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# Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

## Bridges Fill the Gap! Unit Plan

Unit Author First and Last Name School District School Name School City, State Unit Overview Unit Title Bridges Fill the Gap! Unit Summary The National Highway Bridge Co. has asked for your help in designing a new bridge that will span a gap in the new roadway being built in our community. Your task is to design a bridge taking into consideration the soundness of the design, as well as the aesthetic appeal. The bridge will also have to be able to easily handle the traffic flow of our community. In this unit the students will learn about bridge building during highway construction. They will face the challenge of developing a plan to construct a bridge to span a gap of new roadway being built in their community. The students will investigate types of bridge construction and determine the best suitable bridge to cover the span. The students will then construct the bridge as a scale model and test the strength and durability of the bridge. They will have to take into account the traffic flowing over the bridge, aesthetic appeal of the bridge as well as the materials needed for construction. Subject Area Science Math Communication Arts Grade Level 7th Grade Approximate Time Needed 15 Days (3 weeks) 2-hour time blocks per day (1 hour of Science time 1 hour of Math time) as designated in the school day. Unit Foundation Targeted Content Standards and Benchmarks University of MO eMINTS National Center

Math GLEs
Number and Operations

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## Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

Use Proportional Reasoning Solve problems involving proportions, such as scaling and finding equivalent ratios Geometric and Spatial Relationships Draw and Use Visual Models Draw or use visual models to represent and solve problems Science GLEs Scientific Inquiry Science understanding is developed through the use of science process skills, scientific knowledge, scientific investigation, reasoning, and critical thinking A. Scientific inquiry includes the ability of students to formulate a testable question and explanation, and to select appropriate investigative methods in order to obtain evidence relevant to the explanation a. Recognize that different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigations (e.g., some involve observing and describing objects, organisms, or events; some involve collecting specimens; some involve experiments; some involve making observations in nature; some involve discovery of new objects and phenomena; some involve making models) B. Scientific inquiry relies upon gathering evidence from qualitative and quantitative observations Measure (weight) to the nearest Newton, E. The nature of science relies upon communication of results and justification of explanations a. Communicate the procedures and results of investigations and explanations through: oral presentations drawings data tables (allowing for the recording and analysis of data relevant to the experiment, such as independent and dependent variables, multiple trials, beginning and ending times or temperatures, derived quantities) graphs (bar, single line, pictograph) writings

Communication Arts
Listening and Speaking
Develop and apply effective speaking skills and strategies for various audiences and purposes Discussion and Presentations In discussions and presentations, use designated time constraints media organized notes

Information Literacy
Develop and apply effective research process skills to gather, analyze and evaluate information Acquire Information Locate and use multiple resources to acquire relevant information fulfill research plan Research Plan Develop a research plan, with assistance, to guide investigation and research of focus questions

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## Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

NETS-S

2. Communication and Collaboration Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Students: a. d. interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments and media. contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

3. Research and Information Fluency Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students: b. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.

Student Objectives/Learning Outcomes Students will gather, analyze, reflect and process information about bridge building in a variety of ways. Students will use problem-solving skills to formulate a plan to build a bridge to span a gap in the roadway. Students will create persuasive presentations appropriate for a selected audience. Curriculum-Framing Questions Essential How do we solve problems? Question How does transportation affect our lives? Unit Questions How can we build a bridge to cross a designated gap? What type of bridge construction would be strong enough to withstand traffic and still be visually appealing?

## Content Questions Assessment Plan

How are bridges built? What laws do we have to abide by when building bridges? What materials are used to build and strengthen a bridge?

Assessment Timeline

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KWL Questioning

## Questioning KWL Student Presentation Assessment Sheet

Assessment Summary The students will complete the K and W of a KWL chart to access prior knowledge on the subject of bridges. The teacher will pose open-ended questions to entice inquiry of the topic. The teacher will also post the essential question for the students to review early in the lesson. The students will complete Group Collaboration self-assessments while they jigsaw the group research. The groups will formulate a Proposal of Bridge Design and submit it to the teacher prior to the bridge building process. The students will use the Bridge Building Project Rubric to guide their learning while designing and constructing the model bridge. The teacher will assess student progress using a Conference Rubric during the bridge building process. The students will use the Multimedia Project Presentation Rubric to help guide them in designing an effective presentation of their proposal. They will also use the Presentation Storyboard to guide them while designing their presentations. During the presentation of projects, classmates will use the Student Presentation Assessment Sheet to score the presentations. The students complete the KWL chart at the end of the lesson. Unit Details Prerequisite Skills The students will need the following skills to be successful in this lesson; Basic computer use skills (accessing selected websites, word processing in Microsoft Word and PowerPoint) Knowledge and experience with the jigsaw method of group work would be helpful

## Instructional Procedures Show video of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge falling.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-zczJXSxnw Use questioning to discuss what happened to this bridge. Pose Essential Question: How do we solve problems?

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## Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

What might have caused the bridge to collapse? How did construction crews not know the bridge might be destined for trouble until after it was complete? How does transportation affect our lives? Introduce the KWL Chart o o Post all things students know about bridges and bridge construction on the SMART Board. Post what students would like to learn about bridge construction in the Want to Know section.

Introduce the scenario of a highway being built through the community, and the request from the construction crew for bridge design suggestions. (see below)

The National Highway Bridge Co. has asked for your help in designing a new bridge that will span a gap in the new roadway being built in our community. Your task is to design a new bridge taking into consideration sound design, as well as aesthetic appeal. In addition, the bridge must be able to handle traffic flow from the community. Place students in predetermined groups of 3. Once in the groups, have students discuss and choose expert roles from those listed below. o Design Artist The Design Artist will research types of bridges and appropriate applications for the use of different types of bridges. One of the focuses of the Design Artist is the aesthetic appeal of different bridges. The design artist will recommend a bridge design that best fits the area to the home group.

Bridge Design Building Big: All about Bridges The Basic Bridge Types PBS: NOVA: Build a Bridge Bridge Designer
o Terrain Surveyor The Terrain Surveyors job is to determine how the bridge should be constructed based on the ground where the bridge will be placed. They will research the area where the bridge will be built and identify any obstacles that need to be overcome in the construction process. In addition, the Terrain Surveyor will make sure the area is left as undisturbed as possible after construction (wildlife and the ecosystem is not endangered by the building of the bridge). Questions that might guide the terrain surveyor include the following: What does the bridge cross? Why is a bridge needed as opposed to flat roadway? What laws must be followed when building this bridge?

## Proportion Bridge Basics The Basic Bridge Types Bridge Laws

2011 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Used by permission. Page 5 of 20

## PBS: American Experience: Secrets of Master Builder

o Materials Specialist The Materials Specialists job is to research bridge building materials. They need to learn about what materials are used to build different types of bridges and determine which materials will be the best to use in the area where the bridge will be constructed. A question that might guide the Materials Specialist includes the following: What materials are used to build and strengthen a bridge? The Materials Specialist task is to recommend the most appropriate and cost effective bridges that can be built to the home. In addition, the materials specialist will compile a list of materials needed for the scale model bridge built by the group.

Bridge Building Materials Bridge Materials Trusses The Basic Bridge Types How Stuff Works: Bridges
Common Resources for all research groups:
Bridge Building Websites http://42explore.com/bridge.htm The Bridge Site http://www.bridgesite.com/funand.htm Model Bridge Design http://www.garrettsbridges.com/ Bridge Building Simulator Game http://www.learn4good.com/games/simulation/build_bridge_across_canyon2.htm

www.skype.com Chat with an expert bridge builder Description of Landscape for the Proposed Bridge The new 2-lane highway will be passing through the community. At the edge of town, is a small river, which over time has created a gulley. The land surrounding the gully is relatively flat but is covered with trees of various sizes. Off to the side of the site for the new is a pond that is fed by a natural spring. There is a small stream leading from the pond to the river. The pond and area surrounding the pond are well known as a nesting site for ducks and geese. Use a Jigsaw strategy for students to become experts about their topic by having students with like-roles form expert groups. Have expert groups generate questions about their topic to guide research. Once questions have been clarified, direct students to conduct research with the resources provided, and searching for additional information on the Internet using Google. In addition, students may email local bridge builders to gather information about bridge construction As student experts collect information to answer their questions, have them input information in a Google Document. While students are involved in research, set up a time to conference individually with the students using the Conference Rubric. Have students complete the Group Collaboration Self-Assessment as they conduct research. When exert groups have completed their research, have each expert team formulate a plan for presenting collected information to their home group.

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## Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

Direct home groups to reconvene and have team experts take turns sharing the knowledge they have gained in their expert area. After expert information has been shared, have the group use the information they have compiled to determine the best suitable bridge that can be built at the proposed site. Ask home groups to formulate a plan (Bridge Proposal) for constructing a model bridge using what they learned from the research to guide them. Have home groups submit a written plan (Bridge Proposal and Blueprint form) for a scale model bridge to the teacher. In addition, have home groups compile a list of materials needed to build the scale model bridge (the materials used in the scale model bridge will be limited to wood products.) Provide time for home groups to construct a scale model of the proposed bridge using the materials supplied to them from their materials list and the Bridge Building Project Rubric as a guide. . Assess home group collaboration while building the model bridge using the Group Collaboration Rubric. After construction is complete, have students test the bridges for strength using a plan designed and agreed upon by the class, to control the experiment. As model bridges are tested, have students gather data about design shape, and weight held. Have students use the collected weight testing observation data to create a graph that depict results of the test. Provide home groups with copies of the Storyboard Template. Have groups design a presentation plan they will use to convince the National Highway Bridge Company to use their bridge design on the proposed site. Instruct home groups to create a multimedia product they can use to present their bridge design to the National Highway Bridge Company, using the Multimedia Project Presentation Rubric as a guide. (The groups may choose to use a variety of Multimedia tools for a presentation aide including PowerPoint, Prezi, Poster, and so forth.) As home groups develop their multimedia presentation, have the students complete the Group Self Assessment. Invite the National Bridge Co. (Local Bridge Construction Company) to attend the presentations to help determine the best design for the project. Have home groups deliver their presentation to the class and invited guests. During the presentations have class members score each presentation using the Group Observation Assessment. After all presentations have been given, facilitate revisiting the KWL chart with the class to discuss what was learned and to fill in the Learned portion of the chart as a reflection on learning. If desired, award a winning design a prize and feature the bridge design somewhere in the school as a display.

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## Special Needs Students

Allow extended computer use time Provide a template for the multimedia presentation Break assignments into small, manageable segments and make a checklist for students to follow Use a teacher assistant or instructional aide to help groups Arrange partnering with another non-resource student Elicit support from the resource teacher Pair the student with native English speakers to assist in project work Use visual aids Allow for work to be done in the student's first language and then get a translation Challenge the student to master complexity within applications as well as analyze and synthesize learning Enlist the student to use leadership skills to organize and focus the group Encourage the student to include more advanced technical attributes in the Multimedia Presentation Have the student exchange correspondence with a bridge building company Encourage the student to make arrangements for a guest speaker

Nonnative Speakers

Materials and Resources Required For Unit Technology Hardware (Click boxes of all equipment needed) Camera Computer(s) Digital Camera DVD Player Internet Connection Database/Spreadsheet Desktop Publishing E-mail Software Encyclopedia on CD-ROM Printed Materials Library resources on bridges and bridge construction (books, literature, magazines) Work with the Library Media Specialist to compile resources for the students to have access to. Laser Disk Printer Projection System Scanner Television Image Processing Internet Web Browser Multimedia Web Page Development Word Processing Other VCR Video Camera Video Conferencing Equip. Other

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## Materials for building Model Bridges

Supplies

popsicle sticks tongue depressors glue toothpicks other materials that are negotiated with in the Bridge Proposal and Blueprint
Tacoma Narrows Bridge http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-zczJXSxnw Bridge Design http://www.nireland.com/bridgeman/Bridge%20Design.htm Building Big: All about Bridges http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/index.html PBS: Building Big: All about Bridges http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/index.html The Basic Bridge Types http://library.thinkquest.org/J002223/types/types.html PBS: NOVA: Build a Bridge http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/tech/build-bridge-p1.html Bridge Designer http://www.jhu.edu/~virtlab/bridge/truss.htm Proportion http://mypages.iit.edu/~smart/dvorber/lesson3.htm Bridge Basics http://pghbridges.com/basics.htm PBS: American Experience: Secrets of Master Builder http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eads/sfeature/sf_pier.html Bridge Designer: Truss http://www.contech-cpi.com/Products/Bridges-andStructures/Truss.aspx?gclid=CPPZua-Jo60CFUsaQgodRlNtnA Trusses http://www.geocities.com/Baja/8205/truss.htm How Stuff Works: Bridges http://science.howstuffworks.com/engineering/civil/bridge.htm Bridge Building Materials http://www.nireland.com/bridgeman/Bridging%20Materials.htm Bridge Materials http://www.brantacan.co.uk/materials.htm Bridge Basics http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/basics.html Bridge Building Websites http://42explore.com/bridge.htm Bridge Basics http://pghbridges.com/basics.htm Super Bridge Build A Bridge http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/build.html The Bridge Site http://www.bridgesite.com/funand.htm Model Bridge Design http://www.garrettsbridges.com/ Bridge Building Simulator Game http://www.learn4good.com/games/simulation/build_bridge_across_canyon2.htm www.skype.com Chat with an expert bridge builder

Internet Resources

Other Resources

## Interview personnel from the Bridge Building Company

Programs of the Intel Education Initiative are funded by the Intel Foundation and Intel Corporation. Copyright 2007, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel, the Intel logo, Intel Education Initiative, and Intel Teach Program are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.

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## Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

Bridge Building Project - Assessment Rubric Partners Names: ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Meets Deadlines (10 pts): Meets Specifications (15 pts): Bridge Matches Proposal/Blueprint (15 pts): Neatness (15 pts): Weight of Bridge: Appropriate Weight Supported (40 pts): Written Proposal/Blueprint (20 pts) Total Points: Important Deadline Dates: Proposal/Blueprint Testing _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ /115

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## Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

Bridge Project Conference Rubric Questions Setting Goals What are your goals for the project? What is the purpose? Are there conflicting goals you need to consider? Designing a Plan Does your plan have a logical sequence of steps? Does it include the resources you need to complete the steps? Is your timeline evident? What are your priorities? Monitoring Progress What are any challenges? How will overcome them? If your first methods dont work, what will you do instead? Who or what can you use as a resource on this project? Do you have a plan for checking your progress? What will you do if you get behind? How will you know your work meets the criteria? How will you determine what more needs to be
2000-2007 Intel Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Page 11 of 20

Notes

## Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

done? Reflecting Have you incorporated feedback into improving your project? What have you learned about yourself? What areas do you want to improve upon?

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## Group Collaboration Rubric 4 I always Contribution

3
I contribute to the group by participating in discussions, completing my assigned tasks, and helping to set and meet our goals.

2
I sometimes need encouragement to complete my assigned tasks. I need help to set and meet our goals.

1
I choose not to participate. I do not complete my assigned tasks, I get in the way of goal setting, and I keep the group from meeting goals.

contribute actively to the group by participating in discussions. I accept and perform all of my required tasks. I help the group set goals and direct the group in meeting goals. I share many ideas and my contributions are appropriate for the topic. I encourage others to share ideas. I balance my listening and speaking. I am always concerned about other peoples feelings and ideas.

Cooperation

## I share ideas when encouraged, and I allow all members to share.

I share ideas occasionally when encouraged, and I allow sharing by most group members. Sometimes, I listen to others. Sometimes, I consider other peoples feelings and ideas.

I do not contribute to group discussions. I often interrupt others when they are sharing. I do not listen to others. I am sometimes inconsiderate of other peoples feelings and ideas. I discourage my group members from thinking about how we are working together. I sometimes get us off task. I choose not to participate in solving problems or making decisions. I sometimes cause problems for the group.

## Active Listening within Group

I can listen to others. I show sensitivity to other peoples feelings and ideas.

Metacognition

I ask the group to consider how well we are working together. I help the group work together better.

I consider how well we are working together. I participate in the changes needed to help the group work better together. I offer suggestions to solve problems. I help the group make decisions.

Sometimes, I help the group work together. I try not to hold back the groups efforts.

Problem Solving

I work actively with the group to solve problems. I help the group make fair decisions.

Sometimes, I offer suggestions to solve problems. Sometimes, I help the group make decisions.

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## Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

Group Observation Assessment Mark each characteristic with a: + = for distinguished work (it can hardly be improved upon) for proficient work (it is good, but you can see some ways to improve) for apprentice work (there is much need for improvement)

Name: __________________________________Date: ___________________ Group Im observing: __________________________________________________ The group members are experts on their topic. The group presentation is interesting (expressive voices, movement, interaction, eye contact with audience). The presentation has clear visuals that help me understand the topic in more depth. All members participate very well in the presentation. All members take the project seriously. The group answers questions with detail. The presentation makes sense (catchy beginning, middle with details, good conclusion). I learned something new from the presentation. The group makes their presentation interesting by using expressive voices, moving around appropriately, and making frequent eye contact with the audience. The group members speak in clear, loud voices so everyone can hear.

Please include comments below to elaborate on your reasons for the marks from above:

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## Group Work Self Assessment

Yes
I can do many tasks in the group. I accept how tasks are divided up in the group I complete all of my assigned tasks. I can agree on a plan even if it is not my plan. I accept other peoples ideas. I speak my ideas clearly. I try to help others understand the project. I encourage other group members. I ask questions to get clarification. I give feedback in a helpful, friendly way. I listen when someone else is talking. I try to solve problems.

With Help

No

Examples

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## Multimedia Rubric for Bridges Fill the Gap! Presentation

Knowledge of Subject Matter 4 My presentation demonstrates indepth understanding of multiple bridge designs. I correctly state all the types of bridges appropriate for the project I explain the pros and cons of each type I am the expert who can answer reasonable questions with certainty. Writing My headings and subheadings are used effectively to convey relationships among ideas. My bullets summarize main points using wellchosen, descriptive words. 3 My presentation demonstrates understanding of major concepts related bridge design. I state some types of bridges appropriate for the project I explain pros and cons of some of the types I answer majority of reasonable questions. My headings are used effectively. My bullets summarize main points. Technical and unfamiliar words are explained. 2 My presentation demonstrates that there are gaps in conceptual understanding of bridge design. I state one or two bridge designs appropriate for the project. I do not clearly explain the pros and cons of types I answer some questions. My headings are used somewhat effectively. My bullets summarize main points. Technical and unfamiliar words are not explained. My presentation contains spelling, grammatical, or typing errors, that detract from the content. I occasionally use graphics that support the text and presentation. I have done some preplanning, but information is not 1 My presentation shows significant gaps in conceptual understanding of bridge design. I only state the type of bridge I think will work with the project I do not explain pros and cons of types I cannot answer questions. My presentation does not use components of technical writing (eg. headings and bullets) to convey meaning. My presentation has numerous spelling, grammatical or typing errors that make it difficult to understand.

Graphics

## Preplanning Scaffold or Storyboard

My presentation contains a few My presentation spelling, contains no spelling, grammatical, or grammatical or typing errors that typing errors. slightly detract from the content. My graphics explain My graphics are and reinforce the relevant to the text screen text and add to and presentation. the presentation. My preplanning My preplanning demonstrates has been done. The material has been material is planned

I do not include graphics in my presentation. I have not completed any preplanning for my
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## Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

Internet Resources

planned in a logical and sequential order. Placeholders for appropriate graphics are in place. I have researched and correctly cited a minimum of three Web sites in the presentation.

in a logical order. Some place holders for graphics are in place. I have researched and correctly cited a minimum of two Web sites in the presentation.

organized in a logical manner. The planning does not reflect the required material. I have researched and correctly cited a minimum of one Web site in the presentation.

presentation.

I have shown no evidence of researching Web sites OR the sites are not cited properly.

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## Bridge Proposal and Blueprint

1. Write a paragraph describing the bridge design your group has chosen in the space provided on this page. Explain the reason you chose this bridge and how your group came to that decision. 2. On a separate piece of paper, list the materials needed to build this scale model bridge (We will be limiting our materials to wood products for the models) 3. On a separate piece of paper, draw a sketch of what your bridge will look like.

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## Example Presentation Storyboard

Slide 1 Title: Sub Topics: Spanning the Gap By Student Name

Bridge Image

## Images Slide 3 Title: Sub Topics:

none

Possible Bridges Researched non usable Suspension Bridge Wooden Covered Bridge Steel Girder Bridge

Images

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## Intel Teach Program Essentials Course

Slide 5 Title: Sub Topics: Why Choose Our Bridge? Reinforcing reasons for our bridge choice sales pitch

Images