S U P P L E M E N T TO

R E P O R T TO T H E P R E S I D E N T
O F THE

COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC SECURITY

TABLES
p a b l e 1 printed In Report proper]

A. UNEMPLOYMENT
RELIEF:
2. Families and persons receiving emergency relief, co~ltinental United
States.
3. Cases receiving emer ency relief, direot work, special programs.
4. Obligations incurred for emergency relief from all public funds, by source
of funds, January 1933 through November 1934, by months and by
quarters.
B. UN~MPLOYMENT
AND UNEMPLOYMENT
COMPENSATION
LAWS:
5. Estimate of unemployment in employments which could be covered by
unemploymen&insurance plans.
6. States arrayed by average percentage of nonagricultural unemployment
April 1930; 1933 average; and 1930-33 average.
7. Countrie~in which compulsory unemployment insurance laws have been
enacted and number of workers covered in each.
8. Countries in which voluntary unemployment insurance laws have been
enacted and number of workers covered in each.
9. General provisions of com ulsory unemployment insurance laws.
10. General ~rovisionsof voruntarv subsidized unemployment insurance
laws.
C. AGEDISTRIBUTION
AND OLD-AGEPENSION
LAWS:
11. Number of older persons gainfully occupied by age and occupation for
United States, 1930.
12. Age dietribution of United Statee population by urban and rural for
1920 and 1930.
13. Actual and estimated number of persons aged 65 and over compared
to total population, 1860 to 2000.
14. Operation of old-age ension laws of the United States, 1934.
15. Principal features of t i e old-age pension laws of the United States.
16. Old-age insurance and pension legislation in foreign countries through
1933.
17. Principal provisions of foreign noncontributory old-age pension laws
through 1933.
D ~ B C U B I T Y FOR CHILDREN:
18. Estimated number of families and children receiving mothers' aid and
estimated expenditures for this purpose.
19. Funds for State maternal and child health work.
E. M I ~ C E L L A N E O ~ ~ :
20. General economio statistics.

.

ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT

TABLE2.-Families

and persons receiving emergency relief, continental United
States

(

Resident hilniliei m I ~ e r u n receiving
s
relief under the
general re!ief and special programs

1
1
1
1

Months

Yingle
&sons

Pamilies

~FEL~

and sioele

persons

Total
persons

i zy,

.

-.

of transients
~12~~yg
~opu~a-

('1
(')

84

April ............................ 4,4i5,325
(')
May ..-....--.-.--..-..-.-.-...4,262,4418
(4)
June ............................
3, 7S0.026
(4)
3,451,874 3 455.000
July ......... ........--...--.--.AllgLlSk...
3,351,810 3 412,0~!(1
Septen~her.......-..........-...
2,981,075 a 40'3,000
....-OCtcbr
.-.....-............'l
3,010,516 3 436,000
4fi1.315
Xovrmbrr. ............-.-...-.3,365,114
.
~)ecemt;cr..
.........-... 2,631,020 438.431
393-1
Janrlary-.. .............- - - - - -..
Februa~y....-.
...-.
....-.
...- -.
IvInrch. .......--..
-...-...-.April .....-....-...... - - ~.
..hlny .................. .....- ..
Juno. .-.
..
.......--....-..
July ...--.
.........- -.
.-.
....-..
Aupust-.
..........-.....
....
Srptemher. ..-.
.....--.
- -...-..
October ......-....--.--.--.--..
November 8 ....-.....-.-..
.-.
..
~

13
15.282,OM)
15,077,000
13,338.003
13,618,000
16,0Y0,4&5
11,664,800
2,912,743
3,132, Oil
3,Yj 33,833
4,437,'&2
4,433,601
4,317,473
4,409,409
4,629,482
4,752010
8 4,u
z,534
4,975,000

~

~-

Rnscd on 1930 Census of Populalion.
3 Middle of month figures, excluding local homeless which are included under general relief program.
a Partially estimated.
4 Not nvailable.
6 Partinlly estimnted to cover the rural rehabilitation program on which reports are not yet n n p l e t e .
0 Melimlnsry.
Source: Division of Research, Statistics, and Finance, Federal Emergency Relief Adminiatration.
1

TABLE
3.-Cases

receiving emergency relief-direct,

-

I
1934

I

-

work, special programs
1

General relief

Grand

Special
relief only

-I
.4pril.......-.-...-...-..-.-----..--.--..-...

4,437,242

y . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,433,681

M

June. ... ....-......-------------------.4,317,473
July .....-..---.........----------------.
4,409.409
A u g u t .....-.-...-----.--------------------.
4,628,482
September ..--._...--..-------------------..
4,752,940
October.. -.- ....-- .- -- -- .------.- --.
.
4,827,534
Novemher * -.-.---.---.------------------.
4,975,000

-

1
2

Cases include each family or single person on relief, not counting transient single
Rural rehabilitation program, emergenc1 education program, student aid; exclud%%?sientr.

a Cases aided under special programs in April were included in the general relief program.

rpreliminnry.
Source: Division of Research, Statistics, nnd Finance, Federal Emergency Relief Administration.

41

ECONOMIC SECURITY A C T

TABLE
4.-Obligations

incurred for emergency relief jrom all public junda by source
of funds, Janucc~y1993 through ~Vouember1964, by months and by quarters'
Obligations incurred far emergency relief
Federal funds
Total

Gtate funds

2;;

Amount

Local funds

Amount

1913

$80,82I,l(XI PC
January --.-----....
Fehruory -..--.----.
87,375,423 32
March .-.-..---...
81,205,631.61

$31,175,001.46
39,860,235.88
61,355,220.07

---

First quarter.

-

A

M y

J

209,408, 215 70
73,010,
70,806,338.08
60,338.2Ue. 68

Second quart .
.

210 156. 345 44

n

51.3
68.1
63.2

-

122,380,457.41

58.4
--

R O O . ~ 45,373, M8.80

e

u

-

43.HG3.456 80
42,623,714.87

62 1
8S.9
64.1

138.701.140.47

05.0

-

-I

-

--

Fourth quar-

l...

Aprl1.--..--.-..---.
113 134 286.74
May 9
l i 222: 770.621
June 3. ..-.....-....125,198, G48. 88

1

Second qnart!4r -.-.--.. 367,558,707. 'hi(

........._ . _ . . . / i
Auuust 3 -...-..-....149,424,555.07
Seotember 1. ..-.... 143,227.846 44
July

2

11
- - -I-(

Third quas.
tern .-....... 423,605.616.621

-

October I-----.
156,747,807.
November 9-..-.... 172,760,000.00

-

Iotnl. ID34 8..

I. 302,0C:3,04l. 02

8 2 288.551.45
86,741,145.12
02,084,137.06

1 I
72.7
74.9
73.6

271,124,833.631 73.d

17,642,022- 89
12,647.639.02
11,777,402 31

Z3p1

42,067, 065. Z( 11.41 64,383,808. 39( 14.8

~113~308~571.80
~~
=13,=061,%
04,. ] ~ z22,
.744,s 9l8 4 . 2 0 i z
75.8 12 226 882 75 8.2 23,889,100.52 16.0
108: 550: 186.27

76.8

11: 406: 614: 12

8.0

23.262.048.01,

16.2

8.71 88.806.191.771
-

317.014,046.761 74.81 38.895.438 101

--

16.6

-I

121,849.841.00 77 8 13,850,660.23
8.0 20,847,400.40 13 3
138,430,000.0d 80: 7! 10,870,000. O O k l 22,660, OW. O O E

=

037,589,711. 8 4 1 ~ 166.
1 ox$ow. si21

187, ;,7.3%

k

Total
23
month's1.-..2,084.768,068.69( 1,418,171.405.20( 67.71 283,213,228.321 13.61 303.381.344.171

15.2
18.8

funds.
3 Rreak-down partially estimated.
8 Preliminary.
Source: Division of Research, Statistlcs, and Flnance, ,Federal Emergenay Relief Administration, Jan.
7, 1935. Table based on reports from State and local rellef administratlons.

ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT

TABLFJ6.-&timale

Year:

oj unemployment i n employwnts which are curtomasily
cawed by unemploymeniineutancs plum
rn#l?nQ&d
of

U W ~ V ~ O Year-Continued.
Y ~

1922---------------------

1923- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1924--------------------1926--------------------1926--------------------1927-,--,----------------

13.1
7.3
9.4
7.8
7.4
8.3

-

Estimated
percent of
unemploymend

1928------------------_-1929----------_---------,
1930---------------------

8.5
6. 1

15.3
1931--------------------26.6
1 9 3 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ - - - - - 39.0
1933-----------------,--- 39.2

Bouroe: Estimata of the Oaommittee on Economio Becurlty. It ehould be noted that these unemploy.
! h a t rated m I n d M w onlp of the uwmployment owwring in the g o u of galnful workers which a n
aurtomarlly aavarsd by unemplo ent-hurmcaplana. and that the d! not represent the unempIoy.
-t
101t b UIWO wckfng
tlon. Thacbrstea mhi her than dose lor all W u l workem, becam
tb. tdd-r of tmrmol~&&
bp y?
W v d U Dlf. UI*
OX the w01kIng p p ~ t l o n

ad. *b&

TABLE
6.-8tata ant%&

,-wa2

by average percentuge of n o ~ g i c J t u r o uncmp2oyment-Apd
l

A m lw.l

1930; 1933 mesage; and 193&33 werage
1930-33average

In33 average

m

0

Paomt or

i

r
W

gatnfd

Stat.

watEera

onem-

P-t

Ratio to
averq?eof

workers

Stnte

nnemploy&

all Statas

P ~ O Y ~

--

P

of

gainlul

1

Ratio to
average of

Percent of
gainful
workm
unempbod

State

au States

Ratlo tQ
arerage d
all Ststar

--

--

Percent

An Statm ...-..-.-----------

I !I i9il

1

.....----..---.-----1.wi-.-..----------------l%9
1 8 1 6 Mlch-.
2 Rhode Island -.------.---.----11.2
131.8 Pennsylvania. - - - - -- - - -- - ---.-.
A r k m s s --..
.
- - - --.-.
- - -.
- - --- - a. Montana -.------.---.--------New J e m y -------.-----------.4. Illin043.----------------------A r h n a -.-.-------------------.
6. Oregon---..----..-------------

1

Michigan .......................
Rhode Islmd --------.---------New Jersey..-.--......----.--..
Montana ....----.-----..--.---..
116.3 Pennsylvania .--.--..---------..

- -

11. N e w Jermy----.-----.--------.

12. Califomla.--------------------

13. New York ..--..-.--...-------14. Indiana .-.-------------------16. Washington---.--------------.

-

-

-

utab- -- - - - - - --- - -- - - - - -- - - - - - - - -

M Utah -.--.----..-.------.-----.
19. Maine.........................

102.1
lm6
97.0
95.5

I

05.2

-----------------.-82
98.6

I!:

I.Vermont--.---.----.---------80
94.1
22. North 0810tiar
-.--..---.----23. New Hampehire.--...------...
7.8
BL 8
24. Kentucky -.---.-_.-.---------to. Copnecticut

,-.,..-.-----.--.-

Illinois---.----------.----------New York -----.---..--.-----.-.
Nevada -----------.-.-.-----.--.
Arizona ---------.--..---...---..
Florida------------.-.-.---.---.-

Illinois-. .-----.
--.
.-- ..----- Nevada. --.
.-..--.
.- - ---- .- -- Colorado......-.
-.
. -.
- -..- - .-Massachusetts.. - -.
.- - - - - - - -.
-.

17. Florida.----------------------18. Oklahoma-----.-.---.---------

m,M-ta

I

1

New Mexlm .-.-----..--.------. 116.4
New York.-.---------_-...-..-. 114.8
Rhode Island.--...---.--.-------110.:2
110.2
Florida------- ---- --- - --- . - --- --Montana ------- - -- ---- - -----109.6

-. _ - - - - - - -

Missrmri- - .- - - - .. - - - - - - Iowa-- -.
- .- .- - - .- .-.
- - -.- - -.
-Vermont-,-.. ....--..
- -.-..
--- Washington-..-.--..---------..-

L o u i s.-........---*.-*
~
*--*--

Utah............................

Arksnm.---.......------------.
Colorado-.----.--.-------------Wanhington-......-.-.-.-------Wyoming..-.-.---.-------------

Missouri.---.-....-------------OLhhomr.-.-.
...---.-.-------Lonislana-.....--.--.--.----.--Vamont .-------..--.----------a9 Cdifonlb
94.9
a 4
93.1
925

-.,......--------------

ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT

'TABLE
7.-Countries

in which compulsory unemployment-insurance laws have been
enacted and number of workers covered in each

,r

Country

Dtite of law

1

:,":,"$

9

Australia (Queensland)...................................................... Oct. 18. 1922
Austria ....................................................................... Mar. 24.1920
Bulgaria.. ...................................................................Apr. 12. 1925
ffermany .....................................................................July 16,1927
Great Britain and Northern Ireland .......................................... Dec. 16, 1911
Irish
Aug. 9,1920
- - Free State................................
~
t a l.
y.....................................................................-..--I Oct. 19,1919
-~
Poland ......................................................................
July 18,1924
Saitzerland (13 cnntor~<'.
....................................................
(;I
United States (Wisconsin).. ................................................ Jan. 29,1932
~

I

Total number insured ..................................................
1A

38,272, OM)

compulsory law was passed in Russia in 1922, but benefit payments were suspended in 1930.
into effect.

1 These are the dates upon which the laws were enacted, not the dates upon which they went
8 These are the most recent flgures available.
4 This Bgure represents the number covered previous to the beginning of the depression in

1029. The
o5cial flgure is much smaller (12,503,000 at end of Au ust 1933); the difference is due not to any limitation

ofcoverage but to the fact that thoso unemployed worfers who had exhausted thoir right to insurance beneflts and ha8 thus come within the s ~ o p eof the communal relief were not Included in the figures for the
members covered by unem loyment insurauce.
1 The &st ol the cantonafmeasures w%s passed in 1926.
8 This Brure includes persons c o m ~ u l s o r i insured
l~
in certain communes in cantons havina voluntary
Insurance.'
Source: Oompiled by the Committee on Economic Security.

TABLE
~ . - - C O U ~ L in
~ T which
~ ~ S voluntary unenzployment insurance laws have been
enacted and number of workers covered in each
Country

1

-

Date of law

Belgium ..................................................................... Dec.
Czechoslovakia............................................................... July
Denmark-- ................................................... 1.............. Apr.
Finland ...................................................................... Nov.
France....................................................................... Sept.
Netherlnnds ..................................................................
Deo.
Norway ...................................................................... Aug.
.Spain ........................................................................ May
Sweden ...................................................................... Jan.
.Switzerland (11 cantons) 8 .................................................... Oct.

30,1920
19,1921 3
9,1907
2.1917
9,1905
2 1910
8,1915
25,1931
1,1936
17,19241

Total numb81 insured .................................................................
1 These
1 These

~~$~~

1

1,038,OW
1, 600, 000
337,000
15,000
192,000
602,000
47,000
4 50,000

/

?;5,OW

I.
87% W

are the dates for the enactment of the national laws, not the dates upon which they took effect
are the most recent flgures available.

1This act came into effect on Apr.

1 1825.

4 The number of persons belongin; to funds which may be subject to the insurance law is 50,000.
It is
not d e e i t e l y known whether all these persons come under the law but it is probable that the majority ol
them ao.
8 I t is estimated that 23 unions with 320 000 members have funds which may be used for the i n s u r ~ u ~ w
provided in the law. The law became effictive Jan. 1,1936. I t is likely that 320,000 can be taken as a
rough estimate of the number who will come under the law in its early stages.
6 7 of these cantons apecify tbat communes may enforce compulsory Insurance within their borders; the
gopuletion of communes that have compulsory insurance is given in table 1.
7 Tbls is the date of the national measure. The flrst of the cantonal acta was passed in 19%
Bourne: Oompiled by the Committee on Economio Security.

ih

TABLE
9.--General prooiswm of compufaory unemployment irrsuronce laws
Country and year of
oririnal law 1

I

~~w

1

,butio,

Q u d i f ~ p wdod
x
(mntributlons)

1

Waiting
(clan)

1

1

of bndt

~nstralia(~ueenslmd),l922.jWorkers, employers, Gtate, each 6d.-..l

VE&

Austria, 19% ...-------...-...
One-half workers, one-half employera.
cantage of basic wage classee.
Bnlgaria, 1825.-.------..-.-.
~ ? r E s ,employars. Btate, esch 1 leva.

Vsriss with wage classas, marital

Great ~ritald,1911.------.-Workers, employers. State, each o n e
thud, ns flat rate varying with age

Varfes with

I

I

'

2

so?m:

- -

P??,:?''

I

M

sar, and number d 26 weeks.

C)

0

beneflt tar esch
weekly contribntion.

1 day's

----------

10----------------- Varies with marital status and num-

number of dependents.

I

13 w&r.

3

B
m

M

Varies with the type of insuranca W a y mtnunum. 3
fund, omupation, risks involved,
and laws of Canton.

I

-.

Gsrs passed in It-a in 1922, bot beneflts were suipended in 1930,owing to an absence of unemployment.
minpulso+
Poland also has a system of unemployment iDsuranca for daried workm to which only employers and employees cnntributa

1A

14 week8 (means. test required altsr 6 weah).

48 weeks in 2years. 7---- ---.--.------.
Vsrias wfth wage classes--.--.--------90 to 12[)dap.

m w-

I

12 weeks.

I2 week6---------- 6 --------------------..do

Irish Free State, 1911..-.-.-.

Switzerland (13cantons)..--.

age,

dependents.

of

12 to n,weeks.

staW and number of de ndents.
16 leva daily for head of
10 leva
all others.
Varies wlth w ~ g dames,
e
l d t y , and
number of dependents.

4

number of de-

IomEztii

13 m k a .

with locality, marital status,
8nd:number of dependents.

Workers, employers, aach 3% percent
of basic wage classes.

Germany, 19Z7

0s

*

from the .y*

-+?;

,qnd Bea-+'

"0,psrPtipe 9 U-F
. ++t!

.

.@vwe
8patemp @

.

*

- ..

-

.. .

.

... .,

,*

c%
P

Uni.ted, B ' W M

C)

Y

TABLE
10.-denttal

proti&

oj voiuniaty subsidiized unempioymenih.sutdncc htod

.

%.

L

Country and year of
o r i g i i law

.
. .
..~

Bnbsidiw

Belgium, la- .--..---State pays two-thirds of mntributiom
by members.
Cmchadovakia, 1921-- -- State pays 2 to 3 times d o n benefit&

Qualifstng period

Waiting period

,,

amount

-

-

Normal dtmiion:dbenefits

benefits

1 year ...--.----.------- 1 day each month plus 3 Three-fourths usual wages- 30 days each 6months.
days each 6 months.
T w o - W d s Isst wage
7 days-----.26 weeks.

Varies with fund; 3-month
minimum.
12 months

---eseseseseseses

-eseseseses

----.------------

Denmark, 1917---..----8-day minimum; 15 maxi- Two-thirds average earn- Varies; 70to 120days.
State, 15 to 90 m n t mntributi&.
mum. Varies with fund.
ings.
I d govepmenb gag omthird oi
Btete mbsldy.
€.-day minimum;18 maxi- Two-thirds average wags-. 120 d a m
Finland, 1917-.---...-...
State, onethird to two-thirds of bene (I m o n t h ..---+----.------mum; varies.
Bts paid by funds
One-half normal wages. - -. 180 days.
._-.-.-.--.-..
..... Varies with funds- --.----.
Francs 1805...-.-.-.-...
.
State 60 to 80 peroent of benefits. --.....-.-do.
~etheriands,1916-..-.-.Fed&, onehalf workers mntribu- Varies; 28 weeks in gen- Varies; 6 days in $enem1... 70 percent average daily Varies; 36 to 90 days.
wage.
eral.
tions; local, one-half also.
Varis with fund; 3 to 14 Onehali daily earnings.-..13 weds.
Norway, 1915-.-.----.--State onehalf and more of benefits 26 weeks .-.--------------.
days.
paid' local governinents pay twothirds of State subsidy.
T-fifths
normal wages. 60 days.
6 days.-.---.---.---------Gpaln, 1931-..--.-------.
State pays varying percentageof bene 6 months
fits.
M a y minimum; 3-month Four-fifthsusual wwes
Bweden. 1934 1----..--.-.
W d a q minimum; 120-day
52 weeks in 2 years -------.
State pays percentage of benefits. .---.
nyulmum.
mmmum.
Three-fifths normal wages. W a y marimurn.
minimum _.---.--.
3-day minimum--.-------.
Bwitzerland, 1'24 -----._.
Federal subsidy, 35 to 43 peresnt of 1-y
benefits plus cantonal and mmmunal subsidies.
-eses.

Baeden's law bealue effectiveJan. 1, lW3.5.
Sourca: Campiled mainiy horn the MwtMy L a k RcWo, Allgust and S e p t e m k
1

Counties"

1931 ''Opamtion

01

UnemplOyment Insurance Systems in the United Gtatas and Foreign

-

&

Q
0

2
Fi

Q

U1

m

Q

s
2

+

Q

C3

48

ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT

TABLE
11.-Number

of older persons gainfully occupied b y age and occupation f o r
United States, 1930

1

45 and
o w

1

50 and
o w

/

66 and
ovm

1

60 and
over

1

65 and
over

1

70 and
over

1

75 bnd

over

Total population. - .-.-.-..Total gainfully occupied-...--- -----Agriculture-.-.-..
Forestry and flshing.-..--.Extraction of minerals----.Manutacturhg and m e
ohanical industries
Transportation and communication...-.-.-.-----Trade. ..- ..- -.
- .. Public service..
Professional service-.-..--.Domestic and personal service.. --- ....-.
-.
..------Clerical occupations- .---.-.

.- - - -- - -..-.-..---.-

I

1 Less unknown.

Source: Fiheentb Census of the U. 8., 1930, vol. 11, Populafion, table 8, p 661, mdvol. IV, OccupotfoH,
table 21, p. 42.

TABLE12.-Age distrz%ulion of United Slates population

by urban and rural for 1930 and 1930

r-

1

Urban population

Total population
1820

1930

Rural popnlation

1830

1920

Age group

55 to 59 ......................................................
3,549, 121
.4.645,677
60 t o 64 ......................................................
2,982,548
3, 751. 221
2,068,475
65 to 69 ......................................................
2,i70,605
70 to 74......................................................
1,395,036
1.950,@34
75 to 79......................................................
856,560
1,106,390
80 to 84.....................................................
402,779
534,1376
205,469
8 5 t o 8 9 ..---.....-...---..-..-..-.....--.--.-..--.--.----.--.
1
156,539
51,664
W) to 94 ......................................................
39,990
95 to 99......................................................
9,579
100 and ovcr....._.--.-..
.--...-.----.-.......-...-.-.------4,267
94,022
148,699
Unknown ...............................................

,

/

12 2
8.5
5.4
3.1
1.6

. 7
.2
.1

1

2,666,416
2, 120,260
1,527,724
1,031,232
563,217
267.715
102,133
25, 147
5, 007
1. 360
6G,036

1,895,847
1,523,090
1,O;)IJ,US6
660,731
386,637
185,455
2 69,012
a 17,626
1 4,223
2 1,891
98,635

/

12.0
8.2
5.1
2.B
1.4
.6
2

1 Acc~lmulatedpercantago

I Estimated.

bawd on all over first age mentioned in each age group.

Less than one-tenth of 1per cent.
Bowm: Fifteenth Census of the U. 8.. 1930, val. II,Populnfton. tables 7 and 16, pp. 576, 587-88
I

.1

-----

/Ima
ja.~ 6 , 0 1 7

Total populatiou -------------.-----.---.--..---.-.---105,710,620
122,775.0l6
IW. o
~ 4 ~BOJ3 ~ m,
. 9 ~ ~ 8 2 3

/

1

'

(a)
(:)

1,653,277
1,454,458
1,087,4Y9
731.305
457.V23
217,324
'87,527
9 22.354
5,356
3 2,BG
49,864

1,989,261
1, GSO, 961
1,242,8Sl
018,772
543,173
260,901
1@3,336
26,517
6,023
2. 004
27,986

B,

a 223

12.5
8.8
5.8
3.5
1.8
.8

.3
1

1

(9)
(8)

1~

.1

o

50

ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT

TABLE13.-Actual and estimated number of persons

aged 66 and o w e compared to
total population, 1860 to 9000
m

3

Year

Number

Total pap

Number

Pwmnt

Yew

--1 .
.
BL9.000 31,443,000
1870--.....---..
1 1.54 000 38. m,m
1: 723'000 60. lM,am
1880---.
-.
.----18W... ...-- ---.
2 424' '000 62,622,000
1800.--.
.-..-...3' 889' m0 75,995 000
3'~s~'
ooo a1 sri
1910.-....--.--.
IBZO.--..-.--.-4:ea0:KKl 10~711)000
1930.--....----6,W.OoD 1223 775: :OOO

ooo

--

5.7

a.o

3.4

3.Q
41
4.3
4.7
6.4

sgada

and over

"I-

Percent
aged 66
and over

---

1940-_-..--...-.
8,311,000 132,000,000
leso..--..-.._._
~o.acn.goo io.ooa.ooo
1900...-.-.-.-.13,590,,008 146,MO.OOO
1970.....-._..-l$~,lXXI149,~,0@l
1980 ..--..-...17.001,OWI 150,800.0
1690.._..-...--19,102,080151,000,080
2MW)--...-.-.--1 9 , ~ . 0 6 0161.m0.W

8 3

7.7
9.3
10.1
11.3
12.6
127

Bouroe: Data for yenrs 1880 to 1WO from the U. 9,. Censuses. Estlnates fer subsequent pars by the
actusrla~staLlof the Commltlee on EPanomlC S e ~ u l t y . Those forecasts are made on the esrumptlo~of a
net lmm~p~ation
of 100,000 annually in yean 1935-39, and 200,000 annually In 1
W and theredlter.

TABLE14.-Operation

a j old-age pension lows of the United States, 1994

-

Percentage of
Number Number pension~tstn

T Y Pof
~ law

&
,e$:

,P&kr

of elici.

bb age

Beuroe: Data collected by the Committee en Economic Security.

yearly
pension 1

r

51

ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT

TABLE
16.-Old-ape imurance and pemion legislalion i n foreign cbuntties through.
1933
A. COMPULSORY CONTRIBUTORY

Country

~

Year
when
pmed

Bulgaria

---..-..---.-.
1924

I 1

Czechoslovakia 1 3 -------

France
C).

I 3

1I

OF G E N E R A L

Workers in industry and commerce, including domestic workers,
except casual domestics. Specia I schemes for agricultural workers,
salaried employees, and miners.
All wage earners, including agricultural workers and domestics (excapt
casual domestics); and independent workers with incomes below
18,080 francs a year. Special schemes for salaried employees and

..-----me..-..

Chile 1-

LAWS

Covemge

Austria 1 a -.--..--.----.
Belgium 2

OLD-AGE INSURANCE
COVERAGE

1924
1924

I

(see also sec.

-.-....-.---1889

/ I

m1TIcvs
-- --- -.

Employed persons, including agricultural workers and domestics.
Special scheme for public officials.
Wage earners under 86 earning less than 8,000 pesos a year; independent workers with annual inwmes below 8,000 pesos a yoar.
Employed workers over school w e and under 60, includinr! amicultural, domestic. and home workers S~ecinlschemes foi Glaried
employees miners stata employees employeas of statutory corporations suih as dilways. Spedal'act for independent workers.
p-d
in 1925, not yet enforced.
All employed persans under 60 whose annual esrnings do not exceed
18 000 irancs a year in cities with over 200,000 Inhabitants or industrial areas, 15,000 francs elsewhere. (Income limit raised by 2,000
francs in respect of each child.) Persons employed in sgrimlture
subject to insurance aganist old age and death only. Special ffiheme
for
min~rq
.
..-.
..

All workers, including agricultural, domestic, and home workjrs.
Special.scheme for salaried employeas with annual earnings below
8,400 relchsmarks. Special scheme for miners.
Great Britain 1 3 (sea
1925
All aorkers, including agricultural workers and domestics; salaried
also section C).
employees with incomes below £250 a year.
Greeca 1 a --------------All persons employed in industry and commerce.
Hungary 1 3 ------------All persons employed in specified employments. EmploymenU
may he added by Minister's order. Salaried e m ~ l o ~ with
e a la
conies below 6,0ob pengo s Tear. Special scheme iorminers.
All employed persons, i n c l ~ ~ d ~agricultural
ng
and domestic workers.
Italy I --..-.-......---.
Salaried employees with incomes helow 800 lire a month.
Workers in industry and commerce. Special scheme for salaried em
Luxemburg 1 3 --.-.-...
ployees in industry and mmmerce.
All employed persons, inc!nding agricultural and domestic workers,
Netherlands 1 3--------.
whose annual remunerst~ondoes not encaed 2,000 florlns. Insured
persons whose remuneration rises above 2 000 florins remain liable
to insurance. If their remuneration bas been above 3,000 florins
for some time, they are exempted at their request. Spechl schemes
for railway workers and miners.
All workers in mmmeree and industry. Insurable wage limit.
Poland 1 3 .--.....-..-..
Portugal 1---.---.--.--.All employed persons over 15 years earning la4s than 900 escudw
annually.
Rumania 1...-------... All persons employed in industry and commerce, and craftsmen.
Snecial scheme for miners in Ardeal. which includes survivors'
Germany

13

Spain-- -----------

All

Bweden 1
Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics.l 3

Old-age Insumnca mmbined with Invalidity insurance.
Old-age insurance combined with wrvivors' insurnnce.
Source: Com iled from Compubmg Pcmon In~nrancr International Labour Office Studles and
Reports. 6erlas% No. 1% Geneva 1833; Noncontrfbulorypinstona Intermtlonal Labour 6mce Studies
nnd Kegorb, M& M,No. 9. (3en&va, 1933; Inaurrug & fi8mntind, Barbara Nachtriob hmstrdng. 1932
1
3

52

ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT

TABLE
16.-Old-age insurance and pension legislaticm in foreign countria througA
19334ontinued

B. COMPULSORY CONTRIBUTORY OLD-AGE INSURANCE LAWS O F L I M I T E D
COVERAGE

Year

Country

Coverage

Public utility employean
1 ' ..-....---.Bank stalls.
Ilailwav workers.
.-----.---.----Dock wbrkers.

Argentina

B I ~ l a~ I

Staffsof public utility undertaking%
Cuba 1 1-.----...--.---.Seamen and harbor workers.
Stafls of banks.
Ecuador 1-.-.-.--..-....
Switzerland:
Legal residents between ages 17 and 50.
Canton Olarus I.-.All logal residents between ages 18 and 81.
Appenzell.. . -..
.All persoln between ages X0 and 65 who have been rwident in tbe
Bade Town 1...-..Canton for 2 years.
Bta5s of public utility undertakings.
Uruguay 1 3 (see also sao
tion C)--.-.-...----.--Staffs of banks and stock exchange.

--.

I
I

I

C. NONCONTRIDUTORY OLD-AGE PENSION LAWS
All citizens with insufficientincome. resident 20 years.
1908
Australia 1
All citizens with ins'ilfficient income; resident in Canada 20 years, in
1927
Cannda .._--..-.-.-.---Frovincc 5 years.
Citizens with insufficienf means, resident 6 years.
1891
Denmark .-...-.-.--..-.
A11 citizens with insufficient means.
1905
France 1 (see alsosection
A).

Citizens with insufficient meens; 12 pars' residenee since age 50 far
natural-born citizens; 20 years' residence in all for natilralized s u b
jects.
All Greenlanders without subsistence Income.
Greenlnnd .----.-..--.-1926
Citizem with insufiicienr means.
a
d
1909
Citizens with insu5cient means, resident 30 y a m .
Irish Free S t ~ t...--.--.
s
1908
1911
All citizens with insu5cient means.
Newfoundland-.-.-----New Zedand ---.....-...1898
Citizens with insufficient means and 26 years' continnolls residenca
111 citizens wilh iuufficient income.
Norway (will not go into
1923
effect until announced
by Royal decree).
All citizens (of 5 years'standing) with 15 pears' residence out of p r a
South Africa .-.-...---..
1928
ceding 20 years; other pemons with 25 years' residence out of p r e
ceding 30 years; insuficient income.
All
persons with insumcient me?.
(For naturaHzad subJect8 or
1919
Urugnsy 1 (see also s e e
aliens 15 years' residence is reqmred)
tlou B.)
Great Britain (see also
section A).

1 Old-ege penston

S

1808

legislstion combined wi1.1 i n r a l l ~ l t yku~lsionlrgivlutioa

Owage insurunoe cowhinod with s u n ivars' msurmca

53

ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT

TABLE
18.-Estimaied

number of families and children teceimng wwthesr' aid a d
eslimaied ezpenditurea for this purpose
[Based on figures available Nov. 16, 1034)

State

Number of Number of
families
children
receiving beneflt~ng
mothers' from mothaid
ars' aid

a Includes rsvised iigures for Illinois.

1 No

Estimated present annun1 expenditures for
mothers' aid, l o d and State
Total

I

Local

1

Btat.

mothers' aid law.
a Mothers' aid discontinued.
4 Estlmuted on basis of 2.6 children per family, the average rate for 20 States reporting in Decembb 1933.
8 Eetimnted on basis of trends in comparable States from whlch reports have been recelverl.
4 Law not in operation.

.Source: The U. 9. Children's Eiurep&

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.