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Transatlantic Traditions of Spanish Dance Tom Rotherham - A2 Recital on Classical Guitar and Trumpet My recital contains various different

styles of dance, from Spain, Argentina, Cuba, and Mexico. I have chosen the order of the pieces primarily to show the contrast between the different styles, to help engage the listener. For example, the Flamenco contrasts to the Milonga which precedes it, with the change of time signature from 2/4 to 6/8 and the change in tone from a gentle and flowing piece, to a more energetic and staccato piece. As the pieces are intended to be danced to, there is generally little room for rubato, as is common on the guitar, however there is the occasional pause, and moment of slight ritardando.

1.) Milonga Jorge Cardoso (Guitar) A Milonga is a fast-paced dance which originated in Buenos Aires, popular in the late 1800s, and preceded the modern tango. The most common type of milonga has accents on the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 7th semi-quaver notes of a 2/4 bar; a beat derived from the slower habanera, popular in Buenos Aires in the 1850s. The Milonga I will play was written by Jorge Cardoso, born in Argentina in 1949. It is a later form, which misses the accent on the 5th quaver beat, creating a syncopated 3-3-2 quaver beat, most obvious in the introduction. This rhythm paved the way for the development of the tango neuva.

2.) Flamenco Allen Vizzutti (Trumpet) The flamenco is a song (cante) and dance (baile) from southern Spain and Andalusia. It is characterised by its energetic staccato style and in dancing terms by the expressive use of the arms, clapping, and stamping of the feet. The origins of the flamenco are ambiguous, but it is believed to have mainly developed from a combination of Spanish gypsy and Mores (Arab) influence. The type of flamenco I will play is a Fandango, commonly in 6/8 time. The Fandango often uses a distinctive tone-tone-tone-semitone descending chord progression, e.g. Aminor, Gmajor, Fmajor, Emajor. Notice that although the piece I will play has no accompaniment, this progression is implied recurringly in the piece.

3.) Gran Vals Francisco Tarrega (Guitar)


A vals is an Argentine tango style waltz. Although the dance has a continuous, rigid pulse, a very small ritardando may be appropriate in certain places, giving the piece a leaning quality, but not so much that the flow of the dance is disturbed. The essential difference between a waltz and a vals is that in a waltz the dancer steps on all three beats of the 3/4 bar, whereas in the slightly faster vals the dancer generally only steps on the 1st of the three beats. Notice the second and third beats of the vals are weaker than the first.

4.) Habanera from Carmen - Georges Bizet (Trumpet) This Habanera is an aria from the opera Carmen, by Georges Bizet (1875), and is sometimes referred to as L'amour est un oiseau rebelle Love is a rebellious bird. It is an adapted version of the habanera El Arreglito, composed by the Spanish Sebastin Yradier, born in 1809. Notice the Habanera rhythm is in essence a slower version of the basic milonga rhythm:

The Cuban habanera is also characterised by its precise, strict rhythm, its sudden dynamic contrasts, and its kingly, perhaps pompous tone.

5.) Choros No 1. - Heitor Villa-Lobos (Guitar)


A choro is a type of music originating on Rio de Janeiro in the late nineteenth century. Choro derives from the Portuguese chorar - to weep or lament. It can be played as an instrumental solo or to accompany a Maxixe dance, sometimes referred to as a Brazilian tango. Notice that it is the second beat of the 2/4 bar which is stressed, rather than the first. In spite of its name, the choro is characterised by its brisk and light-hearted tone and its use of syncopation.

6.) Mexican Hat Dance - Jess Gonzlez (Trumpet)


The Mexican Hat Dance or Jarabe Tapato was first choreographed in the early twentieth century to celebrate the successful end of the Mexican Revolution. It became so popular that it was later declared the national folk dance of Mexico. The dance is the story of a couple courting each other. It begins with the man flirting with the woman. Eventually he becomes cocky and the woman shoos him away. Finally, he succeeds in wooing her, he throws his hat to the ground and kicks his leg up the woman as she bends down to pick the hat. They continue to dance until the end, when they finally kiss.