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In this paper comparative study of proposed hybrid multilevel inverter (HMI) operating in modified pulse width modulation (PWM)
mode with cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CHMI) is done. Two types of HMIs are proposed with same configuration. To
control the two HMIs, modified PWM techniques are derived from sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to reduce the switching
losses in the inverter. Matlab/Simulink models are used to study the output of HMI and CHMI.

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__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 08 | Aug-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 405

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HYBRID AND CASCADED H-BRIDGE

MULTILEVEL INVERTERS

M. Dileep Krishna

1

, Shelly Vadhera

2

1

M.Tech. Student,

2

Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, NIT Kurukshetra, Kurukshetra

dileepkrishnaeee@gmail.com

Abstract

In this paper comparative study of proposed hybrid multilevel inverter (HMI) operating in modified pulse width modulation (PWM)

mode with cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CHMI) is done. Two types of HMIs are proposed with same configuration. To

control the two HMIs, modified PWM techniques are derived from sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to reduce the switching

losses in the inverter. Matlab/Simulink models are used to study the output of HMI and CHMI.

Index Terms:- Cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter, Hybrid multilevel inverter, Pulse width modulation, Total

harmonic distortion (THD)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------***----------------------------------------------------------------------

1. INTRODUCTION

Multilevel inverters (MLI) are becoming popular than two

level inverter in high power applications. Multilevel output is

synthesized by small dc voltage levels. In multilevel inverters

all the switches are connected in series which allows operation

at higher voltage level [1]. The main advantages of MLI are

high voltage capability, low switching losses, low dv/dt , less

THD, less electromagnetic compatibility [1-2].

The main three MLI configurations are neutral point

converter, flying capacitor and cascaded H-bridge multilevel

inverter [3]. CHMI has more advantages than other two

mentioned. CHMI does not have flying capacitors and

clamping diodes. Main drawback of CHMI is that the number

of devices used increases with the number of levels [4] and

this increases the gate drive circuits at control stage itself

causing high cost and switching losses [5]. To overcome

above disadvantages the choice is hybrid multilevel inverter

which is derived from cascaded H-bridge inverter. In order to

control the MLI output voltage there are several control

techniques in the literature. The most efficient methods are

based on sinusoidal PWM techniques because it leads to easy

control of inverters fundamental voltage and as well as

eliminates the harmonics. Among various PWM techniques,

phase disposition sinusoidal pulse width modulation

(PDSPWM) technique is most popular because of its

simplicity to apply in CHMI and HMI control with increase in

number of levels [6].

2. HYBRID MULTILEVEL INVERTER

Proposed HMI is derived from conventional CHMI as shown

in Fig.1. It consists of one main inverter and auxiliary

inverters. These are cascaded to get the multilevel output.

Main inverter consists of two switching devices cascaded to

conventional H-bridge inverter which consists of four

switching devices. For five level HMI total six devices are

required in each phase of a three phase connection which

reduces number of devices by six as compared to three phase

five level CHMI [7-8].

Fig.1 Proposed hybrid multilevel inverter configuration.

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 08 | Aug-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 406

For n level CHMI (n-1)/2 number of independent sources are

required. In general independent sources may be renewable

energy sources like same rated solar panels or fuel cells or

wind energy sources [9].

Seven level HMI is configured as shown in Fig.2. It consists

of three inverters namely main inverter, auxiliary inverter-I

and auxiliary inverter-II in cascaded mode.

Fig.2 Seven level hybrid multilevel inverter configuration.

3. PROPOSED TYPES OF HMI

Since carrier PWM techniques are used in the control of HMI,

high frequency switches are required in each stage. As the

number of high frequency switching devices increases, the

reliability of the inverter reduces. Moreover the high

frequency switches are expensive [10] and henceforth the

number of high frequency switching devices used in the

current path of the inverter should be reduced to avoid rapid

switching which leads to reduction of the losses in the

inverter. The inverters if operated in square wave mode at

fundamental frequency allow the use of low frequency

switches and thus cause reduction in the cost of the switches.

Keeping these in view two types of HMI are explained. In

these two types of inverters the circuit configuration of HMI is

kept same and only the number of high frequency and low

frequency switches in the inverter is varied.

3.1 Type I:-Operating One Inverter in PWM Mode

and Remaining Inverters in Square Wave Mode.

In this type of operation auxiliary inverter-I is operating in

PWM mode and remaining auxiliary inverters and main

inverter are operating in square wave mode. An advantage of

operating in square wave mode is that the low frequency

switches which operate at fundamental frequency can be used.

Whereas only one inverter i.e auxiliary inverter-I is operating

in PWM mode. This type requires four high frequency

switches in any level of single phase inverter and thus finally

the total cost of switching devices is reduced. The control

scheme for this type is explained as following:

To control the hybrid inverter satisfactorily the modified

PWM technique is derived from conventional SPWM

technique, which decreases the losses in the inverter [11].

Control signals of PWM and square wave inverters are

fabricated by using equations from (1 4) and are shown in

Fig.3.

f(t) = m

a

Sin(t) (1)

T

T

c

=

`

1

1

f(t)

; sin[

2(n-2)

|f(t)| 1

_1

I(t)

sIn[

2(n-2)

_ ; u |f(t)| sin[

2(n-2)

(2)

A

1

= _

1; f(t) u

u; f(t) < u

(3)

A

2

= _

1; |f(t)| sin[

2(n-2)

2(n-2)

(4)

Where,

f(t) reference signal,

N number of levels,

ma modulation index (0-1.0),

A1 multiplexing signal1,

A2 multiplexing signal2,

T

p

T

c

pulse width of PWM (0-1).

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 08 | Aug-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 407

Fig3 Waveforms of PWM and multiplex signals

a)

b)

Fig4 a)Logic diagram. b) Gate signals of Auxiliary inverter-II.

Auxiliary inverter-II is operated in square wave mode. Its gate

signals and the logic diagram of auxiliary inverter-I are shown

in Fig.4. The seven level output of inverter is obtained by

three stage inverters as shown in Fig.5.

Fig5: Output of seven level inverter

For n level inverter m stages are required. Where n=2m+1,

m2 and m number of dc sources are required. Main inverter

is connected to Vdc = 310V voltage where as auxiliary

inverters are operated with Vdc/2= 155 V voltage. Conduction

periods of auxiliary inverters in n level HMI are given in the

Fig. 6.

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 08 | Aug-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 408

(2n-5)

2(n-2)

(2n-7)

2(n-2)

n

2(n-2)

2(n-2)

5

2(n-2)

(n-4)

2(n-2)

STAGE-1

STAGE-2

STAGE-3

STAGE-4

STAGE-m

Main inv

Aux inv-I

Aux inv-2

Aux inv-3

Aux inv-(m-1)

3

2(n-2)

(2n-3)

2(n-2)

V

2V

3V

(m-1)V

mV

Fig.6 Output of n level inverter.

Matlab/Simulink model is used to study the output of inverter.

Simulation results are given in the Fig.7.

a)

b)

Fig.7 a) Simulation result of seven level inverter b) Output of

twenty one level inverter

From the simulation results it is observed that in this type of

inverter operation as the number of levels increases the output

wave gets distorted from the required sinusoidal shape which

results in higher THD. Second type of inverter is preferable in

higher level HMI.

3.2 Type II:-Operating One Inverter in Square Wave

Mode and Remaining Inverters in PWM Mode.

In this type the main inverter is operating in square wave

mode and auxiliary inverters are operating in PWM mode.

Even when the main inverter is operating with low frequency

switches the final output voltage profile obtained is better than

the type-I. Control signals for auxiliary inverters are given by

modified PDSPWM (MPDSPWM) technique which is derived

from conventional PDSPWM. The main difference between

these two techniques lies in reference signal and magnitude of

carriers.

For n level HMI, control signals of all auxiliary inverters from

auxiliary inverter-II onwards are derived by using (m-1)

carrier signals above the reference with level shifted, same

frequency and one reference signal as given in equation (5) to

generate PWM signals in the positive half of inverter output.

Another (m-1) level shifted carrier signals are below the zero

reference and then the same reference signal is required in

negative half of the control signal as shown in Fig.8.

i(t) = _

I(t)

sIn[

2(n-2)

-1_

; sin[

2(n-2)

f(t)

-sin[

2(n-2)

(5)

Where,

f(t) reference signal given in equation (1),

n number of levels,

i(t) Reference signal in MPDSPWM.

Control signals for auxiliary inverter-I and main inverter are

derived by using same logic circuit as explained in type-I with

the reference signal in equation (2) modified to equation (6).

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 08 | Aug-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 409

T

T

c

=

`

1

1

1

1

_

I(t)

sIn[

2(n-2)

-1_

; sin[

2(n-2)

|f(t)| 1

_1 -

I(t)

sIn[

2(n-2)

_ ; u |f(t)| sin[

2(n-2)

(6)

Where,

f(t) reference signal given in equation (1),

n number of levels,

T

p

T

c

pulse width of PWM (0-1).

Twenty one level HMI simulation results are given in Fig.9.

Reference r(t)

Carrier-2

Pi/(2n-4)

((1/sin(pi/10))-1)

((1/sin(pi/14))-1)

1

((1/sin(pi/(2n-4))-1)

Carrier-(m-1)

-((1/sin(pi/10))-1)

-((1/sin(pi/14))-1)

-((1/sin(pi/(2n-4))-1)

N-no of levels

M-no of stages

-1

Carrier-1

Fig.8 Control signals with modified PDSPWM.

Fig.9 Output of twenty one level HMI.

4. COMPARISON OF HMI WITH CHMI

Matlab/simulink models are used to study the HMI and

CHMI. The output THD and RMS (root mean square) voltage

variation with change in level are given in the Fig.10 &

Fig.11. HMI-I and HMI-II indicates type-I and type-II

respectively. From the results it is observed that with HMI as

the number of level increases more than seven then HMI-II is

preferred. From THD curves shown in Fig.10 it is observed

that HMI-II with MPDSPWM gives the less THD as

compared to CHMI with PDSPWM of the same level. From

the RMS output voltage versus level chart as shown in Fig.11

it is evident that up to thirteen levels HMI-II gives high RMS

voltage as compared to CHMI. Number of high frequency

switches used in HMI depends on type of operation. For single

phase in type-I only four switches are operated in PWM mode

and remaining switches are low frequency switches which are

operated at fundamental frequency for any level of output.

Fig.10 THD variation with increase in level in HMI and

CHMI

Fig.11 RMS output voltage variation in HMI and CHMI with

multi level

28.16

21.12

17.63

14.83

13.54

12.82

12.58

28.16

17.17

13.65

9.47

7.22

5.94

5.39

33.2

17.84

10.95

7.64

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

0 5 10 15 20 25

t

h

d

%

Level

THD vs Level

HMI-I

HMI-II

CHMI

0

200

400

600

800

1000

5 7 13 17

HMI-I

HMI-II

CHMI

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 02 Issue: 08 | Aug-2013, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 410

To get seven level output HMI-I is preferred since it uses four

high frequency switches and six low frequency switches per

phase where as HMI-II uses eight high frequency and two low

frequency switches and CHMI uses twelve high frequency

switches per phase. In seven level inverter operation even

though THD of HMI-I is high as compared to HMI-II and

CHMI, cost can be reduced because of using high number of

low frequency switches and reliability can be increased since

only two high frequency switches are operated in current path

of inverter. Up to thirteen levels HMI-II gives high RMS

output voltage and less THD as compared to CHMI. Above

this level even though THD is less in HMI-II but CHMI gives

high RMS output voltage and almost same value of THD.

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper comparative study of proposed HMI with CHMI

is done. Matlab/simulink models are used for analysis

purpose. Mainly two types of HMI are explained with

modified PWM techniques. HMI-II with modified phase

disposition sinusoidal pulse width modulation gives low THD

as compared to CHMI of same level output. HMII uses only

two high frequency switches in current path of inverter and

four high frequency switches for any level output so it is more

reliable and cost efficient model but for higher levels its THD

and output RMS voltage is poor. So type-I i.e HMI-I is

preferable up to seven levels above seven level HMI-II is

preferred. This paper highlights the advantages of HMI in

lower levels in contrast to CHMI and thereby establishes the

application of HMI to be interfaced easily with renewable

energy sources like wind and solar hybrid generating systems.

REFERENCES

[1] N. Mohan, T. M Undeland, Power electronics-

converters, applications and design, 3

rd

Edition, John

Wiley & Sons, New York, 2003.

[2] K. Jang-Hwan, A carrier based PWM method with

optimal switching sequence for a multi level four-leg

voltage source inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applications,

vol. 44, pp.1239-1248, 2008.

[3] Muhammad H. Rashid, Power electronics, circuits,

devices and applications, 3

rd

Edition, Pearson-Prentice

Hall, 2004.

[4] T. Porselvi, M. Ranganath, Comparison of cascaded

H-Bridge, neutral point clamped and flying capacitor

multilevel inverters using multicarrier PWM, IEEE

India Conference (INDICON), pp. 1-4, 16-18 Dec.

2011.J. Rodriguez, J. S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng,

Multilevel inverters: A survey of topologies, controls

and applications, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 49,

no. 4, pp. 724738, Aug. 2002.

[5] D. Sreenivasarao, Pramod Agrawal and B. Das, A

carrier-transposed modulation technique for multilevel

inverters, Power Electronics, Drives and Energy

Systems (PEDES), pp. 1-7, 20-23 Dec. 2010.

[6] Khomfoi and A. Chatrchai, A 5-level cascaded hybrid

multilevel inverter for interfacing with renewable

energy resources, International Conference on

Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer,

Telecommunications, and Information Technology,

(ECTI-CON 2009), Pattaya, Thailand, vol. 1, pp. 284-

287, 6-9 May 2009.

[7] Surin Khomfoi and Nattapat Praisuwanna, A hybrid

cascaded multilevel inverter for interfacing with

renewable energy resources, International Power

Electronics Conference (IPEC), pp. 2912 2917, 2010.

[8] M. Dileep Krishna and Shelly Vadhera, Application of

hybrid multilevel inverter in wind and photo voltaic

generating systems, National conference on Recent

Trends In Energy, Systems And Control (RTESC-13),

pp. 5-9, 15-16 March 2013.

[9] M. D. Manjrekar, P. Steimer and T. A. Lipo, Hybrid

multilevel power conversion system: a competitive

solution for high power applications, IEEE Trans. on

Industry Applications, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 834-841,

May/June 2000.

[10] Khomfoi and L. M. Tolbert, Multilevel power

converters, Power Electronics Handbook, 2nd Edition

Elsevier, 2007.

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