Categorical Syllogisms

I readily own, that all right reasoning may be reduced to Aristotle's
forms of syllogism.
VALIDITY
John Locke
Some logical arguments contain premises that are intended to provide conclusive
support for their conclusions. Such arguments are called deductive arguments, and are
the concern of this part of our study. A deductive argument is an argument whose
premises are intended 10 provide conclusive supportfor its conclusion. In this chapter.
we will study a special kind of deductive argument called a syllogism and the six rules
which tell us with logical certainty whether or not the argument's form is valid.
Validity is a formal property of deductive arguments. A deductive argument is valid
when it is impossible for its premises 10 be true and its conclusion false. Put another
way: A deductive argument is valid when the relationship between the premises and
conclusion is such that if the premises were all true, then the conclusion would
have to be true. Let's look at two examples:
A.
and
B.
All chairs are red.
George Bush is a chair.
George Bush is red.
All humans are mortal.
George Bush is human.
George Bush is mortal.
Categorical
Proposition Designation Quantity
Categon·cal Syilogisms 195
Quality Distribution
All S is P
No S is P
A- universal
universal
affirmative
negative
subject only.
subject and -
SomeS is P
- I
Some S is not P o
particular affirmative
particular negative

neither subject
nor predicate
predicate only
  ______________________________ __
Name the form of each of the following propositions and what it distributes.
I. Some children are lovers of ice cream.
- ,.
2. No revol utionary is a believer in the starus quo.

3. All men in combat are soldiers under extraordinary pressure. ")
4. All noncombatants earning combat pay are shameless individuals. 'r ,'
.0
5. Some film projectionists are not members of a union. J .'
6. Compared with foreign automobile manufacrurers, some Ameri- '
can automobile manufacrurers, despite various pressures. are re- .
luctant observers of the public interest.
7. Some nonmartial arts are not exercises that are lacking in physical "
courage.
8. All students, some of whom are under twenty-one, are advocates
of more tax money spent on education.
9. Some colors of the rainbow are not hues seen anywhere else.
10. Some lives are tragedies that we write. direct. and star in.
The Simplified Square of Contradiction

[f we compare the diagrams for each of the four standard-form categorical proposi-
tions, we observe an interesting pattern. A propositions assen that the class of S and
not-P is empty, while 0 propositions assen that the class of Sand not-P contains at
least one m'ember:
p p
All Sis P. Some S is not P.
'00 Deductive Arguments
I. The conclusion determines the major and minor terms of a categori-
cal syllogism.
2. The major term is always the same term as the predicate of the
conclusion.
3. The minor term IS always the same term as the subject of the
conclusion.
4. The middle term is not in the conclusion but is common to each
premIse.
Remember, look to the conclusion to determine the major and minor term. Once
we have identified the components of the syllogism, determining its form is a
matter of mechanics.
EXERCISE 8-5*_, ________________________________ _
. '.
"
In the following syllogisms ( I) state the three terms; (2) state the major and minor
terms; (3) state the major and minor premises; and (4) order them correctly, assum-
ing the last statements in I through 5 are the conclusions.
\. All political candidates are seekers of offices.
Some political candidates are Republicans.
Some Republicans are seekers of offices.
2. No true sportsman is a cheater.
All cheaters are dishonest persons.
No di shonest person is a true sportsman .
3. Some animals are not endangered species.
All endangered species are precious creatures.
Some animals are not precious creatures.
4. Some epicureans are lovers of wine.
Some epicureans are lovers of women.
Some lovers of wine are lovers of women.
5. All pollutants are disease carriers.
All cigarettes are disease carriers.
All cigarettes are pollutants.
6. All men are equal citizens and all equal citizens are persons en-
titled 10 due process.
Therefore all men are persons entitled to due process.
7. Some countries are belligerents and no belligerents are peace lov-
ers. It follows that some countries are not peace lovers.
210 Deductive Arguments
trespasser. What if someone says, "No lawbreaker is a good citizen"; does this
imply the existence of a lawbreaker? No, it doesn't. But "Some lawbreakers are not
good citizens" does logically imply the existence of at least one lawbreaker. Con-
sider this argument:
No lawbreakers are good citizens.
All speeders are lawbreakers,
Some speeders are not good citizens.
The argument is invalid. It 's invalid because the conclusion makes an existential
claim that its premises just do not allow; the conclusion states that there exists at
least one speeder, but the premises don't contain any such implication. The argu-
ment is said to commit the existential fallacy . Any syllogism whose premises consist
of universal propositions (A or E) and whose conclusion is a particular proposition
(I or 0) commits the existential fallacy and is thereby invalid.
Summarizing, the six rules and their accompanying fallacies are
Rule 1: A valid standard-form categorical syllogism must contain three, and
no more than three, terms; otherwise it commits the fallacy of four
terms.
Rule 2: A valid standard-form categorical syllogism must distribute its middle
term at least once; otherwise it commits the fallacy of undistributed
middle term.
Rule 3: A standard-form categorical syllogism must not say more in its
conclusion than its premises allow. If it distributes its major term (P)
in the conclusion but not in the major premise, it commits the fallacy
of illicit majorterm; ifit distributes its minorterm (S) in the conclusion
but not in the minor premise, it commits the fallacy of illicit minor
term.
Rule 4: A valid standard-form categorical syllogism must not contain two
negative premises; otherwise it commits the fallacy of exclusive
premIses.
Rule 5: A valid standard-form categorical syllogism must not draw an afIII-
mative conclusion from a negative premise; otherwise it commits the
fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion from a negative premise.
Rule 6: A valid standard-form categorical syllogism must not draw a particu-
lar conclusion from two universal premises; otherwise it commits the
existential fallacy.
So much for standard-form categorical syllogisms. At the beginning of our study
of the syllogism, we mentioned that the categorical syllogism is only one kind of
syllogistic argument and that there are two other kinds as well. These are easy to
handle, but they do occur frequently enough for us to be alerted to them. So in
Chapter IO we'll take up validity as it applies to disjunctive and conditional syllo-
gisms. But before that, we must consider the important topic of argument recon-
struction.
Categorical Syllogisms 211
  ______________________________ __
\
• A. Detennine the validity of the following syllogisms by means of rules
and their fallacies. If a syllogism breaks a rule, identify by name the
broken rule and the fallacy. Give the form of each syllogism.
I. No refined foods are nutritional foods. So no white flour is a
nutritional food because no refined foods are white flour.
2. Some people who believe in astronaut-gods are gullible read-
ers and all gullible readers are fans of the book Chariots of
the Gods?; therefore, some fans of the book Chariots of the
Gods? are people who believe in astronaut-gods.
3. Some extrasensory experiences are not just the products of
imagination because some products of imagination are things
explained through sense data. and no things explained through
sense data are extrasensory experiences.
4. Some professors are not idealists and all professors are col-
lege graduates. Therefore some idealists are not college gradu-
ates.
5. Since some ministers are not happy men. some ministers are
not alcoholics, for no alcoholics are happy men.
6. All good teachers are· good administrators because all good
teachers are compassionate individuals and all compassionate
individuals are good administrators.
7. It follows that some Americans are coffee lovers from the
facts that some Americans are not tea lovers and no tea lovers
are coffee lovers.
8. All horses are quadrupeds; so, because some horses are faster
runners than humans, some quadrupeds are faster runners than
humans.
9. Some inventors are people who know how to make money,
for all inventors are imaginative individuals and all imagina-
tive individuals are people who know how to make money.
10. All missionaries are altruists and some altruists are women.
Thus, some missionaries are women.
II. No professional athletes are welfare recipients because no
professional athletes are low-income earners, and all welfare
recipients are low-income earners.
12. Some politicians are persons of integrity. Thus some enter-
tainers are politicians. for some entertainers are persons of
integrity.
212 IHductiue Arguments
B.
13. All victims of injustice are members of oppressed groups, so,
because all blacks are members of oppressed groups, all blacks
are victims of injustice.
14. It follows that some American Indians are not exponents of
the traditional account of American hi story because no Ameri-
can Indians are people dealt with fairly in American history
books, and no one dealt with fairly in American history books
is an exponent of the traditional account of American history.
15. Some explosives are chemicals, from which it follows that
some purchasable items are not chemicals because no explo-
sives are purchasable items.
16. Some wealthy people are millionaires because some million-
aires are possessors of large sums of money and all possess-
ors of large sums of money are wealthy people.
17. Some persons without sin are ones who should cast the first
stone. So no person is one who should cast the first stone
because no person is a person without sin.
18. Some newspapers are not true accounts of what' s happened,
for all true accounts of what's happened are complete and
accurate sources of information, and some newspapers are
not complete and accurate sources of information.
19. Because some movies are films for adults, some movies are
not films for children, as no films for adults are films for
children.
20. All roads are ways that lead to Rome and all roads are poten-
tial dead ends. Thus, all ways that lead to Rome are potential
dead ends.
Test the validity of these forms:
I. AAAA II. OAO-2
2. 100-3 !2. EAO- I
3. AliA 13. IM-3
4. OAO-2 !4. OEOA
5. EOO- ! 15. AAA-3
6. OAl-I 16. 100-!
7. AEE-2 17. EEO-3
8. 010-3 18. AEEA
9. 101-1 19. AEO-4
10. IAl-3 20. EIO-3
Categorical Syllogisms
l. Since no barbers are qualified to practice medicine, all those
qualified to practice medicine have been to college because no
barbers have been to college.
2. Since some apples are fruits and some apples are red objects,
some red objects are fruits.
3. If some women are college graduates, and all college gradu-
ates are high school graduates, then some high school gradu-
ates are women.
4. Some professional organizations that charge dues are not orga-
nizations worth belonging to. Some organizations worth be-
longing to are elite clubs. Consequently, some elite clubs are
not organizations worth belonging to.
5. Some Chevrolets are overpriced lemons, and some overpriced
lemons are selling like hot cakes, so some Chevrolets are sell-
ing like hot cakes.
6. If we assume that no signs of forced entry were present at the
scene of the crime, we can concl ude that the defendant is
innocent.
7. All horses are quadrupeds. No humans are horses. Thus no
humans are quadrupeds.
8. All horses are quadrupeds. No horses are numan. Thus no
quadrupeds are human.
9. All flour fit for consumption is ground. All places on which
houses are built are ground. Therefore all places on which
houses are built are fit for consumption.
10. All Communists are atheists. No atheists are good citizens. So
some Communists are not good citizens.
Il. A££-3
12. 10£-2
13. 001-1
14. 101-2
15. AAA-4
16. AAA-3
17. A£A-2
18. £AA-2
19. IAI-3
20. £10-4
217
\
\
250 Deductive
In this chapter we"" discuss two of (he mosl common patterns of deductive
reasoning-patterns we naturally use as part of our everyday reasoning. We will
also reinforce and add to our understanding of the concept of logical form. We will
learn to recognize the fonns of three nonstandard syllogisms and also how to
simplify them. In Chapter 9 we learned how to "translate" or reconstruct syllogisms
in ordinary language inro standard-form categorical propositions. With the comple-
tion of this chapter. we will have i.I tinn grasp on the basics of deductive reasoning
and a supply of some basic analytic tools for handy reference.
We "1I begin with a look at an argument form we encounter almost daily: the
disjunctive syllogism.
DISJUNCTIVE SYLLOGISMS
We often tind ourselves choosing between alternatives which we express in propo-
sitions containing {he word or, as in. "Either you're for me or you're against me," or
"Would you like soup or salad with that tofu. sir"" Notice that the preceding
senlence contains alternative ex.amples. In the common understanding of these
examples-assuming the second occurs in a restaurant--the choice is between one
alternative or the other. Trying to have both is implicitly forbidden. But sometimes
ahernatives allow for choosing one or the other or both, as in "Is the student a
scholar or an athlete'?'" Both alternatives are possible in this case.
These examples remind us that in English we use the single word or in two
senses. For example. in a statement on a restaurant menu such as "Dinner includes
soup or salad:' or means clearly either soup vr salad but not bOth. This meaning,
termed the ""exclusive sense of or:' is clear to most of us from the context: in this
case, the conrex.t of a restaurant menu. But in "All those eligible for welfare are
unemployed VI' infirm." or is used in a "weaker" sense known as the inclusive
sense. In this example of the "weaker" sense. the statement asserts that one could be
either unemployed vr infinn and allows for the possibility of being bach unem-
ployed and intinn. The inclusive or asserts that Ql leasr olle of the alternative
statements is (rue . Thus. "AII those eligible for welfare are at least unemployed or
intirm.·'
The alternative s£atements joined by the inclusive or are called disjunctiolls . The
s(Qrement including borh disjul1("{s (lud the inclusive or is called a disjunction. A
disjunction is true if either of the disjuncrs is true. This is another way of saying that
a disjunction is true whenever ur least vne of its disjuncts is true.
----------------------- Study Hint                                      
Inclusive or asserts that at least one of the disj uncts is [rue.
A disjunction is false in only one case: when both disjuncts are false.
Recall (hat a syllogism consists of two premises and a conclusion. When a
disjunction occurs as the premise of a syllogism. the syllogism is called a disjullc-
ti"e syllogism. Valid disjullcrh'e syllogisms contain a disjunction as one premise,
the negation of olle of rlie disjuncts as the second premise, and the affirmation of the
,
o.
Additional Sy{{ogisms 251
remaining Jisjuno IlS file L'Ofldll.Iioll . nle basic form of valid disjunctive syllo-
gisms looks like thi s:
Either this or thaJ
not this
thai
Here's an example:
Either this or thal
not lhat
this
Either some students are scholars or they are athletes.
Some students are not scholars.
Then some are athletes.
Notice that the second proposition negates (or denies) one of the disjuncts. and the
conclusion affirms the other. Since to assert a disjunction is to assert thal at least
one of the disjuncts is true. we may validl y infer such a conclus ion if both premises
are treated as being true. In our example. [he conclusion "Then some are athletes"
must logically follow. Let ' s look at another example:
Either the plane has crashed or it's been delayed.
The plane has not been delayed.
Therefore the plane has crashed.
Here. too. the second premise denies one of the disjuncts and (he conclusion affirms
the other. This lS the same logical pauern--or form- as [he first ex.ample. It. too, is
valid.
On the other hand. consider this argument:
Either the plane has crashed or it's been delayed.
The plane has been delayed.
Therefore the plane has not crashed.
NQ[ice [hat the second premise does not deny either disjunct: rather it affirms one of
them. Is it possible for both disjuncts to be true? Yes- that's the meaning of
disjunction. It allows for the possibility that the plane has been delayed and has also
crashed: Our second premise is merely telling us thai at least one of those two
disjuncts is true. The meaning of disjunction. as defined above. only says that at
least one disjunction ml/st be tTlie-it also always allows for the possibility that
both might be. Consequently. the conclusion in this example does not follow from
the premises with logical certainty-i t goes beyond them. So th is ex.ample is in-
valid.
Last. consider thi s example:
The Senator is qualified to be either President or Vice-President.
The Senator is qualified to be President.
Therefore she's not qualified to be Vice·Prejident.
252
As we' ve already noted. affirming one of the disjuncts does not deny the other. The
conclusion. because it does not necessarily follow from the premises, is invalidly
drawn. Thi s argument. too. is invalid.
Using p and q to represent any two propositions, let ' s contrast the basic fonn of
valid and invalid disjuncti ve syllogisms:
valid disjunctive syllogism
Either p or q
not p
Therefore, q
invalid disjunctive syllogism
Either p or q
p
Therefore, not q
  ____________________________ ___
Detennine the validity of the following di sjunctive syllogi sms.
I. There' s either a ruel shortage or the government is lying.
There is a fuel shortage.
Therefore the government is not lying.
2. Either the general is guilty of obstructing justice or he's a patriot.
The general is no patriot.
Then the general is guilty of obstructing justice.
3. The United States either supports the Iraqis or the Kuwaitis in the Middle East.
The United Slates supports the Iraqis.
Therefore, the United States does not support the Kuwaitis.
4. . Whether we like it or not-and we probably don ' t-we must either become energy
self-sufficient or resign ourselves to international blackmail.
We must not resign ourselves to international blackmail.
Hence we must become energy self-sufficient.
5. The matter of the universe will continue (0 expand to extinction, or it will begin to
contract, in which case another Hbig bang" will eventually occur.
The matter of the universe will continue to expand.
So the matter of the universe will not begin to contract and thus another "big bang"
will not eventually occur.
6. Either all S is P or no S is P.
Some S is not P.
It follows that no S is P.
7. Either some S is P or some S is not P.
NoS is P.
Therefore some S is not P.
e
y
.f
to
Additional Syllogisms 253
It Either all 5 is P or some S is P.
Some S is not p,
So some S is p,
9. Either no S is P or some S is not P.
NoS is p,
Then some S is not p,
CONDITIONAL SYLLOGISMS
We sometimes express the conditions under which something will occur in "if ..
then" fonn as in, " If I have time, I'll drop your suit off at the cleaners," or " (f you
love me, you' ll be nice to my dog." " If . . then" statements assert a conditional
relationship only. They do not promi se or guarantee that those conditions will be
mel. I may not have time to drop your suit off at the cleaners, or you may not
love me.
Certain "if, .. then" statements are called conditionals. hYPolheticals. or impli·
cations, We'll call the statement thai nccurs herween if and then (he antecedent of
[he conditional, and we'll call (he statement that follows then (he consequent. Thi s
is a special kind of condi tional known as a material conditional. (Other kinds of
conditi onals are logical, definitional , causal, and decisional. We are concerned only
with material conditionals.)
Let' s see how a material conditional statement is true by considering the follow-
ing example: "If it's mi ning, the game is cancelled. " Thi s conditional is true pro-
vided that "the game is cancelled" is not false at the same time that "i t is raining" is
true, A conditional statement is true if and only If (he consequent is not false and the
antecedent true. Every conditional sratemenr-wharever else it may mean-asserts
this relationship: It denies that its antecedent is true and its conditional false. Al-
though (hi s may seem odd, remember that we are talking about only one type of
conditional statement. the material conditional as logicians call it
Conditional statements can occur as the premises of arguments. Consider the
followi ng syllogism:
If we begin recycli ng errorts immediately, we have a good chance of savi ng the environ-
ment.
We begin r ecycli ng efforts immediately,
We have a good chance of saving the environment.
Thi s argument fonn is called a mixed-conditional syllogism. It is "mi xed" because it
coma ins a conditi onal premise and a second si mpl e premise. If we look carefully at
[his argument we not ice that the second premise affirms the amecedent of the
condi tional premise and (he conclusion affinns the consequent. This fonn is valid.
Such arguments are said to be in the affirmati

e mood: they are commonly referred
to by their Latin name: modus ponens. Any rime the second premise of a mixed
254 Dedudive Aryuments
conditional syllogism affirms (he antecedent of {he conditional premise llnd the
conclusion affirms its consequem, {he syllogism is valid.
There's a fallacy thai superticially resembles modus ponens:
If we begin recycling efforts immediately. we have a good chance of saving the environ-
ment.
We have a good chance of saving the environment.
We begin recycling efforts immediately.
Even if this conclusion is. in fact, true. it does not logically foJlvw from the prem-
ises. Consider a very simpl e instance of the same fallacious pattern:
If my car is out of gas, it will not start.
My car will not start.
My car is out of gas.
Even if the conclusion is, in fact, true. the argument upon which it is based is
flawed. Based only on the information provided in the premises. the conclusion ""my
car is out of gas" is too strong for the premises. Other factors may account for my
car's not starti ng: bad battery, failed ignition. and so forth. Since a deductive
argument is only valid when the premises entail the conclusion-a condition not
met by these last two examples of mixed-conditional syllogisms. Any argument of
this form is invalid because the form commits the fallacy of affirming the conse·
quent. Compare modus ponens to affirming the consequent:
modus ponens
If antecedent then consequent
antecedent
consequent
.e- ---------
fallacy of affinning the consequent
If antecedent then consequent
consequent
antecedent
Study Hint --- ----'e'
Modus ponens is always valid: affirming [he consequent never is.
Besides modus ponens, another valid form-modus rollens--of mixed·condi·
tional syllogism denies the consequent as its second premise and denies the ante-
cedent as its conclusion. Here' s an example:
If we begin recycling efforts immediately, we have a good chance of saving the environ-
ment.
We don 't have a good chance of saving the environment.
We're not beginning recycling efforts immediately.
We can compare the forms of modus ponens and modus rollens as follows:
s
y
y
e
• t
.f
\ -
1-
modus ponens
If atlltcedent then consequent
antecedenl
f:onsequent
Additional Syllogisms
modus lOl/ens
If antecedent then consequent
not consequent
not antecedent
255
To help see that arguments of this form. known as modus ,ollens. are valid. consider
[his simple instance:
If my car is safe to drive. then it has good brakes.
My car does not have good brakes.
My car is not safe to drive.
lust as we have to be wary of confusing modus ponells with the fallacy of
affirming (he consequem. we must be careful not to confuse modLls wI/ens with [he
fallacy of denying the antecedent. Here's an example of the fallacy of dellyillg (he
unrecedenr:
If my car is safe to drive, then it has good brakes.
My car is not safe to drive.
My car does not have good brakes .
Based only on the premises. the concl usion "my car does not have good brakes"
does not fonow. The conditional relarionship asserts only that it is not possible for
the antecedent (0 be [rue and the consequent false. In other words. the occurrence of
the antecedent guarantees the occurrence of the consequent. This relationship only
goes in one direction. We cannot. for example, reverse the antecedent and conse-
quenr and retain the original conditional relationship. " [f my car is safe to drive.
then ir has good brakes" is not equivalent to "[f my car has good brakes. then it is
safe [Q drive." Vet this is exactly what the fallacy of denying the antecedent as-
sumes. Compare modus rol/ens and the fallacy of denying the antecedent to see how
these clearly differ:
modus tollens
(f antecedent then consequent
not consequelll
not antecedent
Pure Conditional Syllogism
fa/wey of denying the antecedent
If antecedent then consequent
not antecedent
not consequent
Sometimes. a conditional syllogism contains only conditional propositions. for ex-
ample:
If Lisa has nightmares. then Nicky wakes up.
If Nicky wakes up, then Lina goes bonkers.
If Lisa has nightmares., then Lina goes bonkers.

Related Interests

e mood: they are commonly referred
to by their Latin name: modus ponens. Any rime the second premise of a mixed
254 Dedudive Aryuments
conditional syllogism affirms (he antecedent of {he conditional premise llnd the
conclusion affirms its consequem, {he syllogism is valid.
There's a fallacy thai superticially resembles modus ponens:
If we begin recycling efforts immediately. we have a good chance of saving the environ-
ment.
We have a good chance of saving the environment.
We begin recycling efforts immediately.
Even if this conclusion is. in fact, true. it does not logically foJlvw from the prem-
ises. Consider a very simpl e instance of the same fallacious pattern:
If my car is out of gas, it will not start.
My car will not start.
My car is out of gas.
Even if the conclusion is, in fact, true. the argument upon which it is based is
flawed. Based only on the information provided in the premises. the conclusion ""my
car is out of gas" is too strong for the premises. Other factors may account for my
car's not starti ng: bad battery, failed ignition. and so forth. Since a deductive
argument is only valid when the premises entail the conclusion-a condition not
met by these last two examples of mixed-conditional syllogisms. Any argument of
this form is invalid because the form commits the fallacy of affirming the conse·
quent. Compare modus ponens to affirming the consequent:
modus ponens
If antecedent then consequent
antecedent
consequent
.e- ---------
fallacy of affinning the consequent
If antecedent then consequent
consequent
antecedent
Study Hint --- ----'e'
Modus ponens is always valid: affirming [he consequent never is.
Besides modus ponens, another valid form-modus rollens--of mixed·condi·
tional syllogism denies the consequent as its second premise and denies the ante-
cedent as its conclusion. Here' s an example:
If we begin recycling efforts immediately, we have a good chance of saving the environ-
ment.
We don 't have a good chance of saving the environment.
We're not beginning recycling efforts immediately.
We can compare the forms of modus ponens and modus rollens as follows:
s
y
y
e
• t
.f
\ -
1-
modus ponens
If atlltcedent then consequent
antecedenl
f:onsequent
Additional Syllogisms
modus lOl/ens
If antecedent then consequent
not consequent
not antecedent
255
To help see that arguments of this form. known as modus ,ollens. are valid. consider
[his simple instance:
If my car is safe to drive. then it has good brakes.
My car does not have good brakes.
My car is not safe to drive.
lust as we have to be wary of confusing modus ponells with the fallacy of
affirming (he consequem. we must be careful not to confuse modLls wI/ens with [he
fallacy of denying the antecedent. Here's an example of the fallacy of dellyillg (he
unrecedenr:
If my car is safe to drive, then it has good brakes.
My car is not safe to drive.
My car does not have good brakes .
Based only on the premises. the concl usion "my car does not have good brakes"
does not fonow. The conditional relarionship asserts only that it is not possible for
the antecedent (0 be [rue and the consequent false. In other words. the occurrence of
the antecedent guarantees the occurrence of the consequent. This relationship only
goes in one direction. We cannot. for example, reverse the antecedent and conse-
quenr and retain the original conditional relationship. " [f my car is safe to drive.
then ir has good brakes" is not equivalent to "[f my car has good brakes. then it is
safe [Q drive." Vet this is exactly what the fallacy of denying the antecedent as-
sumes. Compare modus rol/ens and the fallacy of denying the antecedent to see how
these clearly differ:
modus tollens
(f antecedent then consequent
not consequelll
not antecedent
Pure Conditional Syllogism
fa/wey of denying the antecedent
If antecedent then consequent
not antecedent
not consequent
Sometimes. a conditional syllogism contains only conditional propositions. for ex-
ample:
If Lisa has nightmares. then Nicky wakes up.
If Nicky wakes up, then Lina goes bonkers.
If Lisa has nightmares., then Lina goes bonkers.

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