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Presidential Research Paper Catie Evans 22 April 2013 Ms.

Kenny 7th Period APUS

Domestic Policies: Accomplishments, Failures, and Legacy of President Carter Carters !o"estic policy centered on his p#ll $or h#"an ri%hts and "oral &elie$s as 'ell as his concern $or energy conservation and education. (n 1)7) the Department of Education 'as $o#nded *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -his 'as Carters s#ccess$#l atte"pt at a United States $ederal depart"ent that ad"inisters all $ederal pro%ra"s dealin% 'ith ed#cation incl#din% $ederal aid to ed#cational instit#tions and st#dents. *MillerCenter.or%, Carter.s s#ccess also incl#ded si%ni$icant environ"ental initiatives/ a proposal to protect $ro" develop"ent "ore than 100 "illion acres o$ Alas0an 'ilderness 'ith the Alaska lands Act. Carter also i"ple"ented the Department of Energy to ac0no'led%e the i"portance o$ ener%y conservation as 'ell as a ne' +ational ener%y policy that incl#ded alternative ener%y so#rces s#ch as solar and dere%#lation o$ oil and nat#ral %as prices *MillerCenter.or%,. !#rin% Carter.s ter"/ ho'ever/ the actions o$ the OPEC oil cartel *$orei%n oil prod#cers, res#lted in an increase in oil prices/ $ro" 113 a &arrel to over 132. 3ith A"erica so dependent on oil/ this h#%e price increase res#lted in a r#n4#p in in$lation. -o &attle the risin% $#el prices/ the Carter ad"inistration loo0ed $or alternatives to $ossil $#els *MillerCenter.or%,. -he president %enerated so"e controversy and de&ate 'hen his ad"inistration considered n#clear po'er. o'ever/ it 'o#ld &e the near4"eltdo'n at the hree !ile "sland n#clear plant in Pennsylvania that st#nted any disc#ssions o$ e5pandin% n#clear po'er capa&ility *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Carter/ "ore than any previo#s President/ in6ected h#"an ri%hts considerations into A"erican $orei%n policy/ le%iti"i7in% these concerns in the process. !#rin% his $irst t'o years in o$$ice/ Carter anno#nced his h#"an ri%hts concerns on the %lo&al sta%e *MillerCenter.or%,. -he president 'ithheld $inancial aid $ro" co#ntries 'hich 'ere 0no'n to have lon% records o$ h#"an ri%hts a&#ses. Carter8s "oral approach to do"estic policy spar0ed %ro#ps li0e the !oral !a#ority to $or"/ a %ro#p that sho'ed that A"ericans 'ere 'orried a&o#t the "oral $a&ric o$ society *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. A de&ate on "orality arose d#rin% Carter8s presidency d#rin% the $oe v% &ade case in 'hich -he U.S. S#pre"e

Co#rt r#led that there is a $#nda"ental ri%ht to privacy/ 'hich incl#des a 'o"an.s decision to have an a&ortion S#pre"e Co#rt declared a&ortion to &e a private decision there$ore declarin% the Ri%ht to A&ortion *MillerCenter.or%,. Altho#%h Carter did not personally &elieve in a&ortion/ he s#pported the S#pre"e Co#rt decision/ later ad"ittin% he $o#nd it di$$ic#lt to #phold the co#rts r#lin% d#e to his personal &elie$s *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Another S#pre"e Co#rt case centered on Carters #"an Ri%hts advocacy 'as the case o$ $egents of 'niversity of California v% (akke in 'hich a 'hite applicant/ Allan 9a00e/ 'as re6ected t'ice $ro" the University o$ Cali$ornia Medical School even tho#%h "inority applicants had &een ad"itted 'ith si%ni$icantly lo'er scores than his. !#rin% this case a closely divided Co#rt r#led that 'hile race 'as a le%iti"ate $actor in school ad"issions/ the #se o$ ri%id :#otas 'as not per"issi&le *MillerCenter.or%,. o'ever Carter.s econo"ics 'ere $ro'ned #pon. -he presidents "ana%e"ent o$ the $alterin% national econo"y prod#ced "ore critics than s#pporters. is decision to attac0 #ne"ploy"ent $irst &y i"ple"entin% ta5 c#ts and spendin% increases ca#sed in$lation to "ore than triple *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. 9y the ti"e Carter le$t o$$ice/ the recession deepened 'ith #ne"ploy"ent $i%#res reachin% 7.; percent/ "ort%a%e rates at 1; percent/ and interest rates pea0in% at an all4ti"e hi%h o$ 20 percent/ a $ail#re o$ the ad"inistration *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Foreign Policies: Accomplishments Failures and Legacy of President Carter (n 1)7</ President Carter ne%otiated t'o treaties )ith Panama. -he $irst ret#rned 6#risdiction over the canal to Pana"a/ &#t allo'ed the U.S. to contin#e operatin% and de$endin% it #ntil the end o$ 1))) *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -he second treaty %ave A"erica the per"anent ri%ht to de$end the ne#trality o$ the canal. -herea$ter Rep#&licans 'o#ld attac0 Carter $or &ein% ='ea0= and $or =%ivin% a'ay= the Pana"a Canal *>orei%nPolicy.co",. Perhaps the hi%hli%hts o$ the Carter ad"inistration.s ten#re in 3ashin%ton 'ere the Camp David Accords &et'een E%ypt and (srael *MillerCenter.or%,. (n 1)7</ Carter s#ccess$#lly &ro#%ht E%yptian President An'ar el4Sadat and (sraeli Pri"e Minister

Menache" 9e%in to%ether $or a peace disc#ssion at Ca"p !avid/ the presidential retreat in Maryland to $inally end the (sraeli4E%yptian disp#tes *MillerCenter.or%,. Altho#%h 9e%in and Sadat received the +o&el Peace Pri7e in 1)7) $or this action/ Carter received no si%ni$icant political &ene$it $ro" this achieve"ent *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -he achieve"ent &y Carter is considered his %reatest achieve"ent in o$$ice. -he ad"inistration.s national de$ense a%enda incl#ded si%nin% the ne' *trategic Arms Limitations reaty +*AL "", 'ith the Soviet Union *>orei%nPolicy.co",. -he a%ree"ent did not try to end the n#clear ar"s race/ &#t rather it esta&lished para"eters $or red#cin% 'eapon stoc0piles *>orei%nPolicy.co",. (t allo'ed &oth sides to "aintain 2/2;0 &o"&ers and "issiles and li"ited the n#"&er o$ 'arheads and ne' 'eapons syste"s. o'ever/ 'hen Soviet $orces invaded A$%hanistan in 1)7) to de$end the cr#"&lin% Co""#nist %overn"ent there/ the U.S %overn"ent 'as o#tra%ed *>orei%nPolicy.co",. Carter retaliated to the invasion &y re$#sin% to si%n the treaty and s#spendin% %rain ship"ents to the USSR *MillerCenter.or%,. -he president also anno#nced a -oycott of the ./01 Olympics/ 'hich 'ere to &e held in Mosco' *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. 9eca#se "#ch o$ the p#&lic considered this to &e "ore p#nitive to'ards A"erican s'i""ers and r#nners than Soviet leaders/ Carter.s response only rein$orced his 'ea0 i"a%e. Carter contin#ed to e5pand A"erican contacts 'ith co""#nist China/ %rantin% the co""#nist re%i"e $or"al diplo"atic reco%nition on ?an#ary 1/ 1)7)*>orei%nPolicy.co",. -o do so re:#ired the severin% o$ diplo"atic ties and 'ithdra'al o$ reco%nition o$ non4co""#nist -ai'an *also 0no'n as the Rep#&lic o$ China., Carter2s recognition of China si%ni$icantly red#ced tensions in East Asia *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. 9ene$icial trade relations 'ere esta&lished &et'een China and the U.S./ leadin% to h#%e i"ports o$ $inished cons#"er %oods $ro" China/ in ret#rn $or U.S. l#"&er and $oodst#$$s *>orei%nPolicy.co",. -o s#&stit#te $or diplo"atic relations 'ith -ai'an/ Con%ress passed the ai)an $elations Act *MillerCenter.or%,% -his act/ promised to ensure that Taiwans democratic status not be altered by outside force and provided for relations between the U.S. and Taiwan. (n 1)7)/ the "ranian revolution a%ain tested the

Carter ad"inistration.s a&ility to handle 'orld a$$airs *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -he crisis &e%an 'hen (ranian "ilitants $orced the Shah o$ (ran $ro" po'er. -he incident 'as initiated 'hen (ranian radicals/ 'ith %overn"ent s#pport/ sei7ed ;2 A"ericans $ro" the US e"&assy and held the" $or 222 days@ ostensi&ly de"andin% the ret#rn o$ the deposed Shah to stand trial/ the $#nda"entalist clerics &ehind the sei7#re also hoped to p#nish the United States $or other perceived past 'ron%s *>orei%nPolicy.co",. Carter decided to $ree7e (ranian assets and appeal to the United +ations $or help. 3ith his options li"ited/ Carter $inally a%reed to release several &illion dollars o$ (ranian assets as ranso" $or the A"erican hosta%es *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -his incident 'as later 0no'n as the "ranian 3ostage Crisis% Domestic Policy: Accomplishments, Failures, and Legacy of President $eagan President Rea%an8s do"estic policy &e%an 'ith his econo"ic policies coined 'ith the ter" $eaganomics/ 'hich 'ere associated 'ith the s#pply side econo"ics/ 0no's as the A trickle do)n economicsB *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. President Rea%an had $o#r 0ey parts to his econo"ic policy and those 'ere to red#ce %overn"ent spendin%/ red#ce the $ederal inco"e ta5 and capital %ains ta5/ red#ce %overn"ent re%#lation/ and control the "oney s#pply in order to red#ce in$lation. A$ter Carter8s alienation $ro" 3ashin%ton Rea%an 'as a 'ea0 econo"y and nation d#e to Carter8s $ail#res in o$$ice *MillerCenter.or%,. (n retaliation to the econo"ic $ail#res that had &een past do'n $ro" Carter President Ronald Rea%an created the Economic $ecover a4 Act@ a $ederal la' enacted in 1)<1 desi%ned to enco#ra%e econo"ic %ro'th thro#%h red#ctions to individ#al inco"e ta5 rates/ create incentives $or s"all &#siness and incentives $or savin%s as 'ell as other p#rposes

*APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Another response to the ti"es econo"ic t#r"oil 'as the passin% o$ the 5oraining Partnership Act in Ccto&er o$ 1)<2. -his act esta&lished $ederal assistance pro%ra"s to prepare yo#th and #ns0illed ad#lts $or entry into the la&or $orce. (n 1)<1/ President Rea%an also

appointed *andra Day O6Connor as an Associate ?#stice and she 'as the very $irst 'o"an to

&e appointed to the Co#rt *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. !#rin% the 1)<08s and 1))08s/ a "assive $inancial scandal occ#rred 0no'n as the *aving6s and Loan Crisis@ depositors 'o#ld re"ove their $#nds $ro" savin%s and loan instit#tions and p#t the" in "oney "ar0et $#nds 'here they co#ld receive hi%her interest rates D since "oney "ar0et $#nds 'ere not re%#lated/ the a"o#nt o$ interest that co#ld &e received didn8t have a cap *MillerCenter.or%,. Rea%an ended the price controls on do"estic oil created previo#sly &y Richard +i5on that had contri&#ted to the ./7/ Energy Crisis, and there 'ere no %asoline lines or $#el shorta%es in the 1)<08s *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. President Rea%an also "ade a 1<0 in co"parison to President Carter and increased the de$ense &#d%et 'hich 'as s#pport &y &oth Con%ressional !e"ocrats and Rep#&licans. e did so &y revivin% the 941 Eancer Pro%ra" canceled &y the Carter Ad"inistration/ prod#cin% the MF "issile and escalated the Cold 3ar &y orderin% a "assive &#ild#p o$ the United States Ar"ed >orces@ Rea%an also i"ple"ented ne' policies to'ards the Soviet Union *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. (n 1)<G/ the Rea%an Ad"inistration enacted the "mmigration $eform and Control Act, 'hich states that e"ployers are re:#ired to attest to their e"ployee8s stat#s/ and not allo' $or the hirin% or recr#it"ent o$ #na#thori7ed i""i%rants *MillerCenter.or%,. Cne year later/ on Ccto&er 17th/ 1)<7/ the stoc0 "ar0et received a heavy &lo' 'ith 'hat is called (lack !onday@ 'hen stoc0 "ar0ets across the %lo&e crashed and lost "assive val#e in a short a"o#nt o$ ti"e *MillerCenter.or%,. Also very nota&le a&o#t Rea%an8s ad"inistration 'as 'hen PA-CC D a United States trade #nion &e%an stri0in% $or &etter 'or0in% conditions &etter pay and a 32 ho#r 'ee0@ #n$ort#nately $or the" Re%an 'as not %oin% to &e p#shed aro#nd. e ended the stri0e and $ired nearly 12/000 stri0in% air tra$$ic controllers *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -here$ore sendin% a "essa%e that Rea%an 'as not a President to &e tri$led

'ith. Rea%an8s do"estic policy retained conservative val#es econo"ically and an increased &#d%et in de$ense and &ro#%ht vario#s &ene$its to the United States.
Foreign Policy: Accomplishments, Failures, and Legacy of President $eagan Ronald Rea%an8s ad"inistration is 0no'n $or its APeace thro#%h stren%thB character/ anti co""#nistic vie's/ and a#thoritative "ilitary stance. 3hile "any advisors reco""ended dra"atic

c#ts in the de$ense &#d%et/ Rea%an re$#sed/ and instead revived -r#"an.s contain"ent policy *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -he president rene'ed the Cold 3ar &y 'arnin% a%ainst the threat to spread co""#nis" posed &y the USSR. e reasoned that "ilitary e5pansion 'as necessary to protect the interests o$ the $ree 'orld. Rea%an 'anted to create an i"pressive n#clear $orce so po'er$#l that the Soviets 'o#ld &e $orced to &ac0 do'n $ro" any con$rontation *MillerCenter.or%,. (n 1)<3/ he anno#nced his intention to &#ild a hi%h4tech "issile de$ense syste" called the *trategic Defense "nitiative *S!(,/ "ore co""only re$erred to as =*tar &ars= *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -he S!( proposed the constr#ction o$ an ela&orate co"p#ter4 controlled/ anti4"issile de$ense syste" capa&le o$ destroyin% ene"y "issiles in o#ter spaced Rea%an contin#ed his attac0 on co""#nis" &y acc#sin% +icara%#an a#thorities o$ aidin% co""#nist co#ntries *>orei%nPolicy.co",. -o $i%ht co""#nists in 8icaragua and El Salvador/ Rea%an provided aid to the 9contra9 re-els 'ho opposed the anti4A"erican "ilitants *>orei%nPolicy.co",. 3hen Con%ress re$#sed to contin#e s#pplyin% the Contras 'ith "oney and 'eapons/ Rea%an loo0ed $or other so#rces. Also/ the )ar -et)een "ran and "ra: intensi$ied *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Many in the United States held (ran responsi&le $or several A"ericans &ein% held hosta%e in Ee&anon as a part o$ the Le-anon 3ostage Crisis *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. (n 1)<G/ Rea%an secretly approved a deal to sell 'eapons to (ran in e5chan%e $or the release o$ the hosta%es *>orei%nPolicy.co",. A#thorities instr#cted Marine Colonel Cliver +orth to ta0e the

"oney $ro" the (ran transaction and p#rchase 'eapons $or the Contras *MillerCenter.or%,. -he decision directly violated the &an Con%ress enacted on s#ch aid. 3hen ne's o$ the deal &eca"e p#&lic/ President Rea%an denied 0no'in% anythin% a&o#t the plan. -his scandal ca"e to &e 0no'n as the "ran Contra Affair. Rea%an also sho'ed "ilitary stren%th in the invasion of ;renada/ 'here a co#p res#lted in the death o$ the Pri"e Minister *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Rea%an ordered the "ilitary to %o to the island and re"ove the Mar5ists 'ho had ta0en control. -he plan 'as s#ccess$#l and de"onstrated to the 'orld A"erica.s "i%ht and Rea%an.s deter"ination to $i%ht co""#nis". A year a$ter Rea%an8s second no"ination $or presidency !ikhail ;or-achev &eca"e the ne' chair"an o$ the Soviet Co""#nist Party *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -o co#nter Rea%an8s %ro'in% $#ndin% o$ the "ilitary Hor&achev presented t'o revol#tionary policiesI Glasnost *openness, 'hich ai"ed to end the secretive/ s#ppressive Soviet society &y allo'in% $ree speech and political li&erty@ and Perestroika *restr#ct#rin%,/ 'hich 'as desi%ned to accept $ree4"ar0et practices to revitali7e the sl#%%ish Soviet econo"y *>orei%nPolicy.co",. e also anno#nced that the Soviet Union 'o#ld not $orce co""#nist %overn"ents in Eastern E#rope to re"ain in po'er *>orei%nPolicy.co",. Repressive re%i"es in Poland/ #n%ary/ C7echoslova0ia/ 9#l%aria/ Ro"ania/ and East Her"any collapsed/ and in 1)<)/ the 9erlin 3all 'as torn do'n/ 0no'n as the Fall of the (erlin &all *>orei%nPolicy.co",. -he notorio#s (ron C#rtain that had divided Eastern E#rope $or decades 'as no "ore. (n 1)<7 Ronald Rea%an called $or the -om-ing of Li-ya code na"ed ACperation El !orado CanyonB/ it 'as a series o$ airstri0es done in response to the 1)<G 9erlin discothe:#e &o"&in% *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Rea%an8s stren%thenin% o$ the "ilitary escalated the cold 'ar and in 1)<7 Ronald Rea%an and Mi0hail Hor&achev sat do'n to%ether in 3ashin%ton and si%ned the "ntermediate $ange

8uclear Forces reaty 'hich eli"inated n#clear and conventional "issiles 'ith inter"ediate ran%es *>orei%nPolicy.co",.
Domestic Policy: Accomplishments, Failures, and Legacy of President (ush President Heor%e . 3. 9#sh pressed a limited agenda/ in 1))0 President 9#sh Senior si%ned the Clean Air Amendment into la'@ tho#%h it had &een passed in 1)70/ the 9#sh ad"inistration 'as a&le to rene' its le%islation/ r#nnin% on the pro"ise o$ 9#sh &ein% the e A"erican 'ith Aenviron"ental presidentB *MillerCenter.or%,. Central to the ne' Clean Air Act Amendments 'ere li"itations on #r&an air poll#tion/ to5ic air ad"issions and acid rain *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. President 9#sh also advocated $or the Americans )ith Disa-ilities Act (ill introd#ced to protect people 'ith !isa&ilities $ro" discri"ination/ this &ill &eca"e a la' in 1))0 *MillerCenter.or%,. -a0in% over 200 years to &e adopted as a la' in 1))2 the &#sh ad"inistration passed the <7th amendment/ prohi&itin% any la' that increases or decrease the salary o$ "e"&ers o$ con%ress $ro" ta0in% e$$ect #ntil the start o$ the ne5t set o$ ter"s o$ o$$ice $or representatives *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. President 9#sh li0e his predecessor President Rea%an 'as a neo=conservative and li0e Rea%an 'anted the co#ntry to act as a #nited nation. e pled%ed a ne' chapter 'ith the phrase A#nity diversity and %enerosity.B Unli0e Rea%an 'ho never #sed the po'er to veto &ills/ President 9#sh Senior vetoed 22 &ills d#rin% his presidency *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. 3hen 9#sh too0 o$$ice the feral de-t 'as 2.< trillion dollars. -his $inancial de$icit e5ponentially li"ited the president8s a&ility to act e$$ectively on do"estic pro%ra"s@ &eca#se o$ this li"ited a%enda the 9#sh ad"inistration p#shed $or vol#nteeris" do"estically as 'ell as education reform and anit=drug efforts *MillerCenter.or%,. o'ever/ &y 1))2/ the federal -udget deficit had soared to 12)0 &illion/ 'hile the national #ne"ploy"ent rate reached levels over seven percent *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -hese $actors/ co"&ined 'ith President 9#sh.s 1))0 &#d%et plan that incl#ded ta5 hi0es/ created lar%e o&stacles $or 9#sh as he approached re4election. Foreign Policies: Accomplishments, Failures, and Legacy of President (ush

Soon a$ter the election/ the nation.s $oc#s 'as directed o#t'ard as pro4de"ocracy "ove"ents &e%an to ta0e hold in co""#nist co#ntries aro#nd the 'orld. (n the sprin% o$ 1)<)/ "any tho#sands o$ de"onstrators %athered in 9ei6in%.s -ianan"en S:#are to protest China.s co""#nist %overn"ent *>orei%nPolicy.co",. -he de"onstration/ 'hich lasted $or 'ee0s/ ended in tra%edy 'hen China.s leader !en% Fiaopin% sent troops and tan0s to cr#sh the protest. Untold n#"&ers o$ protestors 'ere 0illed and "any others 'ere later e5ec#ted. -his event 'o#ld later &e 0no'n as the ianme *:uare !assacre *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. 9#sh8s "ost pro"inent chan%e ca"e in A#%#st 1))1/ 'hen a $ailed "ilitary co#p &ro#%ht an end to the Soviet Union. >ollo'in% the atte"pted co#p/ each o$ the Soviet states declared independence and esta&lished de"ocratic re$or"s and created $ree "ar0et econo"ies. (n ?#ly o$ 1))1/ 9#sh "et 'ith Hor&achev and they si%ned the *trategic Arms $eduction reaty +* A$ , (n !ece"&er o$ 1))1/ Hor&achev resi%ned and the ne' R#ssian Rep#&lic elected 9oris Jeltsin as President *>orei%nPolicy.co",. 3ith the $all o$ the Soviet Union/ the "ore than $o#r4 decade4lon% Cold &ar came to an a-rupt end 'ith the o$$icial concl#sion at !alta *ummit 'here 9#sh and Hor&achev 'o#ld declare an end to the Cold 3ar *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. President 9#sh.s hopes to red#ce "ilitary a$$airs proved di$$ic#lt as the United States e"&ar0ed on t'o "ilitary en%a%e"ents d#rin% his ad"inistration. (n Eatin A"erica/ the US had &een tryin% to stop the spread o$ Co""#nis" $or years@ (n Pana"a/ $or"er ally !anuel 8oriega had set hi"sel$ #p as a "ilitary dictator and 'as not allo'in% $ree elections to ta0e place@ in !ece"&er o$ 1)<)/ the 9#sh ad"inistration sa' a chance to topple the "ilitary dictator and la#nched A Operation 5ust CauseB 'hich sent 10/000 troops to Pana"a to 6oin the 13/000 already there and to overta0e the Pana"anian "ilitary and $orce +orie%a o#t o$ po'er@ the operation 'as a violation o$ international la' and conde"ned &y the U+ and the CAS/ &#t at ho"e 'as hailed as a s#ccess and &oosted 9#sh8s rep#tation as a stron%/ decisive leader *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -he second "ilitary operation d#rin% the 9#sh presidency res#lted $ro" (ra:.s A#%#st 1))0 invasion o$ the tiny/ oil4rich shei0do" o$ K#'ait

res#ltin% in the Persian ;ulf &ar *MillerCenter.or%,. (ra:i dictator *addam 3ussein/ 'ho drove his co#ntry deep into de&t $ollo'in% an ei%ht year 'ar 'ith (ran/ invaded K#'ait to ta0e control o$ its oil reserves. (ronically/ the U.S. had s#pported (ra: and #ssein d#rin% this 'ar *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. 3ithin days a$ter (ra:i troops "oved into K#'ait/ the United +ations Sec#rity Co#ncil deno#nced the attac0 and de"anded that (ra: 'ithdra' *>orei%nPolicy.co",. -hen/ the Sec#rity Co#ncil esta&lished a trade e"&ar%o 'ith (ra:. Cver the ne5t $e' "onths/ President 9#sh &e%an "ovin% A"erican $orces to Sa#di Ara&ia *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. At the end o$ the 'ar/ A"erican $orces had lost A137 soldiers/ 'hile as "any as 100/000 "ilitary and civilian (ra:is 'ere 0illedB *>orei%nPolicy.co",. Many o&servers hoped that Sadda" #ssein "i%ht $all $ro" po'er a$ter the de$eat/ &#t 'hen K#rds in the north and Shiite M#sli"s in the so#th atte"pted an overthro'/ Sadda" #sed his re"ainin% ar"y to cr#sh the re&ellion *>orei%nPolicy.co",. (n the U.S./ President 9#sh.s approval ratin%s 6#"ped to nearly )0 percent *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Domestic Policy: Accomplishments, Failures, and Legacy of President Clinton President 9ill Clinton &e%an his ten#re in o$$ice 'ith pro"ises o$ to $oc#s on the econo"ic needs o$ the co#ntry/ 'hich at the ti"e 'ere #ne"ploy"ent/ the $ederal de$icit/ the health care crisis and 'el$are re$or" in $act (n the 1))2 con%ressional elections/ Con%ress"an 8e)t ;ingrich had Rep#&lican candidates si%n a doc#"ent in 'hich they pled%ed their s#pport $or s#ch thin%s as a &alanced &#d%et a"end"ent/ ter" li"its $or "e"&ers o$ Con%ress/ and a "iddle4class ta5 c#t re$erred to as he Contract )ith America *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Clinton ran a%ainst $oss Perot in the 1))2 election 'ho 'on 20K o$ votes *MillerCenter.or%,. e 'as a -e5as &illionaire 'ho harped incessantly on the pro&le" o$ the $ederal de$icit and he had never held any o$$ice/ ho'ever he lost to Clinton. A$ter ta0in% o$$ice/ Clinton str#%%led to "aintain so"e o$ his ca"pai%n pro"ises. As the ne' president $aced opposition/ he tended to &ac0 do'n $ro" his position and o$$er a co"pro"ise. Cne o$ the $irst iss#es he too0 on 'as li$tin% the &an on %ays in the "ilitary. o'ever/ "any

"e"&ers o$ Con%ress as 'ell as "ilitary co""anders stron%ly opposed the "ove/ and Clinton event#ally accepted a 9don2t ask, don2t tell9 policy *APSt#dy+otes.or%,% Ma0in% head'ay on the econo"y also proved challen%in%. (n >e&r#ary 1))2/ Clinton created a pro%ra" to red#ce the de$icit &y c#ttin% spendin% and increasin% ta5es $or corporations and the 'ealthy *MillerCenter.or%,. e also introd#ced an economic stimulus package *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -he de$icit red#ction plan narro'ly passed &oth ho#ses o$ Con%ress/ &#t the econo"ic sti"#l#s pac0a%e 'as &ro#%ht do'n &y Rep#&lican opposition in the Senate *MillerCenter.or%,. Clinton.s atte"pt at re$or"in% healthcare 'ith his healthcare plan 'as hi%hly controversial and even politically da"a%in%. ealthcare re$or" 'as an i"portant iss#e since nearly 3; "illion A"ericans 'ere #nins#red "ostly &eca#se they co#ld not a$$ord it *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. 3hen the plan 'as revealed in Ccto&er o$ 1))3/ critics ar%#ed it 'as too co"plicated and "i%ht &e "ore costly than the nation co#ld a$$ord. o'ever/ Clinton did "a0e head'ay on a n#"&er o$ other do"estic iss#es. (n 1))3 president Clinton 'as a&le to %et his economic package co"&ined 'ith ta4 increases $or "ainly the #pper class and spendin% c#ts "ainly $or the lo'er class A"ericans *MillerCenter.or%,. -he econo"ic pac0a%e %ot a&sol#tely 0 votes $ro" the Rep#&lican Party and tho#%h it 'as predicted to &e a total $ail#re/ the econo"ic policy lo'ered the de$icit $ro" 12)0 &illion in 1))2 to 1203 &illion &y 1))2 *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. 9y 1))) his econo"ic policy created s#r%in% ta5 reven#es and %enerated a s#rpl#s o$ 1122 &illion/ so"ethin% no one tho#%ht 'as possi&le at the ti"e. Clinton8s ad"inistration "ade the A"erican econo"y the 'orlds stron%est and "ost vi%oro#s. Cn other iss#es re%ardin% the &#siness o$ the United States/ $or instance the passin% o$ the 8orth American Free rade Agreement +8AF A, in 1))3 D President Clinton endorsed Rep#&lican pro%ra"s and even &ene$ited $ro" Rep#&lican s#pport *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. e contin#ed to 'or0 across the aisle 'ith Rep#&licans in iss#es s#ch as 'el$are. Clinton accepted the iss#es &#t 'as a&le to do"inate the 'ritin% o$ the le%islation re%ardin% the pro%ra"s act#al creation. (n 1))G/ Con%ress passed a reform -ill that $#l$illed Clinton8s

ca"pai%n pro"ise to end 'el$are *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -he le%islation also ended the Aid to Families )ith Dependent Children +AFDC, *MillerCenter.or%,. Another historical event 'as 'hen President Clinton no"inated !adeleine Al-right to &e the $irst 'o"an United States Secretary o$ State. She 'as s'orn in on ?an#ary o$ 1))7 *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. President Clinton 'as also a&le to raise the "ini"#" 'a%e to 1;.1; per ho#r 'hile $i%htin% Rep#&licans atte"pts to "a0e p#&lic ed#cation ille%al to children o$ ille%al i""i%rants. Clinton also oversa' the Family !edical Leave Act/ 'hich provided 12 'ee0s o$ #npaid leave per year that 'or0ers co#ld #se to "ana%e si%ni$icant $a"ily events/ incl#din% &irth/ adoption/ or illness *MillerCenter.or%,. o'ever/ in !ece"&er 1))< they i"peached President Clinton $or co""ittin% per6#ry and o&str#ction o$ 6#stice 'hen a 6#d%e re:#ired Clinton lied #nder oath sayin% he did not have se5#al relations 'ith the 'o"an Pa#la ?ones/ 'ho $iled a la' s#it clai"in% that Clinton had se5#ally harassed her 'hile she 'as a state e"ployee in Ar0ansas *APSt#dy+otes.or%,.

Foreign policies: Accomplishments, Failures, and Legacy of President Clinton Controversy stirred over Clinton.s s#pport $or the 8orth American Free rade Agreement +8AF A,. -he 9#sh ad"inistration had ne%otiated the a%ree"ent/ 'hich re"oved trade restrictions 'ith Canada and Me5ico *MillerCenter.or%,. Clinton s#pported +A>-A/ &elievin% it 'o#ld provide opport#nities $or A"erican %oods in $orei%n "ar0ets. Critics char%ed A"ericans 'o#ld lose 6o&s 'hen co"panies &e%an "ovin% their $acilities to Me5ico *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Stron% Rep#&lican s#pport "oved the a%ree"ent thro#%h the o#se/ and the Senate approved +A>-A in +ove"&er o$ 1))3. (n 1))3/ Clinton sent A"erican troops on a peace0eepin% "ission in *omalia/ a s"all 'ar4torn A$rican nation. (n Septe"&er/ a So"ali 'ar4lord attac0ed U.S. $orces/ 0illin% $i$teen *>orei%nPolicy.co",. Clinton $ailed to $ind a de$initive %oal $or the "ission/ and he 'ithdre'

A"erican $orces in 1))2. (n 1));/ Clinton called on the A"erican "ilitary to 6oin +A-C $orces on a peace0eepin% "ission in 9osnia/ later reco%ni7ed as the (osnian &ar/ one o$ the ne' states res#ltin% $ro" the &rea0#p o$ the $or"er J#%oslavia *>orei%nPolicy.co",. 3hile the Clinton ad"inistration 'as 'eatherin% the scandals at ho"e/ old pro&le"s re4e"er%ed a&road. (n (ra:/ *addam 3ussein/ 'ho re"ained in po'er a$ter the H#l$ 3ar/ stopped cooperatin% 'ith U.+. 'eapons inspectors/ and in 1))< the chie$ inspector reported that #ssein 'as not co"plyin% 'ith U.+. r#les. Eeadin% #p to the report in 1))0/ Sadda" #ssein invaded K#'ait *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. -he 'orld responded &y Operation Desert *torm/ the na"e %iven to the operation to li&erate >u)ait *>orei%nPolicy.co",. -he operation 'as a s#ccess/ K#'ait 'as li&erated and (ra: de$eated. Osama -in Laden too0 note o$ 'estern &oots in the (sla"ic oly Eands. (n 1)<</ the shei0 $or"ed El ?aeda in an e$$ort to evict the 'est $ro" the Middle East *>orei%nPolicy.co",. +o'/ &in Eaden t#rned that or%ani7ation on the United States. 1))3/ El Laeda la#nched one o$ its $irst attacks on America '* Em-assies *>orei%nPolicy.co",. -hey sent operatives to +e' Jor0 City to destroy the. -errorists detonated a car &o"& in the &orld rade Center6s par0in% %ara%e *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. El Laeda hoped to 0noc0 the north to'er into the so#th to'er. Si5 died and over one4tho#sand 'ere in6#red *>orei%nPolicy.co",. Si5 "en 'ere later convicted in connection to the attac0. -he Clinton Ad"inistration decided to try the "en in co#rt/ &#t did not "a0e any atte"pt to disr#pt or destroy El Laeda *>orei%nPolicy.co",. -hree years later/ terrorists str#c0 the >ho-ar o)ers co"ple5 in Sa#di Ara&ia *>orei%nPolicy.co",. -he to'ers ho#sed A"erican "ilitary personnel. Event#ally/ the evidence led the >9( to (ran *MillerCenter.or%,. Cnce a%ain/ the U.S. char%ed the terrorists in co#rt $or "#rder/ conspiracy/ and other char%es. -he A"erican %overn"ent 'ished to open a dialo% 'ith (ranians and &r#shed the act o$ 'ar #nder the r#%. (n 1))</ 9in Eaden decided to cele&rate the ei%hth anniversary o$ A"erican troop deploy"ents in Sa#di Ara&ia &y &lo'in% #p American em-assies in Africa *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. (n response/ President Clinton la#nched cruise missile strikes on El

Laeda trainin% &ases/ &#t "issed &in Eaden &y a co#ple o$ ho#rs *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. (n 1)))/ pro&le"s in the $or"er J#%oslavia rei%nited as Ser&ian president Slo&odan Milosevic 'a%ed 'ar on ethnic Al&anians in Ser&ia. +A-C $orces/ incl#din% A"ericans/ &o"&ed Ser&ia to stop the =ethnic cleansin%= ca"pai%ns. o'ever/ the atte"pt $ailed and +A-C peace0eepin% $orces event#ally too0 #p positions 'ithin >osovo *MillerCenter.or%,. >ro" ?#ne 2; to ?#ly 3/ 1))</ US President 9ill Clinton visited China/ the $i$th US president to do so. ?ian% and Clinton had an in4depth e5chan%e o$ vie's on &ilateral relations and "a6or international and re%ional iss#es *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. . -he e5chan%e o$ visits &y the t'o heads o$ state si%ni$ied the ret#rn o$ China4US relations to a path o$ healthy and sta&le develop"ent/ a h#%e acco"plish"ent o$ the ad"inistration *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. Clinton also $aced civil rights iss#es 'hen ?esse ?ac0son/ leader o$ the rain&o' coalition/ a non4 pro$it or%ani7ation $or"ed as a "er%er o$ t'o non4pro$it or%ani7ations or%ani7ed to p#rs#e social 6#stice/ civil ri%hts and political activis"/ a$ter #sed a con$erence sponsored &y the "#ltiracial $ain-o) Coalition to attac0 state"ents "ade &y a pop#lar rap artist *APSt#dy+otes.or%,. &ho &ill (e $emem-ered@ A$ter st#dyin% and analy7in% these $o#r presidents and learnin% a&o#t all there vario#s acco"plish"ents and $ail#res as president/ ( $eel that the "ost re"e"&ered President 'ill &e President 9ill Clinton. President Clinton created the lon%est econo"ical e5pansion in A"erican history as 'ell as created 22 "illion ne' 6o&s/ lo'er the #ne"ploy"ent rate e5ponentially and even raise ed#cation standards. is a&ility to create the proper econo"ic policy plan that co#ld raise inco"e rates and lo'er the poverty rates 'as an incredi&le $eat D all 'hile &ein% a&le to reach across the aisle and 'or0 'ith his Rep#&lican adversaries 6#st co"es to sho' he 'as a&le to &end and co"pro"ise &#t still assert his presidential e5ec#tive po'ers to %et the 6o& done.

&orks Cited =9ill Clinton8s 3orld= >orei%nPolicy.co". -he3ashin%tonPostCo"pany/ 13 Cct. 200). 3e&. 20 April. 2013. MhttpINN'''.$orei%npolicy.co"NarticlesN200)N11N1)N&illOclintonsO'orldPpa%eQ0/1R =>ord/ Carter/ and Rea%an.= APSt#dy+otes.or%. St#dy+otes/ (nc./ 17 +ov. 2012. 3e&. 20 April. 2013. MhttpINN'''.apst#dynotes.or%N#s4historyNtopicsN$ord4carter4and4rea%anNR. =Movin% into a +e' Millenni#"= APSt#dy+otes.or%. St#dy+otes/ (nc./ 17 +ov. 2012. 3e&. 20 April. 2013. MhttpINN'''.apst#dynotes.or%N#s4historyNtopicsN"ovin%4into4a4ne'4"illenni#"NR. =President Carter= MillerCenter.or%. MillerCenter/ (nc./ 13 Cct. 200). 3e&. 21 April. 2013. MhttpINN"illercenter.or%NpresidentNcarterNessaysN&io%raphyN;NR. =President Clinton= MillerCenter.or%. MillerCenter/ (nc./ 13 Cct. 200). 3e&. 20 April. 2013. MhttpINN"illercenter.or%NpresidentNclintonNessaysN&io%raphyN;NR. =President .3. 9#sh= MillerCenter.or%. MillerCenter/ (nc./ 13 Cct. 200). 3e&. 1) April. 2013. MhttpINN"illercenter.or%NpresidentNh.'.&#shNessaysN&io%raphyN;NR.

=President Rea%an= MillerCenter.or%. MillerCenter/ (nc./ 13 Cct. 200). 3e&. 20 April. 2013. MhttpINN"illercenter.or%NpresidentNrea%anNessaysN&io%raphyN;NR. =-hin% A%ain Ronald Rea%an= >orei%nPolicy.co". -he3ashin%tonPostCo"pany/ 13 Cct. 200). 3e&. 20 April. 2013. MhttpINN'''.$orei%npolicy.co"NarticlesN2010N0GN07Nthin0Oa%ainOronaldOrea%anR =3hat Heor%e .3. 9#sh !id Ri%ht= >orei%nPolicy.co". -he3ashin%tonPostCo"pany/ 13 Cct. 200). 3e&. 20 April. 2013. MhttpINN'''.$orei%npolicy.co"NarticlesN2013N02N12N'hatO%eor%eO'O&#shOdidOri%htR

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