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# DIGITALIZACION DE SEALES (CONVERSION A/D)

DIGITALIZACION DE SEALES

## DIGITALIZACION DE SEALES (CONVERSION A/D)

INTRODUCTION
In this memoir, it want show the problems that have conversion A/D, the aims are Oversampled or a few samples, resolution , range, dither, noise rate.

GENERATE SIGNAL
On the first place, it will do a representation of the signal that it will be addition of two signals cosine which each it will have a own frequency.

## REPRESENTATION (GRAPHICS AND DFT)

Here is shown the DFT transform (algorithm FFT) where it can see the two cosine signals with the plot_spectrum s function.

## QUANTIFICATION THE RANGES PROBLEM

First problem that it show is few samples it cant represent the signal addition cosine which supposed after problems because it will have effect to the quantifications process.

## DIGITALIZACION DE SEALES (CONVERSION A/D)

This is the first quantification with a resolution is three and range is eight (Vmax*2). In theory, signal has eight stairs and delta is one but its false because the signal not have a levels in some stairs and the quantized jump between the stairs and only represent stairs which have this level therefore only it used five stairs. This effect is produced to have a few samples and the distance between them is very important but nevertheless it meets the Nyquists theorem.

In this signal resolution is the same that other signal but the range is different (Vmax*4) in this case the stairs are more big and this causes that the four stairs theoretical are represented on this image but its a few levels at reconstruction signal it needs dither (but dither is same to addition noise to the signal it must remember always) for avoid distortion.

## DIGITALIZACION DE SEALES (CONVERSION A/D)

On the other hand, in this case it will be able to see that resolution is three and range is Vmax/4 therefore delta will be very little , theoretical signal has all stairs (eight) but the original range goes range/2(range quantifier(-0.5) value signal( -4)) to range/2(range quantifier(0.5) value signal(4)) and over and over it will encounter the same problem , the original signal not has enough samples as necessarily it should have to take sample in this interval as so small. In this case only it uses three stairs or quantification levels. The signal cant be reconstructed without dither but dither is noise. If it studies the error is observed, as the original signal is modified and that is modified (error=sequence-sequenceQ) when it has less resolution (stairs used) more big is the error.

## DITHER DISTORTION OR NOISE

Now, its added dither to the signal but first original signal should be modified in amplitude because so signal represent better the quantifications problem and it works better dither effect(dither has two deltas different (Q) value). It shows it but only it shows a few milliseconds:

## DIGITALIZACION DE SEALES (CONVERSION A/D)

This effect which we added produced that delete the distortions signals due to the quantization. So, this enables to study the signals reconstruction, but added noise more the higher is the delta. For this reason is introduced the signal to noise ratio, to study for the noise or distortion this is the question what is good at the any time. When we have a low signal to noise ratio this not worth it.

APENDICE: o Apartado 1 : lneas 1 35 o Apartado 2 : lneas 36 67 o Apartado 3 : lneas 68 176 o Apartado 4 : lneas 177 211 REFERENCIAS: o Manual matlab para ingenieros Prentice hall o Youtube videos sobre dither o Scrib.es-Cauntificacion o Apuntes: Yolanda Campos UNEX PDSAV