IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977

(Reaffirmed 2001)

Edition 2.2 (1984-10)

Indian Standard
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART II TEMPERATURE-RISE

( First Revision )
(Incorporating Amendment Nos. 1 & 2)

UDC

621.314.222.6.017.71

© BIS 2003 BUREAU
MANAK BHAVAN , 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002

OF

INDIAN

STANDARDS

Price Group 5

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977

Indian Standard
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART II TEMPERATURE-RISE

( First Revision )
Transformers Sectional Committee, ETDC 16
Chairman SHRI U. K. PATWARDHAN Prayog Electricals Pvt Ltd, Bombay Members Representing Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (R&D Unit) SHRI S. AMMEERJAN SHRI N. S. S. AROKIASWAMY Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Madras SHRI M. K. SUNDARARAJAN ( Alternate ) SHRI B. G. BHAKEY Kirloskar Electric Co Ltd, Bangalore DR B. N. JAYARAM ( Alternate ) SHRI A. V. BHEEMARAU Gujarat Electricity Board, Vadodara SHRI J. S. IYER ( Alternate ) SHRI S. D. CHOTRANEY Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Undertaking, Bombay SHRI Y. K. PALVANKAR ( Alternate ) DIRECTOR (TRANSMISSION) Central Electric Authority, New Delhi DEPUTY DIRECTOR (TRANSMISSION) ( Alternate ) SHRI T. K. GHOSE Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation Ltd, Calcutta SHRI P. K. BHATTACHARJEE ( Alternate ) JOINT DIRECTOR (SUB-STATION) Research, Designs and Standards Organization, Lucknow DEPUTY DIRECTOR STANDARDS (ELECTRICAL) ( Alternate ) SHRI J. K. KHANNA Directorate General of Supplies and Disposals (Inspection Wing), New Delhi SHRI K. L. GARG ( Alternate ) Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd, New Delhi SHRI B. S. KOCHAR SHRI R. D. JAIN ( Alternate ) SHRI J. R. MAHAJAN Indian Electrical Manufacturers’ Association, Bombay SHRI P. K. PHILIP ( Alternate ) SHRI D. B. MEHTA Tata Hydro-Electric Power Supply Co Ltd, Bombay SHRI R. CHANDRAMOULI ( Alternate ) ( Continued on page 2 ) © BIS 2003 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act (XIV of 1957) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
( Continued from page 1 ) Members Representing

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd SHRI D. V. NARKE SHRI ISHWAR CHANDRA ( Alternate I ) SHRI PREM CHAND ( Alternate II ) SHRI I. S. PATEL Hindustan Brown Boveri Ltd, Bombay National Electrical Industries Ltd, Bhopal SHRI V. N. PRAHLAD SHRI A. G. GURJAR ( Alternate ) SHRI K. N. RAMASWAMY Directorate General of Technical Development, New Delhi SHRI S. K. PALHAN ( Alternate ) Pradip Lamp Works, Patna SHRI CHANDRA K. ROHATGI SHRI D. P. SAHGAL Siemens India Ltd, Bombay SHRI A. R. SALVI ( Alternate ) Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking, New Delhi SHRI I. C. SANGAR SHRI R. C. KHANNA ( Alternate ) NGEF Ltd, Bangalore SHRI K. G. SHANMUKHAPPA SHRI P. S. RAMAN ( Alternate ) SHRI M. A. SHARIFF Karnataka Electricity Board, Bangalore SHRI B. C. ALVA ( Alternate ) SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Department (OPERATION) (Electricity Projects and Board), Hyderabad SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER TECHNICAL (PROJECTS) ( Alternate ) SHRI C. R. VARIER Crompton Greaves Ltd, Bombay SHRI S. V. MANERIKAR ( Alternate ) Director General, ISI ( Ex-officio Member ) SHRI S. P. SACHDEV, Director (Elec tech) Secretary SHRI VIJAI Drputy Director (Elec tech), ISI

Panel for Revision of IS : 2026 Specification for Power Transformers, ETDC 16 : P6
Members SHRI S. V. MANERIKAR Crompton Greaves Ltd, Bombay SHRI D. V. NARKE Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd SHRI ISHWAR CHANDRA ( Alternate I ) SHRI PREM CHAND ( Alternate II ) SHRI S. SRINIVASAN ( Alternate III )

2

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977

Indian Standard
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART II TEMPERATURE-RISE

( First Revision )
0. F O R E W O R D
0.1 This Indian Standard (Part II) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 24 February 1977, after the draft finalized by the Transformers Sectional Committee had been approved by the Electrotechnical Division Council. 0.2 The first revision of IS : 2026-1962* has been undertaken with a view to bring it in line with the revision of IEC Pub 76 (1967) Power transformers. 0.3 In this revision the requirements for power transformers are covered in four parts as follows : Part I General Part II Temperature-rise Part III Insulation levels and dielectric tests Part IV Terminal markings, tappings and connections 0.4 This standard (Part II) has been based on IEC Pub 76-2 (1976) ‘Power transformers, Part 2 Temperature-rise’, issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission. 0.5 This part shall be read in conjunction with IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977†, IS : 2026 (Part III)-1977‡ and IS : 2026 (Part IV)-I977§. 0.6 This edition 2.2 incorporates Amendment No. 2 (October 1984). Side bar indicates modification of the text as the result of incorporation of the amendment. Amendment No. 1 had been incorporated earlier. 0.7 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 2-1960| |. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.
*Specification for power transformers. †Specification for power transformers: Part I General ‡Specification for power transformers: Part III Insulation levels and dielectric tests. §Specification for power transformers: Part IV Terminal markings, tappings and connections. ||Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ).

3

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part II) covers temperature-rise requirements of power transformers. 2. IDENTIFICATION ACCORDING TO COOLING METHOD 2.1 Identification Symbols — Transformers shall be identified according to the cooling method employed. Letter symbols for use in connection with each cooling method shall be as given in Table 1.
NOTE — In transformers with forced directed oil circulation a certain proportion of the forced oil flow is channelled so as to pass through the windings. Certain windings, however, may have a non-directed oil flow, for instance, separate tapping windings, auxiliary windings and stabilizing windings.

TABLE 1 LETTER SYMBOLS
( Clause 2.1 ) i) Kind of Cooling Medium a) Mineral oil or equivalent flammable synthetic insulating liquid b) Non-flammable synthetic insulating liquid c) Gas d) Water e) Air ii) Kind of Circulation a) Natural b) Forced (oil not directed) c) Forced (directed oil) N F D Symbol O L G W A

2.2 Arrangement of Symbols — Transformers shall be identified by four symbols for each cooling method for which a rating is assigned by the manufacturer. 2.2.1 Dry-type transformers without protective enclosures are identified by two symbols only for the cooling medium that is in contact with the windings of the surface coating of windings with an overall coating (for example, epoxy resin). 2.2.2 The order in which the symbols are used shall be as given in Table 2. Oblique strokes shall be used to separate the group symbols for different cooling methods. 2.2.3 For example, an oil-immersed transformer with forced directed oil circulation and forced air circulation shall be designated ODAF. 2.2.4 For oil-immersed transformers in which the alternatives of natural or forced cooling with non-directed oil flow are possible, typical designations are : ONAN/ONAF ONAN/OFAF

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IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
2.2.5 The cooling method of a dry-type transformer without a protective enclosure or with a ventilated enclosure and with natural air cooling is designated by : AN 2.2.6 For a dry-type transformer in a non-ventilated protective enclosure with natural air cooling inside and outside the enclosure the designation is : ANAN
TABLE 2 ORDER OF SYMBOLS
( Clause 2.2.2 ) 1st Letter 2nd Letter 3rd Letter 4th Letter

Kind of cooling med- Kind of circulation ium indicating the cooling medium that is in contact with the windings

Kind of cooling med- Kind of circulation ium indicating the cooling medium that is in contact with the external cooling systems

3. LIMITS OF TEMPERATURE-RISE
3.1 Normal Temperature-Rise Limits — The temperature-rises of the windings, cores and oil, of transformers designed for operation at altitudes not exceeding those given in 3 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977* and with cooling medium temperatures as described in 3 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977* shall not exceed the limits specified in Tables 3 and 4 when tested in accordance with 4. 3.1.1 The method of verification of the forced directed oil flow shall be subject to agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser, normally at the time of tender. 3.1.2 The temperature-rises of transformers immersed in nonflammable synthetic insulating liquids and using insulating materials whose temperature classes are different from A may be raised by an amount to be agreed by manufacturer and purchaser. 3.1.3 In certain types of transformers with concentric windings and vertical axes of core and windings two or more windings can be arranged one above the other. If these windings are identical, the arithmetic mean value of their temperature-rises shall not exceed the permissible temperature-rises given in Tables 3 and 4. If the windings
*Specification for power transformers: Part I General

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IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
are not identical, their temperature-rises shall be subject to agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser. In this case, the axial dimensions of each winding are to be considered.
TABLE 3 TEMPERATURE-RISE LIMITS FOR DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS
( Clauses 3.1, 3.1.3, 3.3, 4.3 and 4.5.1 ) SL NO . (1) PART (2) COOLING METHOD (3) Air, natural or forced TEMPERATURE CLASS OF INSULATION* (4) A E B F H C — — TEMPERATURE-RISE (5) °C 50 65 70 90 115 140† a) Same values as for windings b) The temperature shall in no case reach a value that will damage the core itself, other parts or adjacent materials

i) Windings (Temperaturerise measured by resistance method)

ii) Cores and other parts a) Adjacent to windings b) Not adjacent windings to All All

NOTE — Insulating materials may be used separately or in combination provided that in any application each material shall not be subjected to a temperature in excess of that for which it is suitable, if operated under rated conditions. *In accordance with IS : 1271-1958 Classification of insulating material for electrical machinery and apparatus in relation to their thermal stability in service. †For certain insulating materials, temperature-rises in excess of 140°C may be adopted by agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

3.2 Reduced Temperature-Rises for Transformers Designed for High Cooling-Medium Temperatures or Special Cooling-Medium Conditions — If the transformer is designed for service where the temperature of the cooling-medium exceeds one of the maximum values shown in 3 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977* by no more than 10°C, the allowable temperature-rises for the windings, cores and oil shall be reduced.

*Specification for power transformers: Part I General.

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IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
TABLE 4 TEMPERATURE-RISE LIMITS FOR OIL-IMMERSED TYPE TRANSFORMERS
( Clauses 3.1, 3.1.3, 3.3, 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5.1 ) SL NO . PART TEMPERATURE-RISE EXTERNAL COOLING MEDIUM

(1)

Air Water (3) (4) °C °C i) Windings (temperature- 55, when the oil circula- 60, when the oil circularise measured by resistance tion is natural or tion is natural or method) temperature class forced non-directed forced non-directed of insulation A 60, when the oil circula- 65, when the oil circulation is forced directed tion is forced directed (2)

50, when the transformer 55, when the transformer is equipped with a is equipped with a conservator or sealed conservator or sealed 45, when the transformer 50, when the transformer is neither equipped is neither equipped with a conservator with a conservator nor sealed nor sealed iii) Cores, metallic parts, and The temperature shall in The temperature shall in adjacent materials no case reach a value that no case reach a value that will damage the core will damage the core itself, other parts or itself, other parts or adjacent materials adjacent materials NOTE — The temperature-rise limits of the windings (measured by resistance method) are chosen to give the same hot-spot temperature-rise with different types of oil circulation. The hot-spot temperature-rise cannot normally be measured directly. Transformers with forced directed oil flow have a difference between the hot-spot and the average temperature-rise in the windings which is smaller than that in transformers with natural or forced but not directed oil flow. For this reason the windings of transformers with forced directed oil flow can have temperature-rise limits (measured by resistance method) which are 5°C higher than in other transformers.

ii) Top oil (temperature-rise measured by thermometer)

If the rated power is 10 MVA or greater, the reduction shall correspond to the excess temperature. For smaller rated powers the allowable temperature-rises shall be reduced as follows : a) by 5°C if the excess temperature is less than or equal to 5°C, and b) by 10°C if the excess temperature is greater than 5°C and less than or equal to 10°C. Where for air-cooled transformers the excess temperature specified above exceeds 10°C, or for water-cooled transformers the temperature of the cooling water exceeds 30°C, the allowable temperature-rises shall be agreed to between the manufacturer and the purchaser. Any site conditions which may either impose restrictions on the air cooling or produce high ambient air temperatures shall be specified by the purchaser. 7

                       

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
3.3 Reduced Temperature-Rises for Transformers Designed for High Altitudes — Unless otherwise agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser for air-cooled transformers designed for operation at an altitude greater than 1 000 m but tested at normal altitudes, the limits of temperature-rise given in Tables 3 and 4 shall be reduced by the following amounts for each 500 m by which the intended working altitude exceeds 1 000 m : a) Oil-immersed, natural air-cooled transformers 2.0 percent b) Dry-type, natural air-cooled transformers 2.5 percent c) Oil-immersed, forced air-cooled transformers 3.0 percent d) Dry-type, forced air-cooled transformers 5.0 percent
NOTE 1 — If air-cooled transformers, which are designed for operation below 1 000 m, are tested at altitudes above 1 000 m, the measured temperature-rises are to be reduced by the above mentioned amounts for each 500 m by which the test altitude exceeds 1 000 m. NOTE 2 — These reductions in temperature-rise limits or in measured temperaturerises are not applicable to water-cooled transformers.

3.4 Choice of Tapping for Temperature-Rise Test — Temperaturerise test shall be performed at the tapping as desired by the purchaser. If nothing has been stated by the purchaser, the test shall be carried out as indicated below: a) For tapping ranges less than or equal to 10 percent tapping on negative side, the test shall be performed on the lowest tap at appropriate current relating to this tapping; and b) For tapping ranges exceeding 10 percent on negative side, the test shall be performed at – 10 percent tapping with appropriate current relating to this tapping.
NOTE 1 — While above mentioned tapping limits may be applicable in respect of temperature-rise test only, there shall be no injury to the transformer when delivering the appropriate rated current on any tap including the extreme negative tap. NOTE 2 — A transformer may be expected to operate without permanent injury so long as it is operating within the absolute temperature limits and other conditions specified in IS : 6600-1972 ‘Guide for loading of oil immersed transformers’.

4. TEST OF TEMPERATURE-RISE (TYPE TEST) 4.1 Measurement of Temperature of Cooling Air 4.1.1 General — The cooling-air temperature shall be measured by means of several thermometers arranged according to 4.1.2 and 4.1.3. They shall be protected from draught and abnormal heat radiation. To avoid errors due to the time lag between variations in the temperature of the transformer and that of the cooling air, the thermometers may be inserted in cups filled with liquid, having a time constant of about two hours. The value to be adopted for the temperature of the cooling air for a test is the average of the readings taken on these thermometers at equal intervals of time during the last quarter of the test period. 8

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
The temperature of the cooling air should be as constant as possible during the test period, especially during the last quarter. 4.1.2 Natural Air-Cooling — The thermometers (at least three) shall be placed at different points around the transformer, at a level approximately half way up the cooling surface, at a distance of 1 to 2 m from the cooling surface. 4.1.3 Forced Air-Cooling — If there is a well defined flow of air from the surroundings towards the intakes of the coolers, without much recirculation of warm air, the thermometers should be placed in this intake stream. They should be far enough away from the tank and cooler surfaces to prevent disturbance by radiant heating (distance of 1 m to 2 m). If these conditions cannot be fulfilled, the temperatures shall be measured around the complete transformer, outside the recirculation streams, preferably on the side without cooler, if any. 4.2 Measurement of Temperature of Cooling Water — The cooling water temperature shall be measured at the intake of the cooler and the temperature shall be taken as the average of at least three readings taken at approximately equal intervals not greater than one hour. The readings shall be taken in the last quarter of the test period. 4.3 Determination of Winding Temperature — The winding temperatures shall in principle be ascertained using the resistance method. The temperature of a winding ( θ 2 ) at the end of a test period shall be calculated from its measured resistance ( R2 ) at that temperature and its measured resistance ( R1 ) at some other temperature ( θ 1 ) using the formula :
R2 θ 2 = ------ ( 235 + θ 1 ) – 235 for copper R1 R2 θ 2 = ------ ( 225 + θ 1 ) – 225 for aluminium R1

where θ 1 and θ 2 are measured in °C. The resistance ( R1) is generally the cold resistance measured in accordance with 16.2 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977*. The resistance ( R2 ) is measured either after switching off the supply, having regard to the corrections indicated in 4.9, or without interruption of the supply by means of the super-position method ( see Appendix A ) which consists of injecting into the winding a dc measuring current of low value superposed on the load current. In case of transformers with concentric windings and vertical axes of core and windings where two or more identical windings are arranged one above the other, all these windings can be connected in series for the
*Specification for power transformers: Part I General

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IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
test of temperature-rise. The measured temperature-rise of these series-connected windings shall not exceed the appropriate value given in Tables 3 and 4. If the windings have a resistance of 0.005 ohm or greater the winding temperatures shall be ascertained by means of the resistance method. Practical difficulties due to the short time available for the measurement of hot resistances may affect the accuracy of such measurement by about one percent. For winding having a value less than 0.005 ohm, the resistance method may be inaccurate. In such cases the temperature-rise at the end of a temperature test shall be determined as follows : ‘The temperature of the oil shall be measured by a thermometer placed in a thermometer pocket. The temperature-rise so determined shall not exceed the limiting value for oil given in Table 4.’ Any one method shall be used for the determination of the winding temperatures. 4.4 Measurement of Top Oil Temperature — The temperature of the top oil shall be measured by a thermometer placed in an oil-filled thermometer pocket on the cover or in the outlet pipe to the cooler, but in the case of separate coolers it shall be located in the outlet pipe adjacent to the transformer. Should the tank not be completely filled with oil, the pocket shall be long enough, or placed in an appropriate position on the tank, to ensure true measurement of the top oil temperature; alternatively, an opening shall be provided through which the thermometer can be inserted. The temperature-rise so determined shall not exceed the limiting value for oil given in Table 4. 4.5 Duration of Test of Temperature-Rise — The test shall be continued until the requirements of one of the following methods have been met. The method shall be chosen by the manufacturer. 4.5.1 Method a — Evidence shall be obtained that the highest temperature-rise will not exceed the value given in Table 3 or 4, as appropriate, even if the test were continued until thermal equilibrium is reached. Temperatures shall be taken where possible during operation, as well as when the supply to the transformer is switched-off. The test shall not be regarded as completed until the temperature-rise increment is less than 3°C in 1 hour. The method shown in Fig. 1 shall be employed for the determination of the final temperature-rise. 4.5.2 Method b — It shall be demonstrated that the top oil temperature-rise does not vary more than 1°C per hour during 4 consecutive hourly readings. If the test is performed initially with reduced cooling or without any cooling, it shall be continued for sufficient time with full cooling to prevent errors in the measurement of the final oil temperature-rise.

10

11 IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 FIG. 1 METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE FINAL TEMPERATURE-RISE OF OIL

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 4.6 Test Method for Dry-Type Transformers* — The method shall be one involving excitation of the core at normal flux density. The input test current It shall be held constant at a value as near as possible to the rated value IN and at least equal to 90 percent of this value, and the run continued until the temperature-rise, θ t , of the windings, is steady. The temperature-rise of the windings above the temperature of the cooling air, for rated load conditions, θ N , is calculated from the formula :
IN q θ N = θ t -----It

The value of q shall be taken as follows :
AN AF transformers = transformers = 1.6 1.8

NOTE — For loading method see 4.8.

4.7 Test Method for Oil-Immersed Type Transformers* — Temperature-rise tests of oil-immersed type transformers include the determination of top oil temperature-rise and of winding temperature-rises.
NOTE 1 — During the test the power required for the pumps and fans may be measured. NOTE 2 — For loading method see 4.8.

4.7.1 Top Oil Temperature-Rise — The top oil temperature-rise shall be obtained by subtracting the cooling medium test temperature from the measured top oil temperature, the transformer being supplied with the total losses. The input power shall be maintained at a steady value. If the total losses (taken as the sum of the measured load losses, corrected to the reference temperature and the measured no-load losses) [ see 16.1 and 16.4 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977† ] cannot be obtained, different losses, as near as possible to the above losses, but in any case not less than 80 percent, shall be supplied and the following correction factor applied to the top oil temperature-rise so determined :
Total losses x ------------------------------Test losses

The value of x shall be as follows : For natural air circulation: For forced air circulation and water cooling:

0.8 1.0

NOTE — In cases where testing facilities are not available for carrying out the test at 80 percent of the total losses, the losses at which the test is to be conducted and the details of the test shall be subject of agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser. *It is assured that the transformer has no tappings, or if it has, that the test is made on the principal tapping. If the test is made on another tapping, it is necessary to replace in the text the words ‘rated voltage’ and ‘rated current’ by ‘appropriate tapping voltage’ and ‘appropriate tapping current’. †Specification for power transformers: Part I General

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IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
4.7.2 Winding Temperature-Rises — Winding temperature-rises shall be obtained on all windings by subtracting the external cooling medium test temperature from the average temperature of the windings as measured by resistance, after circulating the rated current at rated frequency in the winding under test. If the rated current cannot be supplied, the tests may be performed with a current not less than 90 percent of the rated current. Alternatively, a current providing the total losses may be supplied. In either case the following correction factor shall be applied to the determined temperature-rise of the windings above average oil temperature :
Rated current y -------------------------------------Test current

The value of y shall be as follows : For natural and forced non-directed oil circulation: For forced directed air circulation:

1.6 2.0

NOTE — In cases where testing facilities are not available for carrying out the test at 90 percent of rated current the current at which the test is to be conducted and the details of the test shall be subject of agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

The average oil temperature may be determined by any of the following ways : a) For all cooling methods the average oil temperature in the surroundings of the different windings shall be calculated according to Fig. 2 from the resistance R′ where the straight line L cuts the ordinate. The winding resistances shall be determined after switching-off the supply according to 4.9. b) In transformers with ON, OF and OD cooling the average oil temperature shall be determined as the difference between the top oil temperature and half the temperature-drop in the cooling equipment. For tanks with tubes or radiators mounted on them, the temperature-drop shall be taken as the difference between the surface temperatures at the top and the bottom of a cooling tube or radiator element, the tube or radiator element chosen being as near as practicable to the middle of a side of the tank. In the case of a separate cooler, the temperature-drop shall be taken as the difference in readings of thermometers in thermometer pockets adjacent to the main tank in the inlet and outlet pipes to and from the cooler. c) For transformers having rated powers up to 2 500 kVA with natural oil circulation and plain or corrugated tanks or with tubes or radiators mounted on the tanks, the average oil temperaturerise is taken approximately as 0.8 times top oil temperature-rise.

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IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977

FIG. 2 METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE WINDING RESISTANCE AT THE INSTANT OF SWITCHING-OFF THE SUPPLY, AND THE AVERAGE OIL TEMPERATURE

Allowances shall be made for variation in average oil temperature during tests as explained in detail in 4.8.3. It shall be accepted that the average oil temperature-rise may vary with the losses according to the law given in 4.7.1 for the top oil temperature-rise. 4.8 Loading Methods* — At the choice of the manufacturer, for twowinding transformers any one of the loading methods according to 4.8.1 to 4.8.3 may be applied for oil-immersed type transformers and either of the loading methods according to 4.8.1 and 4.8.2 for dry-type transformers. 4.8.1 Direct Loading Method — One winding of the transformer shall be excited at rated voltage with the other connected to a suitable load such that rated currents flow in both windings. No correction for average oil temperature need be applied to the winding temperaturerise of oil-immersed type transformer.
*It is assured that the transformer has no tappings, or if it has, that the test is made on the principal tapping. If the test is made on another tapping, it is necessary to replace in the text the words ‘rated voltage’ and ‘rated current’ by ‘appropriate tapping voltage’ and ‘appropriate tapping current’.

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IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
4.8.2 Back-to-Back Method — Two transformers, one of which is the transformer under test, shall be connected in parallel and excited at the rated voltage of the transformer under test. By means of different voltage ratios or an injected voltage, rated current shall be made to flow in the transformer under test. No correction for average oil temperature need be applied to the winding temperature-rise of oil-immersed type transformers. 4.8.3 Short-Circuit Method — To determine the temperature-rise of the oil, the sum of the no-load and load losses at the reference temperature shall be supplied to the transformer, one of its windings being excited and another short-circuited at its terminals. The top oil temperaturerise and the average oil temperature-rise shall be recorded. The input shall then be reduced to a value which results in the circulation of rated current at rated frequency in the windings, and this value shall be maintained for 1 hour. The temperature of the windings shall then be determined by the resistance method. The drop in average oil temperature during this hour is taken into account when calculating the temperature-rise of the windings above the average oil temperature. The temperature-rise of the windings above the average oil temperature, determined in the second part of the test, added to the average oil temperature-rise, determined in the first part of the test, shall give the temperature-rise of the windings above the cooling medium temperature for total losses at rated current, rated frequency and rated voltage. Alternatively, the temperature-rise of the windings above the cooling medium temperature for total losses at rated current and rated voltage may be derived from the temperature-rise of the windings at the end of the run with total losses, mentioned in the first sentence of 4.8.3, by correcting the difference between the temperature of the windings and the average oil temperature to the conditions corresponding to rated current and rated frequency. 4.8.4 Loading of Multi-Winding Transformers — In the case of multiwinding transformers where more than two windings can be loaded simultaneously in service the temperature-rise tests shall normally be performed by separate two-winding tests. In certain cases the rated powers of the individual windings may preclude the testing of the transformer at the full total losses. For such cases the correction of the top oil temperature-rise of oil-immersed type transformers shall be made as described in 4.7.1. Calculated corrections according to 4.7.2 shall be made, where necessary, to determine the individual winding temperature-rises at the specified loading combination which is the most severe for the particular winding. In these calculations the manufacturer may take account of the stray and eddy current losses at this loading combination.

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IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
4.9 Temperature Correction for Cooling of Transformers After Switching-Off the Supply 4.9.1 General — Winding temperature measurement may be made while the transformer is in operation by the superposition method mentioned in 4.3 or by taking resistance readings after the supply to transformer is switched-off. In the latter case, to provide for the interval between the instant of switching-off the supply and the measurement of the temperature, a correction shall be applied so as to obtain as nearly as practicable the temperature at the instant of switching-off the supply. Readings shall be taken as soon as possible after switching-off the supply, but allowing sufficient time for the inductive effect to disappear, as indicated from the cold resistance measurements [ see 16.2.1 of IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977* ]. When the supply to transformer is switched-off, the fans and water pumps shall be stopped but the oil pumps shall remain running. Correction of the temperature-rise as determined by the resistance method to the instant of switching-off the supply shall be made by extrapolation back to the instant of switching-off the supply from time/temperature curves or time/resistance curves. 4.9.2 Method of Extrapolation Using Linear Scales — The correction shall be determined approximately by making a series of resistance measurements and from this plotting a time/resistance curve, which is extrapolated back to the instant of switching-off the supply. The highest winding temperature shall then be calculated from the resistance at the instant of switching-off the supply. This extrapolation shall be done according to Fig. 2, where the resistances R are determined at equal intervals of time ∆t. In taking actual resistance measurements by some bridge methods it is more accurate to determine times for fixed changes in resistance ∆R, that is, time as noted at the moment the indicator of the pre-set bridge passes through zero. The decreases in resistance, ∆Rn corresponding to equal time interval are put down horizontally at the appropriate points of the ordinate and give the straight line L. R2 is the resistance of the winding at the instant of switching-off the supply. 4.9.3 Method of Extrapolation Using Log-Linear Scales — The difference ∆R′ between the measured resistance and the resistance R′, corresponding to the temperature to which the winding is cooling after switching-off the supply shall be drawn on log-linear graph paper with time as linear and ∆R′ as the logarithmic axis. The resistance R′ shall be chosen in such a way that the test points plotted appear almost on a straight line. The resistance at the instant of switching-off the supply
*Specification for power transformers: Part I General.

16

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
shall then be equal to R′ + ∆R′o, where ∆R′o is found by drawing a straight line through the point on the graph and extrapolating it back to zero time. 4.9.4 Temperature of Hot-Spot in Winding — For the purpose of calibrating winding-temperature indicators, the temperature of the hot-spot in a winding shall be taken as the sum of the temperature at the top oil ( θ r + cooling air temperature ) and 1.1 times the temperature-rise of the winding above average oil temperature.

APPENDIX A
( Clause 4.3 ) TEMPERATURE-RISE OF WINDINGS BY RESISTANCE MEASURED BY THE SUPERPOSITION METHOD A-1. PRINCIPLE OF THE METHOD A-1.1 A small auxiliary dc current, supplied preferably from a storage battery is superposed on the ac load current in the transformer winding under consideration. Measurements are made of the magnitude of the superposed current circulating in the winding and also the voltage drop at the terminals of the winding due to this direct current. These measurements are made at least at the beginning and end of the temperature-rise test and are used to determine the mean temperature of the windings by the variation of resistance, the accuracy being in the order of 1°C. The method is equally applicable to temperature-rise tests carried out by means of the direct loading, back-to-back or short-circuit methods. The test arrangements vary according to the winding connections; the two most frequent connections are described in A-2 and A-3. A-2. STAR WINDINGS WITH NEUTRAL BROUGHT OUT A-2.1 The injection of dc through the winding neutral does not present any difficulty. Nevertheless it is necessary to arrange for a return neutral point which will generally be that of the supply transformer or a neutral point of the external circuit, or, in the case of a short-circuited winding, the short-circuit connection at the phase terminals. One point of the injection circuit should preferably be earthed. Fig. 3 shows the circuit for a star/star transformer with the neutrals brought out from both windings, the temperature test being carried out by the short-circuit method. For each of the two windings, the sum I of the dc currents injected into the three phases is measured by means of a millivoltmeter connected across a shunt placed in the injection circuit. For the energized winding, a microammeter is connected between the neutral point of the winding and the neutral point of three reactors connected in star to the phase terminals. These reactors are for the

17

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
purpose of limiting the circulation of alternating current, and to this effect, voltage transformers may be used. Provided that the resistance of the voltage transformer winding in each phase is equal, then the microammeter measures a current i proportional to the sum of the dc voltages at the terminals of the three phases of the transformer. If R is the mean resistance of the three-phase windings of the transformer under test, r1 the resistance per phase of the reactors or voltage transformer and r the circuit resistance, then
i R = - ( 3 r + r1 ) I

In the case of the windings on short-circuit, r again being the resistance of the voltage measuring circuit the relation becomes simply :
i R = - × 3r I

A-3. DELTA WINDING OR STAR WINDING WITHOUT ACCESSIBLE NEUTRAL A-3.1 Such winding connections do not lend themselves to the injection of dc when they are short-circuited. The phase terminals shall necessarily be connected to an external circuit such as a supply transformer or a loading circuit. The dc injection may be made through one of the phase terminals but the three phases of the winding do not play symmetrical roles and intervene in the measurement with different weights. Return of the dc may often be effected by an accessible neutral point of the external circuit, which is then earthed. The injection circuit must include in series a reactor capable of withstanding the ac phase voltage. In the absence of such an available neutral point in the internal circuit, return of the dc may be effected in another way, for example, by a second phase terminal. One point in the injection circuit is then fixed at earth potential and reactors interposed between this point and the two-phase terminals used. Fig. 4 shows the circuit for a delta-connected winding and where the neutral point is available on the supply transformer. The dc is injected via terminal U1, and the measuring shunt shall be placed between the terminal and the point of injection. The shunt is thus at phase voltage and the millivoltmeter shall be read at a distance. The direct current I which flows via terminal U1 divides equally between the two-phase windings each of resistance R connected to this terminal and flows out via terminals V1 and W1. To measure the dc voltage between terminal U1 and the combination of terminals V1 and W1, three reactors are arranged as shown in the figure. 18

19 IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977 FIG. 3 STAR/STAR TRANSFORMER WITH NEUTRALS BROUGHT OUT

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977

20 FIG. 4 DELTA WINDING WITH NEUTRAL POINT AVAILABLE AT SUPPLY

IS : 2026 (Part II) – 1977
These may consist of voltage transformers supplemented, if necessary, by additional resistors, the primary purpose of which is to ensure that overall resistances r2 and r3 are equal. Adequate capacitances are connected between the ends of the reactances and earth to suppress residual alternating voltages. If i is the current in the microammeter, the mean resistance of the two phases included in the measurement is :
i ( 2r + r ) R = 1 2 I

A-4. MEASURING EQUIPMENT A-4.1 Shunts — The shunts placed in the neutral connection do not present any difficulty. For the shunt inserted in a phase conductor, in the case of a delta-connected winding, it is necessary to consider possible thermocouple effects due to the alternating current which is of the order of 100 times the dc measuring current. It shall therefore be constructed with particular care to completely eliminate these thermocouple effects. A-4.2 Microammeter and Millivoltmeter — These instruments shall be accurate and linear. The accuracy class shall be 0.5. Both instruments shall be filtered so that the presence of alternating current does not affect the instrument.

21

Bureau of Indian Standards BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 to promote harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and attending to connected matters in the country. Copyright BIS has the copyright of all its publications. No part of these publications may be reproduced in any form without the prior permission in writing of BIS. This does not preclude the free use, in the course of implementing the standard, of necessary details, such as symbols and sizes, type or grade designations. Enquiries relating to copyright be addressed to the Director (Publications), BIS. Review of Indian Standards Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments. Standards are also reviewed periodically; a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that no changes are needed; if the review indicates that changes are needed, it is taken up for revision. Users of Indian Standards should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition by referring to the latest issue of ‘BIS Catalogue’ and ‘Standards : Monthly Additions’. This Indian Standard has been developed by Technical Committee : ETDC 16 Amendments Issued Since Publication Amend No. Amd. No. 1 Amd. No. 2 Date of Issue Incorporated earlier October 1984

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