# SI base units

The SI is founded on seven SI base units for seven base quantities assumed to be mutually independent, as given in Table 1. Table 1. SI base units Base quantity Name Symbol SI base unit length meter m mass time kilogram second s kg

electric current ampere A thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity mole mol kelvin K

candela cd

For detailed information on the SI base units, see Definitions of the SI base units and their Historical context.

SI derived units

which may be represented by the number 1 kg/kg = 1 For ease of understanding and convenience. called derived quantities. velocity meter per second acceleration meter per second squared m-1 wave number reciprocal meter mass density kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 m3/kg A/m2 A/m mol/m3 specific volume cubic meter per kilogram current density ampere per square meter magnetic field strength ampere per meter amount-of-substance concentration luminance mass fraction mole per cubic meter cd/m2 candela per square meter kilogram per kilogram. Examples of such SI derived units are given in Table 2. Examples of SI derived units SI derived unit area square meter m2 m3 m/s m/s2 volume cubic meter speed. . 22 SI derived units have been given special names and symbols. as shown in Table 3. The SI derived units for these derived quantities are obtained from these equations and the seven SI base units. are defined in terms of the seven base quantities via a system of quantity equations. where it should be noted that the symbol 1 for quantities of dimension 1 such as mass fraction is generally omitted. Derived quantity Name Symbol Table 2.Other quantities.

quantity of electricity electric potential difference. stress pascal Pa energy. SI derived units with special names and symbols SI derived unit plane angle solid angle frequency force radian (a) steradian (a) hertz Hz rad sr (c) s-1 m·m-1 = 1 (b) m2·m-2 = 1 (b) newton N m·kg·s-2 N/m2 m-1·kg·s-2 J J/s N·m m2·kg·s-2 pressure. quantity of heat joule power. work. electromotive force capacitance farad volt F ohm siemens V·s T V C/V coulomb W/A m2·kg·s-3·A-1 m-2·kg-1·s4·A2 V/A S m2·kg·s-3·A-2 A/V m-2·kg-1·s3·A2 electric resistance electric conductance magnetic flux weber Wb tesla m2·kg·s-2·A-1 Wb/m2 kg·s-2·A-1 magnetic flux density inductance henry H Wb/A m2·kg·s-2·A-2 K Celsius temperature luminous flux degree Celsius °C lumen lm cd·sr (c) m2·m-2·cd = cd .Derived quantity in terms of other SI units in terms of SI base units Expression Name Symbol Expression Table 3. radiant flux watt W m2·kg·s-3 C s·A electric charge.

15 K. but the derived unit "1" is generally omitted. directional dose equivalent. kerma dose equivalent (d) catalytic activity sievert Sv katal kat J/kg m2·s-2 s-1·mol (a) The radian and steradian may be used advantageously in expressions for derived units to distinguish between quantities of a different nature but of the same dimension. it remains common practice to express a thermodynamic temperature.T0. the symbols rad and sr are used where appropriate. The unit of Celsius temperature is the degree Celsius. personal dose equivalent. Because of the way temperature scales used to be defined. symbol t. The numerical value of a Celsius temperature t expressed in degrees Celsius is given by . some examples are given in Table 4.illuminance lux lx lm/m2 m2·m-4·cd = m-2·cd becquerel Bq gray s-1 Gy J/kg m2·s-2 activity (of a radionuclide) absorbed dose. This temperature difference is called a Celsius temperature. symbol °C. The derived unit in Table 3 with the special name degree Celsius and special symbol °C deserves comment. Note on degree Celsius. (c) In photometry. the unit name steradian and the unit symbol sr are usually retained in expressions for derived units. For a graphical illustration of how the 22 derived units with special names and symbols given in Table 3 are related to the seven SI base units. and organ equivalent dose. (d) Other quantities expressed in sieverts are ambient dose equivalent. and is defined by the quantity equation t= T. see relationships among SI units. the ice point. symbol T. specific energy (imparted). (b) In practice. in terms of its difference from the reference temperature T0 = 273.

as shown in Table 4. For example. the Celsius temperature difference t and the thermodynamic temperature difference T between the melting point of gallium and the triple point of water may be written as t = 29.7546 °C = T = 29.15. Examples of SI derived units whose names and symbols include SI derived units with special names and symbols SI derived unit dynamic viscosity moment of force pascal second Pa·s newton meter N·m N/m rad/s rad/s2 surface tension newton per meter angular velocity radian per second angular acceleration radian per second squared heat flux density. which in turn implies that the numerical value of a given temperature difference or temperature interval whose value is expressed in the unit degree Celsius (°C) is equal to the numerical value of the same difference or interval when its value is expressed in the unit kelvin (K).t/°C = T/K . The special names and symbols of the 22 SI derived units with special names and symbols given in Table 3 may themselves be included in the names and symbols of other SI derived units. entropy joule per kelvin J/K specific heat capacity. It follows from the definition of t that the degree Celsius is equal in magnitude to the kelvin. temperature differences or temperature intervals may be expressed in either the degree Celsius or the kelvin using the same numerical value. specific entropy joule per kilogram kelvin specific energy joule per kilogram thermal conductivity J/kg W/(m·K) J/(kg·K) watt per meter kelvin .7546 K. Derived quantity Name Symbol Table 4. Thus. irradiance watt per square meter W/m2 heat capacity.273.

molar heat capacity exposure (x and rays) coulomb per kilogram C/kg absorbed dose rate radiant intensity radiance gray per second Gy/s watt per steradian W/sr W/(m2·sr) watt per square meter steradian catalytic (activity) concentrationkatal per cubic me .energy density joule per cubic meter electric field strength J/m3 volt per meter V/m C/m3 C/m2 electric charge density coulomb per cubic meter electric flux density permittivity permeability molar energy coulomb per square meter farad per meter F/m henry per meter joule per mole J/mol joule per mole kelvin J/(mol·K) H/m molar entropy.