Exam 2

Saturday, November 16, 2013 7:46 PM

Antoine's Equation K-value Component vapor pressure/pressure of the separation stage Relative Volatility = \alpha Larger K value/smaller K value

McCabe-Thiele Method
Overall : Component : D = Distillate W = Bottoms m = below the feed stage (stripping) n = above the feed stage (enriching) R = Reflux ratio = Assumed Constants V=Vm+1=Vm V=Vn+1=Vn Enriching section Operating Line: Reflux = R = Ln/D The operating line intersects the y = x line at x = xD Y Intercept of the operating line is Stripping Section Operating Line : The operating line intersects the y = x line at x = xw Y intercept of the Operating Line is y = -Wxw/Vm+1 q line From the liquid composition of the feed If the feed is : at bubble point q = 1 All vapor q = 0

HV = enthalpy of the feed at the dew point HF = enthalpy of the feed at its entrance conditions HL = enthalpy of the feed at the boiling point CpL = heat capacity of the liquid feed TB = boiling point of feed TF = Inlet feed temperature Draw from the intersection of xF and y=x to the intersection of the enriching and stripping sections q line Slope
Feed Composition and flow rate

Feed plate should be the step that steps over the intersection of the stripping and enriching lines where the q line intersects within the feed step Reboilers are considered a theoretical step so Theoretical trays = theoretical steps - 1 Minimum theoretical steps Total Reflux where D = 0 Nothing is flowing out of the column and nothing is entering The products from the top and bottom reenter the column The operating lines are the same as the y = x line Minimum Reflux ratio Requires infinite Trays Minimum vapor flow The value of R so that the operating line touches the equilibrium line

W=249.01 D=350.99 Xpropane = 3.5/D Xpropylene = (350.99-3.5)/D V= D+L=D+15.9D=5931

x' and y' when the q line intersects the equilibrium curve y' = feed vapor mole fraction x' = feed liquid mole fraction Fenske Analytical Expressions Minimum steps

Where sigma is surface tension

Efficiency
Column \alpha \mu
.45 cP

\eta
60%

Ntheory
90

Nactual
150

Height
300

Column 2 1.15

Transfer 3 Page 1

.org/wiki/Fenske_equation> Optimum reflux ratio Usually R = [1. 2.wikipedia. Gather the Antoine constants for ethane and ethylene. the following form of the Fenske equation is obtained: Actual number of trays = Ntheoretical/Efficiency Given spacing as 2 ft between each where: is the number of equilibrium stages is the mole fraction of component n in the vapor phase is the mole fraction of component n in the liquid phase is the vapor pressure of pure component n From <http://en. 7. 3.Fenske Analytical Expressions Minimum steps Column \alpha \mu . 6. Calculate y1 and y2 using yi = Kixi where 1 = ethylene and 2 = ethane.S. 5. If Σyi = 1. then T is the correct bubble point temperature and y is the bubble point composition. Transfer 3 Page 2 . Using Raoult's law and Dalton's Law for a series of condensation and evaporation cycles (i. 4.44 cP \eta 60% 62% Ntheory 90 90 Nactual 150 Height 300 Column 2 1.e.14 145 (144) 288 A derivation of another form of the Fenske equation for use in gas chromatography is available on the U. Naval Academy's web site. T.2Rm to 1. Otherwise. Calculate the K value for ethane and ethylene. Guess at a new bubble point temperature and repeat steps 3 through 6 until Σyi = 1. Add y1and y2 (denoted Σyi) and compare this value with 1. equilibrium stages).15 Column 1 1.5Rm] Bubble Point Calculations 1. Guess the bubble point temperature.45 cP .