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Executive Summary Product Description Creamy avocado, bright and flavorful vegetables, and bold spices all come

together in Bistro Gardens Savory Yogurt. A unique, convenient, and spoonable yogurt snack, this after-breakfast yogurt is sure to satisfy your savory tooth unlike any typical sweet or fruity yogurt. Why snack on sodium-overdosed chips and deep-fried products at a high caloric cost when you can enjoy this light and delicious medley of avocado, tomato, corn, cilantro, and lime? This portable, on-the-go item is perfect work workplace snacking and is ideal for women, ages 18-49, especially those interested in better for you (BFY) products. A savory yogurt snack is a unique twist that will catch the eye of consumers that have become fatigued by fruit. Bistro Gardens Savory Yogurt with avocado, tomato, and corn will intrigue adventurous consumers seeking a change in their normal yogurt routine. Nutritional Profile Bistro Gardens Savory Yogurt isnt just a snack; its a satisfying and delicious way to achieve health and wellness goals. This yogurt is an excellent source of calcium and fiber and a good source of vitamin A and C. Its low in cholesterol and contains a half serving of vegetables. This product also contains three live and active cultures: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Probiotic cultures such as these may promote good digestive health. With only 190 calories per serving, Bistro Gardens Savory Yogurt has a total energy density of 0.826 kcal/g.

Executive Summary Shelf Life and Storage The potential shelf life for Bistro Gardens savory yogurt is two to three months under refrigeration (36-38o F). This minimally processed product employs hurdle technology (low pH, refrigeration, and vacuum packaging) to extend the shelf life and prevent contamination by bacteria, yeast, and mold while maintaining a clean label. Packaging In order to extend the shelf life of the product, preserve the texture of the vegetables, and give this product a unique visual appeal, Bistro Gardens Savory Yogurt has a two-part primary packaging system. The bottom half contains the avocado yogurt portion and the top half contains the vegetable portion. The two halves are attached via a double-sided lid. Cutouts on the label over both containers allow the customer to see the product within. The entire container is wrapped in a single label with a perforated strip over the lid. The label depicts vines wrapped around a decorative fence, which surrounds the garden where the tomato, corn, and cilantro were grown. Cost and Sales Bistro Gardens Savory Yogurt will be sold in the refrigerated section of retail supermarkets at a price of $1.99 for a single container and $9.99 for a case of six containers. According to market insight, the steady gains observed between 2007 and 2012 indicate that, while consumers in most segments continue to embrace recessionera frugality, many are willing to pay modest premiums for better-for-you (BFY) snack and breakfast foods.1

Executive Summary

Multifunctional Applications Although the market research and sensory analysis are based around the concept of a spoonable yogurt, the application possibilities are truly endless with this multifunctional yogurt-based product. It can be used as a dip for wings, carrots, broccoli, or tortilla chips. It can be incorporated into a layered dip, replacing both guacamole and sour cream. It can be used as a base for smoothies and soups. It can also be used as a topping for burgers or a sauce for Southwestern grilled chicken. With fewer calories per serving than the average sour cream or ranch dressing, its a healthy alternative ingredient that will taste great in a wide variety of recipes.

Market Demand Health and wellness aspirations of Americans and the desire for more better for you (BFY) products are the major market factors that are driving the demand for yogurt. Bistro Gardens Savory Yogurt was designed as an excellent source of calcium and a good source of vitamin A and C without sacrificing flavor or convenience. Because of the fresh avocado and Daniscos HOWARU Dophilus probiotics, this yogurt is also an excellent source of fiber and contains live and active cultures, which appeals to the 24% of yogurt consumers that purchase yogurt for digestive health reasons. 1 This product is marketed primarily towards women, ages 18-49, especially those interested in BFY products. The target consumer is health conscious and interested in high-quality products containing ingredients perceived as natural (much like the tomatoes, corn, and creamy avocado base of this savory yogurt). In order to achieve a greater opportunity for differentiation, the product is also marketed as a convenient, after-breakfast snack that caters to a fast-paced lifestyle. The avocado yogurt is packaged separately from the tomato, corn, and cilantro mixture. This adds an element of interactivity for the consumer, extends the shelf life of the product, preserves the texture of the vegetables, and gives the item a strong visual appeal. Studies have shown that consumers feel more confident purchasing items that allow them to see the actual product.2 The cutouts on the top and bottom portions of the primary packaging allow the consumer to see the eye-catching bright red and yellow of the tomato and corn as well as the soft green tint of the avocado. According to the Whats Hot 2012 Chef Survey published by the National Restaurant Association, hyper-local sourcing (e.g. restaurant gardens) was listed as one of the Top 10 Trends food among American the consumers.3 While this concept is not feasible for a national manufacturer, name Bistro Garden was chosen specifically to reflect this idea.

Market Environment In the refrigerated aisles of a retail supermarket, many different flavor profiles of packaged 6- to 8-ounce spoonable yogurt snacks exist, from plain to strawberry-banana flavored to yogurt with added pieces of peach and granola clusters. However, this monotony has created an opportunity. In an area of the retail market that is inundated with variety, a game-changing idea is needed to create a standout yogurt product. Once consumer acceptance of a spoonable, savory yogurt has been gained, there will be an opportunity for line extensions and other flavor profiles like tzatziki, crme frache, and kidfriendly flavors. According to Mintel Reports, refrigerated spoonable yogurt sales exceeded $6.2 billion in 2012, accounting for 89.3% of total yogurt and yogurt drink sales in that year. Despite weak economic conditions, sales of yogurt (including drinks and frozen items) in the United States are forecasted to steadily increase and reach between $8.8 and $10 billion by 2017.1 This product will be available nationally in the refrigerated section of retail supermarkets (74% of consumers that purchase yogurt buy it from supermarkets).1 Other major yogurt manufacturing companies/products include Groupe Danone Inc./Dannon, Oikos, Stonyfield Farm (29.9% market share), General Mills Inc./Yoplait (29.2% market share), and Agro Farms Inc./Chiobani (16.7% market share).1 With the increasing globalization of the food industry, its important to look beyond the local scope. Not only can this product succeed in the United States, it has the potential to succeed in growing yogurt markets around the world. The yogurt market in the UK is forecasted to grow from 3.3 billion to 3.6 billion between 2012 and 2017.1 According to a 2008 Mintel Report on Healthy Eating and Drinking in France, Functional dairy foods are now a !1 billion market, of which yogurt and yogurt drinks account for more than three-quarters.1 In Spain, Groupe Danone has been successful in the development and sale of probiotic yogurt drinks, an application for which this product can easily be adapted.1

Formulation and Development When it was decided a yogurt-based product would be developed, the Bistro Garden team wanted to find a way to reinvent a common product. Creating a new sweet or fruit-flavored yogurt would create many challenges in terms of differentiation and securing market share. Therefore, it was decided that a spoonable, savory yogurt snack would have the greatest potential for success in terms of differentiation. To gain just 1% market share of all yogurt and yogurt drinks would equate to $62 million in sales, certainly a profitable venture. Once the gold standard recipe was finalized, commercial ingredient samples were requested and evaluated. The texture of individually quick frozen (IQF) tomato, corn, and cilantro was found undesirable. The addition of lime juice in order to reduce the pH of the mixture made it possible to safely use fresh tomato, corn, and chopped cilantro, while retaining the desired firm texture of the vegetables. Freeze dried avocado was initially used in the formulation but was found to contribute many off flavors. The color, texture, and flavor of Calavos Ultra-High Pressure (UHP) processed avocado pulp matched closest to fresh avocado pulp. A seasoning blend of Southwestern flavors, similar to a salsa mix, was formulated. Life Spice Ingredients used the formula to estimate the cost of the seasoning mix. Because DuPont Danisco offers such a wide variety of yogurt cultures, it was decided that a YoMix culture would be used for the commercial product as well as HOWARU Dophilus for its probiotic qualities. Because of the increasing saturation of the Greek yogurt market, a plain yogurt was chosen as the base for this product. Yogurt made from whole, partially-skim, and fat-free milk were prepared and compared. The fat-free yogurt had a light texture and flavor that worked best in the product. Xanthan gum was added to slightly thicken the yogurt and a BEST MIX product was added as a stabilizer to prevent separation. Wanting to be as nutritious as possible, the product initially contained a full serving of vegetables. However, the focus group feedback indicated that the portion was too large for a snack. Therefore, the vegetable portion was reduced to a half serving.

Product Formula and Ingredient Listing Formulation for One Portion of the Yogurt Mixture Ingredient Supplier Amount (g) Portion of Total Product (%) Non-fat milk Hickory Hill 114.00 67.01 Avocado Pulp Calavo 50.01 29.40 Seasoning Mix Life Spice and 4.69 2.76 Ingredients GRINDSTED Xanthan 80 DuPont Danisco 0.85 0.50 GERMANTOWN Best Mix DuPont Danisco 0.51 0.30 HOWARU Dophilus DuPont Danisco 0.037 0.02 LYO 10 DC-S YO-MIX 495 DuPont Danisco 0.003 0.01 LYP 250 DCU Total 170.1 100.00 Formulation for One Portion of the Tomato/Corn Mixture Ingredient Supplier Amount (g) Portion of Total Product (%) Tomato FreshPoint 39.57 65.95 Corn FreshPoint 19.78 32.97 Cilantro FreshPoint 0.50 0.83 Lime Juice Sun Orchard 0.15 0.25 Total 60.0 100.00

DuPont Danisco Ingredient Functionality 1. GERMANTOWN Best Mix is a blend of stabilizers in powder form that enhanced texture and mouthfeel of the yogurt while preventing unwanted separation. 2. GRINDSTED Xanthan 80 is a xanthan gum that is used as a thickening agent and stabilizer in this product. 3. HOWARU Dophilus LYO 10 DCU-S is a freeze-dried culture of the bacterial strain, Lactobacillus acidophilus, which provides probiotic function and promotes digestive health. 4. YO-MIX 495 LYO 250 DCU is a blend of the lactic bacteria strains Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, which were added for acidification, pH stabilization, texture, and taste.

Shelf Life The potential shelf life for the avocado yogurt is two to three months under refrigeration (36-38o F). Various shelf life studies on both the avocado yogurt and vegetable mixture were conducted in order to observe the potential shelf life of the product. Because of the high fat content in the avocado, the physical and oxidative stability were of primary concern during the study. The extruded vacuum pouches, composed of 3-millimeter thick, seven-layer mixture of polyethylene and nylon resins, are used to address the browning issue of the avocado. The pouch has barrier properties that prevent the transmission of oxygen and moisture vapor. However, once the package has been opened the avocado can lead browning. For the vegetable mixture, a four-ounce plastic cup is used and sealed with plastic film. Ideally, elements of both the vacuum pouch and plastic cup would be utilized in the primary packaging used for presentation. Water activity and pH of both components were taken into consideration during shelf life testing. The tomato is seeded and the cilantro is blanched in order to remove/inactivate enzymes that could increase the degradation of the product. Lime juice was added to lower the pH of the vegetable mixture to 4.5. The pH of the yogurt mixture is 4.6. The pH levels of both mixtures are considered to be within the safe zone for inhibition of most microorganisms. The pH of the yogurt was kept above 4.2 in order to preserve the live and active cultures. Because of the high water activity of the vegetables (0.984 Aw) and the yogurt (1.00 Aw), the product must be refrigerated. Since Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica can grow at low temperatures and are naturally found in the environment, both are pathogens of concern. Keeping the product refrigerated and the processing plant equipment sanitized will reduce the risk of growth of these microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli may contaminate this product if sanitation requirements are not met or if the product is not stored properly. The addition of a MicroGARD product could inhibit unwanted pathogenic microorganisms. High Pressure Processing could also be used to reduce or eliminate spoilage caused by microorganisms, thereby increasing the shelf life and enhancing the food safety of the product. HPP also helps products that do not include many food additives to retain a fresh taste through processing and storage.

Focus Group and Sensory Evaluation A focus group was conducted to gain insight concerning how consumers felt about a spoonable, savory yogurt. Since this is a relatively new concept, it was important to determine if potential customers would accept and enjoy the product. Overall, the panelists were slightly skeptical but were intrigued and interested in sampling the product. They enjoyed the seasoning blend and the fresh lime scent of the yogurt. The data collected indicated that the amount of vegetables needed to be decreased. Originally, a full serving of vegetables was included in the product but the panelists felt this was too large for a snack portion, so it was reduced to a half serving of vegetables. Also, they felt that the ratio of tomato to corn should be adjusted from a 1:1 ratio to a 1:2 ratio, respectively. A sensory panel was conducted to determine liking of various qualities of the yogurt. The results collected showed positive responses in terms of overall creaminess and amount of vegetables. All panelists indicated that yogurt helps them achieve their health and wellness goals, and over 60% of the panelists showed willingness to buy this product. Panelists were also asked what price they would be willing to pay for the product and what portion size they preferred. According to the results, 60% of panelists chose a 6- to 8-ounce portion and thought the yogurt should cost between $1.39 and $1.99. Therefore, the yogurt will be sold for $1.99 and will be packaged in 8-ounce containers (2 ounces of vegetables, 6 ounces of yogurt). Results Mean Scores of Various Attributes of Bistro Gardens Savory Yogurt Attribute Scores Color1 5.801 1 Overall Appearance 6.17 Crunch1 6.104 Creaminess1 7.126 1 Overall Texture 6.563 Spice1 5.759 1 Amount of Vegetables 6.863 Overall Flavor1 6.326 2 Purchase Intent 61% 2 Nutritional Value 100% 1 Where 0 denotes Dislike Extremely and 10 denotes Like Extremely 2 Where 0 denotes No and 100 denotes Yes


Nutritional Profile The nutritional information for the complete product (avocado yogurt and vegetable mixture) is presented in the figure to the left. This product contains 190 calories per 230 grams and has an energy density of 0.826 kcal/g. The information regarding the nutritional values were calculated using Genesis R&D software and are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
INGREDIENTS: AVOCADO-YOGURT: Pasteurized Skimmed Milk, Live and Active Cultures (S. Thermophilus, L. Bulgaricus, L. Acidophilus), Avocado Pulp, Seasoning (Maltodextrin, Salt, Green Bell Pepper, Onion, Sugar, Black Pepper, Red Pepper, Jalapeo, Modified Starch, Garlic, Lime, Vinegar, Xanthan Gum, Citric Acid), Xanthan Gum, Guar Gum. TOMATO-CORN MIXTURE: Tomato, Corn, Cilantro, Lime Juice. ALLERGENS: Contains Wheat, Milk, and Soy

Health Claim Excellent source of calcium Excellent source of fiber Good source of Vitamin A and C Low in Cholesterol,

Regulatory Compliance Contains at least 20% of the recommended daily value (DV) of calcium per reference amount.4 Contains at least 20% of the recommended daily value (DV) of fiber per reference amount.4 Contains at least 20% or more of the recommended values of each of these vitamins. 4 Contains a maximum of 20 mg cholesterol per reference amount.4

Contains Live and Active Cultures. Contains at least 1x109 CFUs of Lactobacillus acidophilus 1/2 Serving of Vegetables. 2-ounce vegetable mixture of tomatoes and corn


PROCESSING FLOW CHART YOGURT/AVOCADO MIXTURE Raw Milk Homogenize Pasteurize Citric Acid Wash Citric Acid Wash Stem Removal Chop Weigh Dry Ingredients TOMATO/CORN MIXTURE Whole Tomatoes Raw Cilantro Corn

Citric Acid Wash

Inoculate and Mix Incubate

Seed Removal Dice Weigh Avocado Pulp

Remove cob Cook

Cool Pumping system and in-line mixing Packaging X-ray and metal detector Manual packaging of components into carton Case Palletizer Refrigerated Storage

Chill Weigh

Mix Weigh

Lime Juice

KEY Indicates production flow Indicates ingredient addition Indicated critical control point


Critical Control Points Process Step Receive raw milk Hazards Microbial (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes) Microbial (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes) Microbial (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes) Microbial (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes) Control Measures Microbiological analysis Critical Limits Analysis results, pH UHT, 275F for 1-2 seconds Corrective Action Reject milk if not within critical limits Repasteurize

Pasteurization of milk

Time and temperature

Cooling of milk

Time and temperature

Below 41F Use ice within 4 hours water to cool more rapidly Determined by citric acid wash manufacturer Re-wash vegetables

Washing vegetables

Time and contact

Good Manufacturing Processes (GMPs) Cleaning equipment Washing vegetables and herbs X-ray and metal detection Commercial Production and Technical Feasibility Any product that contains avocado will face difficulties in terms of production and technical feasibility. Before the 1990s, commercially packaged avocado pulp with a shelf life longer than a few weeks was considered impossible. However, High Pressure Processing (HPP) equipment that uses pascalization can be utilized in this process to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms and denature enzymes that lead to browning during storage. Because this is not a heat-based processing technique, it would have little to no effect on the flavor or texture of the yogurt and an HPP step could be added to the processing flow chart. Companies like Fresherized foods have shown how technically feasible products like this can be. Although the equipment would be a large capital investment, its application possibilities extend far beyond just this product. 13

Cost Analysis Formulation and Cost Analysis for One Portion of the Yogurt Mixture Ingredient Wholesale Price Amount (g) Cost of Ingredient in ($/unit) Formulation Non-fat milk 2.60/ gallon 114.00 0.0756 Avocado Pulp 1.79/ pound 50.01 0.1968 Seasoning Mix 2.52/ pound 4.69 0.0261 GRINDSTED Xanthan 80 4.65/ pound 0.85 0.0087 GERMANTOWN Best Mix 6.90/ pound 0.51 0.0078 HOWARU Dophilus 0.35/ gram 0.037 0.0130 LYO 10 DC-S YO-MIX 495 0.6/ gram 0.003 0.0018 LYP 250 DCU Total 170.1 0.3298 Formulation and Cost Analysis for One Portion of the Tomato/Corn Mixture Ingredient Wholesale Price Yield (%) Amount (g) Cost of ($/unit) Ingredient in Formulation Whole Tomatoes 0.90/ pound 78.4 39.57 0.1001 Corn 0.61/ pound 63.49 19.78 0.0416 Cilantro 3.35/ pound 46.43 0.50 0.0080 Lime Juice 7.74/ gallon 100.00 0.15 0.0003 Total 60.0 0.15 According to Mintel Reports and sensory panel results, panelists (and the average yogurt consumer) are willing to pay a modest premium for this type of yogurt product.1 Bistro Gardens Savory Yogurt is a unique new product with bold flavors that cater to post-recessionary and recovery spending behaviors. At a $1.99 price point, this product has a 25% food cost, not including labor, overhead, or packaging. This cost analysis is based on a small-scale operation. As the number of units produced increases, the cost will decrease. Bistro Garden sources fresh tomato, corn, and cilantro, which are processed in-house. These items can be sourced pre-washed, cut, and individually quick frozen (IQF) at a lower cost. Freeze dried avocado pulp is also commercially available from companies like Sos in Mexico City, Mexico. Many steps can be taken to lower food cost. However, this formulation is the superior version of the product in terms for texture, flavor, appearance, and overall quality.




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