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Reading Comprehension - Pollution and its Negative Effects

Develop your reading skills. Read the following text on pollution and its effect on the environment. hen answer the comprehension !uestions

Pollution is the degradation of natural environment by external substances introduced directly or indirectly. Human health, ecosystem quality and aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity may be affected and altered permanently by pollution. Pollution occurs when ecosystems can not get rid of substances introduced into the environment. The critical threshold of its ability to naturally eliminate substances is compromised and the balance of the ecosystem is broken. The sources of pollution are numerous. The identification of these different pollutants and their effects on ecosystems is complex. They can come from natural disasters or the result of human activity, such as oil spills, chemical spills, nuclear accidents ... These can have terrible consequences on people and the planet where they live: destruction of the biodiversity, increased mortality of the human and animal species, destruction of natural habitat, damage caused to the quality of soil, water and air ... Preventing pollution and protecting the environment necessitate the application of the principles of sustainable development. we have to consider to satisfy the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This means that we should remedy existing pollution, but also anticipate and prevent future pollution sources in order to protect the environment and public health. ny environmental damage must be punishable by law, and polluters should pay compensation for the damage caused to the environment. Comprehension !. The damage caused by pollution might be irreversible: a. True

b. "alse #. The ecosystem a. can always cope with pollutants

b. may not always be able to cope with pollution. $. Pollution a. b. is always caused by humans. may sometimes be caused by natural disasters.

%. n ideal solution to prevent pollution would be to a. b. refrain the development of some countries. continue developmental pro&ects.

c. take into consideration the future generations need to live in a healthy environment. Reading Comprehension - "enefits of #asting

Develop your reading skills. Read the following text on the $enefits of fasting and do the comprehension !uestions

Climate change and glo$al warming Climate change 'ikipedia defines climate as follows: (limate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elements in a given region over a long period of time. (limate can be contrasted to weather, which is the present condition of these same elements and their variations over shorter time periods. (limate may be inherently variable as evidenced by the irregularity of the seasons from one year to another. This variability is normal and may remain partially understood. )t is related to changes in ocean currents, volcanic eruptions, solar radiation and other components of the climate system. )n addition, our climate also has its extremes *such as floods, droughts, hail, tornadoes and hurricanes+, which can be devastating. However, in recent decades, a number of indicators and studies show more and more evidence of climate warming across the globe. disturbing phenomenon that challenges human habits and activities which are responsible for greenhouse gas emissions. he green house effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet,s lower atmosphere and surface. )t was proposed by -oseph "ourier in !.#% and was first investigated quantitatively by /vante rrhenius in !.01. 2aturally occurring greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about $$ 3( *40 3"+. 5ut Human activity since the )ndustrial 6evolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative

forcing from (7#, methane, tropospheric o8one, ("(s *chlorofluorocarbon+ and nitrous oxide. The concentrations of (7# and methane have increased by $19 and !%.9 respectively since !:4;. These levels are much higher than at any time during the last 14;,;;; years, the period for which reliable data has been extracted from ice cores. 7ver the last three decades of the #;th century, <=P *<ross =omestic Product+ per capita and population growth were the main drivers of increases in greenhouse gas emissions. (7# emissions are continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels and land>use change. Conse!uences of glo$al warming There are two ma&or effects of global warming: the increase of temperature on the earth by about $3 to 43 ( *4.%3 to 03 "ahrenheit+ by the year #!;; and 6ise of sea levels by at least #4 meters *.# feet+ by the year #!;;. 7ther consequences are listed below: /ea levels are rising due to thermal expansion of the ocean, in addition to melting of land ice. mounts and patterns of precipitation are changing. The total annual power of hurricanes has already increased markedly since !0:4 because their average intensity and average duration have increased. (hanges in temperature and precipitation patterns increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of other extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, heat waves, and tornadoes. Higher or lower agricultural yields, further glacial retreat, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions. =iseases like malaria are returning into areas where they have been extinguished earlier. /ources: 'ikipedia ? Time for change Comprehension% !. (limate is by definition variable. a. True

b. "alse #. (limate change observed in the last decades is natural. a. True

b. "alse $. <lobal warming is caused by industriali8ation. a. b. True "alse

%. <reenhouse effects have no impacts on our health. a. b. True "alse

Reading Comprehension - & ways to protect the environment

Develop your reading skills. Read the following text a$out how to protect the environment and do the comprehension !uestions

'even ways to protect the environment 'e all want to protect our planet, but we,re mostly too busy or too la8y to put up big change that would improve our lifestyle and save the environment. These are : simple habits to implement in your everyday life which will make a difference. There is nothing new here but if you follow at least some of these tips, you can be proud of yourself participating in the protection of the environment.

1. (se compact fluorescent light $ul$s%

)t is true that these bulbs are more expensive, but they last much longer and they can save energy and in the long term your electricity bill would be reduced. Donate% @ou have tons of clothes or things you want to get rid of. )f they are still usable, give them to someone who needs them. @ou may also choose to give them to associations. These associations may sell them and collect a little money. 2ot only will you protect the environment, but you will also contribute to a good cause. urn off your devices% 'hen you do not use a house device, turn it off. "or example, if you don,t watch TA, turn it off. Turn off the light when you leave a room *even if you intend to return.+ )t,s an easy habit to take up which will help you save a lot of money. )alk or cycle% =riving is one of the biggest causes of pollution. )f you want to use your car, ask yourself the following question: do ) really need my carB 'alk or use your bike if the &ourney is a short one. Detergent% "ollow the recommended dose of detergent to wash your clothes or dishes. leaky faucets% 'atch leaky faucets, which can cause a significant increase in the the water bill. n average of !#; liters of water can be wasted due to a dripping faucet. Rainwater: Think of recovering rainwater. This water can be used for different purposes.




5. 6. 7.

This list is far from being exhaustive but in addition to saving the environment, all these tips will help you save money. Comprehension%

!. "luorescent light bulbs waste more energy a. True

b. "alse #. =onate means: a. give.

b. take. $. The : tips suggested a. b. c. to save money. protect the environment. to save money and protect the environment.