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6 views3 pagesDiscrete mathematics

Dec 17, 2013

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Discrete mathematics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

6 views

Discrete mathematics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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5-2

Previous Lecture

Logically equivalent statements Main logic equivalences

double negation DeMorgans laws commutative, associative, and distributive laws idempotent, identity, and domination laws the law of contradiction and the law of excluded middle absorption laws

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5-4

Logic Inference

ne of the main goals of logic is to distinguish valid and invalid arguments !hat can we say about the following arguments" ##$f you have a current password, then you can log onto the networ%& 'ou have a current password& (herefore, you can log onto the networ%& and ##$f you have a current password, then you can log onto the networ%& 'ou can log onto the networ%& (herefore, you have a current password&

!rite these arguments in symbolic form p ) you have a current password q ) you can log onto the networ% pq p q

#(herefore

pq q p

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5-6

*hec% that + ,,p q- p- q is a tautology

Let us try + ,,p q- q- p p 0 0 1 1 q 0 1 0 1 pq 1 1 0 1

,p q- q

$f ,p q- p is false, that is if one of p q and p is false, then is true $f ,p q- p is true, then both p q and p are true& /ince the implication p q is true and p is true, q must also be true& (herefore is true& (herefore whatever values of p and q are, if ,p q- p is true, then q is also true& (he first example is a valid argument.

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 1

$n the case p + 0, q + 1 both conditions ,p q and q- are true, but p is false& (his is not a valid argument.

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(he general form of an argument in symbolic form is

Rules of Inference

2erifying if a complicated statement is a tautology is nearly impossible, even for computer& 3ortunately, general arguments can be replaced with small collection of simple ones, rules of inference&

(p1 p 2 p3 K p n ) q

premises conclusion

(he argument is valid if whenever each of the premises is true the conclusion is also true (he argument is valid if and only if the following compound statement is a tautology

(p1 p 2 p 3 K p n ) q

Modus ponens pq p q ##$f you have a current password, then you can log onto the networ%& 'ou have a current password& (herefore, you can log onto the networ%&

5-9

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Rule of Syllogism

pq qr pr (he corresponding tautology ,,p q- ,q r-- ,p r##$f you send me an e)mail, then $ll finish writing the program& $f $ finish writing the program, then $ll go to sleep early& p ) #you will send me an e)mail q ) #$ will finish writing the program r ) #$ will go to sleep early ##(herefore, if you send me an e)mail, then $ll go to sleep early

Modus Tollens

pq q p (he corresponding tautology ,,p q- q- p ##$f today is 3riday, then tomorrow $ll go s%iing& ##$ will not go s%iing tomorrow& p ) #today is 3riday q ) #$ will go s%iing tomorrow ##(herefore, today is not 3riday

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pq p q (he corresponding tautology ,,p q- p- q ##$ll go s%iing this wee%end& $ will not go s%iing on /aturday& p ) #$ will go s%iing on /aturday q ) #$ will go s%iing on /unday ##(herefore, $ will go s%iing on /unday

pr qr ,p q- r (he corresponding tautology ,,p r- ,q r-- ,,p q- r##$f today is /aturday, then $ll go s%iing& $f today is /unday, then $ll go s%iing& p ) #today is /aturday q ) #today is /unday r ) #$ll go s%iing ##(herefore, if today is /aturday or /unday, then $ will go s%iing

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4ule of *ontradiction p 3 p Reductio ad Absurdum

Logic Inference

(he goal of an argument is to infer the required conclusion from given premises

3ormally, an argument is a sequence of statements, each of which is either a premises, or obtained from preceding statements by means of a rule of inference

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5-16

$%am"le

5remises" ##$t is not sunny this afternoon and it is colder than yesterday& !e will go swimming only if it is sunny& $f we do not go swimming, then we will ta%e a canoe trip& $f we ta%e a canoe trip, then we will be home by sunset& *onclusion" ##!e will be home by sunset& 6otation" p ) it is sunny this afternoon q ) it is colder than yesterday s ) we will ta%e a canoe trip r ) we will go swimming t ) we will be home by sunset 5remises" p q, r p, r s, and s t

$%am"le (cntd)

!e have p q, r p, r s, and s t /tep 1& p q 7& p 8& r p 9& r :& r s ;& s <& s t =& t 4eason premise simplification premise modus tollens premise modus ponens premise modus ponens

*onclusion" t

5-17

&ome'or(

>xercises from the Boo%" 6o& 1a, 8c, 9a, :c, ?a ,page =9-

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