NAME- RAHUL JAGWANI SEC.- B4901 R. NO.- B 39 REG. ID- 10905220


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to present my votes of thanks to all those guidepost who really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this project that has led to successful and satisfactory completion of this study. We are highly thankful to Miss M !"##$ for her active support% valua&le time and advice% whole'hearted guidance% sincere cooperation and pains'taking involvement during the study and in completing the assignment of preparing the said project within the time stipulated. gathered as a result of blood donation. 1. (astly% We are thankful to all those% particularly the various friends % who have &een instrumental in creating proper% healthy and conductive environment and including new and fresh innovative ideas for us during the project% their help% it would have &een e)tremely difficult for us to prepare the project in a time &ound framework. Blood bank A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components. We are really grateful to our HOD for providing us with an opportunity to undertake this project in this university and providing us with all the facilities. stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. INTRODUCTION .

#.*.uest.uirements for &lood transfusion *.0 . 0 $#:.-I!< +$O/#D.$#. #)perience with hospital &lood &ank computing systems to date has confirmed the &enefits in operating efficiency with fast and accurate data retrieval% improvements in the . -his document is not a statement of user re.0.uirements &ut may &e used in the assessment of minimum functionality for new &lood &ank computersystems% and their interaction with automated systems for &lood grouping% anti&ody screening and identification% and compati&ility testing.uesting% electronic selection and issue of components% communications with -ransfusion /entres and regulatory re. *.0.ni.uirements.ue patient identifiers . 0.*.uality of work and2or with rationali3ation of procedures and incorporation of safety controls at key stages throughout the processing of the re. *.* . However% it is imperative for the system to provide for the strict accounta&ility of &lood components 45/.1.*. +urpose of computing guidelines' *.0.ince the pu&lication of the previous recommendations on hospital &lood &ank computing% the use of computers as an aid to the safe provision of &lood components and collection of transfusion'related information has markedly increased.*. *.*. .H% *66789 to include safety prompts for standard procedures9 to inhi&it the issue of incompati&le components and to alert the user to special transfusion re. -his will ensure that patient details provided to &lood &anks are not amended &y other la&oratory computer users.*.0 5lood &ank systems must e)ert strict control over data&ase changes. Where the &lood &ank system is part of a comprehensive pathology system% it is essential that changes to patient demographic details made in other disciplines do not overwrite the &lood &ank data&ase.uirements.pecial re.* In common with other pathology systems% data processing in the hospital &lood &ank is concerned with patient records and la&oratory activities. *. -here is now the necessity to revisit the recommendations% to supplement them in light of the e)perience gained in transfusion computing% and to e)tend the recommendations to cover topics such as electronic re.

ni. -he patient information is retrieved from the + .*.ue identifiers% a mechanism for record linking or merging is necessary.0. .0.*. In addition% the following re.1.uest reference num&er h' /onsultant responsi&le for this admission episode i' Ward or /linic j' +atient address 4optional8 0.nit num&er c' ccident and #mergency Department num&ers d' !um&ers allocated &y the unidentified victims of trauma% and for those individuals involved in a major incident. .uest was made g' .uest data are mandatory% and will &e entered as part of the $e. Where a patient has multiple records attached to different uni. num&er &' Hospital .uesting procedure= ccident unit for .ue order !um&er identifying the re.ince this process can occur in the a&sence of the clinical notes% it is imperative that correct patient identification occurs. -he following items of information must &e transferred to the &lood &ank system= a' +atient surname &' +atient forename c' +atient se) d' +atient date of &irth e' Hospital !um&er f' Date and time that the re. -hese may include= a' -he !H. 0.ue re.>. and associated with a uni. 0.uest. -he use of uni.everal num&ering systems are availa&le and it should &e possi&le to incorporate various forms and configurations of such identifiers.1.ue patient identifiers is essential to positive patient identification prior to transfusion.1.*.

must &e and e)piry date is desira&le. completely automated system for 5O2$hD testing will ensure that there is no manual step associated with the patient record.uired' a'-ype of component% including special re.*.a' $e.1...uesting doctor 0.1.-I!< 5#-W##! + -I#!.#(#/-IO! !D I.g.?. 4&8' ll information generated from sample processing stored against sample num&er.uired 0.#$O(O<I/ ( -#.I!< <eneral' 4a8'. WI-HO. -he following additional information is desira&le= '5lood group 5' +revious transfusions 4@2!8 /' +regnancy history 4parity% anti&odies% haemolytic disease of new' &orn8 D '+resence of known anti&odies #' High'risk indicator 1 + -I#!..uired c' Date and time that component is re..uirements &' !um&er of units re. -his num&er must &e . If &lood components are re.uest c' $e.amples should &e identified in the la&oratory &y a uni.>. M+(# +$O/#.. > #(#/-$O!I/ .!D DO!O$ $#D /#((. <roup and save% crossmatch8 &' $eason for re.ue% prefera&le &arcoded% sample num&er.# OA . 4c8' reagent log% containing &atch num&er% supplier .uested then other mandatory data are re..uest type 4e. -he use of electronic issue procedures without serological testing will very much depend upon the level of automation in use within that la&oratory.!I-.

*. If manual entry of current &lood group result is necessary% the previous &lood group result must not &e displayed on the same screen. >. -he previous administration of anti'D immunoglo&ulin to $hDnegative females does not e)clude the use of electronic issue once the anti'D is no longer detecta&le. -he a&solute necessity for correct determination of the 5O group of the patient is paramount when the check for errors afforded &y the serological crossmatch is no longer present.?. >.>. If a manual step is re.*. >.*.1.uired at any stage in the procedure% it is recommended that either two samples% collected on different occasions% or a current sample with a historical record% should have &een tested. -his inherently increases the risk within that system and the use of electronic issue must &e risk assessed when such systems are in place. +rovided that sample handling and identification are fully automated and results are transferred electronically with no manual editing% the 5O2$hD group of the patient may &e determined twice using the same sample. . -he patientBs serum2plasma does not contain% and has not &een known to contain% red /ell alloanti&odies reactive at 1C D/. t present% most la&oratories do not have this degree of automation% instead having a partly automated system that relies to a lesser or greater degree on manual intervention.*.*.or clerical input into the process from the entry of the sample for testing into the la&oratory system% until the final result is o&tained and downloaded into the la&oratory computer record.*. 5lood group results on the current sample4s8 and any historical record must &e identical. >.* -he following criteria must &e satisfied &efore electronic selection and issue is permitted= >. >.0.

uest for stock that can &e transmitted to the 5lood /entre &y electronic data transfer.ue donation num&er% &lood group% component code and e)piry date from the unit4s8 must &e &y &arcode reader or other electronic means. /omputer software should have &een validated to ensure complete compliance with the $e.*. .6. >. >.C.>. -his may &e for limited periods 4e. patients with significant red cell alloanti&odies or IH 8.*.g.g. 1 months post transplant of 5O' incompati&le solid organ transplants 45/.ue num&er2date code and should include time and identity of person making the order. >.D.uest for stock should &e in a form either electronically compati&le with the 5lood /entre computer system% or if manual transcription to the 5lood /entre computer is to &e used% as closely similar a possi&le% to avoid errors in interpretation. When the a&ove criteria are not met% a serological test of compati&ility &etween patient and donor4s8 must &e performed. nti&ody screening procedures must conform to the minimum recommendations as detailed in 5/.uest should have a uni.uirements for 5O and $h compati&ility .E. R!"#!$%$ %& %'! B(&&) C!*%+! a' -he system should &e a&le to generate a re. c' -he re.*.*.H4*66Ea8. #ntry of uni.0. facility to flag individual patients as &eing unsuita&le for electronic issue must &e availa&le. &' -he re.H%*66Ea9 Mollison% *66C88 or permanently 4e. >.

hile*(+ .bg#(%&) int age.refno) void main*+ .se'#$%&. clrscr*+) printf*/ 0123OM1 4O 52OO6 5A78 9n/+) printf*/1nter -our choice9n/+) printf*/9n(:6onate/+) printf*/9n::3heck for availabilit.PROGRAM:- #include stdio!h" #include conio!h" char name#$%&.and purchase/+) printf*/9n. int ch) void donate*+) void availabilit-*+) void displa-*+) clrscr*+) . =ch+) .:1'it/+) scanf*/<d/.

case (: donate*+) displa-*+) break) case :: availabilit-*+) break) case .itch*ch+ .=name+) printf*/9n1nter -our age : /+) scanf*/<d/. =age+) . clrscr*+) printf*/9n1nter name : /+) scanf*/<s/.: e'it*%+) break) default: printf*/9n>nvalid choice/+) break) ? ? ? void donate*+ .s.

clrscr*+) printf*/9n@our ageA<d/. name+) printf*/9n@our se'A<s/. =se'+) printf*/1nter -our blood group : /+) scanf*/<s/. =refno+) ? void displa-*+ . age+) printf*/9n@our nameA<s/.printf*/9n1nter -our se' : /+) scanf*/<s/. se'+) printf*/9n@our blood groupA<s/. =bg+) printf*/1nter -our ref! no! : /+) scanf*/<d/. bg+) printf*/9n@our refno!A<d/. refno+) printf*/9n4hanks for donating bloodBB/+) getch*+) ? void availabilit-*+ .

!AE9n1nter$!A-9n1nterF!5E9n1nte rG!5-9n1nterH!A5/+) printf*/9n1nter code no! of the blood group reIuired : /+) scanf*/<d/.itch*num+ .: printf*/9nblood gp is AE/+) break) case $: printf*/9nblood gp! is A-/+) break) case F: printf*/9nblood gp! is 5E/+) break) . case (: printf*/9nblood gp! is oE/+) break) case :: printf*/9nblood gp! is o-/+) break) case . int num) clrscr*+) printf*/9n52OO6 GROCPD9n/+) printf*/9n1nter(!oE9n1nter:!o-9n1nter. =num+) s..

case G: printf*/9nblood gp! is 5-/+) break) case H: printf*/9nblood gp! is A5/+) break) default: printf*/9ninvalid/+) break) ? if*numBA%==num AH+ . if*num<:AA%+ printf*/9n5lood gp!is available/+) else printf*/9n5lood gp!is not available/+) ? else printf*/9ninvalid code/+) getch*+) ? .