ii

c 2009 by Ajmal Beg. All rights reserved.
Copyright °

Author and/or publisher shall not be liable for any kind of direct and/or
indirect loss as a result of using information in this book.

ISBN: 978-0-9805610-1-2

iii

Dedicated to my family

iv

Contents
1 Introduction

1

2 What is gravity?
2.1 Gravity increases energy of falling photons . . . . .
2.2 Gravity increases the energy of passing by photons
2.3 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Graviton as a functional block of photon . . . . . .
2.5 Clouds of gravitons acting as refueling station . . .
2.6 Gravity and glow from early universe . . . . . . . .
2.7 Energy needs of cosmological bodies . . . . . . . . .
2.7.1 Energy needs of sun . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7.2 Energy needs of moon . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 Energy needs of atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9 Flow of gravity in the universe . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10 Gravity and characteristics of orbits/spin . . . . . .
2.11 Gravity and Pauli’s Exclusion Principle . . . . . . .
2.12 Experiments to confirm gravity and light link . . .
2.13 Confirming the flow of gravity . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Logical structure of mass
3.1 Mechanism to exchange particles . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Array of particles acting as DNA . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Ability to adjust external dimensions . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Expanding universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 X-ray spectrum of metal targets . . . . . . .
3.3.3 Matter density of particles forming material
3.3.4 Tunneling of light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4 Roles of the black hole
75
4.1 Basic building block of the black hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.2 Sizes of the black hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
v

vi

CONTENTS
4.3

4.4
4.5

The black hole with
4.3.1 Case 1: . . .
4.3.2 Case 2: . . .
4.3.3 Case 3 . . .
The black hole with
Evidence . . . . . .

5 Summary

wrapped mass .
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compressed mass
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82
89
93
96
104
108
115

Chapter 1
Introduction
The black hole is a three dimensional space which exhibits very strong gravitational pull. The gravitational pull from the black hole is though to be so
strong that any object with non-zero mass cannot leave the black hole. It
is also believed that even light cannot escape a black hole. The black holes
are thought to be of different sizes. This book analyzes the concept of black
hole using a very unique methodology. This methodology assumes that all
objects in the universe are particles. These particles can be of different size.
All kinds of particles inherit same basic characteristics regardless of their size.
As we are unable to directly observe very small particles, we simply observe
particles we can directly observe and assume that the smaller particles which
we cannot observe have the same feature as that of big particles.
The book is divided into different chapters dealing with different aspects
of the black hole and the mass that enters the black hole.
Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter describes what black hole is.
Chapter 2: What is gravity?
This chapter describes the true nature of gravity and its relationship to the
light.
Chapter 3: Logical structure of mass
This chapter discusses the logical structure of mass.
Chapter 4: Roles of the black hole
This chapter shows that the black hole has very positive roles in the functioning of the universe, when the concept of black hole is analyzed using
observations made in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3.
1

2

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Chapter 5: Summary
This chapter summarizes the finding of the previous chapters.

Chapter 2
What is gravity?
This chapter discusses the real nature of gravity.

2.1

Gravity increases energy of falling photons

Light is thought to be a collection of particles called photons. Gravity is also
thought to be a collection of particles known as gravitons. No one has been
ever able to directly detect gravitons yet. However, the effect of gravity on
photons can be confirmed by conducting a falling photon experiment. Figure
2.1 shows the details of a falling photon experiment. At height H, a photon
emitting source is positioned and at the surface of the earth, the frequency
of the falling photons is measured using light frequency detector. Increase
in the frequency of the photons at the surface of the earth can confirm that
gravity increases the energy of photons.
The law of conservation of energy leads to the relationship below. KE
represents Kinetic Energy and P E stands for Potential Energy.
KE0 + P E0 = KE1 + P E1

(2.1)

Assuming that potential energy at the surface of the earth is represented by
mgH, where photon mass is m = hf /c2 and H is the distance of the source
of light from the surface of the earth, Equation 2.1 can be rewritten as:
Ã

!

hf0
hf0 +
gH = hf1 + 0
c2

(2.2)

It leads to Equation 2.3, which indicates that the frequency of light will
increase when gravitational force acts on it.
µ

gH
f1 = f0 1 + 2
(2.3)
c
3

4

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

To confirm the above relationship, a falling photon experiment was conducted
and it was confirmed that a falling photon increases its frequency under
the influence of gravity. The results of the falling photon experiment were
published by Pound and Rebka in Physics Review Letters (4:337, 1960).

Figure 2.1: Pound Rebka falling photon experiment

2.2. GRAVITY INCREASES THE ENERGY OF PASSING BY PHOTONS5

2.2

Gravity increases the energy of passing
by photons

It is known that the light bends under the effect of gravity, when it passes
near large cosmological bodies such as, sun and other stars. Figure 2.2 shows
light bending phenomena when light from other stars passes by the sun. The
bending of light results in showing stars at a different location than they
actually are.

Figure 2.2: Star light bending under influence of sun’s gravity

6

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

For simplification purpose, let’s assume that there exists a uniform energy
field from the surface of sun to the height R as shown in Figure 2.3. Any photon that passes through this energy field, increases its energy. Let’s consider
two photons which pass through this uniform energy field. One photon does
not bend and the other photon bends. The photon which bends, remains in
the uniform energy field for longer period of time compared to the photon
which does not bend. The act of bending results in increased input from the
uniform energy field to the photon compared to the instance when photon
passing by the sun does not bend.

Figure 2.3: Photon increases its energy by bending path

2.3. METHODOLOGY

2.3

7

Methodology

Objects around us are collection of particles, which show specific behaviors.
We can improve our understanding of mechanisms governing the behavior of
objects around us, if we understand how particles forming the objects interact
with one other. As interaction between smaller particles cannot be observed
directly, there is need for finding an indirect way to determine how smaller
particles interact. This book uses methodology as illustrated in Fig. 2.4
to help understand interactions among smaller particles. This methodology
assumes that:
• All kinds of particles are formed from the same basic material.
• All kinds of particles were formed through somewhat similar process
and thus have somewhat similar functioning mechanism.
• Large size particles are created through repetition of the same basic
process which created small particles.
• As we are unable to directly observe the interactions among smaller
particles, we study the interaction among large particles for the purpose
of improving understanding of the interaction among smaller particles.

2.4

Graviton as a functional block of photon

Einstein proposed relationship between mass of an object and the total energy
it can contain as:
E = mc2
(2.4)
where
E: Energy contained in the object
m: Mass of the object at rest
c: Speed of light
Let’s discuss Equation 2.4 in details.
• E is also believed to be the quantity of energy in which mass can
convert into. However, there is no experimental proof that any object
with non-zero mass ever completely converted into energy (photons).
• Particles behave like as they have gained mass when they are moved
at high speed in particle accelerators. This observation is used as an
experimental evidence that energy can convert into mass. However, no
one has ever been successful in creating a completely new mass by only

8

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Figure 2.4: Methodology

2.4. GRAVITON AS A FUNCTIONAL BLOCK OF PHOTON

9

increasing the concentration of photons in an empty three dimensional
space. It will be shown later in Section 3.3 that any object can behave
like a heavier object without increasing its mass when moving at higher
speed.
Based on above arguments, this book assumes that:
• Mass is merely a container of photons.
• Conversion of mass into energy is a process which releases photons
which are contained in this container. Similarly, increase in the mass of
object is the process which results in increase in the number of photons
contained in this container.
• Photons contained in an atoms are released when the atom is cracked.
There is no conversion of particles which form an atom (such as protons
and neutrons) into photons when an atom is cracked. In other words,
an atom does not contain a factory to convert particles such as, electron
and photons into photons.
• Mass does not contain a factory to convert photons into particles like
electron and protons.
Mass can be represented mathematically as:
Mass =

n
X

Photoni + CP hoton

(2.5)

i=1

where
CP hoton : Container for photons
Photoni : i-th photon contained in container CP hoton
n: Total number of photons contained in container CP hoton
To understand the relationship between photons and gravitons, let’s consider an example of a container with dark green liquid. This container has
one inlet for white color liquid and one outlet for liquid to come out. This
container with dark green liquid has limited capacity. Liquid flows out for
the outlet when the container is full and there is a supply of liquid through
the inlet. Figure 2.5 illustrates such container at three different instances t1 ,
t2 and t3 , where t1 < t2 < t3 .
• Before instance t1 , the container is full of dark green liquid. At instance
t1 , white liquid start flowing inside the container. At this moment the
color of the liquid that flows out of this container is dark green.

10

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?
• At instance t2 , the color of the liquid that flows out of the container
is light green as white liquid flowing inside the container and the dark
green liquid that was originally there, has mixed.
• At instance t3 , the liquid that flows out is white as the concentration
of the dark green liquid that was originally in the container is almost
zero. At this moment, container flushes out what flows in it. Figure
2.6 illustrates how the color of the flowing out liquid changes with the
passage of time.
• Let’s assume that photon is also a container with an inlet and outlet.
Photon travels in the universe. Universe is a collection of cosmological
bodies and dark matter. Cosmological bodies and dark matter both
transfer gravitons to the photon. Thus, there is a continuous supply of
gravitons to a photon. All gravitons that enter a photon need to flow
out of photon. Photons merely acts like a channel of gravitons.

Let’s assume photon as a black box with input and output as shown in Figure
2.7. Photon receives gravitons and emits energy in the form of magnetic and
electric field. Here, let’s assume that emitted energy from the photon is also
in the form of field particles.
From our daily observation, we know that a specific quantity of mass has
limited capacity to store energy. Based on methodology of this book, we
assume that photon also has a limited storage to accommodate field particles (gravitons) it receives. Under this assumption, photon needs to emit
field particles (gravitons) it captures, as photon has limited storage capacity. In other words, photon is merely a channel of field particles (gravitons).
The exact nature of impact of passing through photons is not known. The
field particles (gravitons) may pass through photon while maintaining their
characteristics or photon may be also working as a filter which changes characteristics of gravitons when they pass through it. Under above observations,
it can be claimed that electric and magnetic fields is a form of gravity. If
gravitons can pass through the photons, it can be claimed that electromagnetic field and gravity are same force.
Electric/Magnetic field =

n
X
i=1

Gravitoni

(2.6)

2.4. GRAVITON AS A FUNCTIONAL BLOCK OF PHOTON

Figure 2.5: Container as a channel for fluid

11

12

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Figure 2.6: Change in the color of flowing out liquid

2.4. GRAVITON AS A FUNCTIONAL BLOCK OF PHOTON

Figure 2.7: Photon as a black box

13

14

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Photon acts like a temporary container of gravitons, in the same manner
as photons use mass as a temporary container.
Photon =

n
X

Gravitoni + CGraviton

(2.7)

i=1

where
CGraviton : Container of gravitons
Gravitoni : i-th graviton contained in container CGraviton
n: Total number of gravitons contained in container CGraviton
Photon’s frequency is the indicator of the energy it contains. Photon with
high frequency has more energy compared to a photon with low frequency.
Gravitons have not been detected yet so it is not known what indicates the
energy level of gravitons. For simplification purpose, this book assumes that
each graviton has a fixed amount of energy. It means high frequency photon
has large number of gravitons compared to that of a low frequency photon.
Thus, photon’s frequency is directly proportional to the number of gravitons
it contains:
fP hoton ∝ nGraviton
(2.8)
where
fP hoton : Frequency of photon
nGraviton : Number of gravitons contained in photon
Mass contains photons and each photon further contains gravitons. Large
mass such as cosmological bodies are like cloud of gravitons. Gravitons may
be using photons as a carrier for moving from one location to another. Under
this assumption, glow of the earth should also contain gravitons. Let’s see
how a falling photon can increase its frequency. Figure 2.8 illustrates a falling
photon which interacts with glow near the surface of the earth.
• Mass forming the earth contains larger number of photons. Each such
photon further contains multiple gravitons.
• When a falling photon starts traveling toward the earth’s surface, photon from the surface of the earth jumps and couples with the falling
photon.
• Gravitons transfer between these two coupled photons while they move
toward the earth.

2.4. GRAVITON AS A FUNCTIONAL BLOCK OF PHOTON

Figure 2.8: Coupling of photons to exchange gravitons

15

16

2.5

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Clouds of gravitons acting as refueling
station

Figure 2.9 illustrates how energy carrying waves travel when a stone hit a
pond full of water. The radius of energy carrying waves increases with time
while energy these waves carry decreases. Photon also carries energy and
keeps on reducing its energy (frequency) as it travels away from the source
which emitted it. Let’s assume that photon is a flying vehicle which can fly
long distance. As photon decreases its frequency while traveling, it is assumed
here that it consumes energy while traveling in free space. Let’s assume that
photon has a fuel tank with limited capacity that contains energy that photon
uses while traveling in the free space.
Photons are affected by gravity. Falling photon experiment proves that
a photon increases its frequency (energy) while moving toward the earth.
Photons also bend toward cosmological bodies while traveling in free space.
Bending toward cosmological bodies can increase the energy of photons. In
other words, gravity increases the fuel contained in the fuel tank of a photon.
To calculate how much distance a photon can travel with the energy it can
contain, let’s observe how far a photon can travel without refueling itself.
The nearest star from our solar system is about 4.3 light years. Figure 2.10
shows the travel path of a photon from nearest star to the earth. The photon
which has traveled from the nearest star is absorbed at earth. A photon takes
about 4.3 light years to travel from the star to the earth surface. The height
of the upper part of light cone is 4.3 light years. According to the concept
of time and space developed by Einstein, the equal size cone needs to exist
downward. So the total height of both cones is 8.6 light years. If the time
unit of c2 is ignored, it is almost equal to 9 light years. Thus, it can be
claimed that a photon can travel up to 9 light years with the energy it can
contain within itself. The capacity to travel 9 light years without refilling is
an over estimation of the fuel tank capacity of the photon, as space between
nearest star and the earth is almost filled with dark matter and photon can
recharge itself with the gravitons from the dark matter. Photon is capable of
traveling with energy it contains up to 9 light years. To travel further than
this distance, photon needs energy from external sources. There are stars
millions of light years away from us and a photon is incapable of traveling
such long distance. Photon needs to refill itself while traveling such long
distances.
Let’s assume dark matter is made of a specific type of particle P+ . For
every particle, there exists an antiparticle. Hence, there should also exist
antiparticle for P+ . This antiparticle is called P− here.

2.5. CLOUDS OF GRAVITONS ACTING AS REFUELING STATION 17

Figure 2.9: Travel path of energy carrying particle

18

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?
• P+ exhibits gravity. In other words, P+ transfers gravitons to photons.
• As P+ transfers gravitons to photons, P− should receive gravitons from
passing photons.
• Dark matter can be regarded as a three dimensional space with high
concentration of P+ .
• The three dimensional space where there is high concentration of P− is
called anti dark matter here.
• The free space is a combination of dark and anti-dark matter.
• As photon always loses energy while traveling, it can be claimed that
the quantity of anti dark matter is larger than that of dark matter in
the free space.
This book suggests that:
• Photon is like a aircraft which can be refueled during its flight.
• Photon starts its flight from one galaxy.
• Photon travels on a path during its flight which passes near cosmological bodies.
• Photon keeps on refueling its energy reserves by passing by the cosmological bodies or making rotations around the cosmological body.
• Photon finishes its flight, when it reaches to its destination. It stays at
this destination before embarking on a new trip.

Figure 2.11 illustrate how the photon flies from one cosmological body
to another, when they are at a distance of more than 9 × 1016 meters. The
photon grazes the surface of different cosmological bodies (or makes round
trip around the cosmological bodies) and refuels itself. It continues the process of consuming energy and utilizing it, until it reaches to its destination.
A fixed angle at which the photon bends toward the surface of sun has been
an area of interest. This book postulates a new theory suggesting that:
• The angle at which a photon bends toward the cosmological body while
grazing it depends upon the quantity of energy this photon needs. A
photon may make round trips around the cosmological bodies until its
energy need is fulfilled. The number of round trips a photon make
around the cosmological body depends on its energy need.

2.5. CLOUDS OF GRAVITONS ACTING AS REFUELING STATION 19
• Two photon traveling from the same point A to point B, may have different angle of bending (or number of round trips) toward the cosmological body depending upon the initial energy state (photon frequency),
with which they started their journey.
• It is not necessary that the all the photon leaving a star flies toward the
same destination. A photons may have multiple destinations which it
grazes. There is also a possibility that photons leaving a cosmological
body may have different final destinations.
• This book suggests that photons might be rotating around the cosmological bodies to recharge themselves with gravitons. Based on this,
the angle of bending can be also treated as the difference between the
angle at which the photon started its round trip around the cosmological bodies and the angle at which it left the cosmological body after
recharging itself.
In short, it can that claimed that the Gravity (collection of gravitons) becomes
fuel for photons to enable them travel from one destinations to another destination. It is believed so far that gravity makes one cosmological body rotate
around another and gravity has no other role in the functioning of the light
and matter. This theory can be regarded as a major discovery of link between
gravitons and the photons.
As any mass is regarded as a container of photons, it can be claimed
that any mass including cosmological bodies can travel up to 9 light years
with the energy they contain. In case, the cosmological body with mass m
is at rest, the energy it contains can be used to move an object of mass m a
distance of 9 light years.

20

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Figure 2.10: Maximum distance photon can travel without refueling

2.5. CLOUDS OF GRAVITONS ACTING AS REFUELING STATION 21

Figure 2.11: Journey path of photon using clouds of gravitons as refueling
station

22

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

2.6

Gravity and glow from early universe

In 1965, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered microwave that was
same in whatever direction the microwave detector was pointed out. It was
same through out the year. The detected microwave was assumed to be a
glow from early universe. This book suggests some other possible explanations for existence of such microwave.
The earth has a special place in the universe
Let’s assume a spherical space with very large radius which has our earth
at its center. The boundary of this spherical space has very large number
of same kind of uniformly distributed stars. Photons emitted by these star
reach our earth. With this kind of universe structure, microwave antenna
should be able to detect microwaves regardless of the direction it is pointed
out.
Our universe is enclosed in a container with mirror like inner
surface
Let’s assume a spherical container which has mirror like inner surface and
contains our universe. Photons from cosmological bodies cannot escape this
container as they always get reflected from mirror like inner surface of the
container. This kind of structure can help universe function without photons
being wasted in traveling infinite space where there is no matter which needs
interaction with these photons. The earth in such container can receive photons from all directions. However, photons received on the earth will not be
same in all directions unless;
• Inner walls of the above spherical container act like photon energizer.
Photons from different cosmological bodies that reach the inner wall of
container are energized to a fixed level of frequency and then reflected
back into the space within the container.
• The earth or our solar system exists at almost the center of this container.
The earth is traveling at a speed larger than c
Let’s assume that the detected microwave is really a glow from early universe
and creation of universe started from a specific space and time coordinate. If
after the Big Bang, both light and origin of matter forming our earth started
travel in the same direction from this specific space and time coordinate,
then
(2.9)
dEarth = dGlow = vEarth t = vGlow t
where
dEarth : Distance traveled by the earth since the Big Bang

2.6. GRAVITY AND GLOW FROM EARLY UNIVERSE

23

dGlow : Distance traveled by the glow since the Big Bang
vEarth : Velocity with which the earth traveled since the Big Bang
vGlow : Velocity with which the early glow traveled since the Big Bang
t : Time since the Big Bang
As modern physics assumes that light’s speed is constant, Equation 2.9 can
be satisfied only in case when average speed of the earth and the glow (light)
has been exactly same since the time of universe creation. If glow from early
universe is arriving on the earth now, it means that the earth and the glow
are in close race, where sometimes glow travels faster than the earth and
sometimes the earth travels faster than the glow. It also means that even
now our earth is traveling toward a specific target with at least speed of
light. Any such explanation negates two follow important rules which form
the basis of modern physics:
• Speed of light is constant
• Mass cannot travel faster than light
The other possibility is that the Big Bang happened at the point where our
earth exists now and since then the early glow from the universe remained
attached to our earth.
Cosmological bodies are energy hub
Cosmological body (the earth) receives energy within a specific frequency
range (microwave). It is also known that cosmological bodies (stars) have
unique spectrum. Based on these two facts, it can be suggested that cosmological body is an energy transformer which changes received energy to new
frequency and then distributes it to different points in the universe. It indicates the possibility that cosmological bodies in our universe play a specific
energy transmission role while being part of a very huge energy distribution
network.
Photons need gravitons concentrated in matter for their survival
The possible mechanism, due to which glow from early universe can be still
detected on the earth can be due to existence of some kind of bond (relationship) between light and matter (cloud of gravitons). Due to this bond
light (glow) needed to remain in vicinity of matter (the earth). In this scenario, glow from early universe and the origin of matter forming our earth
started travel in the same direction at the same time. The earth traveled at a
speed less than the speed of light while glow kept attached to the earth while
traveling in vicinity of the earth at the speed of 3 ∗ 108 meters. Microwave
detector can detect microwave regardless of direction it is pointed out, as
even now significant quantity of this glow is moving in vicinity of around this
earth due to some kind of bond (relationship) between light and matter.

24

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

2.7

Energy needs of cosmological bodies

The gravitational constant which forms the basis of Newton’s Universal Law
of Gravitation is not constant on different locations on the earth. Different
locations on the earth have different value of Gravitational Constant, casting doubt that the current gravitational mathematical relationship can be
applied to the whole universe in its current form. Newton’s Universal Law
of Gravitation has two main concepts:
• Smaller mass orbits around larger mass.
• Force making the smaller body rotate around the larger body reduces
when distance between smaller and larger cosmological bodies increase.
This book suggests that our universe is too complex to be described by a simple Gravitational Constant. Let’s evaluate the validity of the mathematical
relationship proposed by Newton. Let’s assume that there are two types of
object A and B with characteristics:
Mass of an object OA of type A = m
Mass of an object OB of type B = m/p
p = An integer value
Distance between the centers of object OA and object OB = r
OA attracts Ob toward itself, or in other words, OA releases gravitational
waves (the group of particles known as gravitons) toward OB . The extent of
the force F released by OA is given as:
F =

Gm2
=k
pr2

(2.10)

where
G: Gravitational constant
Let’s assume another object OC with the same mass as OB is brought in
proximity to OA at the distance r. Now the total energy released by the OA
is given as:
F = 2k
(2.11)
When n number of bodies are brought in proximity to OA at distance r, the
total energy released by is OA given as:
F = nk

(2.12)

n→∞⇒F →∞

(2.13)

In the case, n approaches infinites, F becomes infinite too. The relationship
means a limited amount of mass in our galaxy can release infinite amount of

2.7. ENERGY NEEDS OF COSMOLOGICAL BODIES

25

energy, which is against the basic understanding of modern physics. Figure
2.12 illustrates this concept. It is interested to know how cosmological bodies
gain energy they need to perform their tasks. In the subsequent sub sections,
the energy contained in sun and the earth is discussed.

2.7.1

Energy needs of sun

It is believed that gravitational force by sun is responsible for rotation of
the earth around it. The earth is assumed to be 4.5 billion years old. Let’s
calculate whether sun posses enough energy to be able to rotate the earth
continuously around itself for 4.5 billion years. To calculate the energy sun
can contain, following generally accepted values are used:
Mass of the earth mEarth = 6 × 1024 kg
Mass of sun mSun = 2 × 1030 kg
Radius of the earth rEarth = 6.4 × 106 m
Radius of sun rSun = 1.7 × 106 m
Mean radius of the earth’s orbit REarth = 1.5 × 1011 m
Assuming that there is no other cosmological body rotating around the sun
except the earth, then the distance (meters) sun is able to move the earth is
given by:
mSun
dSun,Earth = 9 × 1016
= 3 × 1022 m
(2.14)
mEarth
Number of rotations the earth has made around the sun since its birth (4.5
billion years) is equal to:
nEarth = 4.5 × 109

(2.15)

Total distance traveled by the earth so far is given by:
dEarth = 2πREarth × 4.5 × 109 = 4.24 × 1021 m

(2.16)

These calculations show that the sun has consumed significant part of energy
it can contains in rotating the earth around its orbit during the last 4.5 billion
years.
According to this book, it is clear that the earth can travel only 9 × 1016
meters by using all the energy it contains. This distance is much less than
the distance already the earth has traveled.
The solar system consists of nine follow planets:
• Mercury
• Venus

26

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Figure 2.12: Mass as limited source of energy

2.7. ENERGY NEEDS OF COSMOLOGICAL BODIES

27

• The earth
• Mars
• Jupiter
• Saturn
• Uranus
• Neptune
• Pluto
Now, let’s pay attention to Jupiter and see whether sun has enough energy
to be able to rotate other planets like Jupiter. The distance sun can move
Jupiter by using all the energy it can contains is given by:
dSun,Jupiter = 9 × 1016

mSun
= 9.47 × 1019
mJupiter

(2.17)

mJupiter : 317.8 times of the earth’s mass.
Assuming that Jupiter and the earth both came into being 4.5 billion years
ago at the same time, then the number of rotations Jupiter has made around
the sun are given as:
nJupiter =

4.5 × 109
= 3.79 × 108
11.86

(2.18)

Assuming that Jupiter is rotating in a circle, the total distance Jupiter has
traveled since it came into existence 4.5 billion years ago is given by:
dJupiter = 2πRJupiter n = 1.85 × 1021

(2.19)

where
RJupiter : Orbital radius of Jupiter which is 5.20 AU
1 Astronomical Unit (AU): 1.5 × 1011 meters
From the calculations, it is obvious that the sun does not contain enough
energy to rotate Jupiter around it for 4.5 billion years even when it uses all
the energy it can contain. According to this book, Jupiter should not be
able to travel more than 9 × 1016 meters by using all energy it contains. This
distance is much less than the distance Jupiter already has traveled.

28

2.7.2

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Energy needs of moon

The distance the earth is capable of rotating moon around is given by:
dEarth,M oon = 9 × 1016

mEarth
= 7.7 × 1018
mM oon

(2.20)

where
Mass of the earth mEarth = 6 × 1024 kg
Mass of moon mM oon = 7 × 1022 kg
Assuming that the moon came into existence 4.5 billion years ago at the
same time as the earth. The number of rotations moon has made around the
earth is given as:
nM oon =

4.5 × 109 × 365
= 6.0 × 1010
27

(2.21)

The total distance traveled by the moon since its existence 4.5 billion years
is given as:
dM oon = 2πRM oon nM oon = 1.5 × 1020 m
(2.22)
here,
Radius of Moon’s orbit around the earth RM oon = 4 × 108 m
It is obvious that even when the earth uses all the energy it can contain, it is
not possible for the earth to rotate the moon around its orbit for 4.5 billion
years.

2.8. ENERGY NEEDS OF ATOM

2.8

29

Energy needs of atom

It is evident from the examples of cosmological bodies that they do not contain enough energy to perform their current tasks. Let’s investigate whether
or not proton contains enough energy to able to rotate electron around its
orbit. Here, let’s assume that the earth which contains this atom itself is not
in motion.
Hydrogen is the simplest element consisting of only one proton and one
electron. It is thought that hydrogen atom was formed 700000 years after
the Big Bang. The Big Bang is thought to have occurred 15 Billion years
ago. For simplification purpose, the life of the hydrogen atom is assumed
to 15 billion years here. The total distance electron can travel using energy
contained in the proton is given as:
dP roton,Electron = 9 × 1016

mP roton
= 1.68 × 1020 m
mElectron

(2.23)

where
Mass of electron mElectron = 9.1 × 10−31 kg
Mass of proton mP roton = 1.7 × 10−27 kg
No one ever has been able to directly observe the time an electron spends
in making one rotation around the proton. This work reverse calculates
the distance, electron would have traveled in last 15 billion years if all of
the energy proton can contains is used rotating electron. Here, the energy
electron uses to spin around its own axis is ignored. The distance electron
has so far traveled average in one second is given as:
dElectron =

dP roton,Electron
= 355.15m/sec
15 × 109 × 365 × 24 × 3600

(2.24)

The above calculations exclude the energy, proton uses to bind to other
protons in the matter. A object traveling at 355.15 m/sec can be easily
observed. Based on the calculated values, it can be claimed that the proton
may not be capable of rotating electron around its orbit for 15 billion years,
even when if it uses all the energy it can contain.

30

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

2.9

Flow of gravity in the universe

In the case of cosmological bodies, it is evident that they do not contain
enough energy to perform the task, they had been performing for a very long
time.
• The earth is incapable of rotating moon using all the energy it can
contain.
• The sun is incapable of rotating planets around it using all energy it
can contain.
Releasing major part of energy from any object can make it useless. Let’s
see how cosmological bodies can meet their energy needs.
• Moon does not contain enough energy of its own which can enable it
to rotate around the earth. The nearest possible channel of energy can
be the planet (the earth) around which it is rotating. In other words,
the planet (the earth) channels energy to the moon which enables the
moon to keep on traveling in an orbit around the planet (the earth).
The other possibility is that moon gets energy from the sun and reflects
it toward different parts of the earth while rotating around the earth.
Here, only first possibility is considered.
• The planet (the earth) itself is rotating around the star (sun). The
planet (the earth) itself has not enough energy , which could have
enabled it keep on rotating around the star (sun). At the same time,
the planet (the earth) also becomes path of energy flow to the moon.
To be able to travel around the star (sun) and rotate moon in orbits,
requires the supply of external energy. The star (sun) around which
the planet (the earth) rotates can be path of the flow of this energy.
• Sun (star) is moving in an orbit around another star. Sun (star) needs
energy for its own movement around another star and also for rotating
planets around itself. The center of galaxy can be the path of flow of
this energy.
• Let’s assume galaxies are moving on specific paths. Galaxies need
energy to supply to stars it contain and also for movement of galaxies
on specific paths. Galaxies need supply of energy from specific point
in the universe.
From the above observations, it can be concluded that:

2.9. FLOW OF GRAVITY IN THE UNIVERSE

31

• There is a very powerful flow of energy coming from some specific point
in the universe.
• The cosmological bodies acts as reflectors of this energy to other smaller
bodies. In other words, there exists a huge infrastructure of energy
supply to the universe, using cosmological bodies as energy reflectors/channels.
It has been observed that:
• Cosmological bodies are made of matter. Matter is a container of energy.
• From energy point of view, the matter is a consumer of energy and at
the same time matter is a path through which energy passes on its way
to its destination. Matter is like a vehicle which is without fuel. To be
able to move or function, it needs fuel from outside.
• The universe to be able to function, there is a need a source which
contain very massive quantity of energy. This source supplies energy to
mass. At the time of universe creation, this source was at the maximum
level of energy. With the passage of time, the energy this source is
supplying to the universe is dropping. At a certain point in future, the
universe will be without energy to be able to function.
• As energy supply drops, everything in the universe becomes slower
including the speed of photons.
Figure 2.13 and Figure 2.14 shows how the cosmological bodies can act
as a distributor of photons/gravitons. Figure 2.14 also shows two flow of
gravitons/photons toward moon. First flow is from the earth which moon
uses for moving around the earth and the other flow of gravitons/photons is
from sun, which moon diverts toward the earth. In other words, moon is an
energy reflector from sun toward the earth. Moon gets energy from the earth
for rotating around the earth and while rotating around the earth distribute
gravitons/photons from sun toward different parts of the earth. Figure 2.15
shows how atom acts like an energy hub.

32

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Figure 2.13: Gravitons/photons distribution to galaxies

2.9. FLOW OF GRAVITY IN THE UNIVERSE

Figure 2.14: Gravitons travel paths within galaxy

33

34

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Figure 2.15: Atom as an energy hub

2.10. GRAVITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ORBITS/SPIN

2.10

35

Gravity and characteristics of orbits/spin

This book suggests:
• Moving in orbits can help smaller objects reflect gravitons/photons to
different parts of the larger object. Moving in orbits can also help
smaller object gravitons/photons from larger objects.
• Rotation of a smaller object can help smaller object gain gravitons/photons
from different parts of the larger object.
• The radius of the orbit depends upon the energy needs of the smaller
and larger object. Object which needs larger quantity of energy, remains near the larger body to capture more gravitons/photons. The
body which does not need much energy remains at a larger distance.
Similarly when smaller object is acting as a reflector of energy toward
larger body, the distance between the larger and smaller body depend
on the energy need of the larger body.
• Shape of the orbit depends upon the energy need of the object as
illustrated in Figure 2.16.
Round Orbit Objects which consume gravitons quickly need to remain at a constant distance from the larger mass. This leads to a
smaller object rotating around a larger mass in circle.
Eclipse Orbit Objects which have some good capacity to store additional gravitons are able to move larger distance away from the
larger mass. These objects store energy and travel far away. When
they have used major part of their stored energy, they come back
near the larger body to refill gravitons. It leads to an orbit in
eclipse shape.
• Angle of inclination of the orbit around the larger mass also depends
upon the energy needs of the smaller objects. The gravitational constant G is not constant on all points of the earth. It may lead to the
conclusion that the density of gravitons/photons that are released from
the surface of the earth is not constant at all points of the surface. The
orbit at an inclined path may be helping capture gravitons according
to needs of an object.
The earth rotates around its own axis and similarly particles like electron
also spin around their own axis. The particles are classified according the
direction of spin and the extent of spin using number like 0, 1 and 2. This
work suggests that:

36

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?
• Spin helps particle capture gravitons on all sides the surface of the
object.
• As illustrated in Figure 2.17 the area A receives and stores the gravitons/photons when it is directly facing the larger body. With the spin
of the object area A, it moves toward opposite side and consumes the
gravitons/photons stored. Spin rotation around own axis helps all areas
of the object gain gravitons/photons.
• The speed of the spin depends upon how fast the received gravitons/photons
are consumed. The objects which consume gravitons/photons very
quickly and do not have larger graviton storage spin quickly. The objects which consume gravitons slowly and/or do have a good graviton
storage capacity, spins slowly.
• The direction of the spin (clockwise or anti clockwise) need not to be
of very significance as rotating in clockwise or anti-clockwise both can
help meet the gravitons/photons demands of the object. The direction
of the spin depends upon the initial conditions when objects started its
spin.
• The objects which does not spin around own axis while rotating along
a larger mass, can be described as objects which have a well developed
gravitons/photons distribution system within themselves. Only one
surface of the object receives gravitons/photons and gravitons/photons
get distributed well throughout the inner of the object without need to
have opposite sides directly getting exposed to gravitons/photons from
larger body.

2.10. GRAVITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ORBITS/SPIN

Figure 2.16: Shape of orbit depending on energy needs

37

38

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Figure 2.17: Rotation around own axis

2.11. GRAVITY AND PAULI’S EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE

2.11

39

Gravity and Pauli’s Exclusion Principle

Pauli’s Exclusion Principle says that there can be no two electron in the same
orbit with the exactly same state. However, there are some situations where
Pauli’s Exclusion Principle does not seems to be useful, such as in case:
• Assume, there are two smaller object A and B, which are rotating
around object C.
• Object A and B are both made of uniform density matter and consume
only one type of field particle in equal quantity.
• Object C has a supply of type of field particle which both, object A
and object B consume.
• In case, C has sufficient supply of field particle which can meet the
energy demand of both A and B, A and B can exist in the same orbit
while spinning around their own axis in the same direction (clockwise
or anticlockwise).
However, there are cases in which Pauli’s Exclusion Principle seems useful.
The top part of Figure 2.18 illustrates a case, in which the smaller body
(electron) is rotating around a larger body (nucleus).
• The electron has two sides A and B with equal surface area ae .
• Side A and B of the smaller body has different roles.
• Side A and side B requires different types of field particles or the same
type of field particles in different quantity to perform their roles.
The bottom part of Figure 2.18 shows:
• Two electrons in an orbit spinning around their own axis in two different
directions. One electron spins in clockwise direction, while the other
electron spins in anti-clockwise.
• Lift hand side figure shows the case, when side A of both electrons is
facing the same direction, while right hand side shows a situation when
the side of each electron is in opposite direction to each other.
The important features of such arrangement are:

40

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Case 1 When both electrons face A is facing the same direction (bottom
left side of the Figure 2.18) while they are spinning around their own
axis, both electrons are able to capture gravitons using all parts of the
surface A. Maximum area that gets directly get exposed at any instance
during one spin is equal to 2ae .
Case 2 When both electrons face A is facing opposite directions (bottom
right side of the Figure 2.18) while they are spinning around their own
axis, the maximum total area from both electron that directly gets
exposed to the larger mass is equal to ae .
Pauli’s Exclusion Principle can be useful for electrons only in situations such
as :
• In case 2, when the larger mass is able to pass field particles that can
meet field particles requirement of only one electrons at any instance.
By coordinating the the angle of spin of surfaces A (for example, two
electrons place their surface A in complete opposite directions and rotates in opposite directions at the same rate), the both electrons are
able to meet their field particles requirements.
• In case 2, where
- Larger body emits two different types of field particles gY and gZ
meeting field particles requirements of area A and area B, respectively.
- The gravitons gY and gZ are emitted during the same interval t.
- The supply of field particles gY and gZ is not sufficient enough to
meet all the requirements of 2 electrons during the interval t.
- By coordinating the angle of spin of surfaces A (for example, two
electrons place their surface A in complete opposite directions and
start rotating in opposite directions at the same rate), the both
electrons are able to meet their energy requirement.
• The above discussion indicates that there is a limited supply of energy
and objects/particles need to act in a coordinate manner to meet their
energy needs.

2.11. GRAVITY AND PAULI’S EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE

Figure 2.18: Spin in opposite direction

41

42

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

2.12

Experiments to confirm gravity and light
link

It can be easily confirmed with experiment that photon carries gravitons or
in other words, gravity is the basic functional block of light.
• During the day time, a certain point on the earth gets direct sunlight. If
these photons from sun really carry gravitons with them, there should
be a higher concentration of gravitons on the surface of the earth during
the day time. Thus, the earth’s surface should show higher gravity
during the day time.
• During the night time, a certain point on the earth do not get direct
sunlight. If photons from sun really carry gravitons with them, there
should be less concentration of gravitons on the surface of the earth
during the night time. Thus, the earth’s surface should show lower
gravity during the night time.
• Falling photon or falling object experiment should show different results in day and night time if photons from sun really carry gravitons
with them. In case of falling photon, falling photon can show different speed and/or frequency during day and night. In case of falling
object, different results can be in the form of different kinetic energy
that falling object transfers. Objects might have different falling speed
during day and night time.
• Falling photon experiment can be done in open desert where there is
very less chances of interference from external magnetic fields.
• Falling photon experiment can be carried out throughout the year to
see impact of weather on gravity.
The sea level rises during the night time. The rise in the level of sea is
contributed to gravity from moon. However, sea level rise can also be due
the earth exerting less gravity on sea water during night time. If above
experiment shows different behavior of photon during day and night, it can
be claimed that objects are lighter during the night due to reduction in
concentration of gravitons on the surface of the earth.

2.13. CONFIRMING THE FLOW OF GRAVITY

2.13

43

Confirming the flow of gravity

According to this book, there is a very well coordinated energy chain in the
universe:
• A source somewhere in the universe, is the main source of gravitons to
the universe.
• These gravitons gets disturbed in the universe through a very coordinated way.
• Photon carries these gravitons and deliver them to objects which need
them as a source of energy.
This energy chain can be experimentally confirmed. A mechanical system
should slow down when it is placed in darkness. Figure 2.19 shows an example of experiment. Any motor placed in complete darkness should show a
different behavior compared to the system which is not placed in the darkness.

44

CHAPTER 2. WHAT IS GRAVITY?

Figure 2.19: Mechanical system in complete darkness

Chapter 3
Logical structure of mass
This chapter discusses the logical structure of mass and their advanced capability to interact with surrounding environment.

3.1

Mechanism to exchange particles

Hertz, Hallwach, J. J. Thomson, Philip and Einstein contributed to develop
understanding of photoelectric effect. Figure 3.1 shows the details of different
parts forming the photoelectric effect apparatus. Electrons are emitted when
light falls on a metallic plate.
In photoelectric effect:
• Electron emitted from the surface of the metallic emitter have different
velocities.
• The maximum kinetic energy Kmax of the emitted electron does not
dependent on the intensity of the light which falls on the surface of the
metallic emitter.
• Kmax increases with the frequency of light as shown in Figure 3.2.
Einstein was awarded Noble Prize in year 1922 for his contribution to
physics by developing theory about photoelectric effect. According to Einstein’s theory of photoelectric effect, relationship between Kmax and the energy of incident photon is given by:
Kmax = hf − φ
where
Kmax : Maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electron
45

(3.1)

46

CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Figure 3.1: Photoelectric effect apparatus

3.1. MECHANISM TO EXCHANGE PARTICLES

Figure 3.2: Relationship between Kmax and the intensity of light

47

48

CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

hf : Energy of the photon
φ: Work function of the metal
φ is described as minimum energy an electron needs to leave the metal and
is given by:
φ = hf0
(3.2)
It is thought that energy of photon is directly proportional to its frequency:
(3.3)
E∝f
Let’s assume a photoelectric experiment, in which only monochrome light
source is used to incident photons on the metallic emitter. In this case, all
measurable quantities in Equation 3.1 are constant:
Kmax = C1 = Constant

(3.4)

h = C2 = Constant

(3.5)

f = C3 = Constant

(3.6)

φ = C4 = Constant

(3.7)

Equation 3.1 can be rewritten as:
C1 = C2 C3 − C4

(3.8)

Figure 3.3 shows photons falling on atoms that exist at the surface of the
metal. Photons can be absorbed by both nucleus and electrons orbiting
the nucleus. A single electron has a chance to absorb energy from multiple
photons on three different occasions:
• While electron is bound to the nucleus of metal.
• While electron is released from the atom and is still inside the metal.
• While electron is in the space outside the surface of the metal and is
moving toward the electrons collector in the photoelectric device.
Total probability of electron to meet photons in a unit time in photoelectric
device can be described by the relationship:
pcollision = min(p1 + p2 + p3 , 1)

(3.9)

where
pcollision : Total probability of the electron to meet the photons in a unit time
in the photoelectric device

3.1. MECHANISM TO EXCHANGE PARTICLES

49

p1 : Probability of the electron to meet photons while the electron is still
bound to the metal nucleus
p2 : Probability of electron to meet the photons, while electron is released
from nucleus and is moving toward the surface of the metal after gaining
energy from photons
p3 : Probability of electron to meet the photons, while electron is outside
the surface of the metal and is moving toward the electron collector in the
photoelectric device
It is obvious that probability of a single electron to meet photons increases
as the number of photons falling on the metallic emitter increases. The
relationship can be described as:
pcollision ∝ nphoton

(3.10)

where
nphoton : Number of photons that falls on the unit surface area of the metallic
emitter in a certain period of time
Theoretically, Kmax should increase with increase in nphoton :
Kmax ∝ pcollision ∝ nphoton

(3.11)

In photoelectric effect, increasing the intensity or the number of photons
falling on the metallic emitter surface does not increase the value of Kmax .
Kmax is constant when monochrome light falls on the metallic emitter.
Kmax = C1

(3.12)

This book suggests that electron does not absorb more energy than hf regardless of having a chance to do so. To understand the mechanism of energy
transfer between electron and photon, let’s assume two patterns of energy
transfer between electron and photons in photoelectric effect.
Pattern 1: One electron interacts with only one photon.
Pattern 2: One electron interacts with multiple photons.
Let’s look at these patterns in details.
Pattern 1:
In this pattern, which is much simpler compared to the pattern 2, a single
electron absorbs only one photon in a certain period of time. After the
electron has absorbed the energy from photon, it no longer accepts further

50

CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Figure 3.3: Absorption of photons by metal

3.1. MECHANISM TO EXCHANGE PARTICLES

51

energy from other photons. The electron gets the energy equal to hf when
a single photon has transferred all its energy to the electron.
Kmax = hf − φ

(3.13)

This book suggests that energy transfer between electron and photon is not an
event that is repeated many times, but is a single discrete event which happens
only once within a certain period of time. This pattern of interaction can be
realized through different ways such as:
• An electron is capable of absorbing energy from only one photon within
a certain period of time.
• A photon collides with only those electrons which have not gained energy from any other photon within a certain period of time.
• An electron and group of photons avoid each other after there has
been an energy transfer among an electron and other photons within a
certain period of time.
Second and third reasons indicate the intelligent behavior of electron and
photons, in which electron and photons are capable of sensing one another
and making complex decisions.
Controlled transfer of energy with the surrounding environment is an essential feature of living cells like bacteria. Figure 3.4 shows the basic structure
of bacteria.
The cytoplasmic membrane contains pores through which nutrients, wastes
and other products of the cell pass through as shown in Figure 3.5. Cell only
takes the amount of the nutrients, it can consume. It is the exactly the behavior of the electrons in the photoelectric effect. This book claims that
particles have the capability to interact with environment intelligently.
Figure 3.6 shows docks on the surface of particle (such as photons and
electrons), on the same pattern as the pores on the cytoplasmic membrane.
The reason the docks on the surface of particle have not been observed yet,
can be contributed to the fact that science has not yet progressed to the
stage where the surface of small particles could be directly observed.
Pattern 2:
In this pattern, energy that a single electron accumulates is a sum of energy
transfers from multiple photons. Let’s assume n photons transferred their
energy to electron in a certain period of time and each of these photons

52

CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Figure 3.4: Basic structure of bacteria

3.1. MECHANISM TO EXCHANGE PARTICLES

Figure 3.5: Pores on the surface of cells

53

54

CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Figure 3.6: Surface of particle with docks to exchange field particles

3.1. MECHANISM TO EXCHANGE PARTICLES

55

transferred only a part of the total energy it has. In this case, total energy
transferred to the electron is given as:
Esum = hf

n
X

ki

(3.14)

i=1

Here, ki is the fraction of the total energy of photon i that is transferred to
the electron. However, according to Equation 3.1, the condition below need
to be satisfied.
n
(hf

X

ki − φ) ≤ Kmax

(3.15)

i=1
n
X

ki ≤ Constant

(3.16)

i=1

The above condition can be satisfied, only when the photons and/or electrons
have an intelligent behavior or in other words they have processing power to
make complex decisions. Figure 3.7 shows the simplest behavior by which
Equation 3.16 can be satisfied. A group of photons queues before the electron
to transfer the energy. Different photons transfer a part of energy to the
electron, until it is filled to the level hf . The different intelligent aspects of
this kind of energy transfer are:
• Photons are capable to determine current level of stored energy in electron.
• Electrons are capable to acknowledge the current level of energy stored
in them.
• Electron and photons are capable to follow a protocol of energy transfer.
Electron and photon need to have sophisticated functionality to perform such
energy transfer.

56

CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Figure 3.7: Complex behavior of electron and photons

3.2. ARRAY OF PARTICLES ACTING AS DNA

3.2

57

Array of particles acting as DNA

Mass is a collection of atoms. Each atom further contains smaller particles
like protons and electrons. Electrons exist in orbits around nucleus in specific
order. Specific arrangements of electrons define the behavior of the atom.
Array of electrons is specific order define the behavior of atom. Living objects
are collection of biological cells. Biological cells behavior is controlled by
array of particles called DNA. In section 3.1, it has been observed that mass
(a collection of particles) behaves like biological cells. Biological cell contain
DNA which contains coded instructions controlling how the cell behaves.
DNA is made of four types of base known as adenine (A), cytosine (C),
guanine (G), and thymine (T). DNA can be treated like a long series of
these bases. Here, this book assumes that DNA of particle is also made
of these four types of bases, which are represented in this book as 00, 01,
10 and 11. A series of these bases controls the behavior of the particle.
In section 3.1 it has been observed that particle can also contain docks for
exchange of particles in the same pattern as biological cells. As particle is
a much smaller structure compared to biological cells, this book represents
0 as a dock (pore) without a photon and 1 as a dock (pore) with a photon.
As DNA is a coded instruction which need to be transmitted, this book
assumes a communication bus between the coded instructions (DNA) and
the photons which behave according to these coded instruction. In Figure
3.8, left side of the communication base represents the coded instructions and
the right side of the communication base represents the photons which follow
the coded instructions received through the communication bus. Figure 3.8
illustrate the logical view of mass according to this book. It is a also our daily
observation that exposing any matter to light changes its characteristics.
Logical view of matter as illustrated in Figure 3.8 can be true, if photon can
drop their speed to zero. Let’s consider the example of tennis ball which
strikes a wall and bounces back as shown in Figure 3.9
Speed of tennis ball reduces to zero at the moment tennis ball strikes the
wall as shown in Figure 3.10.
Now let’s assume that photon is like a tennis ball which strikes and
bounces back from a hurdle (mirror) as shown in Figure 3.11.
The moment photon strikes the mirror, it drops its speed to zero. After
striking the mirror, photon changes its direction of motion and accelerates
itself to c in a very short period of time as shown in Figure 3.12. Based on
this observation, it can be claimed that photon has the capability to drop its
speed to zero. If it is insisted that the space surrounding the mirror is a free
space, then according to Einstein, speed of photon must increase from zero
to c in no time as photon must always travel at c in free space.

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CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Figure 3.8: Mass as a container of photons

3.2. ARRAY OF PARTICLES ACTING AS DNA

Figure 3.9: Tennis ball striking a wall

Figure 3.10: Change in speed of tennis ball

59

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CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Figure 3.11: Photon being reflected from a mirror

Figure 3.12: Change in speed of photon

3.3. ABILITY TO ADJUST EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS

61

According to the methodology as described in Figure 2.4, every large
particle is formed by the repetition of the same process which forms the
smaller particle. Based on this methodology, let’s assume that photon has
the same structure as mass in Figure 3.8. Figure 3.13 shows the logical
view of photon as a container of gravitons. Figure 3.13 can also mean that
photon behave differently in proximity of different cosmological bodies. In
section 3.1, it has been observed that mass (a collection of particles) behaves
like biological cells. As mentioned before too, biological cell contain DNA
which contains coded instructions controlling how the cell behave. DNA is
made of four types of bases known as adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine
(G), and thymine (T). DNA can be treated like a long series of these bases.
Here, this book assumes that DNA of photon is also made of four types of
bases, which are represented in this book as 00, 01, 10 and 11. A series
of these bases controls the behavior of photon. In section 3.1 it has been
observed that particle can also contain docks for exchange of particles in
the same pattern as biological cells. As photon is a much smaller structure
compared to biological cells, this book represents 0 as a dock without a
graviton and 1 as a dock with a graviton. As DNA is a coded instruction
which need to be conveyed, this book assumes a communication bus between
the coded instructions (DNA) and the gravitons which behave according to
these coded instruction. In Figure 3.13, left side of the communication base
represents the coded instructions and the right side of the communication
base represents the gravitons which follow the coded instructions received
through the communication bus.

3.3

Ability to adjust external dimensions

It has been discussed that energy transfer is a controlled process and particles
do not accept more energy than a certain limit within a certain period of
time. Assuming that there are docks on the external surface of the particle
to accommodate field particles, there are two possible mechanisms through
which flow of field particles can be controlled:
• Reducing the diameter of dock will stop the flow of field particle when
dock’s diameter becomes smaller than the dimensions of the field particle, in case field particle has dimension, .
• Reducing the number of dock can also control the flow of field particles.
Number of docks on a specific surface can reduced if some of the docks
closes themselves or the surface containing these docks wraps itself to
hide the docks.

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CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Figure 3.13: Photon as a container of gravitons

3.3. ABILITY TO ADJUST EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS

63

It is a very common characteristic of the material that:
• Material reduces its volume under influence of external force.
• Material partially or fully restores to its original volume when external
force does not last for long period of time.
• Strong force for extended period of time permanently changes the shape
of the material.
Changing shapes to reduce the force on the body is a well known characteristics of objects. For example:
• Stones with sharp corners when placed in strong water current, will
gradually change the shape of their corners.
• Birds like eagle while diving at a high speed, reduce the width of their
wings.
• The sample principle is used in aircrafts, the area of the wing in the
direction of the motion is increased when aircraft is landing or taking
off. While flying at high speed, the area of the wing in the direction
of the motion is reduced in order to reduce the force experienced by
wings.
In short, there is a possibility that particles can control the flow of field
particles through the docks on the external surface of the particle during
energy exchange. The energy transfer through the docks can be controlled
by reducing the number of docks on the external surface or by reducing the
size of the docks.
To understand how particles under strong flow of field particles can adjust the number of captured field particles through docks on their external
surface, let’s assume a three dimensional three space Z containing particle P
with three dimensions. The dimensions of the space Z is given by:
L: Length of the space Z
W : Width of the space Z
H: Height of the space Z
All boundary walls of the space Z are at right angle to each adjacent wall,
meaning that the space Z is a box shaped space with corners at the following
(x,y,z) co-ordinates.
( 0, 0, 0 ),(L, 0, 0 ),(0, W, 0 ),( 0, 0, H )
( L,W,0 ),( 0, W, H ),( L, 0, H ),(L, W, H)
Let’s assume a particle P which exists in space Z and have following dimensions:

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CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

l: Length of the particle P
w: Width of the particle P
h: Height of the particle P
All boundary walls of the particle P are at right angle to each adjacent wall,
meaning that particle P is a box shaped particle. Let’s assume that particle P
is smaller than the space Z. Under this assumption, dimension relationships
between particle P and the space Z are:
l < L/4

(3.17)

w < W/4

(3.18)

h < H/4

(3.19)

The volume v of the particle P is given by:
v = lwh

(3.20)

Figure 3.14 shows such space.
Let’s assume a force F which exists in space Z. This force F is in single
direction, which is in positive x direction. Force F is exerted uniformly in
the y, z plane of the space Z. Assume the density of the force F in space Z;
F
(3.21)
HW
The particle P is placed in the space Z, with its center at the coordinate (
L/2, W/2, H/2 ). The force F will be exerted at the right angle of y,z surface
of particle P. The force that particle P experiences follows:
f=

FP = f wh

(3.22)

Let’s assume that particles are also made of material which reduces their
volume when external force is exerted on them. When external force is temporary and does not last for longer period of time, the particles resume their
original form when this external force is removed. External force exerted on
particles for extended period of time, may permanently change the dimensions of the particle. Let’s assume that the particle P changes its dimensions
under the influence of external force and the new dimensions are:
w
(3.23)
w⇒
n
h
m
l ⇒ mnl
h⇒

(3.24)
(3.25)

3.3. ABILITY TO ADJUST EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS

65

Now the force that particle P experiences after change in its dimensions varies
as follows:
FP
FP ⇒
(3.26)
nm
To make the particle experience the same force as before, f the force per
unit area in the space Z need to increased by factor nm. Particles can behave
differently by changing dimensions. The hypothesis that the particle changes
dimensions dynamically to avoid force which they are incapable of handling
can be supported if it can be verified that the particle actually contains
empty spaces in its spherical shape which help them contract and expand
easily without damaging their structure. Empty space does not necessarily
mean that the inner of the particle is completely empty. It can also mean
that outer layers of the particle are made of high density medium while the
inner is made of low density medium. This chapter discusses different direct
and indirect evidences about particles containing empty spaces.

3.3.1

Expanding universe

It is believed that the universe is expanding. Let’s assume that the universe
expanded from a single large piece of something. Let’s assume that the
universe as a whole is a closed energy and mass system and there is no more
input of mass from the external source. Under these assumption, the average
density of matter per square meter is dropping which can result in hollow
spaces as universe is expanding.

3.3.2

X-ray spectrum of metal targets

X-ray spectrum can clearly show that the particles such as electrons are not
of uniform density and may contain empty spaces. X-ray was discovered by
Wilhelm Roentgen in year 1895. Roengton found that a beam of high-speed
electrons produces extremely penetrating type of electromagnetic rays when
they strike a metal target. This newly discovered electromagnetic rays were
named X-ray. Figure 3.15 shows the basic structure of the x-ray source. In
the X-ray source, electrons hit the metallic targets.
The X-ray is produced as a result of collision between high speed electrons
and the atoms forming the metallic target. The atom is made of particles
contained in the nucleus and the electrons orbiting around it. The X-ray
appears as the energy that is lost during the collisions between the high speed
electron and particles in the atoms forming the metallic target. Each material
has its own unique X-ray spectrum consisting of following characteristics,
which are also shown in Figure 3.16

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CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Figure 3.14: Space Z and Particle P

3.3. ABILITY TO ADJUST EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS

67

• λmin , which is smallest wavelength of the electromagnetic waves in the
X-ray spectrum. λmin remains constant for all the metallic targets.
• Peak A of X-ray intensity at λA , which is regarded as the result of
head-on-collision between the high speed electrons from the source and
particles forming region A in the metallic target.
• Peak B of X-ray intensity at λB , which is regarded as the result of
head-on-collision between the high speed electrons from the source and
particles forming region B in the metallic target.
There are mainly three types of particles, electrons, protons and the neutrons which can forms the region A and B in the metallic target.
The energy of the X-ray EXray can be represented as the difference between the kinetic energy of the high speed electron before and after the
collision with the particles contained in the atoms in the metallic target:
1
2
2
EXray = Kme1 (vBef
ore − vAf ter )
2

(3.27)

where
K: Constant
me1 : Mass of the electron in the source
vBef ore : Velocity of the high speed electron before the collision
vAf ter : Velocity of the high speed electron after the collision
EXray is a function of λ and from the X-ray spectrum it can be claimed
that:
λA 6= λB
(3.28)
EλA 6= EλB

(3.29)

vAf terA 6= vAf terB

(3.30)

where
vAf terA : Velocity of the high speed electron after collision with the particles
forming region A in the metallic target while emitting electromagnetic waves
of wavelength λA
vAf terB : Velocity of the high speed electron after collision with the particles
forming region A in the metallic target while emitting electromagnetic waves
of wavelength λB
The collisions between particles relevant to λA and λB are head-on-collision
and the radius of electron and nucleus having a relationship below:
rA 6= rB 6= rElectron

(3.31)

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CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

where
rA : Radius of the particles forming region A
rB : Radius of the particles forming region B
rElectron : Radius of the electron
Let’s assume that the collisions between the particles in the process of emission of X-ray, is like the collisions between two solid balls, it can be said
that as the energy lost by the high speed electron (or energy emitted as a
form of X-ray) is different between the following two types of the collisions,
the material characteristics of the electrons and nucleus are different at two
regions A and B. One of the commonly known material characteristics which
impact the energy transfer function is the hardness of the external surface of
the particle. Paying attention to this characteristic, it can be claimed that:
hA 6= hB

(3.32)

where
hN ucleus : Hardness of the particles forming region A in the metallic target
hElectron : Hardness of the particles forming region B in the metallic target
As the hardness of any material can be result of density of the material, it
can be claimed that:
dA 6= dB
(3.33)
where
dA : Material density of the particles forming the region A in the metallic
target
dB : Hardness of the particles forming the region B in the metallic target
As the material density is different for two different particles, it can be
claimed that the different particles may contain empty spaces or are the
material distribution in the spherical shape of the particle is not uniform. If
peak λA and λB is unique for each element in the X-ray spectroscopy, it can
be used as an argument that the structure of elements as electrons, neutrons
and the protons is unique for each type of element, when it is assumed that
the mass of a type of particle is same for all the elements.

3.3.3

Matter density of particles forming material

The comparison of mathematical calculated matter density in different particles can help indicate the possibility of mass density distribution being not
uniform. The density of the proton and the electron can be calculated using fundamental physical constants from National Institute of Standards and
Technology:
Proton rms charge radius rproton : 0.875 ∗ 10−15 m

3.3. ABILITY TO ADJUST EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS

Figure 3.15: X-ray source based on Compton effect

69

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CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Figure 3.16: X-ray spectrum of metal target

3.3. ABILITY TO ADJUST EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS

71

Proton mass mproton : 1.673 ∗ 10−27 kg
Classical electron radius relectron : 2.818 ∗ 10−15 m
Electron mass melectron : 9.109 ∗ 10−31 kg
The comparison of the average density of electron and the proton can be
calculated as:
3melectron
pelectron =
(3.34)
3
4πrelectron
3mproton
pproton =
(3.35)
3
4πrproton
Ã

pelectron
melectron
rproton 3
=
(3.36)
pproton
mproton
relectron
Using above fundamental physical constant values the ratio between the density of the proton and the electron is calculated.
pelectron
= 1.63 ∗ 10−5
(3.37)
pproton
The calculated values show that the matter forming the electrons has different average mass density compared to the matter forming the proton. The
calculated value shows that some particles are easily capable of contracting
or reducing its three dimensional state compared to the others.

3.3.4

Tunneling of light

Assuming that the photon is a particle with non-zero mass, and is confined
to a three dimensional space like particles such as electrons and protons. The
photon structure should be able to collapse and expand again, if the concept
of particle having a dynamic shape is correct. In the collapsed shape, the
photon should not be observed. Such behavior of the photon can be observed
in the case of Frustrated Total Internal Reflection as shown in the Figure
3.17. As shown in Figure 3.17, the light gets reflected at the hypotenuse
face. However, when another prism is brought near to the first prism, some
part of the light tunnels through the second prism and the light cannot
be observed in the gap between the two prisms. According to the concept
presented in this book,
• Photon is a particle with non-zero mass.
• Photon has a three dimensional structure.
• Photon senses the environment and collapses its three dimensional
structure resulting in the disappearance of the photon between the
gaps of the two prisms.

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CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS
• Photon senses the environment and can bring the collapses structure
to the original dimension.

3.3. ABILITY TO ADJUST EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS

Figure 3.17: Frustrated Total Internal Reflection

73

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CHAPTER 3. LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF MASS

Chapter 4
Roles of the black hole
This chapter discusses different vital roles the black holes can perform.

4.1

Basic building block of the black hole

It is thought that the black holes are formed when stars collapse into a
small three dimensional space. Star is a collection of particles with mass.
According to methodology of this book, particles with mass can be regarded
as a container of photons. Such particles can contain two types of photons.
First type of photons is arranged in arrays and act like DNA. These arrays
of photon control the behavior of second type of photons. Any change or
mutation in the DNA of mass results in the change of behavior of the mass
in terms of interaction with the environment in the form of exchange of
energy. A star can collapse into a small three dimensional space only when
each particle forming the star also reduces its three dimensional shape. There
are two possible mechanisms as shown in 4.1 through which basic building
block of star (particle) can reduce three dimensional space it occupies:
• The earth is thought to be a collection of joined plates/sheet. Let’s
assume earth is a very large sized particle and particles of all sizes have
the same building structure. Under this assumption, the basic building
block of stars is a collection of small sized sheets which are joined
together. The building block of star can reduce its three dimensional
boundaries by wrapping itself like Origami.
• The basic building block of the star reduces all its dimensions by a
fixed ratio. In other words, a basic building block is of w ∗ h ∗ l will
change itself to n ∗ (w ∗ n ∗ l) where, n is much smaller than 1.

75

76

CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

Figure 4.1: Basic building block of the black hole

4.2. SIZES OF THE BLACK HOLE

4.2

77

Sizes of the black hole

It is usually thought that the black hole is formed by collapsing of a star.
Currently, the black holes are thought to be small sized mass. However, there
can be also very large sized black holes formed through different mechanisms
such as:
• Let’s assume that all black holes are of the same matter density. It
means that a star with large diameter will collapse into a larger black
hole and a star with small diameter will collapse into a small diameter
black hole. To have a very large sized black hole, we need a extremely
large size star. Figure 4.2 illustrate a conversion of an extremely large
size star into a black hole which is the size of a normal sized star. Large
number of stars can join together into an extremely large size star, this
very large sized star can collapse into a large sized black hole at a later
stage of its life cycle.
• Figure 4.3 illustrates another large size black hole formation mechanism. Let’s assume a sea of stars where stars forming this sea are in
proximity to one another. Let’s assume a three dimensional space outside this sea of stars. Large number of stars from the sea of stars move
into this three dimensional space and join together to form a very large
sized black hole. There can also be a black hole with stretchable container. Such black hole can keep on galloping stars while increasing its
size.
• In specific region of universe, large number of black holes can exist.
These large number of black holes can join one another to form a large
sized black hole as illustrated in Figure 4.4.
• The black holes are thought to be formed from extremely dense matter
confined to a small three dimensional space. Star can collapses into a
large sized black hole as illustrated in Figure 4.5. This large sized black
is less dense compared to a small sized high density black hole.

78

CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

Figure 4.2: Formation of a black hole by collapse of a very large sized star

4.2. SIZES OF THE BLACK HOLE

79

Figure 4.3: Collapsing of large number of star into a three dimensional space

80

CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

Figure 4.4: Merging of the black holes

4.2. SIZES OF THE BLACK HOLE

Figure 4.5: The black holes of diverse density

81

82

CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

4.3

The black hole with wrapped mass

Figure 4.6 illustrate the change in the basic building block of the star, when
it collapses into a star. Left side of Figure 4.6 illustrates examples of different
types of DNAs of the basic building block of stars. A pore which contains a
photon is represented by 1, while a pore without photon is represented as 0.
A series of 0 and 1 represent a DNA and controls the behavior of the basic
building block. Left side of Figure 4.6 shows examples of 4 DNAs: 10110001
DNA, 10111001 DNA, 10111101 DNA and 1011111 DNA. Right side of the
Figure 4.6 illustrate the wrapped/Origami form of the basic building block
when star collapses into a black hole. It is assumed here that multiple photons
can coexist in the same pore. Thus, when a star collapses into a black hole:
• 10110001 DNA turns into DNA consisting of one pore containing 4
photons.
• 10111001 DNA turns into DNA consisting of one pore containing 5
photons.
• 10111101 DNA turns into DNA consisting of one pore containing 6
photons.
• 10111101 DNA turns into DNA consisting of one pore containing 7
photons.
Let’s assume that DNA is capable of determining only presence and nonpresence of photons in a pore. DNA does not count the number of photons
in a single pore if there are more than one photons or DNA simply ignores the
information about presence of multiple photons. Under these assumptions,
DNAs of all the basic building block will act like 1 DNA. In other words,
• Multiple types of building blocks of the star turns into a homogeneous
type of building blocks when a star collapse into a black hole.
• Collapse of star into a black hole is a process which produces material
of homogeneous characteristics.
• Collapse of star into a black hole is a process through which complex
behavior of the basic building block (as a result of complex DNA) of
star transforms into a primitive behavior (as a result of 1 DNA).
• Collapse of star into a black hole changes the state of the basic building
unit from an active state to a dormant state.
• Collapse of star into a black hole is not a purposeless process.

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

Figure 4.6: Wrapped form of basic building block

83

84

CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

It is thought the gravitational pull on any object from the black hole,
is so strong that nothing with mass is able to escape from it. Figure 4.7
illustrates what happens when an object enters a black hole. An object with
mass, which enters the black hole is referred in this book as foreign mass.
Figure 4.7 shows only DNA part of a foreign mass which enters the black hole.
The black hole here is assumed a cylindrical shaped body with an entrance
and exit for the foreign mass. The walls of cylinder shaped black hole is made
of basic building blocks in the wrapped shape. Some or all of the pores of the
basic building block of the black hole contain multiple number of photons.
Compared to pores forming DNA of the black hole, the foreign mass which
enters the black hole has each pore with maximum of single photon. It is
our daily observation that particles move from high concentration area to
low concentration area. Based on the same observation, let’s assume that
the photon also moves from high concentration area (pores belonging to
the basic building block) to low concentration areas (pores belonging to the
foreign mass which has entered the black hole). Result of such movement of
photons is expected to fill all pores of the DNA belonging to the foreign mass.
In the illustrations of Figure 4.7, 10110001 DNA turns into 11111111 DNA.
Based on the same mechanisms, any DNA belonging to foreign mass which
enter the black hole is expected to turn into a 11111111 DNA. We assume
here that 11111111 DNA is the simplest form of DNA and mass controlled by
this DNA show very limited behavior. 11111111 DNA is assumed here as a
dormant state of foreign mass in which mass interact with its environment in
a very limited way. Multiple types of building blocks of the foreign mass turns
into a homogeneous type of building blocks when they travel into the black
hole. Figure 4.9 shows what happen when the flow of foreign mass keeps
on entering the black hole for extended period of time. The concentration
of foreign mass with 11111111 DNA increases as the depth of the passage
increases. The foreign mass that is near the entrance of the black hole has
higher number of non-11111111 DNAs and higher ability to interact with
the environment. After some time, the foreign mass with 11111111 DNAs
occupies most of the passage. Even when we assume that foreign mass with
11111111 DNA contracts itself, any foreign mass should occupy some three
dimensional space. As shown in Figure 4.8, the flow of the foreign mass
continues into the passage, there is limited space left in the passage. There
are two possibilities when the passage of the black hole filled up:
• The black hole does not allow any more foreign mass into the passage.
• Foreign mass with non-11111111 DNA are more active in movement
compared to foreign mass with 11111111 DNA. Foreign mass with non11111111 DNA pushes the less active foreign mass with 11111111 DNA.

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

85

It builds up a pressure whose direction is shown as arrow in the passage
of the black hole as illustrated in Figure 4.9.
Figure 4.10 illustrates the impact on the behavior of foreign mass when it
passes through the black hole. Figure 4.10 explains 4 stages. The number in
bracket shows the numbers of photon each pore forming the DNA contains.
A string of (50000000) means first pore of the DNA have 5 photons while
other remaining 9 pores are without a photon.
Stage 1: Foreign mass enters black hole at time t0 . The time before t0 , DNA
of foreign mass is without any mutation and in this example is in the
form 10110001. Each pore of the DNA has maximum of one photon.
Stage 2: During time period t1 − t0 foreign mass drifts into the black hole. Photons transfer from the wrapped mass which forms the black hole, fills
all pores of the DNA. Here, it is assumed that each pore can contain
maximum of 9 photons. When foreign mass leaves the black hole at
time t1 , DNA of each of its pore contains 9 photons. However, DNA
still acts as a 11111111 DNA.
Stage 3: As each pore is designed to contain only one photon, all pores containing more than one photon, releases extra photons and come to the
state where each pore contain 1 photon at time t1 + t2 . DNA at this
stage is a 11111111 DNA.
Stage 4: Figure 3.13 illustrates that photon can change its behavior by changing
order of gravitons that form its DNA. As observed in Section 2.11
– There can be multiple types of photons/gravitons.
– Different types of photons/gravitons may have different pores.
A photon remains in a pore for extended period of time. Different types
of photons need different types of pores. A foreign mass may not have
exactly the same type of pores, that suits the photons from the black
hole. It is expected that most of photons received from the black hole
will leave the DNA of the foreign mass at t1 + t2 + t3 . If any photon
from the black hole remains in the DNA of the foreign mass, it blends
the DNA of the foreign mass giving its specific changed behavior. At
stage 4, there are three types of possibilities.
Case 1: The foreign mass switches itself to specific behavior at time t1 +
t2 + t3 .
Case 2: The foreign mass remains itself as 11111111 DNA.

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CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

Figure 4.7: Impact on DNA of entering into a black hole

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

Figure 4.8: Empty space in a black hole

87

88

CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

Figure 4.9: Direction of pressure in the black hole

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

89

Case 3: The foreign mass can convert back to its initial behavior at time
t1 + t2 + t3 .
Let’s discuss the usefulness of each case.

4.3.1

Case 1:

In this case, the foreign mass changes its behavior after it passes through
the black hole. A black hole is formed by wrapping its mass. Each pore
of wrapped mass in the black hole, should contain same type of photons as
the star from which it was formed. Different types of black hole should have
different types of photons contained in their DNAs. However, the foreign
mass which passes through the black hole have specific type of pores which
may accommodate only specific type of photons for extended period of time.
It has been assumed so far that DNA of the foreign mass has only one type
of pore to accommodate photon. Let’s assume that DNA of the foreign
mass contain multiple types of pores. Figure 4.11 illustrate a DNA of the
foreign mass which contains pores of different types. Here, each color of pore
represent a specific type of DNA photon pore . In this example, DNA of the
foreign mass has 4 types of pores to accommodate DNA from the black holes.
Same figure illustrates different types of DNA pores belonging to different
types of black holes. Arrows show photons transfer from DNA pores of the
black hole to DNA pores of the foreign mass. The transfer shown here, is
only unidirectional. Transfer can be bidirectional too, where DNA of the
foreign mass and the black hole exchange photons.
• DNA photon transfers from one pore to another pore, where both pores
are of the same type. In this Figure 4.11, each pore of DNA of the
black hole is accommodating only those types of photons that can stay
there for extended period of time. Same type pores are represented by
the same color in Figure 4.11. In this type of transfer, it is expected
that DNA photons from the black hole, will stay longer in the DNA
of the foreign mass, as the pores that they move into are designed to
accommodate their specific type.
• DNA photon transfers from one pore to another pore, where both pores
are of different types. In this Figure 4.11, each pore of DNA of the black
hole is accommodating only those types of photons that can stay there
for extended period of time. In this type of transfer, it is expected that
DNA photons will not stay longer in the DNA of the foreign mass, as
the pores that they move into are not designed to accommodate them
for extended period of time.

90

CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

Figure 4.10: Impact of passing through the black hole

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

91

The result of above mechanism is that the DNAs of the foreign mass are
changed when it leaves the black hole. Passing through the black hole blends
the foreign mass or in other words give it special characteristics/behavior. It
has been thought that mass cannot escape from the black hole. However,
assessing the impact of gravity from the black hole and on the foreign mass,
it can be claimed that:
• The foreign mass is able to pass through the black hole. The black
hole is like a passage with an entrance and exit. Mass that enters this
channel through the entrance leaves the exit after spending some time
in the black hole.
• Passing through the black hole, gives the foreign mass a changed behavior.
• Photons from the black hole are able to travel outside of the black hole
by using the foreign mass.
• Photons from the black hole are not released just at the exit of the
black hole but at a distance from the black hole.
Let’s assume that there are different types of the black holes which are lined
together. Figure 4.12 illustrates such an example, where the black hole of
type A, type C and type D are lined in a row. Each black hole has an
entrance and exit. The foreign mass which leave the exit of one type of
black hole, enters the next black hole through its entrance. Each type of the
black hole, gives the foreign mass a specific behavior. Passing through a line
of black holes, modifies the behavior of the foreign mass in different manners.
Figure 4.12 shows a series of the black holes lined in a lane through which
the foreign mass goes through and gives itself a new behavior. Now let’s
assume that specific types of black holes are spatially distributed. Figure 4.13
shows an example where large number of types of black holes are spatially
distributed in form of a mesh. A black hole serves as an entrance to the
mesh. Another black hole serves as the exit from the mesh of black holes.
Mesh is a collection of different layers of the black holes. The foreign mass
can enter any black hole in the next layer of the black holes. Third layer of
the black holes, contain a white color black hole. This white color black hole
does not blend the foreign mass. The foreign mass that enters this white
black hole, passes through it without a change. This type of black hole can
help the foreign mass skip a layer of black holes. By choosing the path of
movement between different layers of the black hole, a collection of the black

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Figure 4.11: Multiple types of DNA pores

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

93

holes can blend the foreign mass with a large number of behaviors. Figure
4.13

4.3.2

Case 2:

In this case, any foreign mass that passes through the black hole have its
DNA turn to 11111111 DNA. Let’s assume the moment the DNA of the
foreign mass is created. It consists of two stages:
Step 1 Container for DNA is formed. At this step all pores of the DNA are
empty or in other words, the foreign mass has 00000000 DNA. In other
words, it is in a dead state where it cannot interact with anything
around it. At this state, we can say that the foreign mass does not
exist.
Step 2 In this step, all or some of the pores of the DNA are filled which gives
the foreign mass a specific behavior.
The foreign mass with 1111111 DNA behave differently compared to the
foreign mass with 00000000 DNA. The foreign mass with 11111111 DNA
still shows a specific but limited behavior. In this case, the black hole is
acting like a Shredder of the stars and other cosmological bodies. There can
be several merits to have shredder for stars and other cosmological bodies.
• It is thought that everything has a limited life. Let’s assume stars and
other cosmological bodies have also limited life. When a star dies, its
turn into garbage of the universe. There is need for a garbage bin for
these dead stars and other cosmological bodies. Black body can turn
the garbage of the universe into a more manageable form by giving it
a 11111111 DNA.
• It is thought that universe is heading toward its end as universe also
has a limited life. At the time universe was created there were large
number of stars. With the passage of time, many stars ended their life
and turned into garbage. The black holes existed since the beginning
of the universe and kept on turning dead stars into manageable form.
It is thought that the universe is filled with the dark matter. Dark
matter can be the dead stars which are processed by the black holes.
As shown in Figure 4.14, the number of stars reduced with the passage
of time, while dark matter increased with time. As a result of this the
total mass of the universe remains same while number of cosmological
bodies decreased.

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Figure 4.12: Multiple black holes

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

Figure 4.13: Mesh of the black holes

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CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE
• As shown in Figure 4.15, the processed dead stars can reappear as new
stars. In this case, the black holes not only act as a shredder but also
as a Recycling plants of the universe
Figure 4.16 shows the life cycle of DNA for the foreign mass. Before
the time of birth of the universe, DNA of the mass is without any photons and is in 00000000 DNA state. Mass at state 00000000 DNA is
unable to interact with environment. At the time of the universe creation, DNA of mass gains photons and turns into a non-00000000/non11111111 DNA state. At this stage, mass is effectively interacting with
the environment. Mass keeps on spending some time in black holes.
During stay in the black hole, DNA of the mass turns into a 111111111
DNA state. Mass does not loose completely its capability to interact
with the surrounding with 111111111 DNA state. Mass is able to show
very limited capability to interact with the environment. The switching between 111111111 DNA state and non- 111111111 DNA keep on
continuing. At the time the universe comes to an end, DNA of the
mass turns back to the 00000000 state.

4.3.3

Case 3

In this case, there is a possibility that mutations to DNA of the foreign mass
is very short lived and limited only to the time when the foreign mass is in
the black hole. The foreign mass returns to its original DNA as soon as it
leaves the black hole. Figure 4.17 shows a possible mechanism which can
be responsible for a temporary change to DNAs. However, the foreign mass
which passes through the black hole have specific type of pores which may
accommodate only specific type of photons for extended period of time.
Figure 4.17 illustrates a DNA of the foreign mass which contains pores
of different types. Here, each color of pore represent a specific type of DNA
photon pore . In this example, DNA of the foreign mass has 4 types of pores
to accommodate DNA from the black holes. Same figure illustrates different
types of DNA pores belonging to different types of the black holes. Arrows
show photons transfer from DNA pores of the black hole to DNA pores of
the foreign mass. The transfer shown here, is only unidirectional. In case the
DNA photons from the black hole are volatile, it is expected that the stay
within the DNA of the foreign mass is short lived. As there is an immense
supply of DNA photons from the black hole, the DNA pores of the foreign
mass remain occupied. However, as soon as the foreign mass leaves the black
hole, these volatile DNA photons from black holes, leave the foreign mass
allowing foreign mass to return to its original state.

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

Figure 4.14: Life of universe

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CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

Figure 4.15: Birth of new stars

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

Figure 4.16: DNA states during life cycle of the universe

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Figure 4.18 illustrates an orbit of the star with a black hole existing on
the orbit. Rotating star passes through the black hole during each rotation.
Star spends time t1 in the black hole during each rotation. The total time
star takes to make one rotation is t1 + t2 . The average speed of moment
within the black hole is very small compared to the time, the black hole is
outside of the black hole. The star is in a dormant state when it is within
the black hole, due to having DNA 11111111. In this case, star switches
periodically between dormant and active states. The time the star spends in
the black hole is like a night time when star rests. The black hole acts like a
bedroom or a pouch which star uses for rest. In this case, it can be claimed
that stars also have day and night in the same way, living things on earth
goes through day and night cycle.
It is very interesting to know how a star can return to its original behavior after waking up. Figure 4.19 illustrates how a star can return to an
active state or in other words to its original behavior. Let’s assume star is a
mathematical function f (A) with input A. During stay in the black hole, due
to transfer of DNA photons from the black holes, the black hole acts like a
mathematical function g(B), where B is the input. A and B are different as
the environment inside and outside of the black hole is different. When the
star moves out of the black hole, it returns back to its original mathematical
function f (A). The input to function f (A) is the same as it was before the
star entered the black hole, as the environment at the entrance and exit of
the black hole is same.
To make it further easier to understand the concept, let’s assume that
A comprises input of two numbers a1 and a2 . Further, f is a multiplication
function of inputs a1 and a2 . In case, inputs are 9 and 3, the output will
be 27. During stay in the black hole, the star changes its behavior to an
addition function g, which adds two inputs. During star’s stay in the black
hole, star will give 14 as output when inputs are 10 and 4. After leaving the
black hole, the star switches back to its original multiplication function and
will have the same inputs of 9 and 3 as the environment around the exit and
entrance is the same.

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

Figure 4.17: Temporary change to DNA

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Figure 4.18: Day and night of stars

4.3. THE BLACK HOLE WITH WRAPPED MASS

Figure 4.19: Returning back to original behavior

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4.4

CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

The black hole with compressed mass

In section 4.1, it has been observed that there can be two types of building
block hole. First type of building block can be in wrapped form, where the
foreign mass inside the black hole wraps itself like a origami. The second
type of basic build black is mass in compressed form. The DNA region of
the foreign mass contracts itself to very small region in compressed form.
Compression of DNA creates regions of high energy concentration. Figure
4.20 illustrates several examples of DNA of compressed mass. 10110001 DNA
of star converts into a building block with 10110001 DNA. Similarly, 10111001
DNA, 10111101 DNA and 10111111 DNA retain their original form when star
collapses into a black hole.
Figure 4.21 illustrates the photon transfer between DNA of the foreign
mass and the DNA of the black hole. The DNA pores of the black hole which
contain photons, have high energy concentration areas. The DNA pores of
the foreign mass are areas with less energy concentration. From our daily
observations, it can be said that energy flows from high energy concentration
areas to low energy concentration areas. It can be expected that photons in
DNA pores of the black hole fill up empty pores of the foreign mass. Figure
4.22 illustrates what happens when the foreign mass pass through the back
hole. Any foreign mass with non-11111111 DNA will turn into a 11111111
DNA.
Photons from the black hole are foreign to DNA pores of foreign mass.
Thus, the photons from the black hole DNA may not stay long in the DNA
pores of foreign mass. There are three possibilities as similar to as in Figure
4.10 how a mass behave after passing through the black hole.
• The foreign mass switches itself to specific behavior.
• The foreign mass can convert back to its initial behavior.
• The foreign mass remains itself as 11111111 DNA.
We see no difference in the impact which a black body exerts on the foreign
mass, regardless of its type.

4.4. THE BLACK HOLE WITH COMPRESSED MASS

Figure 4.20: Compressed form of DNA

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Figure 4.21: Photon transfer between DNA of the black hole and the foreign
mass

4.4. THE BLACK HOLE WITH COMPRESSED MASS

Figure 4.22: Passing through the black hole with compressed mass

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4.5

CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

Evidence

The concept of the black holes has been analyzed using methodology in
Figure. 2.4. Based on the analysis, it has been proposed that there is very
high probability that the foreign mass that enters the black hole, can leave
the black hole after spending sometime inside. Stay of the foreign mass
within the black hole may also modify the behavior of the black hole. It is
known that:
• A star can give birth to another star.
• A star can gallop another star.
In other words, it can be said that:
• A star leave another star.
• A star enters another star.
Let’s assume it is the same star in which a star enters and leave as illustrated in Figure 4.23. In this case, there is solid evidence that the observations/suggestions made in this book are true.
The role of the black hole in the functioning of universe can be verified by
observing the regions around the black hole. The regions around the black
hole should have high concentration of stars/cosmological bodies, in case the
black holes are performing any positive follow roles in the function of the
universe.
• Star uses the black holes for sleeping. The black holes are like bed or
pouch.
• The black holes provide necessary nutrients to stars.
• The black holes are shredder who process garbage of the universe.
• The black holes recycle materials for building stars.
Figure 4.24 shows a possible relationship between the black holes and the concentration of stars. The concentration of stars/cosmological bodies should
decrease as the distance from the black hole increases. The total mass of
stars surrounding the stars can also decrease as the distance from the black
hole increases. It is not necessary that the relationship of Figure 4.24 holds
true for every black hole. The black holes themselves might have a limited
life cycle during which it has different states of efficiency to process the foreign mass. It has been suggested in this book that the black holes might

4.5. EVIDENCE

Figure 4.23: Small star passes through big star

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CHAPTER 4. ROLES OF THE BLACK HOLE

Figure 4.24: Concentration of stars near the black hole

4.5. EVIDENCE

111

be blending the foreign mass or in other words giving them specific behavior. For simplification purpose, let’s assume that the black hole blends all
stars those go through it with one specific characteristics. In such case, all
the stars that goes through the black hole need to have some common characteristics. Figure 4.25 illustrates a possible relationship between common
characteristics and the distance from the black hole. The stars that are in
proximity to the black hole should have something in more common compared to the stars which are far away from the black hole. It is not necessary
that the relationship of Figure 4.25 holds for every black hole. The black
holes themselves might have a limited life cycle during which it has different
states of efficiency to process the foreign mass. Lights ability to pass through
the black hole has been a matter of great interest. It has been observed in
this book that there is a possibility that the foreign mass returns to its original DNA after passing through the black hole. It means the foreign mass
radiates after leaving the black hole. Let’s assume that the foreign masses
with different characteristics leave the black hole. In this case, the regions
surrounding the black hole should be colorful. Such regions are refereed as
Rainbow Regions here and are illustrated in Figure 4.26.

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Figure 4.25: Common characteristics of stars near the black hole

4.5. EVIDENCE

Figure 4.26: Colorful regions around the black hole

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Chapter 5
Summary
The black holes are three dimensional spaces exhibiting very high gravitational pull. We know that the black hole exists. However, the role of the
black holes is not known. In our daily life, we use the word black hole to
describe fruitless efforts. This book analyze the concept of the black hole
using very unique methodology and concludes that the black hole is like a
vital organ of the universe. The black holes play very positive role in the
functioning of the universe.
• Star uses the black hole for sleeping. Black holes are like bedroom for
the stars.
• The black hole provides necessary nutrient to the stars.
• The black hole are like shredder which process the garbage of the universe.
• The black hole prepares raw building material for constructing stars.
• The black hole blends the stars with unique characteristics.
• The black holes are like star factory.
This book has given some methods which can be used to verify the identified
positive roles of the black hole.

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