ACT

HEARINGS THE ON UNITED STATES SENATE
CONGRESS FIRST SESSION

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s. ;30 .A BILL TO, ALLEVIATE. HAZARDS OF
TO ESTABLISH A SOCIAL

AGE,."'-.:."‘:;

,

IN THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,TO RAISE REVENUE, AND FOR
.. . JANUARY 22 TO FEBRUARY REVISED
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Printed for the use of the Committee on Finance

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1935

COMMITTEE ON FINANCE

PAT HARRISON; Mississippi, , JAMES Michigan WILLIAM Utah
HENRY W. KEYES, New Hampshire Wisconsin ROBERT M. LA FOLLETTE, DAVID I. JESSE METCALF, Rhode Island Kentucky
DANIEL 0. HASTINGS, Delaware TOM ARTHUR CAPPER, Kansas THOMAS P. QORE, Oklahoma
Colorado
EDWARD P. JOSIAH W. BAILEY, North Carolina
BENNETT CHAMP CLARK, Missouri
HARRY FLOOD BYRD, Virginia
AUGUSTINE LONERGAN, Connecticut
HUQO L. BLACK, Alabama
GERRY, Rhode Island
P Pennsylvania
JOSEPH F. M. JOHNSTON, Clerk II

Page

Abbott, Miss Grace, ‘Chicago, Ill., editor Social Service Review and professor of public welfare, University of Chicago- _ _ ______ _ ___ _ _ I., New York City, representing the National Unemployment Council-- __ _ ___ __ _ 1222 Anderson, H. B., New York, N. Y., representing the Citizens Medical, Reference Bureau, _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ Andrews, Elmer F., New York City, State industrial commissioner-2; Andrews, Rev. George. Reid, New Haven, American Eugenics Society 1003 John B., New York, N. Y., representing the American Association for Labor Legislation-l- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 439 Baldwin, Mrs. Harris T., Washington, D. C., National Leagne ‘of Women Bannerman, Mrs. Mary Washington, D. C., on legisla­ tion, Congress of Parents and Teachers- __ __ _________ __ __ 721 Benjamin, Herbert, New York’ City,’ National Joint Action Committee for Genuine Social Insurance ______ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1145 Browder, Earl, City, representing the Communist 1217 Brown, J. Douglas, professor of economics and director, industrial relations section, Princeton University,- _ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 281 Guy Irvin , New York Reference, Bureau-, 1004 Lewis H., ki? ational Society for the Prevention of Blindness-730 Chandler; George B., representing the Ohio Chamber of Commerce-- 1102 1051 R. E., representing Old-Age Revolving Pensions, Nathan, Philadelphia; Pa., representing the Action and the Philadelphia Chapter of the Interprofessional ‘1235 Hugh S., Surgeon General. Public Health Service--::- _ _ _ 408 Hugo E., Washington; D. C _____ 680 Davis, Miss Susan Washington, representing the Townsend-Davis Health Treatments, Athens, Ala.; also representing Mrs. Emma H. Townsend, Corsicana, _______ 549 ’ Doane, Robert R., New York City, representing Revolving Pensions, L&d---- - - - - - - - - - r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1243 Robert G., Airy Hall Plantation, Green Pond, S. _______ 8 2 Emery, James A.,. Washington, representing the National As­ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ sociation of Manufacturers- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 921 --Epstein, Abraham, New. York; Y., representing the American Association for Social Security- __ ______ ____ _ __ Dr. I. New Canaan, the staff of the Committee on Economic Security 419 _ _ Filene, Lincoln, Boston, Mass., William Filene’s Sons Co 820 Marion B., Rochester, N. Y., ‘assistant treasurer Eastman Kodak Co. and member of advisory council to ‘the Committee on Economic 553 Forster, H. Walter, Philadelphia; Pa., Towers, Forster 659 Gall, John C., Washington, D. C., representing the National Associa­ tion of Manufacturers- _ _ _____ _____ _____ ___ _______ ___ _ __ __ _ 931 Graham, Frank P., president University of North Carolina, and chairman advisory council to the Committee on Economic 291 Green, William, president American Federation of Labor, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 141 Gordon David, New York City, representing the Committee for Unem 1192 Evanston, Ill., professor of pediatrics, Rush Grulee, b Clifford Medical College, Ill, _ __ _______ __ __ _ ___ _ ___ _ _______ 691

5

IV

CONTENTS

Statement of-Continued. Hall, Miss Helen, New York City, National Federation of Settlements, and Henry Street Settlement; member, advisory council to the Committee on Economic Security _____________________________ Hansen, Alvin H., Washington, D. C., Chief Economic Analyst, Department of State- _ _ _____________________________________ Harriman, Henry I., Washington, D.. United States Chamber of

767 447

913 Harrington, John, representing the Illinois Manufacturing 685 Haynes, George E., New York, N. Y., representing the department of race relations, Federal Council of Churches ______ ___ _ __ ____ _ 479 Hooker, Elon New York City, representing the Manufacturing Chemists Association- __ __ __ _ _ _ _ __ ___ ____ _ _ _ __ __ __ _ 876 Houston, Charles H., Washington, D. C., representing the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, _ ___________ George A., Philadelphia, Pa., representing the Church Pensions Conference- __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 428 Hutzler; ‘Albert’ D., Baltimore, National Dry Goods Association _ 711 Philip, Portland, Oreg ___________ 1235 Irwin, Robert B., New York City, The American Foundation for the _______________ ______ ____ 726 Jackson,. Henry E., New York City, president, Social Engineering Jolly, Robert, representing the Hospital Association, _ - Kahn, Miss Dorothy,. Philadelphia,- Pa., representing the American Association’of _____ __________ 6 4 7 editor, Survey and Survey . ‘Kellogg, Paul H., New York Graphic, and vice chairman, advisory council to the Committee on Security: _____ ____ _____________ 900 F.; Chicago,. Ill:, representing the National Metal Trades Association ______ ________ ______________ 862 Clarence. A., University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pa- _ _ _ 907 Lamb, Mrs. BeatriceYork, N. Y.; representing the National League of Women _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 442 Latimer,, Pennsylvania Association the Blind- __ __ __ _ ___ _ 780 Latimer; Murray, chairman Railroad. Retirement Board, Washing,7------------------------------ton, D. _______ 744 i Latshaw, Stanley!’ New York representing the National Pub­ .- - - - - - - - - - - ---------lishers ___ 872 William N., Mediation: Board- _ _ _ _ _ _ 259 -I Katharine Chief, Department’ of. , : . ---5-----------------------------------------337 Lyon, Dr. Huntington; _____ 693 representing the People’s _. ’ ‘. Marsh; Benjamin C.; ’ Lobby_ 961 Marvin, Dr. Cloyd Washington, D. representing the American - ________ 1071 Council on A; T., Louisville; Ky., commissioner, State board of h e a l t h 689 Morrow, L. Association:: ____ New York City, Publishers ______ and New York City, counsel the 775

787 Washington, to the American Federation of Labor 771 Parker, L. H chief ‘of staff, Joint _ _ _ _ _ 1247 Peck, Lloyd A., ‘Joliet,’ Ill.; Association-:--: ______________ _____ 918 Frank, Washington, C., representing the Sentinels of the Republic- _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 677 Pence; Owen York, N. Y., representing the National Council, Y. M. 434 Perkins, Hon., Frances, Secretary of Labor- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ 99, 111 Potter, Dr. Ellen, Trenton, J., representing the National Com­ ___ 522 mittee on Care of Transient and Homeless:‘- _____ ____ .

CONTENTS
Page Statement of-Continued. Reeder, Sherwood, Washington, C., representing the United States Conference of Mayors and the American Municipal Association- _ _ 658 697 Reiss, Dr. Oscar, Los Angeles, ____________________________ Reyburn, Samuel W., New York City, National Retail Dry Goods 702 Reymond, M. H., Binghamton, N. Y 669 Roche, Miss Josephine, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 374 Sargent, Noel, New York City, representing the National Association of Manufacturers- _ _ _ _______________________________________ 940 Shelton, Mrs. Frederick, representing the National Board of Young Women’s Christian ______ ______ 444 Sinclair, S. executives of State commissions and State and Pennsylvania Council for the Blind- _ _ _ agencies for the 778 Snow, W. A., Washington, D. C., representing the Associated General Contractors of America- _____ __ ____ __ _ ______ ___ __________ ___ _ 861 _ Story, Harold W., Milwaukee, Wis., vice president, and general counsel, Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co- ________ ____ __ ____ _ 516 Studebaker, Dr. John W., Washington, D. C., Commissioner Education, Department of the Interior ___________________ - ____ 731 . Taylor, Miss Lea D., Chicago, Ill., representing the Illinois Committee on Townsend, Dr. F. E., Age Revolving Pensions, _ 1::: Tyson, Francis D., professor of economics, University of Pittsburgh, 737 Underwood, Dr. F. J., Jackson, Miss., State health officer __________ 411 1 Wagner, Robert F., United States Senator from New York _________ Walter, M. M., Harrisburg, Pa., representing the National Rehabili­ tation Association 424 Watts, L. Richmond, Va., Virginia Commission for the Blind, and the American Association of Workers for the Blind __________ ___ 778 Webster, William R., Bridgeport, Conn., representing the Connecticut Manufacturers Association- ________________________________ __ Weir, Joseph P. B., Washington, D. C ___________________________ ::Fi _ _____ ______________ __ _ Williams, Ernest Wells, Washingto, D. 976 Witte, Edwin E., executive director Committee on Economic Security Wolfe, James H., Washington, D. C., women’s division, Demo­ cratic Committee, _ _ _ _ __ _ ____ 698 Yarros, Dr. Rachelle, Hull House, ‘Chicago, Ill ____________________ , 816 Briefs, letters, statements, etc., submitted byAdams, Benjamin F., and Henrietta M., Silver Springs, Md ________ 1265 Association for Social Security, Washington branch--- _ _ _ _ 1138 American Bar Association, report of special committee opposing the ratification of the proposed child-labor amendment to the Consti­ tution of the United States ___________________________________ 1276 American Association of University Women, Washington, D. _ _ _ _ 700 American Federation of Actors, New York City, letter addressed to Senator Robert F. Wagner- _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ __ __ ____ ____ __ 1140 American Home Economics Association, Washington, D. C., letter

American Nurses Association- _ __ _ _ ___ ___ ____ ____ __ __ _ __ ___ _ __ C. W., New York City, Child Welfare League of America, Associated Women of the American Farm Bureau Federation, brief submitted by Mrs. W. Sewell, administrative director- _ _ _ _ _ Burke, John J., Washington, D. C., National Catholic Welfare Burns, Dr. M., Columbia University, New York City- _ _ _ _ _ _ Christman, Miss Elizabeth, Washington, D. C., on behalf of the National Women’s Trade Union League of America _____________ Crumbine, Dr. T., New York, N. American Child Health

%f 782 373 1%: 445

370 Douglas, Prof. Paul H., University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill _________ 892 Draper, Ernest G., New York City, The Hills Bros. Co ____________ 781 Gourley, Lawrence L., Washington, D. C., representing the American Osteopathic Association ______________________________________ 1269 Guthrie, William D., chairman special committee of the American Bar 1289

VI

CONTENTS

Page , Briefs, letters, statements, etc., submitted by-Continued. Hall, Percival, Washington, D. C., chairman executive committee, Conference of Executives of American Schools for the Deaf- _ 1143 Hoar, Roger Sherman, North Milwaukee, Wis., letter and statement addressed to Senator Thomas P. Gore _____ ____________ 1092, 1093 Hogue, Richard W., Washington, D. C., Independent Legislative 1136 Howett, Harry H., Lansing, Michigan Crippled Children 371 Kennedy, Thomas, international secretary-treasurer, Mine Workers of America, lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania- - _ - _ - - - 1268 Kittle, Mrs. William, Washington, D. C., ‘on behalf of the National Consumers’ League and on behalf of the Women’s Homeopathic 445 Kletzer, Mrs. Child Welfare Commission of Oregon- _ _ _ _ - _ 785 782 La Du, Mrs. Blanche, Minnesota State Board of __ _---__ Dr. E. V., the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 371 Dr. James R., Emory University, Atlanta, Ga ____________ 373 Message of President Roosevelt submitting report recommending legislation on economic security--- ____ ___________ _____________ 1303 Miller, Dr. James Raglan, Hartford, ______________________ 371 National Conference of Catholic Charities, Washington, D. _ _ 457 National Council of Jewish Women, Inc., New York City.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 701 Robb, Miss Marquis, Newtonville, __ - - _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ 1251 Sanger, Mrs. Margaret, president, National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth 1266 Shibley,’ George, Washington, D. C., director, The Research 1255 United States Engineers, Inc., New York City--,-- - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -- _ _ - _ _ 1257 Witte, Edwin E.: Estimated costs of old-age pensions to the States- _____ ________ 319 Model unemployment-insurance bills for and suggestions for State old-age assistance laws and accompanying explanatory 591 Principal studies and reports prepared for or presented to the Committee on Economic Security _________________________ 323 ’ Statistics concerning extent and amount of insurance in certain 725 Supplemental to the report of the Advisory Council to the Committee on Economic Security- _ _________________ 324 701 Women’s Homeopathic Medical Fraternity _______________________ Young Women’s Christian Association, D. C __________ 700