transformed. the melody carried in wave lines and made emphasis. Here begins the eighths. Its repetition in the higher "octave. in lastly. This for his performance. with a few changes at the beginning. the physical side of the instruments. flute and should. and at 5 the flute and clarinet (or. of. Repetition of 5. 7. of prayer. not attempt to imitate bassoon). but he must take the contents of the sentence into his soul. A somewhat changed form.

asserts itself. form the close of the principal subject and also the transition to the counter-subject. A-major Sonata. and but also to return at the right time to the original Without this the performance loses dignity and finally makes a caricature of the composition. With the assistance of the is 97 triplets of eighths two measures led back. changed as are its features. which by many. which is introduced by the up-beat of a The first motives must remain in tempo. and indeed. 2* This Sonata unfolds before our eyes a moody picture of everlife. together with the quarter notes in the melody and a sustained bass. energy. Even is in this first We must. After the closing chord (measure 20) the rest maybe made a little longer. but the passage of eighths cannot assert its repose after them. remember the caution of proceeding carefully. for the next instant may bring something entirely new. after which the first motives reappear. however. with progression of quarter notes. and this must be brought out in its per- changing formance. and which. Every moment must be quickly perceived and boldly placed. page 105. the whole grows out of an internal unity. in order to broaden out into the quarters. * Biography. Op. until the triplet figure. and with it the first tempo. which takes a more quiet movement in the last measures. then the passage of eighths. Sonata the natural rhythmic freedom. three-voiced and in fleeting eighths. not only to satisfy metric feeling during this departure. constantly retard the tempo a little. and to give place to a new passage. through intonation. then boldly and progressively. so severely censured cannot be otherwise. . it movement. asserts itself. places itself as a contrast to the eighths. for a run of triplets of sixteenths bursts in upon them. Part I. which eventually gain the upper hand after all. triplet of sixteenths.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. Nevertheless. making no unnecessary departures. The lightly principal subject of the first Allegro announces itself and shyly. the intervening measures of two the tempo each each.

own accord. both of which he carries to a broader. marked "espressivo. the second continues in the tones V. and therefore demands a decrease of tempo and intensity. one might say regretfully. The performer must here follow the thought of the composer. The melody of three-timesfour measures starts more emphatically with the first three tones. finds the representation of his who does not know what to Whoever holds fast to this picture. each time. But the rolling figure of the side first principal subject tears it away from its humility. the theme. on account of more ready execution. measure 12 to 14 of the bass. but just at this point it bursts forth with new energy./ which. more energetic development. one after another. and out of the well-known passage of eighths the closing theme. in E minor. as it were. and must raise his performance to a similar energy of touch and expressiveness. I Here the three voices appear. then flying through all the voices. the passage of eighths beginning 'lightly." appears. is de- veloped. then with the second principal subject. with slight stress upon the upper voice. and at measures 19 and 20 seems to wish also to go to rest. there cannot possibly be another way of rendering this. After the impassioned and unsteady principal subject. sinks together. a new run- ning passage (it is given on page 34 for technical reasons) again restores the bold mood. which from its piecemeal beginning now melts into a firm whole.INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. The second part is occupied first with the first. plaintively. are written in the form of appoggiaturas to the first voice. A synopsis might be: the beginning light and bold. with similar . sinking into gentle calmness. This is especially true of the first. then the run of sixteenths violently dashing upward. One seems do with his to see an incurious youth. Each voice must be played in the same manner. The passage of eighths again returns in its familiar manner. until the passage itself sinks to rest. up-bubbling life.

THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. but only to point out the deep. need to be heard more The first part is distinctly. while in intensity it is similar to the middle voices. the tones #. and therefore The their reproduction. a. or close of the second). and the intonation of the more important moments must result without the destruction of the gentleness of soul and tone movement. g. like the meditation of a noble soul in loneliness under a starry sky. The highest intensity. as the following contents are familiar. e) still more quietly." not (ac- commence cording to the sense of the word) to indicate passion. they are the heart of the passage. g in the third and b in the sixth measure must be heard as climaxes. at precision. Further than this nothing need be said. the (f-sharp. second part. In the little intermediate theme which takes the place of a tr. which is to give out its tones very short until it arrives at the legato eighths. upper voices must come together with absolute so that the chords stand out gently but sonorously. forward-moving bass. energy. yet by no means significant. so that the progression of quarters (at measure 5) be- The whole must be quiet. The bass becomes emphatic through its movement and fuller tone combination. The Largo following is marked "appassionata. \ melody \ of the upper voice \ e. f-sharp. and Beethoven has marked the climax of this intensification ff. in latter of which takes it upper and lower voice (the from the former). and equality of the middle voices. remarkably intensified at its return (as third. the agile. closely melting into the two middle voices. thoughtful content which is heard therein. however. comes the same time the upper voice must be heard almost imperceptibly above the others. will come into use . The song is quiet and majestic. Whoever can become filled with this picture will succeed in understanding all the details. principal subject shows two different figures appearing simultaneously: first the melody of the upper voice. f-sharp. f-sharp. f-sharp. or at least must not conspicuously be heard over them. in 99 each one the triplet of sixteenths must powerfully the next eighth. g-sharp. Its melody moves along quietly. the three weak. and secondly. generally step for step.

in opposition to Beethoven's " annotations? Bynomeans. Beethoven. which towers most emphatically over the entire Sonata. here increase to forte. the sentence being a rich wreath of most manifold blossoms. but very strong.* At this climax. and arranged in most complete harmony. and therefore it must take part only imitatively in the performance of the first. the upper one enters only imitatively. The first first *Is not this assumption. \ with its f t e. t Biography. for the whole has It is arisen from a single impulse in the spirit of the tone poet. and like the statements in regard to time. however. d. further on). for the close of the side theme (12 and 13 measures. c slight emphasis. Are these moments of the same value? Certainly not. in the Coda. Part I. Beethoven has marked ff for the close of the principal subject. requires considerable intensifying in itself. ff does not always mean the very strongest ". The initial tones of both voices demand a (e. and all this can only be accomplished by a position of the hand (page 50) suited thereto. Op. was only devoid of sufficient marks for all gradations of forte. 7.f This is one of the finest tone structures which we possess. Naturally the same manner of playing is applied to the repetitions.ioo INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. which must be chosen each time according to the thought contained. and must be made even more significant through a delaying of the first two eighths. and which stands beyond all doubt as to its demands and content. stronger than forte. and directly after it/: again jf for the principal subject in minor. therefore not sufficient if the interpreter comprehend rightly the individual moments only. in the first and second measures of the passage. especially the remark of the first ff. the theme in minor appears ff in the very beginning. It is a forcible moment. page 161. we must tones passage of forward-pressing eighths. which. and the last two intense and e of the melody must receive emphasis by a f-sharp retarded movement. E-flat Major Sonata. in the passage of eighths. the entire vibratory power must be applied. it comprises many gradations. In the beginning of the first part the lower voice c} is the really melodic one. . The greatest intensity appears only when. which the bass accomplishes with its later. or rather the language of art. A last remark in regard to the Minore of the Scherzo. he must be able to express the relationship of one to the other. and hence their unity. This is indicated above. Like every intensity mark.

moments. A C w y E t F > 6 ^ .THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. part of the 101 first movement of this Sonata has seven principal which are here pointed out as to their beginning.

and from here on there must be new life. again 2. as at any rate. be taken only the least trifle slower. it The repetition of this passage demands a more impressive one. c. still more at 777. eighths. from the very beginning. from measure 19 to 23. The second side theme (D) assumes a different character. the performance of the eighths there must be a slight delay upon every first eighth of the measure. with a coda phrase.102 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. Mem- ber for tent. b-flat.) first the At*/**. to which the first side theme (C) also conforms throughout. and the coda must be played considerably slower. Where will this end? In measure 25 the principal motive again ap- form of a question (chord of the second. in the very tone progression shows. member (2 pulses. there must be a pause. pears. the coda pp. then 4) has the same con- which at the repetition becomes intensified and so expressive that one can almost hear the words. defrom the key). Then the delay is similar utterance. without movement of parture broadened out. (The first and third time the pause must be greater than is indicated. is broken off here. the two follead back chords with fresh courage and sharp intonation lowing to the first tempo. or accent) of the principal tones. g). must enter with a full tone. it stands still on its motive. but in the the motive marked Evidently that which apff. and sustained. but a seems to beg off the past violence. The passage must. and at an end. and . every member (d. as it were. and to make peace. previously peared Here (the content fairly demands it) there must be a delay on chord.

Each time the principal tones of every measure must be made emphatic. After the principal theme in C major has passed over . and absolutely subordinate to the Its continuation (measures 8 and 9 of the passage) melody. however. closing theme (H) begins with strong emphasis. f\ e) demands a \ legato. and mo. The sified as to figure of eighths at last begins again. c. every two measures. side theme (E) rocks itself into gentle rest and milder movement. as it were. The following. These are followed by a "Durchfuhrung" (thematic developHere there is a ment) of the motive of the last closing theme. from F swings itself down in a light and fiery manner. The motive of A marked pp also appears very much held back. and demands at the same time If this sentence is thus rendered. This change in the tempo is adapted to the two-measure rhythmic structure of the passage. while the bass tones are uttered strongly. H and 12. and becomes intenmovement and strength up to the point marked ff. however. or third. with power which is still more intensified at the repetition in sixteenths. which becomes more defined where piano and decrescendo is annotated. ll'ORKS. the figure of octaves hand must be carried out softly and fluently. going out again from the original tempo. The figures of eighths which are here adjoined will bear an acceleration which might include measures I and 2. with judgment. 103 The mark :== placed over the notes will -in- indicate this. for how could he indicate everything? The second member e-flat. 7 and 8. exaggeration would of course lead to a nervous and destructive effect. whereupon the second. however. with gentle emphasis on/ even when the same appears in the right in the left hand." for the utmost power is not applicable. which restores it again to the original movement. 9 and 10. 5 and 6.THE INDIVIDUAL decrease a trifle. slight delay upon every first tone of the motive. although not exactly fortissiHere again thesis intended to mean only "strong. The second part of the Allegro brings anew the principal theme with full power. it obtains peculiar life. The first closing theme (G) should be heard softly. 3 and 4. d. not Beethoven's annotation. in which also the passage F ap- pears. returns to the first movement. and does not assume its old tempo until it arrives at^\ The second movement of the Sonata requires only a brief remark. intensity of power. it is. a begins less emphatically than the other. The little melody (c b. hovering. and the close (measures 7 and 8 of the passage) must be given powerfully.

* This delightful Sonata requires but few remarks. with both not in the usual allegretto tempo which Beethoven has indicated. true models of Beethovenian melody. gentle curve. gently appoggiatura tone E-flat. begins darkly and mysteriously (due corde would perhaps best express it). which must be played thus * Biography. The melody. its climax in measure 6. expressione") it seems necessary to exA-flat major powerfully and sonorously. tation beyond all In regard to the minore of the Scherzo. Page 164 . then sinks down. is a masterpiece requires a well-measured performance. The first offers. 10. we find immediately before this the transition to A-flat marked <^= . the// written twice and and lastly decres. and therefore requires a gentle crescendo and diminuendo. The entire passage must quality of tone might be adaptable. very gently ("con gran press the side theme in It is not thus annotated. Part I. The repetition of this first part is expressed in exactly the same manner. but over the accompaniment in as well. and called the Menuett. idea the of this of had a definite expression accompaniment. both in the progres- movement Beethoven certainly sion of sixteenths and also the quarters.104 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. the necessary points have been indicated on page 47. each demands subordination of the accompaniment. and from here on a brighter (tutte corde). the passage sinks back into quiet. at the it reaches crescendo. immediately after the preluding measures of the principal theme and first side theme (C major). F-Major Sonata. and voices in absolute equality. The second movement. Each contains four measures occureach rises in a ring twice. small dimensions. upon which there is a slight delay. from there on. Op. At measure 5 this double melody is joined by an upper voice. for he not only placed legato marks over the melody. indeed. though not a stronger. The second part begins with two voices in imitation. But the contents place the suggested interpredoubt.

in technical language) is one of those which the unity of the whole than in the melody. but the deep tones (D-flat d-flaf] are struck after these. in higher register. only very moderate power. but according to the thought. however. indeed this depth tones of the becomes personal. and ceptibly. must. and Now the harmony hovers melody (again with flute quality) responds in a high register (f-f}\ the harmony then rises to its utmost possible height (//). and even here the harmonic element is equiponderant. The little melodic passage must grow in intensity up to g-flat. which only begins to become significant in measure 11. for these three tones must be made felt. though there must be an absolutely even and quiet major passage exist more in all the voices. and conversant with orchestral instruments cannot resist a thought of the sweet tones of the flute whose song soars high into the ethereal heavens. soft performance. devoid of accent. sf in that f sf it attains to melody (or speech). more to the 105 accompaniment. and the against the harmony. and thus represent the depth more emphatically. These sfs rightly.7 HE Beethoven's jr/*pertains first INDIVIDUAL WORKS. in the lower register. The higher trifle touch of same pitch (/-/) begin the repetition of the passage. is appropriate here. as it were. is the most appropriate. Here certainly a gentle. tarry almost imperBeethoven has marked three sfs. not be played with sharpness. Nevertheless. The violoncello is suggested here. the melody (upper voice) must be heard a above them. Now the harmonic element begins to unfold itself in most peculiar manner. The passage had in the beginning a deep position (D-flat /). . spheres into which up to this time no composer for the piano had penetrated. in that it slowly and most meditatively hovers through the various tone regions. and the melody rises into the highest tones (g-flat a) of the present key. then die away. if not preponderant. between the tones (fc-faf and c a-flat}. The D-flat Here the melody appears again one (trio. supported by a gentle delay. Thus a melody has presented itself strange to say.

finally the motive diminishing according to its progression (>-). in B minor. however. its The first Allegro develops \ principal theme from motive of four tones. The antithesis falls back into the tempo. up to the last three tones. and is repeated in a figure of eighths. which is also further deThis principal subject the first four measures is veloped. and we have the manner of Beethoven could not playing this motive wherever it is found. . entirely different from the first. the intensification carries it on of its own accord. begins a second. which are held back for intensification of power. r^ Let us think of the first tone as made very distinct (this is c-sharp brought about through the octave). slower. J coming toji satisfactory close. which it however broadens without a close into a trans\ ^^^^ * The ^MMMHBW^^H Biography. The whole is based_on the first motive up to the very close. The movement is neither brilliant nor impassioned. Part I. and the^ last tones demand a greater delay. and its humor would become deteriorated if the presto be not taken later on. Full of life 10. D-Major Sonata. as at f (this is indicated by the staccato mark). and though Beetho- ven in his virtuosity period may have played it so. moody.io6 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. song-like part. a plaintive tone picture which forms a first. but. Finally the thesis is repeated. d c-sharp. unsatisfactory close of the rirst leads to a second principal theme. without. Even the most rapid movement would not tend to give it these qualities. b. the second tone phrased to the first and shortened to an eighth. it is hardly supposable that he used this when he essayed to tempo make everything intelligible. rather. though it is not so called. Page 168. and continues for two measures. The last movement is marked "Presto". For this motive Beethoven has given a hint at the very beginning. Op. a. this is in character the first large sona ata_of Beethoven's. *^ first and spirit. intensified in the thesis according to movement and power. possibly indicate this everywhere.

and leads on. where it is to be played more legato and with finer but audible emphasis. though sonorous. Thus the broad changing tone close. finally appear emphatically. chords of the accompaniment. but every tone must have the proper expression. along quietly and Finally. This requires no A second secondary subject. increasing in intensity. and lastly pausing emphat- tion of the structure is brought to a closing themes. and. after the indicated forte. gently and further description. finely constructed. follows. over like a dark mystery. while the ac- much importance A companying the figure in its its deep register steals unassumingly with figure of sixteenths. and works itself around lower voice.* The first movement of this Sonata is marked "Allegro molto con brio. repeats itself. fall back at once into t}\e piano quality. must grow very gradually. The melody of the theme must not only be heard clearly above the absolutely even and quiet. with double and triple vivacity. as it were. Op. and in it the motive It appears. and this Beethoven has indicated as the general character. Beethoven has The Largo first attributed so the to this that he finally duplicates and 6 similar emphasis 7) in octaves. here a sharper intonafirst tone is superscribed and necessary. Page 176. and yet we must avoid a hurried tempo." that is.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. and from the repetition of the first_part into the second. Pathetique Sonata. in the coda first melody (for only two measures) appears in the depths All this must hover of the bass. . give repose to the close. The content demands great vivacity. bringdevelops ing the entire passage to a fortissimo. but also in the numerous moments which demand emphasis. in thirty-seconds. ition to the first 107 secondary subject in A major. voices different through (of two each). unnoticed. but we ought not to do all that we can do. 13. We e * Biography. then the motive leads back to the beginning. melody (measures is due the melody of the second theme. one agitated and one quiet (to be played contemplatively). The performance would not be difficult even in the most rapid tempo. in the again seeks its identity. like the first. on in mutters this voice. and lastly it into a broad bass passage. ically. but its pathttique character consists not only in the breadth of the tone masses. the accompaniment first of triplets then of sixty-fourths must begin like a breath. Two is a song of deep melancholy. Part I.

into consideration. measured rhythm. It must be borne in mind that the melody of the Adagio must not only be heard above the accompanying sixteenths (later on. intensity of power and movement. therefore. contrary to the tonal significance of the two halves of the passage. the tempo of the Allegro ought hardly to be four times as rapid as that of the Grave. It progresses upward in quarters. but must in itself be uttered in a song-like manner. If the feeling does not deceive me (for absolute dictation can- movement and reappears not be given in such cases). The first cadenzing figure of the upper voice should be brought out rhythmically and strongly. crescendo and diminuendo. only that its intensity falls more upon the first tone of the measure.io8 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. and demands.this descending progression. Were the meaning to be taken verbally. while the second should be quiet and tender. and it would not be well to too the separate greatly tempi of the Grave and the Allegro. seems to find interpretation in this way. and even the climax of the passage (c). the interpretation. with all the intonation. aside from the notes. and then. seems to gain both in simplicity and grandeur. must take the which introduces twice. beside the upper voice. chord should be a trifle held back. with intensification and diminution of the vibratory power repeated twice. and has piano of the repetition. the Grave. the whole thesis. and content themselves (forced into this habit through the technical . "the lion's paw!" That which follows returns to the first movement. only in an unusual How can one find room. the bass voice appears with equal significance. all changes of expression? At any rate. made use of the word. as here described. The principal theme (page 55) comprises an opposing theme within itself. while that of the upper voice falls more upon the third quarter. in order to bring out clearly the content of. also. The Grave appears in heavy. Even accomplished players neglect this point. It descends The first half-measure in a broad progression of half notes. and seems to be in accordance with the thought of the whole. to indicate sense. and this crescendo would lead to the Beethoven has felt rightly. that four Allegro quarters should have a trifle shorter duration than one Grave quarter. would need to be taken piano. triplets of sixteenths). the crescendo would follow. not in a bad sense. and the cres. which would be given to it were the hand to be used for the melody alone.

still more so the fourth time. Biography. Immediately after this. not insignificant part. i4. The very first tion here. Page 170. Added to this. his and contemporaries. to indicate a. but only an attempt to interpret the the same as at same more accurately. and with a gentle emphasis of the second tone.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. He acted wisely. the bass. other. * however. must melt into the to finished violin playing. on paper at any rate. absolutely legato. great. in double length of tones.* This delightful sonata requires but a few remarks. however. The close of the upper voice has been marked by Beethoven thus. for with them the difficulties are berg not so. . difficulties of 109 newer compositions) with the former. Part I. with a legato mark for the tones of each pulse. G-Major Sonata. Op. at the close of the side theme. and perhaps even these few are superfluous. Does it not seem. At its third appearance it is to be intensified somewhat. Beethoven. in regard would find most desirable demonstramotive of six tones must be played most tenderly. it is like an assenting gesture to the soulful song of the upper voice. as a subordinate. however. Finesse and grace must guide the playing of every tone of the first movement. the same notation returns for similar tone groups. with a slight emphasis of the c and a tarrying emphasis on a. be served in so mechanical a fashion as Thaicannot however. as though the notation of the figure as shown at b would give a still finer rendering? This is by no means a bold criticism of the notations of the master. but we must bring to Beethoven feeling and abandon. as at a. and the suggestions made on page 90. and to leave for the player the fine points of in- terpretation which could hardly be expressed.

saddened. Page 184.no INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. 26. of the theme. but insight must be acquired by the player. One never knows how far the most harmless beginning can progress. Part I. it is a new. a two similar voices. yet all remains in of The progressions unity of character with the beginning.* ment In place of the usual Allegro. cannot be enforced. A-flat Major Sonata Op. so that the second tone never receives emphasis as it did before. playfully. at/it proceeds into the bass for the purpose of a further-reaching and more animated argument. seriously speaking. . and every voice must be begun and carried through thoughtfully. At last the thought becomes deeper. now begins in minor. i Biography. Here the manner of playing suggested at b in the preceding passage. and at measure 7 becomes involved in an excited discussion between two voices. of thirds in the side-theme form a duet. and the bass with gentle dignity forms its own melody. Here the usual custom of allowing song the upper voice to be intensified. for here the song glides quietly and gently over the thrice repeated figure. The melody Anaante. every tone must be uttered soulfully. even severe personality which here takes up the word and leads the motive which began so harmlessly. into a sphere of which it never dreamed. The motive. and indeed throughout. so happy at first. fresh as new und life. The after-effects are seen at the close of the passage. Beginning with the theme. full In the very second part the player can make use of penetrative perception. and the accompaniment goes along beside them. The dainty triplets of sixteenths (two and two marked 6) following soon after should have a light emphasis on the fourth tone. in vain do we await the return of the first sweet happiness. and raised tenderly over the The two voices must warble their other. innocent song like birds. would not be advisable. this Sonata has for a first movevariations of most poetic content.

c f. In the fourth variation. b-flat. The melody must stand out in measures I and 2 the entire left hand. one is reminded of the melting quality of the first. but gently and with accurate simultaneous sounding of the tones. and each of the two parts separated. mournful character. 3 and 4 the tones a-fllat. the important tones . The next six measures form a development and must be taken at least in the first tempo. like this it becomes intensified as to movement and power. a-flat. The next twice-two measures are held back and sharply intoned. the rich tone of the second. The bass. this becomes decidedly apparent in these four measures. The second section. however. Its song reminds one of the quality of the violoncello. b-flat. This might be carried out more or less elaborately. and the airy nature of the third. and is again separated from the following by a little pause.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. from the upbeat of measure 8 to measure 16. b-flat. in measures c. then middle voice. which carries an important melody throughout the entire movement. All other tones of the bass and the entire play of the right hand are subordinated to the melody. and so on. Then the first part begins again with perceptible holding last back of the next to the measure. if not a little held in a \ \ The second back. in begins at once in octaves which must fall exactly together. It begins piano and makes a crescendo up to measure 8. that is. at any rate such recollection inspires a more varied man- ner of playing. begins like the first. although they now and then become intensified and again decrease. If the entire variation has shown a dismal. It begins softly and darkly and becomes brightened and intensified in its progression. the chords of measures 3 and 4 must be uttered sonorously. the thirty seconds. and later (J ~a-flatJ} flat ~f~e-flat} that of the flute. The third variation admits of a slight intensification of the tempo. the first two eighths of which are slightly held back and separated from the others by the slightest pause. In the first variation one seems to hear the interchanging song of the violoncello and the clarinet. must be separated from the other voices by gentle intensiLater (measures 5 to 8) itjbecomes legato fication and staccato. d-flat. variation places the melody first in the bass. and with slight emphasis on the f. also the tones d-flat. e-flat. the three tones a-flat must be gently intensified. and songlike.



e-flat, a-flat,

g, etc.,

must be

lifted out,

but only according to the

relationship of intensity of the whole, which

originally in-

tended to be//. The tones marked cres., measures 7 and 8, may be held back a little and should be played with a strong stroke. That the coda to the last variation must be played with greatest care will be felt by everyone. The melody must sing gently and persuasively, the accompaniment of .sixteenths must be subordinated, while the bass in the first seven measures must give the pizzicato effect of the double bass; then, as though representing a violoncello interchanging with the double bass, it must mingle

legato with the other voices. The third movement of the Sonata


the celebrated Funeral

March on the death of a hero. Whether or not it be true that Paer's Funeral March on the death of Achilles inspired Beethoven to this composition, it certainly is a hero who is here to be For this reason the slow tempo with which this laid away. March is generally played is entirely out of keeping with its sigIndeed, they are not old women or infirm bourgois follow the bier! One must imagine troops, troops in arms mutilated warriors, pale with rage, whom the fallen hero has


often led to victory and glory. Therefore the tempo ought to be placed at about Allegro moderate ; and the circumstance as to

whether this is the proper tempo for a soldier's march is not to be considered, for it is not such a one, but it is an ideal March, a part of a free work of art bound to no outward law. In the Trio one seems to hear the roll of the funeral drums and the sharp cry
of the brasses.

Furthermore, the March moves along in four sections of four measures each. Imagine that the procession approaches from a distance. According to this it should be begun softly, and gently intensified up to the anxious chord in measure two of the fourth section. The first two sections can be played a due corde, but the entrance of the third (B minor) should be taken tutte corde. After the four sections a new one follows in which a more personal lament becomes perceptible (pianissimo, the ff to be understood according to the relationship of the//), and the principal thought returns again with broader quality, now intensified (in



the third from the last measure) to greatest power, and closing with powerful strokes. After the Trio, the March begins again,


intensified as before, must, however, not begin pp, but

medium strength. The coda returns to pianissimo. The restlessly flowing fourth movement must by no means be

played too hurriedly, in order that every voice progression can be distinctly perceived and comprehended.

Fantasie Sonata Op.

27, i.*

culties, technically

This presents a series of movements without any special diffispeaking, and yet requiring careful study for poetic respresentation. The first movement begins with the simplicity of a quiet Folk song, and retains this character throughout; the melody must rise gently above the middle voices, the bass plays thoughtfully, almost secretly, into the other parts, until it finally (part 2, measure 2) becomes more urgent, and from here on more significant.

rapid and

second song theme begins, simple as the The melody must not only be stirring. moments must be expressed

Now a


but more

lifted out,


still moderated emphasis on a) as had only the melody to play, and not a part of the accompaniment with it. This demand becomes an

as soulfully (with stronger, but

the hand would allow



absolute condition, the deeper we penetrate into Beethoven's works. The full-voiced chords of the accompaniment must be

played pianissimo, with absolute evenness of all the tones, entirely subordinated to the melody, but increasing and diminishing with it. In order to intensify the power, the dampers must be raised (Fed.) wherever this can be done without blurring the chords or disturbing the melody (for example in measure 2). There follows (as it were a Trio) a passage marked Allegro, in which happy expectation (or recollection?) rules. The movement must not be over hurried, in order that the passage may not form too sharp a contrast to that which precedes and to the Andante which is repeated after its close.

Biography, Part






After the Andante has closed, as it were, expired, there follows a second movement, marked Allegro molto vivace. It must at least be taken as rapidly (or even more so) as to have its quarters about the length of the eighths in the preceding Allegro.


of secrecy

movement, a hasty, restless pressing forward, full and suppressed passion, suddenly bursting forth. The first two measures hasten by softly, almost without accent, the following two demand emphasis on the first tone of the measure;

in this

the next two measures again remain almost without accent. The next four measures are taken in the same manner; at the indicated forte the first tones of the measure are sharply accented,

and the following ones are played
be kept in mind, for it has content of the passage.

less strongly. This idea must foundation in the entire form and

overhurrying of the tempo (Allegro vivace) The content must not become indistinct for a single moment, and. thorough justice must be given to the emphatic and dignified language.

At the

must be guarded against.

Fantasie Sonata Op.

27, 2.*


It is

traditions are false, this Sonata has most decided the echo of that which took place in Beethoven's

when he anticipated, or rather realized, that the bond of love to Julia Guiccardi had been severed. Even though this interpretation might seem somewhat uncertain, the content of the Sonata represents that mental condition so clearly as to guide

the player's conception, passage for passage.




pictures to

anyone who brings a heart


Biography, Part I, Page 130. fMore recent investigations have proven, bey9nd a- doubt, that Beethoven's "Immortal Beloved " was not Guilietta Guiccardi, but her cousin, the Countess Theresa of Brunswick, the only woman whom Beethoven loved. The interpretation of this Sonata, as Marx perceived it, is not in accordance with the facts brought forward by Alexander Wheelock Thayer in 1879, " and confirmed by Mariam Tenger in her Personal Reminiscences of Beethoven's Immortal " first made known at the Beethoven festival in Bonn in 1890. Beloved,'


but with great flat gentleness. and in- termediate themes. It is lifted out. but at the return of the begintakes on a brighter hue and assumes will be clearly seen that the melody must softly. with a hand and with absolute evenness of intensity. this is like the entrance of a strange in the last ten measures. The majority of accomplished players. The accompaniment which unites the introduction. then the doubling of the melody the first returns. This the deprives melody of the prominence due to it. after this the movement follows the rising and falling of the melody. as has been remarked before on page 77. where they fall together in lifted octaves. from here on the triplets. even. attain individual significance and form. and the gradually vanishing song might be allowed to melt away with the same intensity as the accompaniment. and therefore intensified. forms harplike triplets over a bass stealing along in the depths. with scarcely perceptible emphasis on the first tone of the triplets and with very gentle crescendo and decrescendo in the first four measures which form the introduction. an exception might be made. by a new voice (which cannot be considered as a continuation of the principal melody). Perhaps at the close. most decidedly a song of lamentation and self-denial. and even gives it a sense of incompleteness.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. slightly loudly or too roughly. but not too more essential than ever that the principal melody be above the accompaniment and be separated from the same. permit themselves to play melody and accompaniment. doubled. is voice. and at the return of this passage rises significantly and sinks again into In measures 28 to 31 the first tone of the triplets is quiet. It must stand out independently. 115 music. G-sharp]. This entire part must be played softly. where noticeable especially motive of the principal melody sounds up out of the This doubling deep (G-sharp. when it falls together with the accompaniment. The song begins very ning in F-sharp minor It greater intensity. close. it . measures 14 to II from the end. The bass first begins to come into prominence in measures 16 to 18. G-sharp.

be played as expressively. gradations of expression. especially in the first mo- ments. and one who cannot think them should lay aside the Sonata. is not expressed in the song. without essential For this reason. a-flai]. He further stated that the fact that a Csharp minor movement followed a C-sharp minor movement. The necessity of parting. would be only the slightest objection to this plan. after which comes the stormy.. This doubt received strongest expression in the excellent pianist. with the following rests. not. marked Allegretto. " O think of me" (g-flat rest. The farewell lovers I think of thee! farewell words. the thought .. . for the feeling is now awakened. and a longer one at the first The repetition of the thought. impassioned latter is generally played more or less accurately Finale. and might readily be tempted to agree with the venerable Berger. it would presuppose evenness of feeling. opposite of the lamentation. with increase and decrease of power as though the hand had nothing else but this to play. real The song of lament is a very general lyric effusion. / e-flat. but it is a moment out of the life of a definite person in this case Beethoven. and is misunderstood. who laments that he must part from his love. however. should be played with \ \ still more lingering. forever!" these ever-recurring parting words of seem to be heard distinctly out of the tones. with the usual utmost. and that it must needs be left out. This song of lament is followed by a second movement. however. Therefore the indicated tempo of the movement is above all the parting one turns away. awakens doubt.n6 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. both as pourings forth of a soul strung to its The The second movement. for self-control can only be acquired gradually. we might readily arrive at the mood of a Vienna Waltz. that is the content of the second movement. One who cannot hear those words should think them. would be a caricature. it is not written for him. and teacher. if this second movement is only played as Allegretto. composer. even tempo throughout vivid mental agitation. Indeed. this determined personal thought. but even at the third and fourth tones there should be a slight delay. The beginning should be played lively. and therefore misinterpreted by the majority of players. "O think of me! Farewell. Louis Berger. But here again it is seen how essential it is to look beyond the notes into the inspiration which caused the composer to write thus.. for it is generally considered as the exact by pianists. who declared that this movement disturbed the unity of the Sonata. whereas in parting everything wavers.

the pulses. its principal theme (given on page Biography. Beethoven found no other relief for inner soul-life. One must hear with the soul. D-Major Sonata Op. and which waft words of comfort on the breath of the tones. \ e-flaf] begins to acquire fluent speech. Never has ignorance exposed itself more absurdly than in giving this Sonata (who knows in whose brain the idea originated?) the name "Pastoral Sonata. all is developed gradually and quietly. d-flat. The changed b-flat. There is here no this Sonata. hurrying by in the first four measures. The second part follows in more closed and even tempo. 2. experienced soul is here represented." this might be said of only a slight change in the words of the poet. in the F-minor Sonata Op.* noble thought attracts noble men. repetition of the passage b-flat. expressed with the language of innermost feeling which penetrates without words from heart to heart. This hesitation. must wear out his last strength in the violence of desire and with a lamentation which reaches about in vain. and therein is manifested the power and grandeur. with "A opportunity for violent and sharp contrasts. once before. capable of the greatest emotions. Now. still less does the longed-for and hoped-for and yet life must continue. A simple. at length. holding back in the two following. grand. Who can know of the pictures which hover over the recollection in the Trio. The player must be able to absorb this greatness and depth. not simply count. the close hesitates. 28. the Finale becomes intelligible.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. images which once more beckon from the past. and tarrying long in the e-flat." This name evidently has reference to the first theme of the Finale. c. . One does not perish at once. one must feel. must respond to the ious soul soul of the poet instead of merely obeying the prescribed tempo and the arithmetical problem. and to express it freely. this unsteadiness of the anx- must be understood and expressed through the tones. not alone with the physical ears. has 117 now become (d-flat. One might as well call Solon or Plato a writer! The * first Allegro develops I. a consciousness. One happiness become a reality must live on amid the storm of unhappy and restless existence. That is the content of the Finale. but with hesitation after e-flat and a-flat where before rests were required. Part Page 185.

which is now doubled. for there follows a second principal theme of eight measures. more intense tempo. and middle voices were to be distinguished.1 1 8 INTERPRE TA TION OF BEE THO VEN. but with well-balanced restraint. closing with four measures of coda. up to the repetition of the introductory figure of eighths which again raises itself in movement and intensity. following (f-sharp. now upper and tenor melody. hereby the tenor especially becomes more first return in a higher ocin a finer tone register) and in broader harindividualized. but more impressively and with finer coloring.g-sharp. At first the melody. decrease for two measures. 64) quietly for ten measures. The quarters in the bass ear more now resound an octave higher. bass. The repetition demands a similar interpretation of course. b. g. then increase again. related to the first. but with greater intensification of the melody. the perceived. and with a bass continuing its pulsations. and after these measures the original tempo returns. and middle voices which join the others. This. the last three vanishing away. a. and rise with the same gentleness. But to hold back slightly . its strokes increase from piano for four measures. Now the side theme quietly begins (^. The theme is repeated. therefore come to the tave (the melody mony. the upper voices progress downward quietly. but rhythmically significant (with emphasis on the principal tones of measures 5 and 6). a. b. on page 64. It has been said before. It seems feasible in this passage I to hasten the groups marked a a little. These twice-ten measures have not proven exhaustive. It is repeated with figuration of eighths.) swelling out of the piano. and The upper voices also vividly. however. bass. e. the melody must be raised slightly above the middle voices. and here the progression demands more activity. is not like the first. that the bass in pro- gression of quarters does not pulse along without significance. the first two measures press more actively beyond the original tempo. are to be and attains individual song. but simply related to it. tone of which must stand four the out. which had remained steady throughout the first theme. d] in four and four measures in the first tempo.

Then the crescendo begins again.especially in the upper The entire development over the bass tone F-sharp. let it be observed that the frequent sforfortissimo. old ballad. it must decrease with the descending tones. but that they should be measured according to the existing intensity. the upvoices per pass quietly over the same. sinking. just as the preceding. In the figures of triplets and sixteenths. gradually growing In the slower. upon^sharp. into the depths of tone life. ing For the second part. zatos should not be exaggerated. a. Thus the progression of eighths becomes gradually more active. Here let the poetic player observe the rising melodic progression in the last melodic member..THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. that the unity of the whole will not be disturbed. the major chord f-sharp a-sharp csharp must be continued in grand repose. then upon d. then increase again up to the resting chord (c-sharp e a e) in broad harmony. and returns to the tempo in the The following passage in quarters is related last two measures. measure i and 5 must be gently emphasized. the third held back. up to . must grow gently In the following passage of eighths the intensity of movement for 14 measures. but with greater intensity and rises to great power on the half-note chord e a] and on the following (f-sharp d-sharp a) to (c-sharp whereupon it again returns to moderation. The second part. The bass plays a harplike accompaniment. Let the pianist perceive what there is for him to do. upon It is but here this melody vanishes rises to d. the second and (f-sharp a d-sharp) still stronger. those marked b all 119 so gradually. even sharply uttered both a little held back. An Andante follows. and finally. which seems to have the character of an . same sense the close of the whole must gradually vanish away. The closis theme like the principal theme in intensity and tempo. as it were. in register. which the melody lies in the next to lowest. which places the up-beat upon a. must from the beginning be planned for an entire vanishing away. and finally an exuberance which can only be appreciated by a singer. and later in the lowest voice. to this. the first is two swing rapidly down from a strong beginning. however. the second quarter.



the repetition of the principal thought, requires stronger intonation.

The Trio (D major)


marked/ by Beethoven.

The annota-

whole passage, but of course does not preclude the required gradations of the individual moments. This gradation is at once presented in the contrast of the fourvoiced chords, and the following solo-figures; the former must resound with resonance, though not strongly, as though uttered by soft wind instruments (clarinets, fagotti), while the solos must enter gracefully between them. The other parts of the Sonata require no further remarks for
very applicable to the
their interpretation.

G-Major Sonata, Op.


This Sonata, one of the happiest moments of Beethoven's though presenting no technical difficulties, requires, for an expreessive interpretation, an absolutely loose hand, ready for


the fine points of execution.






pervaded by a mood, the repre-

sentation of which seems to require no advice except to interpret the notes and to let freedom reign throughout. Even these few serious words seem to limp laboriously after the brightness of

the tone poem!


lightness and

happy mood

of the





the phrases, in the half playful, half which we will here indicate by numand pauses, dreamy stops At i the upper voice steps forward with a sixteenth, and bers.
in the shortness of

becomes more impressive, but still without violence or Beethoven has marked the same ff* particular significance. We understand that he means by this not special strength, but

energy as compared with the adjacent parts; at any rate, here the ^"cannot be given the intensity which we are accustomed to
After this beginning, the melody runs For 2 and 3, Beethoven himself has lightly. written p\ for 4 he has marked/ In the last phrase, the bass might come somewhat hesitatingly after the right hand, and the pause after 4 might be lengthened a trifle. Five has the first movement; a slight prolonging of the pause after it would make the close of the passage more emphatic.
associate with this sign.

along easily and










phrase returns

Possibly this should be only/, as at the repetition.

as 6; 7


is marked/, as was 2 before; 8 with/ which, however, can only mean piu forte here; 9 and 10 are to be taken like 4 and 5; The long passage II and 12 likewise, only 11 somewhat stronger. of sixteenths cannot be played without accelerating the tempo, especially in the last five measures. The subject is repeated as
i, and appears again in the first tempo; its last phrases before the sixteenths begin hesitatingly, and lessen the movement. similar interpretation should be given to the coda. Espe-



must the sixteenth triplets (first turn, then arpeggio) be in fact they ought rather to be spared any impetuosity or haste held back. It is strange but comprehensible that even skilled players often deal so inconsiderately with this simple and frequently applied figure of the doppelschlag, this graceful embellishment of the principal tone. The Adagio grazioso, the second movement of the Sonata, not that it is an echo of Rossini's might really be called Italian or other Italian works, but rather an ideal representation of all the sweetness, aba?ido?i, and vivacity which we can conceive of as united under Hesperia's heavens. Beethoven accomplished here

(for the Sonatas Op. 31 were written in 1802-3) what Rossini strove to attain, and in his happiest moments did attain this

union of playfulness and most graceful coquetry. The player must be filled with this sentiment; the trills of the upper voice must be executed with the utmost fluttering quickness, with
absolute equality of motion or of retard; they must grow from a pianissimo into an increased intensity;* but when these same

the left hand, they must roll along in a subdued The small figures must now be hurried, now daintiest in the manner, in order to express the grace delayed and vivacity of the mood. On the other hand, the quintolets toward the end of the principal theme require an evenness and



quality of tone.

steadiness of tone.

More cannot be

said in words.

D-Minor Sonata Op.


This deep, thoughtful work presents to the player in the very beginning of the first movement a mystery, upon the solution of which the success of the entire movement depends. After a Largo of two measures there begins an entirely new Allegro
* Whether it be a habit I know not, but these trills seem to respond to me best with the use of fingers i and 4 with hand movement, although the ordinary execution of the trill with adjacent ringers would seem more natural.

t Biography, Part






passage, continuing for three measures and closing in the fourth with an Adagio. The Largo passage of two measures then repeats itself, and the Allegro passage (somewhat changed) reappears and continues to the end of the first part. Were we to consider the Largo as introductory, what then is the significance
of this Allegro of three measures, which cannot possibly develop its thought in so narrow a space, and only to yield it up in the

Adagio? What means this wandering back and forth from the Largo to the Allegro, then again to the Largo, and again to the

rapidly at the beginning,

furthermore, the Allegro passages are taken too perhaps as they should be taken later

on (and thus we have frequent opportunity of hearing them, especially in the concert room), the mystery becomes deeper and more perplexing. We must penetrate deeper. The Largo is the introduction, a thought which has not yet assumed form. A second representation, the Allegro, is awakened, and also cannot complete itself as yet. The Largo is really only a single chord, which slowly manifests itself; the first six arpeggio tones begin slowly and follow in accelerated movement which rests on the a, moves reluctantly through c% and e to #,
and, according to Beethoven's annotation, rests there for a time. But the Allegro is also only an introduction without completion
or satisfaction.

indicated by the

cannot possibly have a steady tempo; this "Adagio" over the fourth measure. It has



no steadiness.









^ ^-*-^



" ^^*-*-j^a \^,~





and must be more must, above all, be emphasized =, =, and and more held back under I, up to the Adagio of the fourth measure, while at 2 it must press forward; not only its own de,

cided character but the further development requires this wavering motion. The Largo returns again, likewise the Allegro. Up to measas before, only more excited, and 5 it has the same character measures 3 and 4 require an emphasis and delay on the second and fourth quarters. At measure 5 the movement proceeds with more determination, and with decided accent on the first and third quarters, up to the sf. marks, which indicate a retard upon


interrogative. then. strained to the utmost for that which is to come. Its first motive (two measures) is that of the Largo. and at once with absolute decision. measures 17 and 18. therefore in firm and lively tempo. and must be emphasized and diminished thus: II- i i . the first part of the Allegro. with a medium-strong dismal tone in the middle register. to mutter at the last uprising. but again pressing forward from measure 10 to measure 21. It is to be observed that up to measure 19 all eighth notes are laboriously phrased together in twos. all is uncertain. pulse.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. and. is introduction to the passage which begins measure 21. as the the ruling one. and places two absolutely opposite motives side by side. The theme is laid out in broad sections of four and four measures. no definite tempo is possible. wavering. nothing is determined or far. At measure 21 the principal theme enters. This manner of writing indicates short and interrupted execution of the eighths. 123 the fourth quarter notes. therefore. and seem only in measure 19 begin to appear in the ordinary and more convenient form of four in a group. it is still incomplete. therefore all is excited. regardless of their opposite character. is only about to be. but is now to be played with power. and with power. As yet nothing exists. Thereby begins. but both must be firmly united. this indecision. consisting of a motive of a plaintive character principal (likewise of two measures). nor can there be an abrupt entrance of the Allegro. at decided. must find expression. this is followed by the counter theme. Now for the recapitulation: All that has been considered thus up to measure 21. This struggle. and first marked is was with / The first motive especially with p. and with a delay and intensification upon the last.

while the second member manifests itself only through a single tone uttered after the others. however. It is thought of agitato . but not sharply (as is often the case with high tones). It has been stated above that the tempo must be firm. and thereby a most comprehenrounding off of the single rhythmic parts. These single tones are marked sf. B. The third presses forward.124 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. it therefore remains in motion. but a deter- mined development of rhythm. in order not to be subordinate.L'. follows the side theme. c. This is not to be interpreted as a sameness of motion. It also begins in two sections of four measures each. Both demands can be united through strong intensification of Thus the first sections (of four and four measures) must remain firmly and grandly in the tempo.J t^^Gx f~~r"T 4-s- A*. Hereby is proven what has been said before of the content and thought of the introduction. of course. but the beginning of the . The tempo in the side theme can be only unsteady. 4-'--i "" T- }* i-^p-j 5Ez -9'v -ft-tTX TL^LJ^I 8^ T'n rv L. after a hasty intonation of must hurry its first four eighths. !*. but at the same time. and at the third pulse hold back a little. G#. as does not come to a real close Now This side theme is. but the following five (of two measures each) and the coda (of two measures each) must stand out with slow and steady movement. the same is required in the second pulse. The broadness of the development demands this. measure. i tl ^^- + m t-r^T"! f~T ^-|i^rp_ tas^^^ ^-+_^LtSJ^^^F . beginning with E. cv. formed naturally. according to the marked by Beethoven with/ and it almost breathless restlessness represents as the most absolute opposite of the principal theme. then the first member (the Largo motive) repeats itself five times in F. The pressing forward of the principal theme is demanded the more. A. The very the first first measure. and this is formed from the Allegro motive of the introduction. its its motive. they must be played impressively. sive the rhythmic members. the passionate pressing forward of the passage demands acceleration. This section repeats itself.

however. The second part brings first again the Largo motive in triple The little notes must be repetition and further development. beginning with the closing A. fourth 125 The second section requires a similar is again delayed.g% a. up to the close on A. permeated with desire. especially on the second chord (d / b-flaf]. it is a most thoughtful. and tempo. the movement grows again to the absolute restoration of the first tempo. played with a light. into an expressive recitative. . The ff marked at the beginning indicates only a strong sforzato for the advancing discantus. whereupon the quarters a. Has it no further determination than to serve as introduction? Not thus far. with further melodic development. but the large ones with a holding This is. The close has been determined from the beginning. In closing. performance. expressive movement. and again in the second higher octave. indeed. moreover.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. quick toss. require no interpretation. but like the entire Sonata. The passage of eighths. follow with considerable moderation. of the Finale let it be impressed upon the player that the tempo must not be taken too rapidly. six measures. the harmonic sounds become back. part. and also forward to the second part. or nearly to the same. Players frequently make it a Vienna waltz. The slow tones leading back into the beginning. then. It is nothing of the kind. with emphasis on eighths. It at the close of the and here it develops appears. With the beginning of the passage of eighths. and a very significant holding back. they The gradually returns to the first movement. They repeat themselves with their train in the higher octave. especially at every advance of the bass. the melody moves strongly downward. all first The following two chords combined with it t require full vibratory power. are again held back. From here on the restlessness and movement increase. speech. of the entire work. full of inner emotion and free from all over-haste. This climax motive moderates its power at every repetition. and at the discontinuation of the accompaniment. and more in the prescribed These two chords are the climax of motion and power must be grasped in a lionlike manner. finally strengthened by the bass. begins softly and grows (as is marked) to full power in the closing theme. or an Etude. and must sound out with power. the second representation of the motive out of which the principal theme has grown. and excited up to agitation of feeling and tone waves.

measures 9 stolen from some opera though and seems to hear the words tones hears the Is it. somewhat more spirited but steady in movement. in tasting them individually. for the present. Poetically thoughtful. now the passing clouds and slender bushes cast fleeting shadows. leads again to the question which now resounds so anxiously. Both. The side theme. though impeded by reflection. still The second and further. and a firmer down. drawing after it an antithesis. Beethoven delights in hovering like a bee over all the flowers which yield material for honey. but seldom has this characteristic become so manifest as in this move- The player must conceive of this. Three more spirited measures follow as a close to the preceding. remains true to the fempo. and finishes in the very first middle register. and as an introduction to that which is to come. E-flat Major Sonata. while the closing theme returns to the question and its hesitation. with all its finely agitated song. is and repeat portions of the same.126 THE INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. with all attached thereto. This fastidious hovering through tone regions is characteristic. repeats the same as it were lished. the tone play is like a wood-inclosed meadow over which now the sun casts light spots. follows the Scherzo. brightness and tenderness from the highest. lets a passage of chords foland all this in a tempo not yet establow. they only lead back to the question which appears now in higher regions. lights and shadows. The octave perhaps. Op. and speech from the intermediate. determined. and must secure from tone a dusky quality every region a peculiar quality of tone from the lowest. is bouffe. hovers down an octave. a Rossinian buffoon Is it Antonio from Mozart's Cosi fan tutte? that is talking? One who has ever had the pleasure of hearing Sontag not the Countess Rossi with her noble passions. The first Allegro begins its principal theme with a thoughtful question. and as though in thought. and both in constant interchange. Still the question hovers playfully up and firmly established. ment. yet full of playfulness." as say! One who knows what they passage. must be in the hand of the player. but Henrietta Sontag . 31. From the second close the tempo stands. third parts carry out the preceding Hereby the exe- cution Now to 17. a pure "parlando. into a second lower octave. almost painfully. passage. but finally high spirited mirth must rule. However.

at least by Beethoven. smooth connection) of the third. he never showed a foreign spirit even in the G-major Sonata.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. doing both has been shown. and who does not know how to unite them. Spit- zeder. The stream of tones rolls on. and the hurried flight accents mirthful the theme. lightly passing first principal frivolous. one might be tempted to call it a bravoura piece. It is remarkable that these suggestions of Italy are found at a time when nothing was known of Rossini. Fleeting playfulness must be cannot do justice to this Sonata. which again seems to have escaped from some opera bouffe. by caprice. If (accelerated movement. The first movement. seriousness. the Scherzo was playful. besides sweetness. cannot see all the playfulness and all the southern German tenderness and ideality prevailed. Page 179. In the pianissimo * Biography. This Sonata consists of but two movements. The way of C-Major Sonata Op. accompanied by tenderness. Part I. however. Between them there appears an Adagio molto." or else the first of all buffoons. beyond all this brilliancy there rises a spiritual idea of which tone play knows very little. play. and according to the brilliancy of execution offered therein. can comprehend this Beethovenian verse. certainly the Presto Finale (after a an Adagio) is positively quiet Menuett which takes the place of the after fine. betrays at once the impatience of hands that are eager to play. it is simply (as the superscription declares) an intro- duction to the Finale. Nevertheless. even the technical not altogether too great for a well trained pianist. One who both sides. apart from the technical difficulties. . Indeed. However. the performance involves no particular obstacles and requires few remarks. in the 127 "Barber of Seville. but it is not an independent difficulties are movement. Allegro con brio.* This Sonata belongs preeminently into the region of tone it to be measured according to the difficulties which it presents. Later he was to be driven away from the Viennese by the foreign element. and a recollection of what has been said before suffices for the entire move- ment. indeed. especially of the second. and one who can represent to himself this absolute freedom of speech and mischievous fineness of humor knows best how to interpret this Beethoven Scherzo. were 53.

exaggeration of the tempo must be guarded against. The transition to the side theme is is formed manifested rather hesitatingly (four measures before the side theme). but minor in triplets of A two side sixteenths. even there where the beautiful triplet figure is surrounded by a melody.. one seems to hear one of those 'cello melodies which Beethoven knows so well how to make impressive in sound and content. the beautiful principal theme themes. so that they can enter .). but hesitating in the subsequent When finally these the chord progressions. These two sections. the rapid motion of the eighths begins and becomes intensified up to the first pulse of the third measure. and with absolute evenness of touch and movement. playful principal theme. not very greatly. and this united in the syncopawith a resonant quality of tone in the lower and combined tion of the two others voices. designated from each other by restless sixteenths." is a thoughtAdagio which lays a slight emphasis on the third and sixth first eighths (the measures and ten. The superscription Allegretto moderato points to moderation. sf. and requires a little retardation of motion on the decres. it The second like the first. assert itself quarter notes. it should be held back a little. The fourth measure is only and a refined echo of the third. and the player must make this felt through a slight holding back. called "Introduzione. the performance must at least make the thought of the passage impressive (especially in the first measure. and are there made firm and settled. but perceptibly. The passage (beginning with the indicated f) returns to the original tempo. This secondary or side theme. If unable to recall any such melody charac- ter.128 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. are carried with a light hand to the dominant of E major. which continues to up to the quarter and eighth figure of the closing where it is again held back a little. lar utterance. distracted phrases in measure 9 at the rinforzando melt together marked in into a solid melody. then. which form the thesis of the principal theme. urge to moderation. especially on the theme. the first in demands the same. In the Finale. to which the simile had reference) through intonation of the first eighth and marked sf. with its childlike. and the also the second in C minor. The ful transitional passage. rocks itself in the shining light of its beautiful tone character. bringing a little stress upon the first pulse of the third measure. in the deeper tone regions. section requires a simi- but with a more elaborate close.

To the impatient hastener the coda Prestissimo will then be a boon. tensification. -F ? with emphasis and a slight delay upon the last tone of the inThis is followed by six tones. and the coda. side a counter theme (eight measures) places against the principal melody theme in triplets of sixteenths which may also be called characteristic. F minor *Biography. 57. but the listener would not comprehend readily.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. F Minor Sonata The Sonata in Op. every stroke. 3 * * 5 * with impetuously beating power (it is marked / and sempre /). this beating gg All this verifies | gggg | c. Added to this is the circumstance that the first side theme requires four intensifications.* sonatas considered thus come leads us into higher regions than the Something of this has evidently into the head of some piano hero or attentively listening far. II. the conclusion that the demands emphasis for more weighty the content the less can haste be employed. Part Page 26. 129 Both of these themes appear in three- and 5^ t_T hammer. four-fold octaves. . characteristically. Every stroke on the keys should be heard like the stroke of a The fingers might hasten. Finally the second strength. beating with equal the but seventh again held a little.

that is like sawing Niobe's head and bust and placing the rest on a pedestal. and of most varied content. however. softly closing. then d-flat) should be imperceptibly delayed. is. Perhaps he will confine himself only to playing the Finale as it has been heard in more than one Berlin concert. Beethoven has written very many impassioned sonatas. by various off natives. bujt. and again a slight delay . time the beginning tone (first c. To solve such problems in the realm of pure music was Beethoven's peculiar calling. however. Is it a vision such as seems to have escaped from the lower world? This cannot be traced out according to laws of reason. a Each followed by repetition pause. which make They themselves tangibly manifest in firm outlines all has rather the nature of phantoms which darkly hover past. It is. that eternal guide. Can the whole be a phantom picture of an anxious night? For that. interrogative trill/ It has already been stated on page 49 that the remote lower voice should accompany the upper still more After this close there is a prolonged softly and like a shadow. music dealer. and teachers. intangible as the air into which they evaporate as soon as we approach them and attempt to hold them. hesitating in a quivering. in the second measure there should be a slight accellerando toward the highest tone.it is that activity of the creative power which has given to reason. he never named one according to so indeterminate a quality. Whoever cannot find thought and faith for this cannot master this work. Let us discard this name and proceed to the work once the tone picit were in darkness. for analysis: first Now The Allegro assai. and immediately he has attached the appellation "appassionata" to the Sonata. not the fetterless and aimlessly wavering fantasy from which this tone poem has come forth. wrapped as reason^ |t is a_child_of fantasy and belongs to it alone. for him the F-minor Sonata is nothing but a lesson in technical skill.130 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. but art. or. and in it the very first establishes the character of the entire tone poem. of the upper half step. principal theme In hollow double octaves this theme (page 49) hovers along with long steps. virtuosos. does not belong to reason. one might say. determined and ideal power. it manifests too great a conclusiveness. It is about as significant as to call Hannibal or Napoleon a very brave warrior. the work of art. defined are not definitely figures moving along. and is not born of characteristic at One becomes noticeable ture from beginning to end.

The repeated. "Soar" is not an arbitrary expression. down into the depths.i/Thus fear cries out an'd storms Or is after it has been long enougjff denied expression of sound. All wavers uncertainly and unsteadily. and remains stationary as though fettered. to other pictures. it something unknown or strange which reaches darkly into the quiet progression of this passage? Three times this thunderclap strikes into this quiet strain. and over it. Now the upper voice liberates itself with great power (page 36). as does law in the organic and spiritual world. and still the last chord vibrates on softly. unanswerable question to the inquirer. JQ^jirst^ theme appears again very softly. hesitatingly. To what regions do these abrupt changes refer us? Let the player solve that. and again repeated. rustles quietly on. The interrogative closing formula which appeared at the very beginning (measure 3) also returns twice . eighths. now it seems to plunge in as though to assert itself. and let him have courage and power to do so. out of the lowest depths. wavering back and forth in deepest register. as though awaiting final expiration. as one returns an anxious. This bass. the mysterious. anxiously. on the is 131 first tone of the third measure. then again up into the heights. but seeks quiet development. like a cry of terror it plunges in scalloped motion with winged speed. it is the only suitable one for the diving down of the leading over theme (Ueberleitungssatz). and in the little closing figure intervening interval.Arcm here on we soar into other regions. then raised into . very wherefrom? The a warning softly. mysteriously upper voices have long echoed this. and that only in restlessly pulsing strokes. point of entrance constantly moves over to the uncertain last and only has the quietly remaining bass as a certain foundation under it. which from the very first ven.^ Such hard and abrupt opposites are seldom found in Beethowho does not love skips and departures. lonely -JT * -JT -* * three times repeated presses up out of the dark depths.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. but torn at the very third tone by the sudden and yelling cry of the harmony (ff marked immediately after a ff)\ and immediately again progressing softly (marked /).

How terrible for the eternally condemned is this proximity to the blessed fields this combination which the Greek. Here. now it raises itself strongly out of the depths to the middle. and his marble. He who has given himself up to the representations which this has awakened requires no further advice for interpretation. as a song from Elysium. fetter and flight. has invented with scarcely audible intonation ble for rhythmic distinctness.132 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. over the restless depths. First the principal theme appears again. everything must be "dolce. This is the first part. fettered wrath. later. there resounds the first firmly-built song a It vibrates gentle. That which has been established in the first part attains a complete and distinct existence in the second part. jonly as much as is indispensathe first side [This deep song theme repeats itself in high register. but only partially. in the hard rolling of powerless. but not too far. Hereby the which before has only been a hovering melody has be- come firm. to him all these pictures become embodied amid the many gradations of intensity which one can never superscribe. 12. stones/j The second movement of the Sonata is an Andante with variIt has been observed in the A-flat Major Sonata Op. octaves." as Beethoven has superscribed. a comforting height. interchange. and from there to the height of the tone system. as though over the comfortless night of Tartarus out of which we come. of confidence. trembles forward (each one of the trills sharper than the preceding). Beethoven has followed him. - . and after it a closing theme. each one must see for himself how wrath and complaint. All the following requires no further guide. not double. figure then against a harmony. yea. For this song the interpreter must let his tenderest fingers pass over the keys. cold as and handed down. It is not advisable to analyze farther. but more firmly. the most daring sweep " Piu Alof the ascending and descending sextolets before the has been as soon as the itself this solves all preceding legro" are "vandal the But to they comprehended. ations. The greatest intensity in the passage marked ff. and precipitates itself in a broad downward progression into the lower depths. both in A-flat minor. and in single. it is \ measure) then in quintolets (five instead of six) which laboriously wind themselves downward. then it hesitates painfully. a second side theme struggles. The accompanying harmony appears first in sextolets (four groups of 2 six. exalted song of prophecy. This explains the rendering of the melody (strong and firm) and of the accompaniment.

the chorus of part. it is not a princivoice a second nor (if upper and lower voice important pal voice. in syncopated form. The melody at first scarcely progresses. an elucidation the bass hovers. The melody melts together with the middle voices into harplike. which. In a more comforting manner does the second variation rise in the middle tone region. before the "due corde" was applicable. For theme and first variation the "due corde" would be applicable.form). and not only with fingers. where gentle song lives. but leads over to the To an accompaniment . however. The above cited ascents demand intensification. howbe taken very quietly throughout the entire measure. however. of harp whisperings the third variation enters in the register of tenderest tones. the second It is still a prayer out aspires to higher realms. Combined with this. and with absolute precision of all the simultaneously uttered voices. the bass. The performer must execute the whole movement with the utmost calmness. very like a prayer which winds itself with fervor out of the deep (De profundis clamavi ad te). then the harplike accompaniment lays itself! over the melody. would here apply. but it is a most worthy accompaniment to the principal voice. that variations in the greater 133 works of Beethoven are not only figurations. of the depths. are to be personified). the "tutte corde. is not a closing chord. to go to them with sentiment selves. but the movement must re- main the same. however. in the second it anxiously ventures upward. after part the other voices." suggestive of greater resonance. it must. shadowlike in the first part. as it were. and thought. the bass leads its Where ever. the its own way. but they generally carry a deeper sense within themIt is essential. measures 4 and 8. The upper voice requires but the slightest lifting above the others. The movement does not close. melody quietly and gently against this. in the progression bass in the deepest sense pursues to the great A-flat and its postlude. The movement finally turns back to the original tone position. Here the theme appears in a low register. so that in measures 4 and 5. from a-flat to d-flat and from /to a-flat seem like an impassioned ascent. especially in measure 3. hovering up and down until it reaches the last chord. and is quiet and gentle ("piano e dolce"). is. even the progression of a fourth gives significance and makes the ascent in the second part (the theme is a two-part song. as it were. therefore. must stand out. mild figuration.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. The first variation in the first of the theme.

without accent. nor pause nor rest. It is possible that the outward storm may have given to the tone poet the last revelation or decision. mild undaunted and defiant in the bluster of threatening misfortune. and good And if he be a man like Beethoven. The contents are very simple and comprehensible. that the indicated sf and ff must constantly (especially in the high positions) be graded according to the significance of the passage in which they appear. as possibly everyone has heard it in the highest summits of the woods. who has sought refuge in the uprising and expiring De profundis. the intensity increases. This flight rolls on ever deeper. life is indeed storm. Whoever has comprehended the character and content Finale. at heart. It must be remembered. then. And now. They are entirely different from the sharp contrasts in the first Allegro. and pauses. of the different tone regions requires no further guidance. still on. after a pause of expectation. Smoothly and softly the flight of tones begins. it is a storm of the soul. for Beethoven has given the most important annotations.134 INTER PRE TA TION OF BEE THO VEN. 'Gainst snow. approximately (for all can by no means be explained). however. which there essential to the meaning of the whole. before it seizes the crowns and shatters the trunks of the oaks. . but certainly the storm had been in his breast before the outward storm was perceived. the storm again begins to raise its dark wings very softly in the upper realms. The is the thought which the player must be able to realize. The storm passage rushes on. after a long pause resounds in sharp strokes and firmly marked rhythmic attacks. his The Finale rushes along it tradition. which only for a moment might be compared to the former. courageously and loudly. This." like a night storm. He who has seen the story which the first movement revealed. the storm to breast. he will sing. and according to was conceived by Beethoven on a stormy night. On. very legato. growls down in the depths. and the last time phrased off abruptly. becomes very strong. on. but ended it. But it is not intended to depict a picture of nature. chord which did not close the preceding passage. 'gairist rain. then becomes more subdued and quiet.

but representation) maybe possible. calling and struggling through the gust of wind which the bass can scarcely point out the sweeps away the last word The second song continues more firmly lost close. Deep into the on-rolling vibration. J. and much more that is beyond made recognizable in the interpretation description." hand. roar. and the side theme is not entirely released amid the and long >f from its anxious haste. +1.4. The last part in sixteenths." which sounds like a decided "Forward!" I should like to add a "Ma non troppo" in order that every eighth stroke may come out hammerlike however. in which Czerny himself to have been transported to the (page 89) supposed shores of the sea. must be In order that this (not technical execution. like the storm. and that it may be perceived as stroke and not as vibration. Beethoven has carefully added to the direction "Allegro. . by no means noisily (it is an inner decision and marked/)." a "Ma non To the strange and unexpectedly following "Presto. 135 *=& PP or. i i its air waves.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. on the other troppo. All this. the storm rages on. may speed on. unbridled. covers all with its breath wings. the "Wan- this is the nature and form of derer's Night Song" resounds.

and that is often the case here. Le retour. . the interpreter must have become thoroughly conversant and must have filled his heart with these three before named. fO. but the living content should be expressed In order to interpret fully this tone poem. That they are moments from the life of a pair of lovers is presupposed. The rests re- quire thoughtful lengthening. but also the lament returns again. there must be a short pause instead. for not only should the outward form of a duet be depicted. and each time with significance. but we must farther comprehend of how the lamentation transcendentally rises up over the regions human song. In order in the Bi- The * introduction has worked II. moments of life. page 190. Part is Page i8q. The introduction (Adagio) expresses " in its first tones the the mild E-flat major. tenderest and deepest. this. Casually. first "Farewell" returns again. but even in the third the addition of the bass draws it down into the cold Cpulse minor key. L'absence.f nishes proof of this. one deeper and one higher. and unjustly so. Les Adieux. It was certainly ideally thought out by Beethoven to allow (in the passage cited on page 75) each one of the duetting voices to complete its own harmony. 81 a. namely.1 36 INTERPRE TA TION OF BEE THO VEN.* The content of this Sonata *s expressed in the title and in each of the three movements marked with the words Les adieux. II. the two voices receive support and become two no wise changes the conception Music requires completeness of harmony and can therefore be satisfied with single voices for only a short time. for in the first The composition itself also furand third movements a duet form rules throughout. two voices going with and against each other. one of the artistically. in order that we may make this elevation clear by means of finest touch and tenderest intonation (the prescribed The be /must regulated according to position and mood). Sonata Op. The harmony might be a secondary consideration. becomes particularly evident the Allegro. in theme. however. Jahn opposed to this interpretation. painfully changed by the surrounding harmony. third edition. Farewell!" It is in and as especial expansive power is not applicable here. The mood of the following measures can be felt by everyone. The Return. that in the last measure. itself into Biography. decisive basstone demands emphasis. as is made manifest ography. at the end of the first pairs of voices. which might be translated into Farewell. This ominous. Absence.

let him go. it has become filled with harmony. and would fetter the duet inclination (with apology for the trivial trade name) begins to be felt. tarries with emphasis on ure I and 2) the first chord of measure 3." The closing theme again depicts the pair. Besides. After the third part has again is formed from the brought "Farewell! We will meet again!" which with increasing certainty constitutes itself as the heart of the whole. Now it resounds from above. hesitates on the following ^-octaves marked sf. which rises and falls with the surging of excitement. the feminine as well as the masculine voice is no longer a single melodic thread. the fourth. perceptibly intones the first and third quarters. and in the following measure.7 HE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. The first which expresses the unavoidable sep"Farewell!" of the introduction is the heart It works itself up and down from the weepmiddle and voice. each one clinging to the other. where- of the side theme. progresses from every first eighth (meas- to the second. The close of the entire part hesitates. The principal theme tarries with sharp intonato reproduce the passionate tion on the first tone. the soul of the interpreter must be free. intermingled with the "Farewell" from the introduction. From measures. There is a peculiar significance in this movement of eighths. also every first eighth. one who attempted to follow closely. And yet this simultaneous utterance of upon the passage vanishes away. hesitates in the first three quarters. the first with accompaniment of eighths. in the manner in which the voices separate and again cling together (measure 12). the utmost freedom is required. the coda . and never allows the charm of well-bred moderation to be forgotten. Complete analysis of tempo is impracticable. These are the thoughts which form the first part of the movement. 137 language of this scene. to recollection the first. presses forward in the following two measures. and the finest feeling for every part and for the melting together of all. to the side theme. unable to part. just as the maiden hangs upon the neck of her beloved and cannot Now aration. the single moments of movement do not determine the pi-cture (for they might be disputed here and there) so much as the absolutely free movement itself. for indeed to give out free soul emotion. with ac- companiment Let this of eighths. ing perhaps one can guess at last a "We will meet again. In the second part the principal theme appears again. now from below. 9 to 13 suffice. which reaches out amid an uprising and yielding.

with a soft emphasis on a and a-flat. while we attribute to colder and weaker natures noble or even antique moderation. now above. however. they ones "Farewell!" and "Farewell. thought partinterpreter again ing (Coda) must stand out gently. but ever with the charactergrace of dignity. that he has not. be uttered with a diminuendo. Here past full truth was aimed at. the eighths must flow on smoothly and with utmost tenderness.marks indicate. that he has clothed these qualities. is a worthy feature of his artistic temperament. regardless of moderation.138 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. "Farewell!" answers the masculine one. That Beethoven has permitted the violent. of calls like othe-r each into float to true parting nature. as the -^=. with the moderation and grace of charming personalities. the expression will come Now the parting word resounds undisguisedly from both sides. suggestions. now below. Impulsive characters revel insatiably in the pursual of sorrow through all its distortions. allowed this parting to be intensified into convulsions of suffering. First the two voices sound at naturally simple. Opposed to this. passing with hurried flight. when in either from weakness or lack of moral courage truth they In the fail to perceive the truth. which we must imagine coming more and more from a distance. but above all in even movement. or lack means of expressing it. the melody (consisting united upper voices) must. then ideal in their harmonic completeness. last. on the contrary. "Farewell!" calls the feminine voice. Feel the contents! Then. two double voices is nothing more than the musically ideal picture of the two parting ones. progressive istic eighths. then!" . there moves a counter theme in melting. therefore weaker. and in of the two slightly moderated tempo. the The must follow of the poet. amid all the inadequacy of scattered of itself. ever eccentric im- pulses of pain.

which rises up and immediately after drops heavily and reaches most intense . or of the French. but to designate its innate This idea of motion becomes especially manifest in activity. Beethoven names "Andante expressivo. "If that is what is called music. cease. the feeling of desolation and loneliness is revealed as clearly as in the upper voice. of course. The first reveal the character of the entire it movement. superscribed 1'Absence. it is the poesy. b-flatf&nd e-flat g. this laborious progression. And we can say with Goethe: Who cannot understand me Must better learn to read. the transcendency of music which hended by only finally naturally lives in only a very few and can therefore be compreIf the interpreter has grasped Beethoa few. but supported accompaniment. he can lead his hearers wherever he will. 139 Here the poetic thought raises itself above harmonic law. not that he tries uselessly to transbut not without expression" late the well-known Italian expression. or." It is not the music of Fetis. the next to the lowest voice. to speak more accurately. when he said. are sounded together. or of the majority of musicians. The deHere. two opposed harmonies. There was truth in the statement of Fetis.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. in the painful interval (e-flat f-sharp). only one princiby a most sympathetic movement must few measures pal voice manifests itself. it is not what /call music. ven's thought. is The second movement the duet form of the first serted one feels the desolation of her loneliness. the eminent Conservatory director in Brussels." and adds "in progressive movement.

But sufficient if not too much guidance has been given. at the beginning of the second For the passage of eighths ("I have thee again") even a part. in most rapid tempo. It would be incomprehensible if. in combat with painful doubt and hesitation. the construction and rhythm of which.* Noble thought." This applies especially to the introduction. is especially applicable to the principal theme. and added to this a fine comprehension for uniting all into unity these are requisites for the performer. must receive emphasis. again.140 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. feeling The I 1 Biography. energetic character speak out of the first of this Sonata it has only two movements. pages 56 and The antithesis (in two sections) 59. is able to do. A most impressive persuasiveness determines and permeates the many-membered theme. however. 90." which the master intended for the entire first movement. where the thought of the whole stands out before the soul so clearly. has been considered. absolute freedom of treatment. measure 3. and at the syncopated repetition a further delay is essential. besides the delight. expression in the close of the melody. The first chord in measure I and 2 must sound sharply. Part II. comes to light in this movement. Only a noble soul will be superscription "With animation and throughout with and expression. the one in eighths. at least as regards the thesis. also to the side theme in quarters. Beethoven has superscribed it with "Vivacissamente. "poco Andante" is prescribed. Page 230. it might be applied to the actual principal theme. All that impressive loquacity. the tender emotion of the happy ones were not also depicted. The third movement is a triumphal rejoicing of reunion. Feeling for the individual moments. the first and third eighth. able to follow Beethoven here. again fashioned as a dialogue between the two lovers. E movement Minor Sonata Op. .

and only delays the last tones on account of distinctness. is not absolute. following the impressive utterance of the thesis. then turns away from it in quiet. The same ter note appear. if the is true in the third run. repeats itself the third time lower. A new theme (side theme. and beats violently. first a free utterchords. Furthermore the manance. finally coming to a stop. ner of writing. from forward pressing to receding.EE: "== arriving at the f-sharp immediately after the e d-sharp e with absolute evenness and ease. regardless of the annotation. The thought of the passage is lost if the player does not understand . with less active rhythm. is the for the melody rolls down from its height intyo after having consumed its entire The gradation of the thricecharacteristic of the entire passage. strengthens itself. if need be.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. on account of its position and manner of then two tones. progression. evidently.: sixteenths the first two times. viz. in a progression which extends through nearly two octaves. but This transition from creeps down in continuous hesitation. out of the piano. It was in vain. uttered passage to the deeper register. and out of the deep register. The same thought. desire to resignation. the depths. comprehension. fades Tn power progression. less high and less strong. in contrast to the first marked / and not sf. where the is triplet of eighths The run to be taken . and the quarfrom the beginning with a gradual. In the first two runs. very violently at its point of arrival. Even here. however. then legato with the resting bass. the last time sixteenths. There is no reason for making the sixteenths any different from the rhythm of six and five. the tones should follow each other in an absolutely even passage which hastens its movement without any variety. 141 is related to the thesis only by the rhythm of its first measure. and yet. to sound this f-sharp exactly together with the e and c. and still to lift it out above the accompanying mass. and this time marked />. a quarter. and away the closing chords fall down powerlessly. the thought rises once more. rises softly This resignation. then a sex- would solve itself full first tolet and a quintolet. leads out in increasing now in B major hesitating and halting. indeterminate retard. a triplet of this is probably on account of more easy eighths. magnanimous resignation. of resignation. step for step yet pressing forward up to the greatest embitterment evidently in vain. for a second theme out of the deep. power. or second side theme. more than that. is the stamp of a high-minded character which has power of aspiration. however.E . The last time it does not roll. This quietness.

though not in vain. its character. 101. that the closing was without Strife to attain struggle victory. the ordinary form of a first sonata movement. ings of aspiring fantasy. theme seems to state. But the melody does not move in one voice * Biography. may be considered as first) leads back to the deep with noble dignity but with irrevocable decision.142 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. Life often presents this phase. in gen- submission. sweetness of perception. It is a melody full of desire and longing. but is soon compelled to return. a thought turned inward. More explicit directions for conception and interpretation would be superfluous. it is true. . tle A How Major Sonata Op. Whoever has comprehended them once can follow them with sidered just. This thoughtful hesitation leads into the second part. Here there is nothing but tenderness. though in other forms and other developments. The second move- of the Sonata has therefore nothing of it. Nevertheless it struggles onward and attains great energy. That the closing theme speaks hesitatingly certainty. the only content of which is resignation and rest. Page 232. Part II. gentle devotion. yea. Even Cato discovered that victory is not always granted by the Godhead. and the principal theme is based upon the dominant chord and its signification. preceding greatness and nobility is the work and content of life. for it is rather an Adagio. The raises principal theme or at least the motive of its first sections itself up again. sorrowfully but nobly." with additional superscription of "rather lively and with tenderest emotion" has. however. not. not of tangible ends or definite action how difficult to draw to the light of day that which is not in- tended for daylight! The very first movement "Allegretto ma non troppo. but tied to continual eighth strokes.* difficult it is to steal quietly upon the most secret weavof a tender soul possessed only of desire not of fulfillment. The register. The energy which formed the movement has become exhausted ment principal content of the first with it. not in its original freedom. The remainder requires no further explanation. there are the same thoughts. in the manner in which we men had hoped and had conis very comprehensible. and that Beethoven has depicted here.

alone. while for the more intense por"s he must cause the power to be anticipated by means of an Tated movement. even nervously. life inexhaustible. but not powerlessly. that in this intensifif power the original tenderness be not forgotten. not. All this space is required for measure 28 quiet. then measure 19 on the first tone. measure 6 throughout. measure 9 on the first tone. measure 5 especially on the last three eighths. vanishing quality rises to metallic power. 5 of the original All the rest belongs to the quiet of the beginning. which closes the theme) may often be suitable in this restless wave play. in this tender soul there is no particular event. a life apparently with no outward aim. It is essential. yet perceptible emphasis. for each of the voices has 143 minded song beside the throughout is melody. which Beethoven has especially marked "Expressive e semplice. A lack of power may call forth regret. tion of grows out of the far-reaching syncopations (page edition of Steiner). only that the emotion is even gentler and seems to rest entirely in the syncopations. and 16 likewise. the melody of more seeks a close (measures 24 and 26). It remains for the player to bring out the tenderest passages through finely-tempered. the second moment Ottilie. which overcomes every closing point. This excitement is more of an internal character. the close (measure 19) its significant and similarly principal voice. deep and essential characteristic of the whole is the fact that this quiet development rises from the tenderest begin- A ning to a most impressive intensity. there exists throughout a* nervous excitability. almost without It is the uncommunicative. however. Indeed. foi the soul itself is the only content.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS." continues to relate the same narrative. even breathlessness. without change. In the second part the principal theme soars upward over Here follows the first moment in which this the roaring deep. full of sympathetic relationship and the voices flows on. too. It is. The side theme. therefore. In e compositions considered thus far has it been so im- . that sympathy which Beethoven wishes to call forth. and the movement full of soul. taciturn spirit of an intensification! one but without the storms which this most admirable creaGoethe was obliged to experience. so a thoughtful delay (measure 4 on the last three eighths. it would rather conceal itself than become visible. but turned and locked up within itself. once and this finds it at last in becomes a deceptive close. 15. secret emotion. The thought here expressed should stand out tenderly. Added to this. measure 12.

The first chords are marked / and sf. then comes a cres. for the second movement. enters here as a march ("Lively. however. and necessarily is as though bold resolutions and words were mysteriously whispered into one's ear. But what a march! There is nothing of splendor or resistance. The character of the is completed by the interweaving of two or three indein place of the one principal voice which might voices pendent be followed without any difficulty. into the dusk of resignation. leads to a specially prescribed piano. if not an Adagio.144 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. even the Funeral March of the Sonata Op. Not outward deeds are here pictured. and with its two canonlike and long-drawn-out voices. This is the nature of the entire March. The signs of innate power have not been deceptive. and the rising of the bass through three octaves. which can take place only in imagination. which is the content of every march. but such as would reach boldly to the stars. as with all the last of Beethoven's. the contents.'to keep from all decided changes and striking contrasts. darkly and searchingly seeks a close to these unaccustomed and bold stories. portant to keep an even tempo and yet to make use of the tenderest wave line of rising and sinking. The who with this Sonata. is executed more spiritually than physically. imaginary triumphal processions. the sudden continuation from one broad accent to another. however. A strange picture indeed is this triumphal procession.. but rather a fantasy of deeds which might happen. Strangely foreign is the Trio (again asking pardon for so mechanical a name) as it enters. or of the materiality of the combined power of a multitude. but into a tone region which is incapable of special strength. the bold step sinks back from tone-height and modulation into the subdominant. the continuous pressing forward of the melody. And yet they return. Soon after the first 'cres. All this. Like a March"). in fact. which with Beethoven is usually a Scherzo. 26. but these are immediately followed by p. Is it repentance which speaks out of the third movement? Is . may dream himself into bold mystery. but it does not lead to forte. And when at last the second picture part rises up to a tangible height and remains there (the fifth from the last measure). there follows a second which. It is not the result of the contained in. this merely. All this is superscription violent player. It is all boldness: the sudden beginning. but founded upon. must be beyond all preparatory training.

(four measures) was power- Biography. Part II. like strong armies.* the preceding Sonata dwells in the tenderest regions of soul and almost vanishes away into the disembodied. The player must be watchful. and with a violent stroke.prepared to bring forth large and numerous tone masses. It life. B-flat If Major Sonata Op." but such names (we have met others of a similar nature. but also the tender ones." Whatever the meaning may be. as it were. With a bold sweep from out of the depths. as in the Adagio. however. the plaintive tone of the theme must be perceived and felt by everyone who approaches such works. 106. Page . the first principal theme enters and completes itself unexpectedly with soft tender- members to it. whether it be happy or sorrowful. The player must be possessed here exercises giganof the greatest tech- nical power. each well held together within itself. which breathes out longing and complaint like a sigh. with fresh courage. a feeling that time and power for actual deeds has vanished? Who would venture to uncover all the mysteries of this tone life? Beethoven has superscribed the movement "Slowly and longingly. In this Sonata all is laid out powerfully and broadly. * The beginning 265. rather than an princia rich. well separated from each other. The first movement ness. as we now and then picture it in fancy. spiritually or materially. inexhaustibly. refreshing stream of life pours forth movement through its echo of real life through which we struggle materially.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. one against another. full of desire. It has been called the "Giant Sonata. out of the most secret depths of the soul. not only of the details. and this fact is verified by the circumstance that the introduction recalls the first of the last movement Here pal theme. a disembodied spiritual life. it 145 a feeling of pain. He must also be . as it were. pages 117 and 130) are rather doubtful. then indeed the large B-flat Major Sonata develops toward all sides a mass of power without equal. Nevertheless it is a spiritual life. and now and then glittering with bright lights. It is the return to self which has been accomplished here. they must be well marshaled. but also of the construction of the whole and relationship of the different is an Allegro. that a giant spirit members. certainly tic is true. not only are the powerful passages pos- sessed of intense vibration.

in broad dimensions. that is. the . now hesitating. Each of the sections must be a united whole and every entrance must not only result in intensified power. now Here. but it is well for the player to become acquainted with the outward form of the work. Each of the four sections with which the second principal theme opens must enter powerfully. itself. will not continue countthe principal subject is not finished. in the closing tone theme appears. spontaneous entrance of the first theme appears again. by means of evenness of performance and equality of intensification. The second principal theme up to its close has 18 measures. up to the full close in B-flat major. ing measures. but the whole subject must appear as a wfiole. raising them from quiet to intensity. Now it descends and hovers thoughtfully over height and depth. at last. the power of the introductory four measures of the Allegro. principal theme may serve to represent. then grandly works itself upward with the last motive (but by no means hurriedly). each time intensified. and from here on with broad resonance must return to piano. cyclically binding together the principal subject however. the continuation suddenly soft and moderated. This second finally making a long sweep in double octaves. a second principal main content (two measures) four times. 17 measures in all. finally. and still ing. however. and we are settled in G major. ten is This independent significance down from height to theme the first entrance seems to be forgotrepeated in higher tone regions and with more ardent in last and unceasing desire. in accordance with its violent character. a leading onward and further intensification of the melody and bass. into D major.146 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. Thus far the player has re- We quired power of attack for the first four measures. it throws the modulation with one progression from B-flat. Let us consider the dimensions of the movement. Twenty-four measures are used for this. but constantly in a grand figure. but it is by no means similar to the first thought. which up to this time has been the firmly held key. for out of df-sharp a there grows d f-sharp a c. which repeats its becoming quiet. three different Now. Evidently D major is not the intended resting place. and the bass marches freely and depth. which is full of vibratrhythmic energy. or rather. but the melody presses firmly upward. ful with vibrations. The first principal theme consists of four measures (the entrance) plus 13 measures (the continuation). as. through an even goingto-rest at the close.

ata. again seizes the first motive and works with increasing power and with firm strokes upward once more. Beethoven places the motive twice. into the second part. a technical remark -must be permitted. * -H *-r^* y recklessly throwing the close into the three-lined octave. to the repetition of the first part. so sempre Fed. beautiful in its strength and in the happy feeling of its power. first of all.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. all verges into the extreme. hesitates a moment on c (C major). but immediately there follows a second closing theme. the Titanic. It streams from the heights to the depths. Many a performer who can swim over playful streams is not able to encounter these ocean waves. then twovoiced. Here. both times the motive avails itself of the opportunity of soaring upward. the side theme usually enters without preparation. first in the tenor or high bass. 147 passages are fastened to each other. The first has the up-beat of the bass taken from the introduction to the motive. or else the principal theme flows In the B-flat Sonfluently from its own motives into the others. and indeed. Again it is essential that the player gather together the manifold and farreaching parts into a unit. A quiet first closing theme gives rest to thought and feeling. the second which afterward comes to light in an anapestic motive f fj'l f) the side theme. afp sfp . however. Now the side theme enters. running repetition. first in one voice. It leads back Then it leads to the beginning. the third has running passages of eighths with an opposing bass. This far-reaching leading into a side theme is not generally Beethoven's characteristic. proportion and character are differently determined. There appears also the far-reaching.


and all can readily be comprehended because each succeeding step was prepared. it is more readily and deeply effective than the mass power of sound. . through phrasing. too. and must not be used except with the utmost I would consider it right to hold back at the abovecaution. and four-voiced passages. in the carrying out of the decres. throughout the entire movement. Thus. not merely the tone progressions. He places his thoughts not only in this Sonata. but his treatment of the subcomes to the rescue. up to must be conceived as a single melody b" its free piano and interpreted through soulful intonations. for example. not only Beethoven's annotations. the imitative voice must follow. Then the gradations of the whole. but in every deeply conceived work first in trans- parent simplicity. the close (measure 7) canonlike (or imitative) theme. then he adds more and more. and life. thanks to the spiritual relationship of things. aside from the intonation of the Here parts. Then. indeed. the two. (=~). But will the power of the instrument permit of so great an intensification? Therefore we must find other means. 149 First.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. must receive three rising gradations of intensity ject. but also the manner of playing the first. and through the tapering off of every moment (a b-flaf]. every single voice must be perceived and compared with the others. three. It has It will not! been stated (page 76) that intensity of movement will assist intensity of power. even though by so doing the intensities of one voice do not fall together with those of the other.

one who could not make them his own would not be benefited by again as many individual remarks. in the higher and richer tasks. . no work of art. I close here.150 INTERPRETATION OF BEETHOVEN. if the structure is to be a complete one according to laws of reason. Whoever has comprehended no especial these fundamental principles will find difficulty in their application to other works. From here on the motion would almost imperceptiand with many a moment of delay. however. bly. Then the two-voiced passage would receive somewhat less movement than the original tempo cited (page 149) introductions to the the rests. fiery. One thing. become more pressing. I think. should be fully recognized and taken to earnest reflection in the study of this Sonata. on the other hand. there must be added. would become more indicated. for the poet as well as for the interpreter. and if it is to come to full representation and recognition in its reasonableness. Without the union of feeling with creative fancy there is no artist. and no true interpretation. for in this comprehensive task it should become clear that feeling alone does not suffice for the greater demands of interpretation. first motive. and in the doubling of the voices in thirds. and to lengthen especially the last. deep insight and mature powers of comprehension.

and and into the world created by him the only means for accomplishing this seemed to be to awaken a consciousness for the contents.THE INDIVIDUAL WORKS. To lead into the soul of Beethoven that was my ambition. HI. However. all further guidance could bring about only an indolent and fettered dependence. the C-minor Sonata Op. Let every path lead us away from this into freedom! . Close. the Thirty-three Variations on a Waltz. the aim held in view for this little book must have attained its end in the study of this most powerful work (B-flat Sonata). to open the eyes to self-contemHe alone plation. How much might be said about them how much more than the little for which the Biography could give room! Truly a desire for saying more was not wanting. 120. and to guide the spirit to self-recognition. preceded as it was by works in which so much tenderness and many other qualities predominated. 151 After the B-flat Major Sonata there still remain four of the most important piano works: The E-major Sonata Op. 109. The object has been reached in so far as it was in my power at all to arrive at the heart of these works. who has experienced this can work independently and can progress from what he has recognized to further problems. the A-flat Major Sonata Op. Op. and they are truly invaluable gifts for any musician and lover of art who is able to undertake them. If this object has been attained. no.







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