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# Chapter 2 Labs will begin week of 9/13 Discuss difference between vectors and scalars.

Zane Problem Solving Method 1. Read the uestion carefull!" 2. #hat \$%&D 'kine(atics) forces) energ! conservation) (o(entu( conservation) etc.* of ph!sics proble( is it+ ,here can be (ore than one kind involved in a proble(" 3. %dentif! what the proble( is asking !ou to find. -. List the e uations that contain it. .. %dentif! the infor(ation given in the proble() i.e.) take inventor!. /. #hich e uation works best) given what !ou are looking for and what !our are given+ 0. 1et up a coordinate s!ste() if necessar!) and it usuall! 'but not alwa!s* will be. 2. #rite the e uation that contains what !ou want) and 13L45 %, for that" 9. Let the e uation tell !ou what to do ne6t. Chapter 2: \$ine(atics one place. 3rgani7e !our info. 1 page. for(ula and defs. \$eep the( all hand! in

%ntroduce Cartesian coordinate s!ste( 8 Ren9 Descartes '1.9/:1/.;* Cogito Ergo Sum Position, Distance, Displacement <osition= #here a( %+ 1how on a graph.

Distance= >ow far did % walk+ ?lwa!s positive. Displace(ent= >ow far did % actuall! go fro( (! starting point+ negative. @6 A 6f :6i Can be

1tress @ ?&B,>%&C""" D5?&1 C>?&C5. ,he @ 'delta* is a Creek letter co((onl! used in (athe(atics to tell us that we need to calculate a C>?&C5 in so(e uantit!. ,o calculate the @ for an!thing is si(ple= itEs Fust the final value (inus the initial value" Average speed A total distance traveled/total elapsed ti(e length/ti(e A (/s

## \$ingfisher takes a plunge" 'e6 2:1* on page 21

G2 #ant t vav A @6/ @t v A -.;; (/s t A d/v t A0.; (/-.;; (/s tA1.2 s Conceptual Checkpoint 2- !pg" 2 #

dA 0.; (

Drive -.;; (i H 3;.; (ph then -.;; (i H .;.; (ph vav+ I-;.; (ph+ J -;.; (ph+ 6 v av = Care\$ul% &he total time must be calculated \$rom the time t \$or each di\$\$erent speed" So, 6 6 -.; (i -.; (i t = t 1 + t 2 = 1 + 2 = + v1 v 2 3; (i / h .; (i / h t = ;.1333 h + ;.;2 h = ;.2133h v av =

( -.; (i + -.; (i )
;.2133h

= 30.. (ph

'raph o\$ average velocit( bet)een t)o times. 3n an 6 vs t '! vs 6* plot) it is the slope of the line Foining those two points. Review slope definition.

## slope of the tangent at a point.

Acceleration ?cceleration) like velocit! and displace(ent) is a *+C&,-. %t has both (agnitude 'how (uch+*) and direction 'which wa!+*. LetEs look at the funda(ental definition of ?45R?C5 'not instantaneous"* acceleration=
v a= t
v f vi 1o) a = . ,he subscripts f and i stand for KfinalL and KinitialL. %f !ou are going to t f ti

(easure the change in velocit! for a given ti(e) !ou need to start the clock" 3ften) but not alwa!s) we start the clock at 7ero. ,his is !our initial ti(e) ti. #ell) what is the velocit! at this initial ti(e+ ,his is v i . 1o(e ti(e later) we stop the clock 'he!) we havenEt got ?LL da!"*. ,his is the final ti(e) tf. #hat is the velocit! at this ti(e+ ,his is v f . Re(e(ber) though) that a vector has both (agnitude ?&D direction 'ti(e is a scalar*. ,he velocit! vector is written in co(ponent for( when put into this e uation. LetEs tr! a trick! sa(ple proble(=

Average Acceleration:

a av =

## v vfinal vinitial ( = t t final t initial s 2

.nstantaneous acceleration= v a = li( slope of the tangent at a point. t ; t ,ne-dimensional /hol( three0" 1 1. 6 = 6 ; + v; t + at 2 2 2. v f = v ; + at
2 3. vf2 v; = 2a ( 6 )

,hese e uations can be written in ter(s of ! or 7) or all three ' r *) in which case the! are no longer one:di(ensional. *ectors and Scalars 1 5(phasi7e difference between average speed 'distance/ti(e* can onl! be M and average velocit! can be M or 8 because velocit! is calculated as follows= 'displace(ent 'vector*/ti(e*. #hen dividing or (ultipl!ing a vector b! a scalar !ou get a vector. #hat about acceleration= @v/@t+ is acc a vector+ Co over units. ?verage acc vs instantaneous acc= aav A @v/@t. %nstantaneous is the li(it.

<roble( 2:3. N ,he golfer in Oigure 2822 sinks the ball in two putts) as shown. #hat is 'a* the distance traveled b! the ball) and 'b* the displace(ent of the ball+ 'a* 'b* distance A 1; ( M 2.. ( M 2.. ( A 1. (

x = xf xi = 10 m 0 = 10 m

2-. NN %< ? child rides her tric!cle back and forth along the sidewalk) producing the position:versus:ti(e graph shown in Oigure 2820. 'a* #ithout perfor(ing a calculation) indicate on which of the seg(ents of the graph) ?) P) or C) the child has the greatest average speed. 'b* Calculate the average speed for each seg(ent) and show that !our results verif! !our answers to part 'a*. 'a* P #here is the slope the steepest+ 'b*
sA = 1m 3 m 2 m = = 1 m/ s 2 s 0 2s

## 3 m1 m 2m sB = = = 2 m s 3 s 2 s 1s 2 m 3 m 1 m sC = = = 0.5 m s 5 s 3 s 2s sB > sA > sC

2:/.. NN ? bic!clist is finishing his repair of a flat tire when a friend rides b! at 3.. (/s. ,wo seconds later) the bic!clist hops on his bike and accelerates at 2.- (/s2 until he catches his friend. 'a* >ow (uch ti(e does it take until

he catches his friend+ 'b* >ow far has he travled in this ti(e+ 'c* #hat is his speed when he catches up+ LetEs follow the Zane Problem-Solving Method" 1. Read the uestion carefull!" % canEt stress this enough. 2. #hat \$%&D 'kine(atics) forces) energ! conservation) (o(entu( conservation) etc.* of ph!sics proble( is it+ ,here can be (ore than one kind involved in a proble(" Clearl!) this is a kine(atics proble(. 3. %dentif! what the proble( is asking !ou to find. Oirst) the proble( is asking us to find the ti(e) t) when the two c!clists intersect on the 6:a6is. LetEs tackle Fust part a for now. -. List the e uations that contain it. 3f our three kine(atics e uations) 2 of the( contain the variable t. 2 6 = 6 ; + v; t + 1 2 at vf = v; + at .. %dentif! the infor(ation given in the proble(. 'i..e. 8 take inventor!"* ,his is where things get a little bit Ktrick!L. >ow (an! bodies are (oving+ ,he answer is two because there are two c!clists. 5ach of the two (oving bodies (ust have its own e uations of (otion. LetEs designate the c!clist changing the flat as G1 and his friend who 7ips b! as G2. >owever) we have to (ake a decision= since we onl! have one stopwatch) when do we start it at 7ero+ ,o (ake the algebra easier) % suggest we start the clock when the 1st c!clist hops on his bike and accelerates. ,herefore) we have the following infor(ation= v;2 = 3..( / s = v f 2 = constant) because G2 is &3, accelerating. v;1 = ; ,his is the c!clist changing the flat tire. a1 = 2.-( / s 2 #e also know that c!clist G2 has been travelling for 2 s when c!clist G1 hops on his bike 'and we start the clock*. #e will use this presentl!. /. #hich e uation works best to find what we are looking for) given what we know+ 1ince we want the ti(e of intersection) and that (eans 61 A 62) we should use the first one. 0. 1et up a coordinate s!ste(.

61 A ; tA;

62 A + tA;

LetEs speciali7e our 1st kine(atics e uation for each of the two c!clists= 2 2 2 2 2 1 61 = 6 ;1 + v;1t + 1 2 a1t = ; + ; + 2 2.-( / s t = '1.2( / s *t

2 6 2 = 6 ;2 + v;2 t + 1 2 a 2 t = 6 ;2 + ( 3..( / s ) t + ;

1o) here is the (ore si(plified version of our e uations= 61 = '1.2( / s 2 *t 2 6 2 = 6 ;2 + ( 3..( / s ) t 2. #rite the e uation that contains what !ou want) and 13L45 %, for that" 1o) we solve the above e uation for t= ?s % (entioned before) Qcatching upQ (eans intersecting on the 6:a6is 'we hope the! have different 7:coordinates : 3RC>"* and so we set 61 = 6 2 . '1.2( / s 2 *t 2 = 6 ;2 + ( 3..( / s ) t '1.2( / s 2 *t 2 ( 3..( / s ) t 6 ;2 = ; ? P C P P2 -?C t= 2? t= ( ( 3..( / s ) ) ,his will be a uadratic e uation"

( ( 3..( / s ) )

2 '1.2( / s 2 *

- 1.2( / s 2 ( 6 ;2 )

## 9. Let the e uation tell !ou what to do ne6t.

#hat are we (issing+ 6;2" 1o) now we have to find that in order to get our answer" #e have to go back to the e uation of (otion for c!clist G2= 6 S2 = 6 S;2 + ( 3..( / s ) t S #h! did % use tS instead of Fust t+ Re(e(ber that our clock doesnSt start until c!clist G1 hops on his bike) so this e uation governs the (otion of c!clist G2 P5O3R5 this happens. ,he proble( sa!s that 2 s go b! prior to this) so tS A 2 s. #e can choose the origin for 6 S;2 ) so then 6 S2 = 6 ;2 .

6 S2 = 6 ;2 = ; + ( 3..( / s ) ( 2s ) 6 S2 = 6 ;2 = 0 (

t=

+ ( 3..( / s )

( ( 3..( / s ) )

2 '1.2( / s 2 *

- 1.2( / s 2 ( 0 ( )

+ ( 3..( / s ) 12.2.( 2 / s 2 + 33./( 2 / s 2 + ( 3..( / s ) /.00 ( / s t= = 2.-( / s 2 2.-( / s 2 #e choose the positive ti(e= t A -.22 s A -.3 s '2 s.f.* 'b* >ow far has he 'c!clist G1* travled in this ti(e+ #e go back to the e uation of (otion for c!clist G1 and plug in the ti(e we Fust found. 2 61 = '1.2( / s 2 *t 2 = '1.2( / s 2 * ( -.22s ) = 22( '2s.f .* 'c* #hat is his speed when he catches up+ vf1 = v;1 + at = ; + 2.-( / s 2 ( -.22s ) = 1;( / s

## ,b2ects in \$ree \$all 3 onl( gravit( is acting"

DoesnEt (atter if obFect is dropped) thrown up or thrown down. %OO !; = !f ) then t up = t down Oree fall= Drop a rock off a bridge.
v v T) a = g - ; m / s2 ( ! A per\$ect time to discuss unit vectors%

>ow fast is it going after - s+ 1tress direction of g is ?L#?B1 down. ?lso in this case) v is negative 'wh!+*. Draw a coordinate s!ste(. g subtracts 4 m5s per second \$rom the velocit( +AC6 second" vf! = v;! + at vf! = ; 1; s( t = -; ( s
2

2:2/. NN ,o celebrate a victor!) a pitcher throws her glove straight upward with an initial speed of /.; (/s. 'a* >ow long does it take for the glove to return to the pitcher+ 'b* >ow long does it take for the glove to reach its (a6i(u( height+ 'a* %t takes the sa(e a(ount of ti(e for the glove to go up as down) so Oind t when ! = ;. #e know= g A : 9.2 (/s 2

## Civen = v ;! = +/.; ( / s #hich e uation to use+

2 ! A !; + v ;! t + 1 2 at

; = ; + /t -.9 t 2 ; = t'/ -.9t* t=; t= / = 1.2s -.9 Discuss wh! there are two answers for t.

56. ,hrow a ball up with v;A .; (/s. >ow long does it take to stop+ 1ince g subtracts 1; (/s per sec it will take . s. >ow high did it go+ #hich e uation's* contain distance+ !f A!o M v;! t M U a t2 vf2 8 v;2 A 2 a s >ere we have abundant info= Rse the easier one" 1olve for what we want= #hat are we looking for+ s"

## m2 m 2 2 2.;; 2 ; '.; * v2 f v; s = s = 12.m s= = m m 2a 2'1; 2 * 2; 2 s s

#ould the other e uation give the sa(e answer+ LetEs tr!.
Distance'draw on the !:a6is* = ! f ! ; = v ;! t + 1/ 2at 2 = '.; = 2.;( 12.( = 12.( ( ( *'.s* + 1/ 2' 1; 2 *'.s* 2 s s

Lava bo(b= tA-.0. s) gA9.21 (/s2. #hat is v;+ #hat do we know+ #hich e uation+ DonEt forget) vf A v; M at 1idebar= ,i(e up A ti(e down. #h!+ 1tarting fro( sa(e level ?&D subFect to sa(e acceleration" 1tress that it doesnEt work for different levels"" v; A vf 8 at A ; 8 ':9.21 (/s2* U '-.0. s* A 23.3 (/s Co over chap su((ar!"