Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 240, 92 ᎐ 104 Ž1999. Article ID jmaa.1999.

6593, available online at http:r rwww.idealibrary.com on

P-functions, Quasi-convex Functions, and Hadamard-type Inequalities 1
C. E. M. Pearce
Department of Applied Mathematics, The Uni¨ ersity of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia

and A. M. Rubinov
School of Information Technology and Mathematical Sciences, Uni¨ ersity of Ballarat, Gear A¨ enue, Mount Helen, P.O. Box 663, Ballarat, Victoria 3353, Australia Submitted by Themistocles M. Rassias Received February 5, 1999

We establish some results concerning P-functions from the standpoint of abstract convexity. In particular, we show that the set of all P-functions on a segment is the least set closed under pointwise sum, supremum, and convergence and containing the class of all nonnegative quasi-convex functions on that segment. Further, generalizations are derived of a recent inequality of Hadamard type for ᮊ 1999 Academic Press P-functions.

1. INTRODUCTION A nonnegative function p defined on the segment S is said to be a function of P type w1x Žor simply, a P-function. if p Ž ␭ x q Ž 1 y ␭. y . F p Ž x . q p Ž y . ; x , y g S , 0 F ␭ F 1.

Let S s w a, b x and PS be the class of P-functions defined on S. It has been proved in w1x that for an integrable function f g PS , we have the
1

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w3. then f Ž u. for example. We use methods of abstract convexity Žsee. A function f : X ª ‫ޒ‬qϱ is called abstract con¨ ex with respect to H Žor H-con¨ ex . In fact we present a version of this inequality for an integral with respect to an atomless probability measure ␮ defined on the Borel ␴-algebra of subsets of the segment w0. If f is an integrable P-function and u g Ž0. but one can find nonnegative functions of bounded variation which do not belong to this set. Our approach is based on the description of small supremal generators of the sets under consideration. we study links between P-functions and nonnegative quasi-convex functions. . 0 1 1 f Ž x . b x s w0. w5x. Assume for the sake of simplicity that w a. 1x.. if there exists a set . Let ‫ ޒ‬s Žyϱ. The cone hull of the set of all quasi-convex functions defined on a segment S is a very large set. It is well known that the sum of quasi-convex functions is not necessarily quasi-convex. 1 y u . In this paper we prove the following generalization of the left side of this inequality. More generally. 1. The pointwise supremum of a family of elements of Qq is again an element of Qq. q f Ž b .HADAMARD-TYPE INEQUALITIES 93 Hadamard-type inequality f ž aqb 2 / F H bya a 2 b f Ž x . containing. Consider a set X and a set H of functions h: X ª ‫ ޒ‬defined on X . F H min Ž u . all functions of bounded variation. 1x. dx . 4.. which form an important class of generalized convex functions Žsee. . These results are the subject of Section 4. for example. In Section 3 we show that this cone coincides with the set PS of all P-functions defined on S. for example. qϱ. be a real line and ‫ޒ‬qϱ s ‫ ޒ‬j qϱ4 . The cone hull of the set Qq of all nonnegative quasi-convex functions is also very broad. probability measure. One of the important problems of the theory of quasi-convex functions is to describe the least cone containing Qq which is closed in the topology of pointwise convergence and contains pointwise suprema of all families of its elements. 2. PRELIMINARIES First we recall some definitions from abstract convexity. dx F 2 Ž f Ž a . For nonnegative quasi-convex functions we show that this also holds for an arbitrary Žnot necessarily atomless. 7x..

c . y14 . for all x g X 4 is called the support set of a function f with respect to H. ¨x F d . ) c. Y is called a supremal generator of the set Y if each function f g Y is abstract convex with respect to H. The set s Ž f . : h g sŽ f .d Clearly h F q and hŽ x o . Recall that a function f defined on ‫ ޒ‬is called quasi-con¨ ex if f Ž ␣ x q Ž1 y ␣ . 1. Since Sc . c G 0. Let x o g ‫ޒ‬. H such that f Ž x . ¨x . s sup hŽ x .q Ž x o . Since x o f S c it follows that there exist ¨ g y1. EXAMPLE 1 ŽSee for Instance w6x. H1 .4 for all x g ‫ޒ‬.c . f Ž y ..d4 it follows that the inequality ¨ x G d implies q Ž x . H . Then c [ inf ¨ x G d q Ž x . s ½ c 0 ¨x G d . For Example w6x. y g R and ␣ g Ž0. Now consider a function q g Qq and the family of level sets Sc s x : q Ž x ... EXAMPLE 2 ŽSee.. A function f is quasi-convex if and only if its lower level sets x : f Ž x . for all x . Clearly f is H-convex if and only if f Ž x .. Let hŽ x . H . s ½ c 0 ¨x ) d . F c4 are segments for all c g ‫ޒ‬. F c4 with c G 0. Then H1 is a supremal generator of the set Qq of all nonnegative quasi-convex functions. s sup hŽ x .d with ¨ g 1. Hence c F c. s ½ c 0 ¨x G d . s sup hŽ x .94 PEARCE AND RUBINOV U .4 for all x g X .. it follows that each H1-convex function belongs to Qq. F f Ž x . since the pointwise supremum of a family of quasi-convex functions is again quasi-convex. : h g sŽ f . ¨x . Indeed H1 . Let us give some examples. Let Y be a set of functions f : X ª ‫ޒ‬qϱ .. x : ¨ x . Let d s ¨ x o .q Ž x o . Assume for the sake of definiteness that q Ž x o . We consider only nonnegative functions defined on the real line ‫ ޒ‬and mapping into w0. F maxŽ f Ž x . Let H1 be a set of two-step functions h of the form hŽ x . A set H . F q Ž x o . s h g H : h Ž x . G c G c. it follows that q Ž x . : h g U 4 . d g ‫ޒ‬. Since q is quasi-convex it follows that S c is a segment for each c G 0. qϱx. y . ) 0 and let 0 . Since c is an arbitrary number such that 0 . 14 such that ¨ x o ) ¨ x for all x g Sc . Let H2 be the set of all two-step functions of the form hŽ x . Qq.

xqs sup dom f . and d as in Example 1. Then H3 is a supremal generator of the set of all nonnegative functions defined on ‫ޒ‬. that is. . s ½ c 0 xsu . continuous functions g : ‫ ޒ‬ª ‫ޒ‬q of the form ¡0 g Ž x .xq. . x 2 g dom f such that x g Ž x 1 . It follows from the definition of P that f Ž x .. that is. We have P s PS with S s ‫ޒ‬. s~c ¢affine affine < x y u< G ␦ xsu . s 04 is nonempty. y g ‫ ޒ‬. and Ý m Ž m . Ž2. EXAMPLE 3. Ým is 1 Let S . Let us point out some properties of a function f g P.x . x 2 . ‫ ޒ‬be a segment and PS the set of all P-functions defined on the segment S and mapping into w0. . Ž i s 1. This can be proved by induction. Then H2 is a supremal l generator of the Qq of all lower semicontinuous nonnegative quasi-convex functions. and x . Suppose xy. Indeed let xys inf dom f . . for all ␭ g Ž 0. c G 0. q p Ž y . if p Ž ␭ x q Ž 1 y ␭. c G 0. qϱx. It is easy to check that H4 is a supremal generator of the set of all functions that are lower semicontinuous on ‫ޒ‬. Denote by P the set of all P-functions. P-FUNCTIONS A function p: ‫ ޒ‬ª w0. x g dom f . c. qϱx is called a function of type P w1x Žor P-function.. 1 . F p Ž x . then f Ý is 1 ␭ i x i F f Ž x i . x/u with u g ‫ޒ‬. EXAMPLE 4. Then there exist points x 1 . 3. m. The set dom f s x g ‫ ޒ‬: f Ž x . Ž 1. .qϱ.HADAMARD-TYPE INEQUALITIES 95 with the same ¨ . uy␦-x-u u-x-xq␦ where u g ‫ޒ‬. then it is clearly a segment. Ž3.qϱ4 is a segment. Let H4 be the set of all Urysohn peaks on ‫ޒ‬. y . If the set x : f Ž x . If ␭ i ) 0. . . Ž1. Let H3 be the set of all functions h of the form hŽ x . and ␦ ) 0. is 1 ␭ i s 1.

Ž1. q c . q f Ž y . y . z g w x . It is easy to check that the class PS enjoys the following properties. xfS Ž 2. let c s sup x . Ž1. Each quasi-convex nonnegative function defined on S belongs to PS . We now describe some subclasses of PS . then f 1 q f 2 g PS . consider its extension fqϱ defined by fqϱ Ž x . s ½Ž. s hŽ x . q c belongs to PS . we can easily describe a supremal generator of the class PS for a segment S g ‫ޒ‬. Then there exists a number c ) 0 such that the function f Ž x . f x qϱ xgS . q c. s hŽ x . s hŽ ␣ x q Ž 1 y ␣ . PS is a complete upper semilattice: if Ž f␣ . Let h be a bounded function defined on S. Ž3. y g S . Let S be a segment. c 2 4 g T . q hŽ y . PS is closed under pointwise convergence. y x hŽ z . f 2 g PS .96 PEARCE AND RUBINOV Let S / ‫ޒ‬. q c . y g S and ␣ g w0. Then f Ž ␣ x q Ž 1 y ␣ . c 2 . In particular nonnegative convex. consider the function h t de- . For each function f defined on S. q Ž hŽ y . 1x that hŽ ␣ x q Ž 1 y ␣ . f g PS .. Applying this generator and the extension defined by Ž2. . y . For t s u. F hŽ x . f g PS . We now describe a small supremal generator of the set P. y hŽ y . and decreasing functions defined on S belong to PS . Indeed. c 2 4 with u g ‫ ޒ‬and nonnegative c1 . Ž2. c1 . y hŽ x . then ␭ f g PS .␣ g A is a family of functions from PS and f Ž x . y . q c. PS is a cone: if f 1 . Let T be the set of all collections t s u. that is. c1 . Let f Ž x . s f Ž x . if ␭ ) 0. We have for each x .. increasing. q c F Ž hŽ x . then f g PS . Clearly f g PS if and only if fq ϱ g P. Ž2.. s sup␣ g A f␣ Ž x . The classes PS are extremely broad.

F f Ž y . Then h t F f . s qϱ s sup h g H . Clearly the function h t is a function of bounded variation for each t g T . Take a point y . If f g P. 1. This proposition may be compared with the examples of Section 2.. and c1 q c 2 s f Ž u. It is easy to check that h t g P for all t g T . f F h. c 2 4 g T . F c 2 it follows that f Ž y . c1 . Let f g P and u g ‫ޒ‬. respectively. y 2 ␧ .u f Ž x . s hŽ u.HADAMARD-TYPE INEQUALITIES 97 fined on ‫ ޒ‬by h Ž x . Thus f Ž u. Hence f Ž y . z. f F h. if h g H and ␭ ) 0. Clearly H is a conic set.. we can show that f Ž ¨ .. such that u s ␭ y q Ž1 y ␭.. h s h t with t s u. Indeed we can consider H as a certain mixture of two-step functions from Example 1 and pointed functions from Example 3. Since f g P it follows that c1 q c 2 s h Ž u . Let t s u. cX2 s inf x ) u f Ž x . s~c t ¡c ¢c q c 1 1 2 2 x-u xsu. H is a supremal generator of P. y 2 ␧ F cX1 q cX2 . Proof. c 2 4 . where c 2 s inf x 2 g ‫ ޒ‬f Ž x . F cX1 q ␧ and f Ž x 2 . Then f Ž u. h F f hŽ u. In the same manner. y 2 ␧ . So f Ž u. s f Ž u. First assume that u g dom f . Let H be the set of all functions of the form h t with t g T .. Let points x 1 . Assume for the sake of the definiteness that u F inf dom f . s sup hŽ u. q f Ž z . Consider now a point u f dom f . c 2 4 g T . s c 2 for an arbitrary point ¨ ) u. and f Ž u. F cX2 q ␧ . s c1 q c 2 . Proof. PROPOSITION 2. Let h g H . and f Ž u. Let ␧ ) 0 and cX1 s inf x . and c1 is an arbitrary positive number. s f Ž u . c1 . : h g H . We now check that f Ž u. y 2 ␧ F cX1 q cX2 . It follows from the definition of t that h t F f and h t Ž u. s hŽ u. that is. Therefore h t can be represented as the sum of increasing and . PROPOSITION 1. s c1.u and find a point z ) u and a number ␭ g Ž0. Consider the function h t with t s u. c1 . c 2 F cX2 . Since f Ž y .u and x 2 ) u be such that f Ž x 1 . then ␭ h g H. x)u Ž 3. q h Ž z . F h Ž y . Take nonnegative numbers c1 and c 2 such that c1 F cX1 . The following statement describes a certain extremal property of elements h g H. q f Ž z . then f s h. s c1 q c 2 . y 2 ␧ F f Ž x 1 . Remark 1. F c1 and f Ž z . Let f g P. h F f 4 for all u g dom f . q f Ž x 2 .

˜ s cl H . Since P is closed in the topology of pointwise convergence. Let f g P and sŽ f . q ˜i g c Ž Qq . m max q ˜i Ž x . h i g H . m . s ˜ ˜: ˜ Proof. ˜ . c 2 4 g T . . . : ˜ h g sŽ f . i s 1. Proof. The desired result follows from this inclusion and Ž4. . ˜. . i s 1. cl H . It follows from Proposition 3 that H . H. H ˜ . .. . . it follows that H semilattice and the set Qq is contained in P it follows that H . . P s cl H in the topology of pointwise con¨ ergence. that is. . h t is an increasing function. PROPOSITION 3. 2. . P . m max hi Ž x . . as a directed set with respect f with respect to H to the natural order relation: ˜ h1 G ˜ h 2 if ˜ h1Ž x . m s 1. 2. m . . the set of all functions f of the form f s q1 q q2 where q1 . . : h g s Ž f . s is 1. ˜ be the upper semilattice generated by H . ˜ . s sup h Ž x .. Let cŽ Qq . cl H Ž 4. the set of all Let H functions ˜ h of the form ˜ hŽ x . H Ž . be the cone hull of the set Qq of all nonnegative quasi-convex functions. x)u ½ h2 t Ž x. q2 g Qq.98 PEARCE AND RUBINOV decreasing functions. H . Since ˜. We can consider sŽ f . . . We now show that for each t g T the function h t can be represented as the sum of nonnegative increasing and decreasing functions. s is 1. m s 1. P. that is. . G ˜ h 2 Ž x . . s ½ c1 0 t 1 2 it is easy to check that h1 q h2 t s h t . . . the set of all functions h of the form hŽ x . xFu . . . c1 . for all x g ‫ޒ‬. .4 is increasing. where cl A is the closure of the set A PROPOSITION 4. cŽ Qq . Then there exist a nonnegati¨ e 2 increasing function h1 t and a nonnegati¨ e decreasing function h t such that 1 2 ht s ht q ht . Let 0 h1 t Ž x.4 f Ž x . it follows that ˜ . . P. it follows that and the generalized sequence ˜ h: ˜ h g sŽ f . H hgH h F f 4 be the support set of ˜. s c 2 x-u xGu. that is.. and H be the upper semilattice generated by cŽ Qq . cŽ Qq . H Ž x g ‫ޒ‬. As P is a cone and an upper Since H . cl H . . . Thus ˜. . and h t is a decreasing function. f x is the pointwise limit of this generalized sequence. . 4 s sup ˜ hŽ x . Let t s u.

␦ 4 .s. L is a supremal generator of Pl . u. where each f␣ is a finite maximum of the functions represented as the sum of two nonnegative quasi-convex functions.␦ . Consider the set S of all collections s s u. It follows from the definition of the numbers c1 . . Let l s l s with s s u. and c 2 F inf x ) uq ␦ f Ž x . l s is affine on segments w u y ␦ . Each function l g L can be represented as the sum of increasing and decreasing continuous functions. A simple calculation shows that l s l 1 q l 2 where l1 s ~ ~ ¡0c xFuy␦ 2 ¢c␦ ¡c 2 1 Ž xyuq␦. c 2 . We now describe a supremal generator of Pl consisting of continuous functions. s c2 Ž x G u q ␦ . y ␧ it follows that f Ž u. There exist numbers c1 F inf x . We have proved that a function f belongs to P if and only if this function can be represented as the pointwise limit of a generalized sequence Ž f␣ . Let Pl be the set of all l. c 2 . Denote the set of all functions l s with s g S by L. It is easy to check that this equality also holds for points u f dom f .c. u q ␦ x ..s. such that f Ž u. l s Ž x .uy ␦ f Ž x . . y ␧ if < x y u < . c 2 . For s g S define the continuous function l s by l s Ž x . Since l s Ž u. l F f 4 . PROPOSITION 5. Let f g Pl and u g dom f . it follows that for each ␧ ) 0 there exists ␦ ) 0 such that f Ž x .c. c1 . x g Ž u. c1 . for the same reasons as those given in the proof of Proposition 2. Since P is a cone and a complete upper semilattice and Qq. c 2 . u x and w u . s sup l Ž u. Let s s u. : l g L. Proof. P. Proof. x g Ž u y ␦ .. x)uq␦ . c 2 4 g T and ␦ ) 0. PROPOSITION 6. where u. and ␦ that l s F f .HADAMARD-TYPE INEQUALITIES 99 Remark 2. ␦ x. it follows that P coincides with the set of all functions which can be represented in such a form. ␦ 4 . functions belonging to P. Since f is l. l s Ž u . y ␧ s c1 q c2 . It also follows from Propositions 2 and 3 that each f g P can be represented as the supremum of a family of functions belonging to cŽ Qq . x)u xFu l2 s ¢0␦ c1 Ž u q ␦ y x. s c1 Ž x F u y ␦ . s f Ž u. . c1 . ) f Ž u. u q ␦ . s c1 q c 2 . c1 .

s a Ž f . s H0 1 f d␮ . INEQUALITIES OF HADAMARD TYPE We begin with the following principle of preser¨ ation of inequalities w3x. We now establish some inequalities of Hadamard type for P-functions by applying the principle of preservation of inequalities. : h g s Ž f . Let Y be a set of functions defined on a set X and equipped with the natural order relation. l 1 is increasing. : h g s Ž f . consider the functions e1 yŽ x. 4. PROPOSITION 7. H . 4 F a Ž sup h : h g s Ž f . that is. let a be an increasing functional defined on Y and u g X . and l 2 is decreasing. Let H be a supremal generator of Y . for all f g Y . s sup h Ž u . H . x)y e2 y Ž x. cl L functions that can be presented as the maximum of a finite family of elements of L and L is the set of all functions that can be presented as the maximum of the finite family of the sum of two continuous quasi-convex functions. 4 F sup a Ž h . Let Po be the set of all measurable Žwith respect to ⌺ . We have f Ž u . 1. functions f g P such that dom f s w0. Then h Ž u . F a Ž f . it follows that H is a supremal generator of Po as well. 4 . for all h g H if and only if f Ž u . 1x s 1. . Further . Consider the Borel ␴-algebra ⌺ of subsets of the segment w0. s For y g w0. x)y . H . Assume that ␮ Žw0. Proof. For the same reasons as those in the proof of Proposition 4. it follows ˜ s cl L and cl Pl s cl L ˜ s cl L where L ˜ is the set of all that Pl . Let I : Po ª w0. F aŽ h . a nonnegative ␴-additive function defined on ⌺. 1x and a measure ␮ . ½ 1 0 xFy .100 PEARCE AND RUBINOV It is easy to check that l 1 . 1x. l 2 are continuous. qϱx be the functional defined by IŽ f . Since H consists of Borel-measurable functions on ‫ ޒ‬and H is a supremal generator of P. s ½ 0 1 xFy .

G g 2 Ž u. c1 q c 2 . s 0 for each x g w0. Let h t g H be the function corresponding to a collection t s y . . THEOREM 1.. s 1 ½ c2 xFy s x)y ½ c1 e 1 yŽ x. Thus Ž6. y g 0. Let ␮ be an atomless measure. g 2 Ž y . 1 . Ž 6. and if g 1Ž u. Let us calculate I Ž h t .. . 1x. c 2G 0 min c1 g 1 Ž u . Proof. .. Ž 5. .. s H0 1 1 e y d ␮ s ␮ Ž w 0. . Indeed if g 1Ž u. We have I Ž ht . y x .. ␥u s min Ž g 1 Ž u . Then f Ž u. s 0. . .. that is. c 2 4 . g 2 Ž1. q g 2 Ž y . ␮ Ž x 4. 1. Then I Ž h t . . s H0 1 2 e y d ␮ s ␮ Ž Ž y . for h t g H. consider the number ␥u s It easy to check that c1G 0. 0 1 2 1 1 f d␮ Ž 7. holds. q c 2 g 2 Ž u . s ␮ Žw0. g Ž u . 1x. q c 2 g 2 Ž y . . g 2 is decreasing. s 1 for all y g w0. . s H0 1 ht d␮ s H0 1 1 2 ˜ h t d ␮ s H c1 e 1 y d ␮ q H c2 e y d ␮ 0 y y s c1 g 1 Ž y . set g 1Ž1. Since ␮ is atomless. s c1 g 1Ž y . then ␥u s g 1Ž u. Clearly g 1 is increasing. it follows that I Ž h t . 1x . F g 2 Ž u. Consider the function ˜ h t given by c ˜ ht Ž x . q c 2 g 2 Ž y . LEMMA 1. then ␥u s g 2 Ž u. c1 . . s 1.HADAMARD-TYPE INEQUALITIES 101 Let g 1Ž y .. s I Ž ˜ h t . By definition. 1x. Let ␮ be an atomless measure and u g Ž0. 1. and g 1Ž y . g 2 Ž u . H min Ž g Ž u . For u g Ž0. F for all f g Po . c2 e 2 y xFy x)y Ž x.

holds for all h g H. I Ž ht . s 1. . g 2 Ž u . . Ž 10 . Clearly I is an increasing functional defined on the set Po . c 2 .102 PEARCE AND RUBINOV Proof. g 2 Ž y . c1 . c 2 . I Ž ht . g 2 Ž u. then h t Ž u. s c1 and y ) u. . c 2 . In the first case we have. In the same manner we have ht Ž u. g 2 Ž u . q c 2 g 2 Ž y . c 2 s I Ž h t .. G 0. c 2 . Ž6. c1 . It follows from Lemma 1 that I Ž ht . that h t Ž u . Since g 1 is an increasing function. Since y / u it follows that either h t Ž u. . 1 ␥u Ž c1 g 1 Ž u . g 2 Ž u . s maxŽ c1 . c 2 4 . . . . s min Ž c1 . s minŽ c1 . .u. F 1 g2 Ž u. Assume now that h t Ž u. g 2 Ž u . I Ž ht . Thus ht Ž u. Ž 8. . c1 . s maxŽ c1 . . F 1 min Ž g 1 Ž u . . and g 1Ž y . taking into account that g 1Ž y . . we have for y ) u that g 1 Ž u . F 1 min Ž g 1 Ž u . Lemma 1. c1 q g 2 Ž y . and by collections t s Ž y . F c1 g 1 Ž y . dx s c1 g 1 Ž y . s c1 q c 2 F s 1 min Ž g 1 Ž u . s H0 1 h t Ž x .. c1 F g 1 Ž y . Let us calculate h t Ž u. F 1 g 1Ž u . c 2 . h t Ž u . It follows directly from Ž5. or h t Ž u. If c1 G c 2 then h t Ž u. . Assume now that t s y . q c 2 g 2 Ž u . I Ž ht . s c1 q c 2 that h t Ž u . s I Ž h t . and the equality h t Ž u. the latter following directly from the definition of the function h t . F g 1 Ž y . Let t s u. it follows that ht Ž u. I Ž ht . Ž 11 . F 1.. G 0. . We consider separately functions h t which are defined by collections t s Ž u.. q c 2 g 2 Ž y . Since g 1Ž u. . F 1 min Ž g 1 Ž u . First we check that Ž7. Ž 9. q g 2 Ž y . . with y / u.. s 1 ␥u H0 1 ht d␮ H0 1 ht d␮ . c 2 4 with y / u. If c 2 G c1 . F 1. c 2 . F I Ž ht . s c 2 and y . c1 .

. c 2 4 at the point u. Austral. We do not need to eliminate this value in the case under consideration. Sur¨ eys 27 Ž1972. E. s 1 y y. c1 . EXAMPLE 5. Let t s u. Kutateladze and A. Remark 3. S. s c1 g 1Ž u. It follows from Ž8. . .. S. This result was established in w1x. 57 Ž1998. dx. Dragomir and C. dx Ž f g Po . Since H is a supremal generator of Po and I is an increasing functional. H0 1 f Ž x . 3. Remark 4. Pearce. M. Quasi-convex functions and Hadamard’s inequality. Ž 12 . cannot be improved for all P-functions.. that Ž7. S. S. we can conclude. s 1. Some inequalities of Hadamard type.. S. REFERENCES 1. E. .HADAMARD-TYPE INEQUALITIES 103 Thus we have verified that the desired inequality Ž7. Indeed the atomlessness of the measure ␮ has been used only for eliminating the special value of the function h t with t s u. Bull. 2. c 2 4 . nonnegative measure ␮ such that ␮ Žw0. Thus the inequality Ž7. g 2 Ž u . Russian Math. We can use for this purpose the supremal generator described in Example 1. hold for all f g Po . s y. Soc. E. Pecaric. Dragomir. Persson. 1 y u . holds for all h g H. 335 ᎐ 341. q c2 g 2 Ž u. F 1 min Ž u . ˇ ´ and L. Let ␮ be the Lebesgue measure. g 2 Ž y . Math. holds. c1 . It follows from Theorem 1 that f Ž u. Minkowski duality and its application. s H01 f Ž x . Rubinov. 21 Ž1995. that is. S. 1x. that the equality ht Ž u. 377 ᎐ 385. 137 ᎐ 192. s 1 min Ž g 1 Ž u . J.. In a similar manner we can prove that Ž7. by applying the principle of preservation of inequalities. where ␥uŽ c1 q c 2 . M. Then g 1Ž y . holds for each nonnegative quasi-convex function and for each Žnot necessarily atomless. dx for all f g Po . Math. I Ž f . In particular we have f ž / 2 1 F2 H0 1 f Ž x . Soochow J . Let us give an example.

. 1997. ‘‘Foundations of Mathematical Optimization ŽConvex Analysis without Linearity . On generalized quasiconvex conjugation. . Singer. 5. 199 ᎐ 216.’’ Kluwer Academic. I. Seven types of convexity. 7. M. 204. Rolewicz. 1997. New York. Rubinov and B. Pallaschke and S. Ponstein. M. SIAM Re¨ . D. Math. Glover. Dordrecht.104 PEARCE AND RUBINOV 4. A.’’ Wiley-Interscience. J. ‘‘Abstract Convex Analysis.. 115 ᎐ 119. 6. Contemp. 9 Ž1967.