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CONDITIONALS

If Clause Main Clause Examples Situacin siempre verdadera If you want to call him, this is his telephone number. If you freeze water, it turns into ice. Situacin real o posible en el presente If I don't hurry up, I'll miss the bus If you don't take this year off, you might regret it If you're a real friend, don't tell tales on me Situacin hipottica en el presente I could buy a motorbike if I had more money. If I won the lottery, I would travell around the world. Situacin hipottica en el pasado If he had listened to you, it wouldn't have happened. She could have taken the car if she had wanted

Zero Conditional (real) present simple present simple

First Conditional (probable) Future simple / cont / perf / perf cont present simple modal imperative Second Conditional (improbable) past simple would / could / might + infinitive v1

Third Conditional (impossible) past perfect would / could / might + have + past participle v3 Notes

You mustn't use "unless" in 3rd conditional. In 2nd Conditional, if the verb of the conditional clause is to be, we use were in singular and plural persons.

EXAMPLES Zero Conditional If I drink tea in the morning, it makes me feel sick. Water boils if you heat it to a hundred degrees Celsius. If you go into business with relatives, it tends to become stressful. If we are not careful, many species may become extinct.

First Conditional I'll tell her if she comes. If you work hard enough, you may well pass. (modal) If you see him, will you ask him to call me? If you hear the alarm, get out as fast as you can. (imperative)

Second Conditional What would you do if you won the lottery? If you won the lottery, whats the first thing youd do? If I were you, I'd buy it as soon as possible. If I were a bird, I could fly in the sky. If I had the time, Id help you. I would be surprised if it rained. What would you do if the police arrested you?

Third Conditional If she hadnt worn her helmet, she might have been seriously injured. Luckily she was wearing a helmet! If she hadnt, she would have been seriously injured. I would have done things differently if I had been the manager. If she'd tried harder, she might have succeeded. I would never have gone there if I'd known about it. If I had been there, I'd have done it myself. If they had listened, they would have understood. If you had talked to your teacher, she might have given you a couple of more days to complete your project. If you had known what you were doing, you might not have made so many mistakes.

Mixed Conditional We can mix the second and third conditionals: If + 2nd conditional | 3rd conditional This type of mixed conditional expresses a general condition with an imaginary result in the past: If I spoke better English, I could have got the job. (I don't speak English well enough so I didn't get the job) If you were smarter, you wouldn't have borrowed money in the first place. (you are not smart, that's why you borrowed money) If Sam spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter for you. (He doesnt speak Russian so he didnt translate it) If we werent going away for the weekend, we would have accepted your dinner invitation. (We are going away and thats why we didnt accept your invitation) If I were you, I would have sold that car.

If + 3rd conditional | 2nd conditional This type of mixed conditional expresses a hypothetical condition in the past with an imaginary result in the present: If we had followed the sign, we wouldn't be lost now. (we didn't follow the sign and now we are lost) If you had drunk less last night, you wouldn't have a hangover. (you drank too much last night, that's why you have a hangover now) If I had studied something practical, I could be making more money now. If I had won the lottery last week, I would be a rich man now. (I didnt win it and I am not rich) If Mark had gotten the job, he would be moving to Shanghai next month. (He didnt get the job and he isnt going to move to Shanghai) If we hadnt sold the business, we would be bankrupt now.

OTHER WORDS USED IN CONDITIONALS Unless Even if (in the unlikely case that) Only if Provided / Providing Provided that / Providing that On condition that As long as So long as Imagine that / suppose that Supposing that In case Whether or not (two or more choices) But for If necessary If so a menos que an si, aunque slo si siempre y cuando siempre que a condicin de que mientras que siempre que imaginarse, suponer que suponiendo que en caso, por si sin importar si si no hubiera sido por, de no ser por si es necesario, si hace falta si es as, en tal caso