Introduction to the Principles of Textile Testing - MA Wilding

Topic 10: Aspects of Quality, and Concluding Remarks
1. Introduction
A course in testing which does not address, however superficially, the important question of quality, cannot claim to be in any way complete. To begin with, what do we actually mean by "quality"? In many respects it is a rather abstract and elusive concept. In essence, though, it is associated with "fitness for purpose". There are several definitions available, some of which are (fortunately!) of practical use. Saville (Chapter 11) offers the following five: 1. Transcendent This term refers to a certain “something” possessed by a product (or service) which renders it superior to its competitors. The disadvantage of this as a definition is that it is vague, subjective and virtually impossible to quantify. 2. Product based This is a more useful definition: quality is judged purely on the basis of a product's performance. Thus, for example, if it were a garment it might include abrasion resistance, wash/colour fastness and so on. It is quantifiable, and usually objective. 3. User based This addresses the extent to which a product satisfies customers’ preferences and expectations. Inevitably these vary considerably from person to person, and it is therefore highly subjective. Again it is difficult to quantify, although there are ways around this problem. 4. Manufacturing based Manufacturers generally set their own internal production standards. This definition relates to how well the product matches its stated specifications, as determined by the organisation itself. It is generally quantifiable and objective. 5. Value based This is a broader definition of quality which takes into account not only how well a product performs, but also its price. It is therefore a measure of "value for money". It is of course consumer-based, and therefore largely subjective.

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1.1 The importance of quality in the manufacturing process To coin a phrase originally applied to computer software development (and still very relevant!)…

Garbage in …

… garbage out!
This principle is sound common-sense and is not, of course, limited to the world of computing. At the time of writing there is a rapidly-growing emphasis on all things quality across the entire industrial spectrum. In many respects the textile industry had to face up to such considerations much earlier than most others. For example, spinning of cotton or wool fibres into any yarn (let alone a 'good' one) requires at least a degree of uniformity - something for which natural fibres are not particularly noted! Then there is the rapidly intensifying demand, on the part of consumers, for hard-wearing, easy-care, safe, hygienic and fashionable yet value-formoney products. These and other factors have led to enormous pressures being placed on suppliers to refine the way they manage quality; and of course, this must be done with as little (downward) impact on profitmargins as possible! Hence, economics and market forces also play their roles. As someone once said: "In cotton, as in every other sector of the textile trade, the issue of quality begins with the fibre producer, but it certainly does not end with the finisher(!)". In this final part of the course, we begin with an examination of factors determining fibre and yarn quality. This will be followed by a brief introduction to more general quality issues, including recent developments in quality management.

2. Fibre Quality
The issue of quality clearly relates to every activity within the textile industry, but it is particularly evident when it comes to fibre- and yarn production, and perhaps at its most critical with regard to the two most important natural fibres: cotton and wool. Both these fibre types are associated with a number of special factors which are usually outside the direct control of the producer. Testing10-Quality-Conclusion.doc 2

Introduction to the Principles of Textile Testing - MA Wilding

2.1 Cotton Fibre Quality What exactly do we mean by "fibre quality"? One way to define it might be: "that combination of a fibre's properties (or factors) which together determine the likely quality of yarn(s) to be produced from it." Notice that there is a "knock-on" effect here, since the above definition begs, in its turn, the question of what "yarn quality" meansa. For the present discussion, however, we need not be concerned with answering that one! Cotton-production is of course a very well-established and mature industry, so there is a wealth of experience available on which to base the assessment of quality. By general consent, the most important factors determining the quality of a given batch of cotton are its: • • • • • fineness; staple length; maturity uniformity grade

Most of the factors listed above have been touched upon already, but 'grade' needs some explanation. Different types of cotton are best suited to different end-uses: for example, one may be suitable for hosiery yarns, while another may be more appropriate to shirting fabric, and it is the grade which largely specifies this. Once the type has been decided upon, the spinner needs some degree of continuity of the quality of the raw material delivered. Quality can vary year-to-year, field-to-field, and even bale-to-bale, so some system of classifying the grade is required so that the spinner can guarantee smoothly-running lots. If this is not done, continual adjusting and readjusting of the processing machinery may become necessary, with correspondingly increased costs. Grading itself varies from place to place, in both method and terminology. Even in markets relatively close together there can be considerable differences in the grading systems used. It is inappropriate to consider all systems in use, but two major ones may serve to illustrate the varying criteria employed: 2.1.1 American Cotton Grading Grading of American Upland cotton is based on three characteristics:
a

and quite nicely highlights the need for Total Quality systems (to be discussed briefly later).

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colour - 'extra white'; 'white'; 'spotted'; 'tinged'; or 'yellowstained'; - colour is influenced by variety, weather, soil, picking efficiency etc trash content (or foreign matter) - broken leaf, pod, sand, dirt etc; - an increased problem with mechanical pickers which can't discriminate; preparation - this assesses the efficiency of 'ginning'; - it is denoted by A, B, C for good, intermediate and poor, respectively; - poor ginning may give damaged fibres, neps, stringy looking lint etc

Note that fibre length is not a factor determining the grade, although it does affect overall quality. In total, 32 cotton grades were officially recognised in 1941. These are still in use today, and are based on eight main grades, each with a rather quaint but descriptive title: • • • • • • • • Middling fair Strict good middling Good middling Middling Strict low middling Low middling Strict good ordinary Good ordinary

'Middling' is used as a benchmark for setting the price of American cotton. 2.1.2 Sudan-Egyptian Cotton Grading The Sudan-Egyptian system originated in the cotton-growing region of the Gezira Plain. It uses six full grades, with half-grades denoted by 'X' (meaning 'extra'). On the Sudan-Egyptian system, assessment includes: • • • • • staple length fineness appearance colour trash content

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The cotton is given an initial grading before ginning, and perhaps a second grading after reaching the shipping point (Port Sudan). The relative importance of fibre length over trash content, as compared with the American system, can be seen with reference to plots of each factor for the two systems:

Tra sh Conte nt (%)

5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

S uda n-Egyptia n Gra de

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Effe ctive Fibre Le ngth (1/32")

54 52 50 48 46 44 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

S uda n-Egyptia n Gra de

2.1.3 Measurement of Trash Content - the Shirley Analyser Described in Booth (Pp 198-200), the Shirley Analyser is a machine for separating the heavy trash particles from the finer fibres & dust, which are carried through the machine on an air stream. The trash is gathered in a tray. The dust is extracted by exhaustion through a perforated drum, on the surface of which the fibres are collected. Ultimately, the cleaned fibre is delivered into a box. A complete sample may be analysed in about 15 minutes. The trash content is determined by weighing the trash and expressing this weight as a percentage of the initial sample weight. Two samples are put through, and the mean determined. Differences from the mean of less than 20% are not regarded as significant. The Shirley Analyser has various practical functions in relation to quality assurance. For example: • to provide purchaser and seller with definite figures for relative proportions of trash and clean cotton; to provide cotton & waste spinners with accurate idea of capabilities of their machinery on particular class of cotton or waste;

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• •

to determine state of cleanliness at any stage up to and including carding; to ascertain the quantity of spinnable fibre in the waste from any production machine; to determine the loss of good fibre in the opening/cleaning processes; the preparation of cotton for Micronaire and WIRA fineness/maturity tests;

Note: the 'Southern Regional Research Laboratory Non-lint Tester' is an alternative to the Shirley Analyser, based on similar principles. Its main advantage is faster operation. 2.2 Wool Fibre Quality Like cotton, wool fibre is a natural product, and equally subject to variation through many factors. In general, wool quality is assessed in terms of: • • • • • • fineness crimp length scaliness handle lustre

The most important of these is generally reckoned to be fineness. Although the mean fibre diameter is important, an indirect measure of fineness tends to be used. Since, other things being equal, a fine fibre will spin a fine yarn, wool fineness was originally graded on a scale according to the fineness of the finest yarn that could be spun from it (using a particular spinning route). Thus, wool grades were expressed as '58s', '36s' etc. Nowadays, even though developments in spinning technology have made finer yarns possible from any given wool grade, the original grading system continues to be employed. 2.2.1 Length Unlike cotton, in wool the longer fibres tend to be coarse, and the shorter fibres fine. For worsted yarns, long, fine, uniform fibres are preferred. Because, more often than not, a combing process is used in the preparation of worsteds; these grades are referred to as 'combing' wools. Where a lofty handle is

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wanted, and where fibres are carded, the shorter fibres are chosen, and termed 'clothing' wools. 2.2.2 Ellipticity This is a further factor which may be taken into account. Wool fibres are rarely circular in cross-section, being more usually elliptical. Some authorities believe the closer the fibre is to circular, the better will be the yarns spun from it. The ratio of the major and minor axes is taken as a measure of ellipticity, and called the 'contour ratio'. The following figures illustrate some wool fibre features.

Scales on the Surface of a Wool Fibre

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Ellipticity=Contour Ratio=b/a
Other fibre types which have special quality features include flax and jute. Reference should be made to, for example, Booth, Pp 134-208 for a detailed discussion of fibre dimensions and quality.

3. Introduction to Yarn Quality: Uniformity & "Evenness" Testing
In the above discussion, attention was centred on fibre quality but, as is obvious, the quality of the subsequent yarns, fabrics, etc is no less important. There are very many aspects of this, and it is not feasible to cover them all here. The subject of "evenness" testing is one which should at least be mentioned. Non-uniformity in yarns is probably one of the most likely causes of downstream problems and fabric faults. For this reason, many methods and measuring instrumentsa have been developed to assess yarn irregularity, and several characteristics are routinely used to quantify it. Examples of these are: • • • • • • • the number of "thick" places per unit length of yarn; the number of "thin" places per unit length; the number of neps per unit length; the extent and character of any periodic variation in yarn thickness; variations in twist level; variations in yarn strength; "hairiness".

A knowledge of the measurement statistics are particularly important in relation to yarn quality; the standard deviation of yarn thickness, for example, is often used as a direct measure of the degree of irregularity. For a fuller discussion of evenness testing and related topics, the reader is advised to consult Booth, Chapter 9.

4. Quality Assurance and Quality Management
This is a very wide and diverse subject in its own right and again, it is not possible to cover it in any depth here, except to note the ever-increasing emphasis on quality in the manufacture of textile products.

a

the most commonly encountered being the "Uster" Yarn Evenness Tester

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4.1 Total Quality Management (TQM) The growing emphasis on quality across the broad spectrum of manufacturing (and service) industries is evidenced by the steady adoption of TQM systems. In the UK, this was initially formalised by the introduction of the The British Standards Institution's (BSI) BS5750 (See reference 6 in the bibliography at the end of this lecture topic). Subsequently, BS5750 was ultimately incorporated into the international standards ISO9000 and ISO9002. These are described in the appendix to this topic. You may also wish to visit the following websites: http://www.bsi-global.com/index.html http://home.earthlink.net/~reolson/iso9000.html) In terms of textile manufacture, if a producer wishes to ensure product quality (whether of yarn, fabric, or finished article), then it is imperative that the quality of the incoming raw material is maintained. In other words, no stage in the production chain should be viewed in isolation. Hence the quotation given at the beginning of this chapter: "garbage in … garbage out". The international standards set out the criteria and mechanisms for arriving at TQM (or absence of garbage!). Upstream and downstream stages of production are of equal significance, and any manufacturer wishing to be accredited is required to monitor the quality of his supplier and customer (where the latter is not the final consumer). The all-embracing character TQ standards can be appreciated by the fact that, for example, BS5750 contained seven sections, most having a number of sub-sections. 4.2 Quality Control Quality control is just one of the mechanisms by which TQM is implemented. It deals with the specific actions carried out to maintain the quality of any given production process, and can therefore be regarded as a sub-set of TQM.

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4.3 Product Labelling A further important aspect is that of product labelling. This is quite an extensive subject, and the reader is referred to other sources for a more detailed discussion (eg Saville, Chapter 11). In brief, there is an array of legal requirements regarding the labelling of textile goods. These include: Fibre content - Percentage composition must be shown in decreasing order of content Flammability - Babies’ clothing (<3 months) must show whether or not meets the BS5722 flammability standard - Children’s nightwear must meet BS5722 - If treated chemically, must be indicated Origin - Complicated; it is not always required, but if used must be truthful Care Labels - For laundering etc; complex and varied

5. Suggested Further Reading
JE Booth, "Principles of Textile Testing", Newnes-Butterworth, London (1983). ISBN: 0408014873. Chapters 2, 5, 9 & 11. BP Saville, “Physical Testing of Textiles”, Woodhead, Cambridge (1999). ISBN: 1855733676. Chapter 11. H Weston, "Physical Testing and Quality Control", Textile Progress, 6, No.4 (1974).

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Appendix 10-A An Introduction to I|SO & the ISO 9000 Series Re-printed from http://home.earthlink.net/~reolson/iso9000.html

What are standards ? Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. International Standards contribute to making life simpler, and to increasing the reliability and effectiveness of the goods and services we use. What is ISO? The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries, one from each country. ISO is a non-governmental organization established in 1947. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO's work results in international agreements which are published as International Standards. How ISO started International standardization began in the electrotechnical field: the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) was created in 1906. Pioneering work in other fields was carried out by the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA), which was set up in 1926. The emphasis within ISA was laid heavily on mechanical engineering. ISA's activities ceased in 1942, owing to the Second World War. Following a meeting in London in 1946, delegates from 25 countries decided to create a new international organization "the object of which would be to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards". The new organization, ISO, began to function officially on February 23, 1947. The first ISO standard was published in 1951. ISO - What it really means Many people will have noticed a lack of correspondence between the official title when used in full, International Organization for Standardization, and the short form, ISO. Shouldn't the acronym be " IOS " ? Yes, if it were an acronym - which it is not. In fact, "ISO" is a word, derived from the Greek isos, meaning "equal ", which is the root of the prefix " iso-" that occurs in a host of terms, such as " isometric " (of equal measure). From "equal" to "standard", the line of thinking that led to the choice of "ISO" as the name of the organization is easy to follow. In addition, the name has the advantage of being valid in each of the organization's three official languages - English, French and Russian. The confusion that would arise through the use of an acronym is thus avoided, e.g. "IOS" would not correspond to the official title of the organization in French - Organisation internationale de normalisation. What does international standardization achieve? Industry-wide standardization is a condition existing within a particular industrial sector when the large majority of products or services conform to the same standards. It results from consensus agreements reached between all economic players in that industrial sector - suppliers, users, and often governments. They agree on specifications and criteria to be applied consistently in the choice and classification of materials, the

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manufacture of products, and the provision of services. The aim is to facilitate trade, exchange and technology transfer through : enhanced product quality and reliability at a reasonable price, improved health, safety and environmental protection, and reduction of waste, greater compatibility and interoperability of goods and services, simplification for improved usability, reduction in the number of models, and thus reduction in costs, increased distribution efficiency, and ease of maintenance. Users have more confidence in products and services that conform to International Standards. Assurance of conformity can be provided by manufacturers' declarations, or by audits carried out by independent bodies. Types of ISO members A member body of ISO is the national body "most representative of standardization in its country". It follows that only one such body for each country is accepted for membership. The member bodies have four principal tasks: • • • • informing potentially interested parties in their country of relevant international standardization opportunities and initiatives, organizing so that a concerted view of the country's interests is presented during international negotiations leading to standards agreements, ensuring that a secretariat is provided for those ISO technical committees and subcommittees in which the country has an interest, providing their country's share of financial support for the central operations of ISO, through payment of membership dues.

ISO has also established a third category, subscriber membership, for countries with very small economies. These subscribers pay reduced membership fees that nevertheless allow them to maintain contact with international standardization. How are ISO standards developed ? ISO standards are developed according to the following principles: Consensus The views of all interests are taken into account: manufacturers, vendors and users, consumer groups, testing laboratories, governments, engineering professions and research organizations. Industry-wide Global solutions to satisfy industries and customers worldwide. Voluntary International standardization is market-driven and therefore based on voluntary involvement of all interests in the market-place. There are three main phases in the ISO standards development process. The need for a standard is usually expressed by an industry sector, which communicates this need to a national member body. The latter proposes the new work item to ISO as a whole. Once the need for an International Standard has been recognized and formally agreed, the first phase involves definition of the technical scope of the future standard. This phase is usually carried out in working groups which comprise technical experts from countries interested in the subject matter. Once agreement has been reached on which technical aspects are to be covered in the standard, a second phase is entered during which countries negotiate the detailed specifications within the standard. This is the consensus-building phase. The final phase comprises the formal approval of the resulting draft International Standard (the acceptance criteria stipulate approval by two-thirds of the ISO members

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that have participated actively in the standards development process, and approval by 75 % of all members that vote), following which the agreed text is published as an ISO International Standard. Most standards require periodic revision. Several factors combine to render a standard out of date: technological evolution, new methods and materials, new quality and safety requirements. To take account of these factors, ISO has established the general rule that all ISO standards should be reviewed at intervals of not more than five years. On occasion, it is necessary to revise a standard earlier. To accelerate the standards process (handling of proposals, drafts, comment reviews, voting, publishing, etc.) ISO makes use of information technology and program management methods. To date, ISO's work has resulted in over 8,000 International Standards, representing more than 170,000 pages in English and French (terminology is often provided in other languages as well). A list of all ISO standards appears in the ISO Catalogue. WHAT IS ISO 9000? What are the ISO 9000 standards? The standards define the Quality Systems or models applicable to: design, development, production, installation and servicing, final inspection and test. Since not all endeavors encompass all of these aspects of business or the quality model, three standards were developed covering differing combinations of these disciplines, and a set of guidelines was issued to assist in choosing the correct standard for application. These standards are: ISO 9001: Quality Systems - Models for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation and Servicing. ISO 9001 is the superset of the contractual models for quality systems. It contains 20 sections, each of which specifies requirements for a component of the quality system. ISO 9001 requires the development of a quality manual and documented procedures which define the organization and operation of the quality system. It is the responsibility of a company to create and maintain these documents, so that they are relevent and appropriate to the specific business operation. ISO 9002: Quality Systems - Models for Quality Assurance in Production, Installation and Servicing. ISO 9002 is the contractual model for quality systems which include production but do not include design. ISO 9002 is almost word-for-word equivalent to ISO 9001, except that it does not include requirements for design control. It contains 19 sections or requirements. ISO 9002 requires the development of a quality manual and documented procedures which define the organization and operation of the quality system. It is the responsibility of a company to create and maintain these documents, so that they are relevent and appropriate to the specific business operation. ISO 9003: Quality Systems - Models for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection and Test. This is the contractual model for quality systems which do not include design or production. ISO 9003 contains about half of the requirements from ISO 9001, and modifies some of the requirements to suit the inspection and final test application. ISO 9003 requires the development of a quality manual and documented procedures which define the organization and operation of the quality system. It is the responsibility of a company to create and maintain these documents, so that they are relevent and appropriate to the specific business operation. The set of guidelines is: ISO 9004: Quality Management and Quality Systems - Guidelines. What is the difference? As indicated by the difference in title, the standards apply to the extent of activity in which an organization engages. Those organizations involved with the last stages of

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product completion... Final Inspection and Test... would appropriately choose to abide by ISO 9003. Percentage wise, the fewest number of organizations are registered to ISO 9003. Those organizations which include a stage of manufacture, prior to final assembly and test, would choose ISO 9002. The largest percentage of organizations are registered to ISO 9002. Finally, those organizations which undertake design and development activities, manufacture those designs, and complete final inspection and testing, would choose ISO 9001. In effect, ISO 9001 is the superset standard, with ISO 9002 and ISO 9003 being progressively smaller subsets of that standard. What is covered by the ISO 9000 standards? The ISO 9000 standards establish a standard framework for a Quality System. A Quality System is a series of checks and balances which, when introduced and followed, will ensure quality of output, or product. The framework, as embodied by ISO 9000, identifies twenty requirements, each of which affect quality. Each of the requirements is identified in the Quality Manual. What is a quality manual? The quality manual is the highest level of documentation of an ISO 9000 quality system. It specifies or makes reference to documented procedures, which are more detailed aspects of the quality system. The quality manual is the roadmap to a quality system. It can be used as a training vehicle for employees, as a reference for employees, and as a standard by which an auditor assesses the compliance and correct functioning of the quality system. What are documented procedures? Documented procedures are the heart of an ISO 9000 quality system. They define the correct and proper operation of a company in all aspects of quality, and the company is audited to verify that it follows its procedures. Documented procedures are a pervasive requirement of ISO 9000. HOW DOES ISO 9000 AFFECT MY BUSINESS? Why follow the ISO standards? The ISO 9000 Standards are becoming world-recognized quality standards. Many suppliers are demanding that their subcontractors and subsuppliers comply with the ISO 9000 quality standards so that they themselves can claim compliance to their customers. This reinforcement gives customers a common identity of quality, and suppliers a means by which to judge the likely quality of a subcontractor. Some industries are required to implement ISO 9000 In Europe, the European Community (EC) requires ISO 9000 certification for some types of products. These regulated products usually have special requirements for safety or reliability. In the U.S., the major automobile manufacturers will require subcontractors to be ISO 9000 compliant in the next year or two. Other industries are choosing to require ISO 9000 compliance as well. Whether through government regulation or voluntary choice of individual industries, ISO 9000 compliance is a requirement for doing business in an increasing number of markets. ISO 9000 is a competitive advantage ISO 9000 compliance indicates that a supplier takes quality seriously. This fact alone may influence a customer to choose one supplier over another. In an increasingly global economy, the competitive advantage of ISO 9000 can be significant. How can I verify that I'm following the standards? Quality System auditing is an inherent part of the ISO 9000 standards (see ISO 9000-1 section 4.9.3). Such auditing may take one of three recognized forms: First party audits - internal audits carried out by an organization's own staff. Second party audits - internal audits carried out on an organization by customers (or on behalf of customers). Third party audits - audits carried out on an organization by a certified body. Successful audits by a certified body will result in Registration or Certification of Compliance with the applicable ISO 9000 standard.

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ISO 9000 HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES ISO has just published a new handbook entitled ISO 9000 for Small Businesses, designed to help in the interpretation and implementation of the international quality management standards. Many thousands of businesses around the world are operating ISO 9000-based quality systems to ensure that their products and services meet their customers' requirements. In addition, small companies in some sectors are beginning to be pressurized by large customers to implement ISO 9000 and achieve ISO 9000 certification to demonstrate that their quality system conforms to one of the standards in the series. ISO explains that small companies may view ISO 9000 implementation as a complex and costly process more suited to larger businesses. The new handbook sets out to dispel the myth that ISO 9000 is for big companies only. Aimed at small business managers, it explains the quality system standards in plain language, with the intention of putting improvements in performance, quality, customer satisfaction and market access within reach of any manufacturing or service organization regardless of size, through implementation of an ISO 9000 quality system. ISO 9000 for Small Businesses has been written by experts from the Small Business Task Group of ISO/TC 176, the ISO technical committee responsible for developing and maintaining the ISO 9000 family of International Standards. In their practical advice and guidance on how to get started, the authors point out that quality systems should not be a source of bureaucracy, excessive paperwork or lack of flexibility. "Remember, all businesses already have a management structure and this should be the basis on which the quality system is built." For most companies large or small, ISO 9000 is not therefore about imposing something totally new. The handbook will help to demystify ISO 9000 for small businesses, and to answer typical questions on the series. It provides guidance on the three quality assurance models - ISO 9001, ISO 9002 and ISO 9003 - with clear explanations and many examples relevant to the small business. The handbook does not set any new ISO 9000 requirements, or add to, or otherwise change the requirements of the standards. It is intended as an informative and comprehensive guide to ISO 9000. In addition to basic explanations, it suggests first steps towards a quality system, whether to go it alone or use consultants, offers guidance in matters such as training and auditing, and gives a brief outline of the certification/registration process. ISO 9000 for Small Businesses (ISBN 92-67-10238-9) is available in English from ISO national member bodies or from the ISO Central Secretariat. The handbook consists of 128 pages in A5 ring-binder format, and is priced at CHF 48,50 per copy. Other Web servers providing standards information. International standards organizations These are bodies having recognized activities in standardization. They are recognized at international level and have as a principal function, by virtue of their statutes, the preparation, approval or adoption of standards that are made available to the public; and whose membership is open to the relevant national body from every country. • • ISO - International Organization for Standardization IEC -International Electrotechnical Commission

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ITU-T- International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector

National standards bodies These are bodies having recognized activities in standardization. They are recognized at the national level and have as a principal function, by virtue of their statutes, the preparation, approval or adoption of standards that are made available to the public; and that are eligible to be the national members of the corresponding international and regional standards organizations. These are some of the national level standards bodies:

Australia Standards Australia (SAA) Canada Standards Council of Canada (SCC) Denmark Dansk Standard (DS) Finland Finnish Standards Association (SFS) Germany Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) Ireland National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI) JapanJapanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) Norway Norges Standardiseringsforbund (NSF) SwedenSIS Standardiseringen i Sverige (SIS) American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

http://home.earthlink.net/~reolson/index.html

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Concluding Remarks on Textile Testing Course
In the preceding lectures, I have attempted to provide a flavour of what is, after all, an exceedingly diverse and complex subject, without delving into great experimental detail. It has not been possible to cover more than a handful of topics. On the other hand, those chosen probably represent some of the most important and commonly encountered areas of textile testing, and it is hoped that the reader will find the course a useful reference. The following brief bibliography provides suggestions for appropriate further reading.

Bibliography
1. Galileo, G. (1638), "Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences", Leyden; translated by De Salvio, A., and Fabaro, A. (1914), Evanston, I11. 2. Peirce, F.T., J. Textile Inst., 28, T45 (1937). 3. Hamburger, W.J., J. Textile Inst., 40, P700 (1949). 4. Platt, M.M., Textile Res. J., 20, 1 (1950). 5. "Structural Mechanics of Fibers, Yarns, and Fabrics", Vol.1, Hearle, J.W.S., Grosberg, P., and Backer, S., Wiley-Interscience (1969). 6. British Standards Institution. BS5750 "Quality Systems", Parts 0-3 (1987). 7. "The Physical Properties of Textile Fibres" 2nd Ed., Morton, W.E., and Hearle, J.W.S., Textile Inst. (1975). 8. "Principles of Textile Testing", 3rd Ed., Booth, J.E., NewnesButterworths (1968). 9. Cusick, G.E. et al., J. Textile Inst., 54, 52 (1963). 10. Harrison, P.W., J. Textile Inst., 51, T91 (1960). 11. Clegg, G.G., J. Textile Inst., 40, T449 (1949). 12. "The Internal Application of Synthetic Resins", Marsh, J.T., Chap. 16 of "An Introduction to Textile finishing", Chapman and Hall, London. 13. British Standards Institution. BS Handbook No. 11, p.21 (1963). 14. "Properties Depending on the Amorphous Regions of Fibres", Meredith, R., Chap. 12 of "Fibre Science", Textile Inst., Manchester (1953). 15. "The Meaning and Assessment of Cotton Fibre Fineness", Ramey, H.H. Jr., Int. Inst. for Cotton booklet (ca. 1982).

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