Selected Solutions to Linear Algebra Done Right by Sheldon Axler

Matt Rosenzweig

Contents
1 Chapter 1 2 Chapter 2 3 Chapter 3 3.1 Exercise 2 . . . 3.2 Exercise 3 . . . 3.3 Exercise 4 . . . 3.4 Exercise 5 . . . 3.5 Exercise 6 . . . 3.6 Exercise 7 . . . 3.7 Exercise 8 . . . 3.8 Exercise 9 . . . 3.9 Exercise 10 . . 3.10 Exercise 11 . . 3.11 Exercise 12 . . 3.12 Exercise 13 . . 3.13 Exercise 14 . . 3.14 Exercise 15 . . 3.15 Exercise 16 . . 3.16 Exercises 17, 18 3.17 Exercise 19 . . 3.18 Exercise 22 . . 3.19 Exercise 23 . . 3.20 Exercise 24 . . 3.21 Exercise 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5

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3. such that w = T v . Hence. Vn be F-vector spaces and Sj ∈ HomF (Vj . for v ∈ V . dim(Im(T )) = 1 and since Im(T ) ⊂ V is a subspace. y ) := x3 + y 3 1 . We conclude that T v1 .1 2 3 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Exercise 1 Let V be a F-vector space with dim(V ) = 1. we have that 1 = dim(V ) = dim(ker(T )) + dim(Im(T )) If T = 0. W ) is surjective.3 Exercise 3 Exercise 4 Let T ∈ HomF (V. Let w ∈ W . then T v = 0 · v ∀v ∈ V . where the last equality follows by injectivity. We prove that S1 · · · Sn : Vn → V0 is injective by induction on n. so that w = T v = T (a1 v1 + · · · + an vn ) = a1 T v1 + · · · + an T vn ∈ spanF {T v1 . 1) = 2 3 = f (1. 3. · · · . where λ ∈ F∗ . which shows that f is not additive. for λ ∈ R. Hence. 3. and suppose that u ∈ V \ ker(T ). Since v ∈ ker(T ). · · · . 0) + f (0. · · · . 3.5 Exercise 6 Let V0 . However.6 Exercise 7 Suppose v1 . y ) ∈ R2 Clearly. vn ∈ V span V and T ∈ HomF (V. For α1 . αn ∈ F. if T = 0. f (1. for some v = 0 ∈ V . Observe that ker(S1 · · · Sn ) = {v ∈ V0 : Sn v ∈ ker(S1 · · · Sn−1 )} ⊕ ker(Sn ) = {v ∈ V0 : Sn v ∈ ker(S1 · · · Sn−1 )} By our induction hypothesis. λy ) = λ3 x3 + λ3 y 3 1 3 = λ3 (x3 + y 3 ) 1 3 = λ x3 + y 3 1 3 = λf (x. T v = λv . we see that Im(T − λI ) = {0}.2 3. We conclude that ker(S1 · · · Sn ) = {0}. for scalars a1 . we conclude that V = Im(T ). Vj −1 ) be injective. T vn } 2 . vn ∈ V be a linearly independent list in V . · · · . 0) + f (0. Sn v ∈ ker(S1 · · · Sn−1 ) ⇐⇒ Sn v = 0 ⇐⇒ v = 0. F). · · · .1 Exercise 2 1 3 Consider the function f : R2 → R defined by f (x. 1). · · · . The case n = 1 is true by hypothesis. so suppose S1 · · · Sn−1 : Vn−1 → V0 is injective. y ) 3. · · · . an ∈ F. T vn is a linearly independent list in W . Then v = a1 v1 + · · · + an vn . Consider the linear operator T − λI : V → V . but f (1. 1) = 2. V1 .4 Exercise 5 Let T : V → W be an injective linear map. we have by linearity that 0 = α1 T v1 + · · · + αn T vn = T (α1 v1 + · · · + αn vn ) ⇐⇒ α1 v1 + · · · + αn vn ∈ ker(T ) = {0} . By the rank-nullity theorem. then dim(Im(T )) ≥ 1. and let T : V → V be a linear operator. ∀(x. and let v1 . f (λx.

1. x4 ) ∈ F4 : x1 = 5x2 . Then by the rank-nullity theorem. 0. x3 . vn } be a basis set for ker(T ) and {w1 . 3. Observe that u1 . x3 . am . · · · . 0. 1) ∈ ker(T ) are linearly independent. 1. Suppose that T is injective. not identically zero.11 Exercise 12 Let V and W be F-vector spaces with n = dim(V ) < ∞.12 Exercise 13 Let V and W be F-vector spaces with n = dim(V ) < ∞. Then by the rank-nullity theorem. Let {w1 . 7. x2 . · · · .13 Exercise 14 Let V. Now suppose there exists S ∈ HomF (W. uj ∈ V. 0. 1. Suppose there exists a surjective linear map T : V → W . · · · . 0) + x4 (0. W be F-vector spaces with dim(W ) = n < ∞. V ) such that ST = I : V → V .10 Exercise 11 Let V. 3. 0. 0. 0. Clearly. 3. wm } be a basis set for W . W ) such that both ker(T ) and Im(T ) are finite-dimensional. · · · vn . x3 = 7x4 Let T : F4 → F2 be a linear map such that To show that T is surjective. Suppose that (x1 . By the rank-nullity theorem. wm : wj = T uj . cdots. 0) and (0. um are linearly independent in V . um } = V . Let T : V → W be the unique linear operator defined by T vj := wj . so (x1 . u1 . x4 ) = x2 (5. T is surjective. 0.3. x5 ) ∈ F5 : x1 = 3x2 .7 3. 1 ≤ j ≤ m} be a basis set for Im(T ). But this is evident since (1. x3 . 0) ∈ / ker(T ). x2 . · · · . and T vj := 0. Then x1 = 5x2 . x4 ) = (5x2 . and suppose U ⊂ V is a subspace. 7x4 . dim(V ) = dim(ker(T )) + dim(Im(T )) = dim(U ) + dim(Im(T )) ⇐⇒ dim(U ) = dim(V ) − dim(Im(T )) ⇒ dim(U ) ≥ dim(V ) − dim(W ) Now suppose that dim(U ) ≥ dim(V ) − dim(W ).9 Exercise 10 ker(T ) = (x1 . · · · . 7. x2 . it suffices by the rank-nullity theorem to show that dim(ker(T )) ≤ 2. m = dim(W ) < ∞. I claim that spanF {v1 . Assume the contrary: there is some v ∈ V \spanF {v1 . · · · . · · · . x3 = x4 = x5 Suppose there exists a linear map T : F5 → F2 with Clearly. 0. 0. 0) and (0. for m < j ≤ n. 3 . x3 = 7x4 . wn } be a basis set for W . for 1 ≤ j ≤ m. such that T v = a1 w1 + · · · + am wm = a1 T u1 + · · · + am T um = T (a1 u1 + · · · am um ) 3. vn } be a basis set for V and {w1 . W ) such that ker(T ) = U . Suppose there exists T ∈ HomF (V. 3. 1. these are linearly independent elements in ker(T ).8 Exercise 8 Exercise 9 ker(T ) = (x1 . it suffices show that dim(ker(T )) ≥ 2 to arrive at a contradiction. Let {v1 . T = 0 since the element (1. so there are scalars a1 . · · · . · · · . x4 ) ∈ ker(T ). Clearly. 1) form a basis for ker(T ). I claim that the vectors (5. u1 . um }. 0. T v ∈ Im(T ) \ {0}. m = dim(W ) < ∞. W be a F-vector spaces and T ∈ HomF (V. vn . · · · . Let {v1 . n = dim(ker(T )) + dim(Im(T )) = dim(ker(T )) + dim(W ) ≥ m Now suppose m ≤ n. x2 . 1) 3.

14 3.1 + · · · + xn am. Since ker(S ) ⊂ V = Im(T ) . ··· a1.n . Let {v1 . 18 The solutions to these exercises follow from the result that the matrix of the composition of two linear operators is the product their respective matrices in corresponding order. · · · . hence invertible. where n = dim(ker(ST )). · · · .n ) = (x1 a1. Clearly.n . |E2 | ≤ dim(ker(S )).n am.1 ) + · · · + xn (a1. · · · . 4 ∀1 ≤ k ≤ n . Any w ∈ ker(S ) can be written as w = T v for some v ∈ V . Hence. hence T is injective and therefore invertible. Set m = dim(ker(S )) and l = dim(ker(T )). Since ker(T ) ⊂ ker(ST ) and n < ∞. A := M(T ) = .1 . which implies that ker(S ) = {0}. · · · . We now prove the ⇒ direction. T −1 denote the inverse operators of S and T . ST = S (λI ) = λ(SI ) = (λI )S = T S We now prove ⇐.20 Exercise 24 Let V be al F-vector space with n = dim(V ) < ∞. .1 . Hence. for j ∈ E2 . am. Define n linear operators S1 .16 Exercises 17. we see that T is injective. Let λ ∈ F such that T = λI . xn ) = x1 T (1. form a linearly independent list in V . T uj ∈ ker(S )}. 0. Let S −1 . and set n := dim(V ). since the argument for the reverse implication is the same. respectively. Suppose that ST = T S ∀S ∈ HomF (V ). (ST )(T −1 S −1 ) = S (T T −1 )S −1 = SS −1 = I which shows that T −1 S −1 is the inverse of ST .1 + · · · + xn a1. T (x1 . We first prove ⇒. Consider the disjoint subsets of indices E1 := {j : uj ∈ ker(T )} and E2 := {j : T uj = 0. · · · . 3. x1 am. am. xn ) ∈ Fn . we have that T is invertible. · · · . the T uj . Then T −1 S −1 : V → V is a linear operator and (T −1 S −1 )(ST ) = T −1 (S −1 S )T = T −1 IT = T −1 T = I. 0.n   Let T ∈ HomF (Fn . For any (x1 .n ) 3. and let T ∈ HomF (V ). · · · . · · · . Observe that u ∈ ker(ST ) ⇐⇒ T u ∈ ker(S ) or u ∈ ker(T ). and let be the matrix of T with respect to the standard bases of Fn and Fm . we see that S is also invertible.1  ··· .18 Exercise 22 We first prove the ⇐ direction. . 3. · · · . Fm ). 0) + · · · + xn T (0.3. un be a basis for ker(ST ). Since ker(T ) ⊂ ker(ST ). It suffices to show ST = I ⇒ T S = I . 1) = x1 (a1.5. dim(ker(ST )) = n = |E1 | + |E2 | ≤ dim(ker(T )) + dim(ker(S )) 3. Sn : V → V by Sj (vk ) = δjk vj . · · · . T = IT = (S −1 S )T = S −1 (ST ) = S −1 I = S −1 ⇒ T −1 = S so that ST = I = T S .17 Exercise 19 a1.15 Exercise 15 Exercise 16 Suppose U and V are finite-dimensional F-vector spaces and S : V → W and T : U → V are linear operators. Then for any S ∈ HomF (V ). vn } be a basis set for V . 3. am. |E1 | ≤ dim(ker(T )).19 Exercise 23 Let V be a finite-dimensional F-vector space.  . By Exercise 3. Let u1 .

then ak.j vj ) = aj.j vn ) = ak.j (aj.j vn Since {v1 . vn } is a basis set. n} \ {j }. k ≤ n.j = 0 for i ∈ {1. This follows from observing that for any distinct i. Let v1 . vn be a basis for V .i vi = T vi = T Si.i = aj.j v1 + · · · + an. j ∈ {1. we can define the operator Si.j T vj = Si. 5 .j by Si.1 = · · · = an.j vk := 0 for k ∈ / {i.j vi := vj .j vn ) = T (δkj vj ) = (T Sk )vj = (Sk T )vj = Sk (a1. then aj. T and S are nonvertible since they are not injective.n . the preceding equality implies that ai. S : V → V be the unique linear operatos respectively defined by T v1 = v1 .j vi ⇒ ai. Si. n}. · · · . we must show that a1. Svj = vj ∀2 ≤ j ≤ n Clearly.j 3.21 Exercise 25 Let V be a finite-dimensional F-vector space with dim(V ) = n > 1. · · · . T + S = I . and if k = j .j vn Observe that for 1 ≤ j. ai. which shows that the set of noninvertible operators on V is not a subspace of HomF (V ).j vk We see that if k = j .j vj := vi and Si. To complete the proof. T vj = 0 ∀2 ≤ j ≤ n. Sv1 = 0. δkj (a1.j v1 + · · · + an. we have T vj = a1. Let T. · · · .j v1 + · · · + an.j = 0.j v1 + · · · + an.j vj = Si.For each 1 ≤ j ≤ n. however. j }. · · · .j vj = a1.