Etymology of Antimony, Bismuth

In Tamil the word அசன añjaṉam has denoted collyrium for eyelashes. This Kohl was a
cosmetic preparation used by women in India, Egypt and Arabia to darken the edges of their

Antimony/Black bismuth has been used for this purpose. Because of the same, the word
அசன añjaṉam has denoted Antimony.
Antimony, in the form of its sulphide (stibnite, Sb2S3), has been known from very early
times, more especially in Eastern countries esp. India. In antiquity, Antimony was merely
used for making cosmetics such as rouge and black paint for eye brows.
அ0 al [Tamil] -> (அ@ð (añju) [Tamil])-> அ@சனu añjaṉam [Tamil] n. [ Tulu ಅಂಞನಂ =
ಅಞನಂ aññanam ] 1. Collyrium, black pigment for the eyelashes; கMணl_ ைம . ேவ_க
ண@சன§திG நறணl§ (திO. சி. ம ட0. 10). 2. Magic black pigment, of which
there are three, viz., @தß@சனu, Lßதßuß@சனu, ேசß[ß@சனu;
ம ைறMLß@ைuð கßL_u ைம . அ@ச ன0கu ேLßL_u (Lணவl_. 15). 3.
Magic art. அ@சனவl§ைத. Qக[0ß வதி[ðசிü ம @சனu (தி@ வlைu.
O00ßu. 17). 4. Medicine for the eyes of a person bitten by a venomous snake, or of one
who has fits; க0ிðகu. (W.) 5. Blackness; க@ நிறu (Ll0.) 6. Darkness; @@u. (W.)
7. Dark-coloured stone; ந 0ðக0. (அக. நி.) 8. Stain, spot, fault; @_றu. அ@சன
நி[@சன@u (தßµ. gன§த. 5). 9. Sin; Lßவu. திைuLL [@சன@ ம _ேற
(சிவ த@. சிவU ßனேüß. 99). 10. Male elephant of the West.; ேம _றிைச üßைன.
(@டß.) 11. A tree; ம [வைக. @[ 0@ சன ம §தை[ (ம ðசQ. அ§தி[. 5). 12.
Indigo; அQ[. (ைவ. @.) 13. Marble; ச0ைவð க0.
அசனக añjaṉa-k-kal [Tamil] n. Sulphuret of antimony, a combustible used in fire
works, giving a blue flame. நிம ிைu.
అంజనoాo añjanarāyi ( అంజనమ: añjanamu + oాo rāyi) [Telugu) n. Antimonium or
black antimony. (Watts.)
ಅಂಜನ-ದ-ಕ añjana-da-kallụ [Tulu] n . Antimony.
അmന±g്añjanakkallụ [Malayalam].n കരുcു തിളæുn ഒരു തരം ധാതു (വ¸ം,
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> അeനം aññanam ô അecം aññaṉam ô അmനം
añjaṉam [Malayalam]. :. A dark shining material. :. A mountain. 8. A lizard. 4. Fire. U. Dark,
night. c. An eye disease. ¯. Blue gem. 8. കാcാവു kãyãvụ. The blue flowered Memecylon
(அ (añju) [Tamil]) -> अज् añj [Sanskrit] 1 To anoint, smear with, bedaub. -2 To make
clear, show, represent, characterize; -3 To shine, be beautiful. -4 To honour, celebrate. -5 To
(அ (añju) [Tamil]) -> ungo [Latin] to anoint, smear with oil.
ungo [Latin] -> Ngjyej [Albanian]
Ungu [Aromanian]
Ungir [Catalan]
Jongar [Dalmatian]
Oindre [French]
Ungere [Italian]
ungir, untar [Portuguese]
unge [Romanian]
únghere [Sardinian]
ungir, untar [Spanish]
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil]-> अजनम् añjanam [Sanskrit] 1 Anointing, smearing with; mixing;
unfolding, manifesting. -2 Collyrium or black pigment used to paint the eye- lashes; -3 Paint,
a cosmetic ointment. -4 Magic ointment. -5 A special kind of material of the black pigment,
such as antimony (used as collyrium), lamp-black. -6 Ink. -7 Fire. -8 Night. -9 (अजनम्
añjanam, अजना añjanā) (Rhet.) A suggested meaning; also the process by which such
meaning is suggested. It is the power of suggestion by which something else is understood
from a word which, though having more meanings than one, has been restricted to a single
meaning by relations of conjunction, disjunction, or, briefly, the use of a word of several
meanings in a special sense determined by the context.

अजनम् añjanam [Sanskrit] -> अ¯जनः añjanaḥ [Sanskrit] 1 A kind of lizard. -2 Name of a
tree or mountain. -3 Name of the guardian elephant (of the west or s. w.)
अ¯जÎनका añjanikā [Sanskrit]1 A species of lizard; a small mouse.-2 N. of the
mate of the elephant सु 9तीक.

Añjanam is mostly used by magicians and thieves to discover or to steal the hidden
treasures. It is called as அ@சனuLß[-§த0 (añjaṉam-pārttal).

அ@சனuLß[-§த0 (añjaṉam-pārttal) is mainly practised to get information about
missing persons or objects. This is a very useful ancient practice of divination.

அ@சனuLß[-§த0 (añjaṉam-pārttal) has been in vogue, since era, in Kerala as well
as Tamil Nadu. This art has been practised by a few select caste / families, to whom 'the
art' has been handed-over through generation to generation, by word of mouth.

Practitioners of this art have been entrusted with sacred hymns and special prayers, who
with devotion invoke various demi-gods, conduct the proceedings of அ@சனuLß[-§த0
(añjaṉam-pārttal) in a stipulated method. While some smear 'black ink' on the surface of a
betel-leaf for reading to achieve the object, some others use a mirror to have the ink
smeared and yet some others use their thumb nail for this purpose. But most of the
practitioners insist that only a child below the age of 12, be able to gaze upon and relay the
events of what he/she sees: while they do this, they may be under a spell cast by the
practitioner. They will see and come out with the tell-tale to the practitioner, who will explain
it to the visitor on his inquiry. The sacred hymn/ incantation and observance are kept secret,
as also the formula that goes into the making of 'the black ink'. There seems to be different
types of black ink, known under different names, depending on the legion of the

There are three kinds of añjana/añjanam (அ@சன§தி[üu/@வ@சனu). In South
India, they are @தß@சனu, ேசß[ß@சனu, and Lßதßuß@சனu.

1. @தß@சனu pūtāñcaṉam [Tamil] n. Magical pigment used in discovering whether
a person is possessed of ghost or not;ேLüðேகßைuð கM_Llµðக Aத
Qu ைம. (W.)

2. ேசß[ß@சனu sōrāñjaṉam [Tamil] n. Magic pigment used for tracing stolen
property, one of three añjaṉams; கuQேLßனMLß@ைuð கßL_u ம§தி[
ைமவைக. It assists in discovering stolen property or to steal;

3. Lßதßuß@சனu pādāḷāñjaṉam [Tamil] Magical black pigment or collyrium used in
discovering treasures buried underground, one of the three añcaṉam,
q.v.; அ@சனu @Gற u மைறMLß@ைuð கßண AதQவ.

The thief applies black pigment or collyrium to his face to hide his identity during night time.
ேசß[ß@சனu sōrāñjaṉam
Indians and gave wrong definition for the same.
them as of white colour, and is said to be produced in the bed of the Jamuna and other
rivers. It is called safed surmā in the
Hindustani medicine vendors is calcareous or Iceland spar.
described as °वेतवण सु मा (śvē

Pोतो¯जनं Íहमं ि1न¹धं कषा¤ं 1वाdु Hे Oनम् 1
ने¯¤ं Íह²माÍवषUÍd क9Í9ôाP1ो"नु त् 11 1स

pigment or collyrium to his face to hide his identity during night time.
am was wrongly transliterated as ोतोनम् Srōtō
Indians and gave wrong definition for the same. Pोतो¯जनम् Srōtōñjanam is described by
as of white colour, and is said to be produced in the bed of the Jamuna and other
rivers. It is called safed surmā in the vernacular, and the article supplied under this name by
Hindustani medicine vendors is calcareous or Iceland spar. ोतोन
ētavarṇasurmā) i.e. white surmā.
Pोतो¯जनं Íहमं ि1न¹धं कषा¤ं 1वाdु Hे Oनम् 1
ने¯¤ं Íह²माÍवषUÍd क9Í9ôाP1ो"नु त् 11 1स-².\ºv 11
ò|का 1सस1cनसमु ¯¬¤ò|का:
Pोतो¯जनÎमÎत 11 1सò|-².\ºv;\
°वेतवण सु मा çÎत Hोके 9Îसqधम् 11 1सò|-².\ºv
pigment or collyrium to his face to hide his identity during night time.
Srōtōñjana by North
ñjanam is described by
as of white colour, and is said to be produced in the bed of the Jamuna and other
vernacular, and the article supplied under this name by
ोतोनम् Srōtōñjana is

According to them there is another collyrium ामु नम् yāmunam which is belonging to or
coming from, or growing in the Yamunā. However it is incorrect. It is actually derived from
the following Tamil word.

üßமuu yāmaḷam [Tamil] n. (üß_. அக.) 1. Green; Lðைச. 2. Youth; @uைம.

üßமuu yāmaḷam [Tamil] -> (üßமனu yāmaṉam) [Tamil] -> üß@னu yāmuṉam
[Tamil] n. Black bismuth (i.e.Antimony); அ@சனðக0. (üß_. அக.)

üß@ேனLடகu yāmuṉēṭṭakam [Tamil] n. Lead; Þüu. (üß_. அக.)

[Sinhalese] n. Lead.

ୟାମୁନେଷ୍ଟକ ୟାମୁନେଷ୍ଟକ ୟାମୁନେଷ୍ଟକ ୟାମୁନେଷ୍ଟକ J̄ āmuneṣṭaka [Oriya] n. ସୀସା; ସୀସକ Lead Lead Lead Lead.

It is pertinent to note that of Sinhalese & üß@ேனLடகu
(yāmuṉēṭṭakam) and ୟାମୁନେଷ୍ଟକ ୟାମୁନେଷ୍ଟକ ୟାମୁନେଷ୍ଟକ ୟାମୁନେଷ୍ଟକ J̄ āmuneṣṭaka of Oriya are not found in the other
languages. It is claimed by Sinhalese dictionary as the one which is desired
by yavana (Greek) . However, Sinhalese language has
borrowed the above word from the Tamil word
üß@ேனLடகu (yāmuṉēṭṭakam) only. It is called as üß@ேனLடகu
(yāmuṉēṭṭakam) in Tamil because the lead & antimony are of similar features.

üß@னu yāmuṉam [Tamil] -> య·మ:నమ: yāmunamu [Telugu] n. Antimony.

üß@னu yāmuṉam [Tamil] -> yāmuna [Sinhalese] n. antimony or rather the
sulphuret of antimony, generally used as an application to darken the eye-lashes and
strengthen the eyes.

üß@னu yāmuṉam [Tamil] -> ﻦﻣﺎﻳ yāmun [Urdu> n. Antimony; sulphuret of antimony,

üß@னu yāmuṉam [Tamil] -> ୟାମୁନ J̄āmuna [Oriya] 1 ରସାଞ୍ଜନ; ଶ୍ରୋତୋଞ୍ଜନ. Antimony;
sulphate of antimony. 2. 2 ଆଖିର କଜ୍ଜ୍ବଳ. Collyrium for the eye. 3 ସୀମକ; ସୀସା. Lead.

üß@னu yāmuṉam [Tamil] -> ामु नम् yāmunam [Sanskrit] A kind of collyrium;

ामु नेम् yāmunēyam [Sanskrit] A kind of collyrium;

Because of dark green colour like pigeon, Antimony got its name in Tamil as யான
yāmuṉam and later Sanskrit has borrowed with wrong explanation for the origin. Compare
the same with

क*ोतः kapōtaḥ [Sanskrit] 1 A dove, pigeon. -2 A bird in general. -3 A particular position of
the hands. -4 The grey colour of a pigeon.

क*ोतसा,म् kapōtasaram [Sanskrit] antimony.

का*ोत kāpōta [Sanskrit] a. grey, of a dirty white colour.

का*ोतम् kāpōtam [Sanskrit] 1 A flock of pigeons. -2 Antimony. -3 Natron.-4 Fossil.

का*ोतः kāpōtaḥ [Sanskrit] n. The grey colour.
का*ोताजनम् (kāpōtāñjanam) [Sanskrit] antimony applied to the eyes as collyrium.
Sanskrit Scholars derived the following words claiming Antimony is produced by rivers.

नदी nadī [Sanskrit] A river, any flowing stream;

नदीजः nadījaḥ [Sanskrit] antimony.

नादेय nādēya [Sanskrit] antimony

वार vāri [Sanskrit], n. 1. Water. 2. A fluid.

वारभम् vāribhavam [Sanskrit] n. antimony.

संभवः vārisambhavaḥ [Sanskrit] n. a kind of antimony.

ोतम् srōtam [Sanskrit] A stream

ोतोनम् Srōtōñjanam [Sanskrit] n. antimony.

ोतोज Srōtōja [Sanskrit] n. antimony.

ोतोवम् Srōtōdbhavam [Sanskrit] n. antimony.
It is claimed that ामु नेम् yāmunēyam and Pोतो¯जनम् Srotoñjanam are obtained from the
river Yamunā. If it so, they are one and the same and they are not different kinds. However,
North Indians are claiming that there are 4 kinds of añjana/añjanam and they are

1. स ?वी,म् (sauvīram)
2. Pोतो¯जनम् (srōtōñjanam)
3. ामु नम् (Yāmunam)
4. का*ोताजनम् (kāpōtāñjanam)

Actually, Sanskrit dictionary has recognized 3 different kinds of āñjanam only. It is called
@जनम् (tryañjanam)/ @जन (tryañjana). They are का"ाजनं (kālāñjanam), ,स ाजनं
(rasāñjanam) and *ु A*ाजनं (puṣpāñjanam) only0

1. का"ाजनं (kālāñjanam) [Sanskrit] a sort of collyrium;

नी"ः nīlaḥ [Sanskrit] 1 the dark-blue or black colour. -2 Sapphire. -3 The
Indian fig-tree. -4 N. of a monkey-chief in the army of Rāma. -5 'The blue
mountain', N. of one of the principal ranges of mountains. -6 A kind of bird,
the blue Mainā. -7 An ox of a dark-blue colour. -8 One of the nine treasures of
Kubera; .9 A mark. -10 An auspicious sound or proclamation.

नी" (nīla) [Sanskrit] a. 1 Blue, dark-blue; -2 Dyed with indigo.

नी"ाजनं (nīlāñjanam) [Sanskrit] 1 antimony.-2 blue vitriol.

2. ,स ाजनम् (rasāñjanam) [Sanskrit] vitriol of copper, a sort of collyrium.

It has been pointed out by Monier that ,स ाजनम् (rasāñjanam) is a vitriol of copper or a sort
of collyrium prepared from it with the addition of Curcuma or (accord. accord. accord. accord. to some) from the calx
of brass with Amomum Anthorrhiza or (accord. accord. accord. accord. to others others others others) from lead-ore. There is no
unanimity about the definition of ,स ाजनम् (rasāñjanam). However Marathi dictionary and
,स ,6नस मु 78 (Rasaratna Samuccaya) have differently mentioned about preparation of
,स ाजनम् (rasāñjanam).

,स ांजन rasāñjana [Marathi ] n A collyrium. It is prepared by boiling together
calx of brass and one eighth of !ाBहC! or curcuma zanthorrizon, by adding
to the decoction an equal quantity of goat's milk, and by evaporating the
compound to one fourth.

1सा¯जनं ¬ 9ीताHं Íवषव4³"dा9हम् 1
°वासÍह²मा9हं वÞ¤ वातÍ9ôाPनाTनम् 11 1स-².\º² 11

• ò|का 1स1cनसमु ¯¬¤ò|का:
• 1सा¯जनÎमÎत 11 1सò|-².\º²;\
• 9तq 1सोq çÎत ÍñजHाषा¤ाम् 3ô1dे Tे 9Îसqधम् 11 1सò|-².\º²;×
• 9तq 1|ÎतÍकÇòज7¤ं dा³हÍ1gाकषा¤ाजdु ¹ध9ाकज7¤ं तु 1सा¯जनम्
çc¤Í9 वdि7त 11 1सò|-².\º²;²
1|Îतः (rītiḥ), 1|Îत (rīti) [Sanskrit]= Brass

सु मम् (rītikusumam), 1|Îतजम् (rītijam), 1|Îत9ु *9म्
(rītipuṣpam) [Sanskrit]= calx of brass.
ÍकÇò (kitta) [Sanskrit] = secretion, excretion, dirt, rust (of iron)

अजः (ajaḥ) [Sanskrit]= Goat

dु ¹धम् (dugdham) [Sanskrit]= Milk

It is colloquially called as 1सोत् (rasōt) in North India.

However in Tamil, @[சß@சனu (irasāñjanam) means blue vitriol only.

§தß@சனu tuttāñjanam / तु c³ा¯जनम् tutthāñjanam is not at all considered as
main añjana and included in the list of añjanas by Northern and Southern chemists.
It denotes blue vitriol as an eye ointment.

ந 0u (nīlam) [Tamil]-> नीHम् (nīlam) [Sanskrit] 1. Black-salt. 2. Blue vitriol. 3.
Antimony. 4. Poison. 5. Indigo, indigo dye. 6. Darkness.

It is pertinent to note that mostly white vitriol is used for eye treatment than blue
vitriol. In view of the same, it has not denoted antimony here.

Antimony got its name due to its color since Tamil word நீல (nīlam) has denoted
both blue and black colors.

3. 9ु *9ा¯जनम् (puṣpāñjanam) [Sanskrit] 1 calx of brass used as a collyrium.-2 A white
flower-like substance which appears when zinc is mixed with copper and heated for
preparing brass.-3 Zinc oxide.

It is called as ज1त9¸ H jastaphūla in Marathi.

9ु *9ा¯जन
9ु *9ा¯जनं Îसतं ि1न¹धं Íहमं सवाÍH1ो"नु त् 1
अÎतdु ध 1Íह²मा¯नं Íवष7व1"dा9हम् 11 1स-².\º- 11

• ò|का 1स1cनसमु ¯¬¤ò|का:
• 9ु *9ा¯जनÎमÎत 11 1सò|-².\º-;\
• 9तq 1|Îत9ु *9ज7¤म् 11 1सò|-².\º-;×
• ज1त9¸ H् çÎत महा1ा*çHाषा¤ां 9Îसqधम् 11 1सò|-².\º-;²
ज1त jasta [Marathi] n A coarse kind of pewter, Spelter or Tutanag.

ज1त9¸ H (jastaphūla) or ज1ता¬ 9¸ H (jastācē mphūla) [Marathi] n Pewter
puffed out like a sponge by exposure to heat.

ज1ती (jastī) [Marathi ] a Relating to ज1त or pewter.

However it is wrongly described as produced from flower merely because 9¸ H् phūla
and 9ु *9म् puṣpam in Sanskrit have denoted flower, blossom.

It is pertinent to note the meaning of the following Marathi word.

9¸ H phūla [Marathi] n 1. A flower or a blossom. 2 A spark (esp. from iron or from
fireworks). 3 Nap or down (of cloth). 4 White spots covering the body (of cows,
horses &c.) 5 A whitish exfoliation upon stones or wood in rainy weather. 6 A white
speck in the eye, albugo. 7 A certain wild plant. 8 The soot or condensed smoke
of ]! or frankincense. 9 Pewter puffed by the action of fire.

There is no such meaning in the following Sanskrit word.

9ु *9म् puṣpam [Sanskrit] 1 A flower, blossom; -2 The menstrual discharge; -3 A topaz
-4 A disease of the eyes (albugo). -5 The car or vehicle of Kubera; -6 Gallantry,
politeness (in love language). -7 Expanding, blooming, blossoming.

It is pertinent to note that the following Sanskrit words have denoted green vitriol and
not blue vitriol.

9|*9कम् (pauṣpakam), 9|*9क pauṣpaka [Sanskrit] oxide of brass considered as a
collyrium, green vitriol L. L. L. L.

However look at the following word to find out the original meaning of 9ु ~Hम् phullam.

9ु ~Hम् (phullam) [Sanskrit] A full-blown flower.

9ु ~H [phulla], p. p. (of. 9ु ~H् ) 1. Expanded, opened, blown. 2. Flowering,
blossomed; 3. Expanded, dilated, wide opened (as eyes). 4. Smiling, gay. 5.
Puffed, inflated (as cheeks). 6. Loose (as a garment).

Puffed nature is only intended and not the flower while forming the word 9ु *9ा¯जनम्

Here Marathi dictionary and 1स1cनसमु ¯¬¤ (Rasaratna Samuccaya) are differing in the
definition of ज1त9¸ H (jastaphūla) or ज1ता¬ 9¸ H (jastācē mphūla) and 9ु *9ा¯जनम्
(puṣpāñjanam) respectively. Marathi dictionary has claimed that it is pewter (ज1त jasta).
However 1स1cनसमु ¯¬¤ (Rasaratna Samuccaya) has mentioned 1|Îत9ु *9ज7¤म्
(rītipuṣpajanyam) i.e. calx of brass.

Therefore the claim that it is derived (9ु *9ज7¤म् puṣpajanyam) from or the substance is like
flower is totally wrong. However original etymology of 9ु *9ा¯जनम् (puṣpāñjanam) is
discussed hereinafter.
However Tamil word க0Güu (kal-l-īyam) has denoted both pewter and sulphide of
antimony because of similar nature of lead and antimony and pewter is made of tin/white
lead and black lead. The word ந0ß@சனu (nīlāñjaṉam) has also denoted pewter unlike
Marathi word जतफू ल jastaphūla equated with the Sanskrit word पुपानम् (puṣpāñjanam).

க0 kal [Tamil] ( i.e. stone) + Þüu (īyam) [Tamil] (i.e. lead) -> க0Güu kal-l-īyam
[Tamil] n. 1. Pewter; Mவuu ü0 கß[ü0கu|G க0LQ. (W.) 2. Sulphide of antimony.
ந0ß@சனu. (@. அ.)

ந0ß@சனu nīlāñjaṉam [Tamil] n. 1. Blue vitriol, verdigris; [ð ந0ðகß[u. (W.) 2. A
mineral poison; ந0ß@சனLßசßணu. (Lதß[§த. 1162.) 3. Sulphide of antimony;
ந0ß@சனðக0. (üß_. அக.) 4. A kind of lead; க0Güu. (üß_. அக.)

ந0ß@சனðக0 nīlāñjaṉa-k-kal [Tamil] n. Sulphide of antimony; கLQðக0.

ந0ß@சனLßசßணu nīlāñjaṉa-pāsāṇam [Tamil] n. A mineral poison; _@வைகL
Lßசßணu. (Lதß[§த. 1161, தை0LQ.).

It is pertinent to note that Sulphide of antimony is claimed as born (@தu) from blue stone
(ந0ðசிை0 nīlaccilai -> நதðசிை0 nītaccilai).

நதðசிை0ð@தu nītaccilai-c-cūdam, n. Sulphide of antimony; ந0ß@சனu. (üß_.

Pewter is a metal alloy. Tin is the metal that appears in the highest concentration in pewter.
Most is made up of at least 90% tin, although other alloys may include as little as 63%. The
other metals in the alloy are used as hardeners, to make the pewter practical for daily use
and metalworking. Lead is the main hardener in pewter before it was replaced by antimony.
Modern pewterers don't use it anymore (or very little of it) since it can cause lead poisoning.
Long term exposure to lead causes brain disorder especially in children. The use of lead has
been banned in just about anything except in areas where a replacement cannot be found.
Newly-made pewter containing lead tends to have a bluish tint. This fades away as the
pewter ages and it becomes a darker silvery-grey in color due to tarnish (oxidation), and the
main reason is lead which gets oxidised pretty easily. Because lead has a much higher
density than tin, lead-containing pewter is heavier. The more lead is added, the heavier it

Pewter image of Lord Vinayaka.

Later the word āñjanam was given to various medical preparations and applications to eye
etc. Chiefly the same is denoting collyrium in the name of surmā and not antimony.

1स1cनसमु ¯¬¤ (Rasaratna Samuccaya) has mentioned the kinds of āñjanam in view of
medical applications.
स|वी1म¯जनं 9ो4तं 1सा¯जनमतः 91म् 1
Pोतो¯जनं तd7¤¯¬ 9ु *9ा¯जनकमेव ¬ 1
नीHा¯जनं ¬ ते षां Íह 1वF9Îमह वÞ¤ ते 11 1स-².\º\ 11
It has mentioned 1. स|वी1म् (sauvīram), 2. 1सा¯जनम् (rasāñjanam) 3. Pोतो¯जनम्
(srotoñjanam), 4. 9ु *9ा¯जनम् (puṣpāñjanam) and finally नीHा¯जनं (nīlāñjanam).

It is pertinent to note that ¤ामु नम् (Yāmunam) was not at all included in the list of āñjanam
by Rasaratna Samucchaya.

Telugu dictionary has given the following definition.

°ల·ంజనమ: nilānjanamu [Telugu]. n. Blue vitriol, sulphate of copper.

`·Dరమ: (sauvīramu) ] [Telugu] n. Antimony, collyrium. sాట:కoాo, °ల·ంజనమ:.

sాట:క (kāṭuka) [Telugu] n. Lampblack. Mildew in grain. Eyesalve, or sulphuret of
antimony. Collyrium, a paste made of lampback and oil and applied to the eyes to
increase their brilliancy. It is also supposed to assist in conjuring and giving second

sాట:కoాo kāṭuka-rāyi [Telugu]. n. Sulphuret of antimony `·Doాంజనమ:.

Telugu dictionary has claimed sauvīrāñjanam, nilānjanamu as one and the same.
In ancient India the recipes for making various añjanas are strange and numerous. The eye-
brows and eyelids were stained black with στίμμα (stímma) or στίμμις (stímmis), stibium, a
sulphuret of antimony, which is still employed by the Indian and Turkish ladies for the same
purpose. The practice was of great antiquity, and has been introduced among the Asiatic
Ionians by the Indians, where the custom has prevailed from the earliest times. The Roman
ladies even went so far as to paint with blue the veins on the temple. This has been learnt
from South India. In the Susruta Samhitā of the first century either B.C. or A.D.
(Bhishagratna’s trans., Calcutta) there are many, of which the following is an example:–
“Eight parts of Rasāñjana (antimony) having the hue of a (full-blown) blue lotus flower, as
well as one part each of (dead) copper, gold and silver, should be taken together and placed
inside an earthen crucible. It should then be burnt by being covered with the burning
charcoal of catechu, or in the fire of dried cakes of cow-dung and blown (with a blow-pipe till
they would glow with a blood-red effulgence), after which the expressed juice (rasa) of cow-
dung, cow’s urine, milk-curd, clarified butter, honey, oil, lard, marrow, infusion of the drugs of
the sarva-gandhā group, grape juice, sugar-cane juice, the expressed juice of triphalā and
the completely cooled decoctions of the drugs of the sārivādi and the utpalādi groups, should
be separately sprinkled over it in succession alternately each time with the heating thereof.
After that the preparation should be kept suspended in the air for a week, so as to be fully
washed by the rains. The compound should then be dried, pounded and mixed together with
proportionate parts (quarter part) of powdered pearls, crystals, corals and kâlanu sârivâ. The
compound thus prepared is a very good anjana and should be kept in a pure vessel made of
ivory, crystal, vaidûrya, conch-shell, stone, gold silver. It should then be purified (lit.,
worshipped) in the manner of the purification of the Sahasra-Pâka-Taila described before. It
may then be prescribed even for a king. Applied along the eyelids as a collyrium, it enables a
king to become favourite with his subjects and to continue invincible to the last day of his life
free from ocular affections.” Blue vitriol and calx of brass are also used as collyrium.
@ð¹-த0 pūsu- [Tamil] v. tr. To besmear, anoint, rub, daub, spread on, plaster;
தடQத0. ந@சி நிமி[சைட ேம_Llைற (ேதவß. 627, 5).
வßசMவMMண ü[ைவü[ @சி (சவக. 2737). 2. To scrub the floor with
cowdung dissolved in water; Mம@@த0. QனM0ß_ வl[வlேü @சி
ன00 (Ll[Q0ி0. @Lட0ி0. 37.) 3. To clean; க@Qத0.
@சிðMகßu| மி@uLlGகM மßMசßL_u (நßG மணlð. 99). 4. To
wash, as with water; ந [ß0 அ0uQத0. ந @Mடß[ ந [ßGவßü @ðL
(நßGமணlð. 35).--intr. To gather together; @ைüத0. gül[
@@MமßGறßகL@சின (கuL[ß. நி@u. 91).
@ðð pūccu [Tamil] n. 1. Daubing, smearing, anointing; தடQைக.
ேதð_றி_ @ð சGMLß_ ேச[LLß[ (சிவ[க. ைநமிச. 26). 2.
Coating, gilding, plating, tinning; plastering; ேம_ @ðைக.
MLßGMLß@வ Mநßüü[Qைன @ððைடைம (Ll[ேLßத. 11, 66).
3. Starch; க@சிLLைச. (W.) 4. Medicinal paste, plaster; ம@§LL_.
5. External show, pretence; Mவu|LLகL_. (W.) 6. Concealment of one's
poverty or defects and assuming appearances; @_ற@த0ிüன
மைறðைக. (W.) 7. Soothing act or word; @தமßன Mசü0@த0ிüன.
ம_ேறß[ @ðசிை0 (ேதவß. 351, 4).
(pusu) [Tamil] to anoint, apply -> 9ु 1तम् pustam [Sanskrit] n.1 Plastering,
painting, anointing. -2 Working in clay, modelling. -3 Anything made of clay, wood or metal. -
4 A book, manuscript.

9ु 1तम् pustam [Sanskrit] -> ((9ु 1तकम् (pustakam), 9ु 1तक (pustaka), 9ु 1ता¯जनम्
pustāñjanam, 9ु 1ता¯Hन (pustāñjanam)) [Sanskrit] -> 9ु *9कम् (puṣpakam) 9ु *9क (puṣpaka),
9ु *9ा¯जनम् (puṣpāñjanam) & 9ु *9ा¯जन (puṣpāñjana) [Sanskrit] calx of brass used as a
Assuming that the above Sanskrit words were derived from 9ु *9म् puṣpam which means a
flower, blossom, they have translated it into क

सु मम् kusumam and formed the word

सु माजनम् (kusumāñjanam) क

सु माजन kusumāñjana.

सु मम् kusumam[ Sanskrit] A flower;

सु माजनम् (kusumāñjanam) क

सु माजन kusumāñjana [Sanskrit]. The calx of
brass used as a collyrium.
However there is no relationship between flower and the calx of brass used as a collyrium
and therefore Sanskrit Scholars could not explain the etymological reasons for them.
In eye care, collyrium is an antique term for a lotion or liquid wash used as a cleanser for the
eyes, particularly in diseases of the eye. Among the best types of collyrium is antimony and
it clears the vision and makes the hair sprout.
The amount of antimony sulfide produced in India is very small, the chief localities being the
Jhelum and Kangra districts of the Panjâb; the Bellary, Cuddapah and Vizagapatam districts;
and the Chitaldroog and Kadur districts of Mysore.
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> అంజనమ: añjanamu [Telugu] n. Lamp-black, collyrium,
eyesalve, the magic ointment used for the purpose of discovering anything that is
concealed. sాట:క. అంజనsాడ: a conjurer, he who finds that which is concealed by putting this
ointment on his hand or on his eyelashes. అంజనమ:c -ి చ¬చ: to search for hidden things.
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> ಅಂಜನ añjana [Kannada] 1. Anointing. 2, a black collyrium
applied to the eye-lashes or eyes as a cure for disease. 3. magic ointment. 4. ink. 5. night. 6.
Porticular applications, as Lampblack, antimony. 7. elephant of the west. 8. Magic; Divination

அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> अं जन añjan [Hindi] collyrium an eyesalve.

அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> ﻦﺠﻧﺍ anjan [Persian] A pounding, pulverizing; a cutting; trouble,
chagrin; collyrium, antimony.

அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> ﻦﺠﻧﺍ anjan, ﻦﺠﻧﺁ āñjan [Urdu] n. Collyrium, ointment, lamp-
black, antimony, black pigment or collyrium applied to the eyes and eyelashes to embellish

அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> ﻦﺠﻧﺍ anjan [Persian] A pounding, pulverizing; a cutting; trouble,
chagrin; collyrium, antimony.
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> ଅଞ୍ଜନ An̄jana [Oriya] n. 1 ଚକ୍ଷୁରଞ୍ଜନାର୍ଥ ବ୍ଯବହୃତ ଲେପ; କଜ୍ଜ୍ବଳ.
Collyrium; ointment for the edge of the eye-lid. 2 କଳା; ମସୀ; କାଳୀ. Ink. 3 ଦୀପ କଳା. Lamp-black. 4
ମଳି. Dirt. 5 ସୁରୁମା; ରସାଞ୍ଜନ. Antimony. 6 ଆଯୁର୍ବେଦୋକ୍ତ ଚାରି ପ୍ରକାରର ଅଞ୍ଜନ. Four kinds of ointment
mentioned in the Hindu medical books. 7. ମ୍ରକ୍ଷଣ; ମିଶାଇବା. Mixing up. 8 ଅଗ୍ନି. Fire. 9. ପଶ୍ଚିମ
ଦିଗର ହସ୍ତୀ. Name of the elephant guarding the West. 10. କୃଷ୍ଣ ବର୍ଣ୍ଣ. Black
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> Añjana [Pali] ointment, esp. a collyrium for the eyes, made of
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> অন añjana [Bengali] n an eye-salve; collyrium; anti mony;
lamp-black; a sty.
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> ਅੰਜਣ añjan [Punjabi] The name of a collyrium used chiefly to
blacken the eyelids and beautify the eyes.
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> अं जन añjana [Marathi] n A collyrium: also an application to the
eye-lashes to darken and improve them. 2 Particular applications to the eyes (as lampblack,
antimony &c.) to confer superhuman powers of vision. 3 Applied fig. to instruction from a
spiritual teacher; to a सा! from an idol &c.; considered as a means of removing mental
वं जण (vañjaṇa) [Marathi] n Materials for smearing and scrubbing (pitchers &c.)
वं जण[ (vañjaṇēṃ) [Marathi ] v c To scrub or smear (an earthen water-vessel) with a
preparation of oil, marking nut &c.
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> unguentum [Latin] n ointment; perfume; unguent.
unguentum [Latin] -> unguent [English] ointment.
onguent [French]
unguento [Italian]
ungüento [Spanish]
அசன añjaṉam [Tamil] -> & [Sinhalese] n.
antimony; collyrium or application to the eye lashes to darken and improve them, very
generally used among the natives of India as adding to the beauty of the face; the name of a
plant; echites antidysenterica ; elephant of the west.
& [Sinhalese] n. witchcraft,
necromancy, sorcery of every kind; medicine rubbed inside the eye when a person is
very sick.
Combined word with க (kal), oాo (rāyi), the words அசன añjaṉam & its Telugu
derivation అంజనమ: añjanamu have denoted bismuth, black antimony. However some
languages like Oriya and Persian etc have directly denoted Antimony.
அ0 al (Tamil) -> அ§¹-த0 attu - [Tamil] 1. To unite, as two or more parts, make to fit in
with one another; @[M_Mைட _G üL MLß@§திülைச§த0.
அ§தி§ைத§தßG. (W.) 2. To apply, as medicine to a wound; அLQத0. ம@§ைதð
கßü§திGேம 0§திைவ§தßG. (W.) 3. To lean on; சß[த0. OGேதßைu
அ§திðMகßM_வß. (W.) 4. To reach; OL_த0. அ§தð சமßசß[u O@மßனG
கßதிu அ§திLேLßü வlLட. (W.)
அ§¹-த0 attu - [Tamil] -> अ4त akta [Sanskrit] pp. Smeared over, bedaubed, anointed &c.;
mostly as latter part of compound;

अ4ता aktā [Sanskrit] Night.

अ4त akta [Sanskrit] -> (अ (aṅkta) [Sanskrit]) -> अवा aṅktvā [Sanskrit]. having

(अ (aṅkta) [Sanskrit]) -> unctio, unctionis [Latin] n. anointing/unction; (w/sign of cross);
besmearing; (w/ointment/oil); ointment;

unctito, unctitare, unctitavi, unctitatus [Latin] v. anoint often;

unctiusculus, unctiuscula, unctiusculum [Latin] adj. somewhat unctuous; sort of oily;
unctor, unctoris [Latin] n. anointer; one who anoints;

unctus, uncta, unctum [Latin] adj. oily, greasy; anointed, oiled;

unctio, unctionis [Latin] -> Unction [English], act of anointing: that which is used for
anointing: ointment ; that quality in language which raises emotion or devotion warmth of
address: divine or sanctifying grace.

Unctuous [English] adj., oily ; greasy,

(அ§-த0 andu) [Tamil] -> دوﺪﻧا andūd [Persian] Plaster, mortar, incrustation; (in comp.)
incrusted with, as zar-andūd, washed with gold, gilt, &c.
ندوﺪﻧا (andūdan) [Persian] To incrustate, plaster, cover
over, anoint, smear; to gild, plate, wash over; to twist.
هدوﺪﻧا (andūda) [Persian], Anointed; incrusted, &c.
ﺶﯾاﺪﻧا (andayesh) [Persian] Noun Plaster(ing).
نوﺪﻧا (andūn) [Persian] Plaster or cement.
அ§-த0 attu-> (அ§-த0 andu) [Tamil] -> அ§தனu andaṉam [Tamil] n. (obsolete)
1. Collyrium, black pigment for the eyelashes; கMணl_ ைம . 2. Magic black pigment, of
which there are three, viz., @தß@சனu, Lßதßuß@சனu, ேசß[ß@சனu;
ம ைறMLß@ைuð கßL_u ைம . 3. Magic art. அசனவைத. 4. Medicine for
the eyes of a person bitten by a venomous snake, or of one who has fits; க-ி'க. 5.
Blackness; க@ நிறu (Ll0.) 6. Darkness; @@u. 7. Dark-coloured stone; ந 0ðக0. 8.
Stain, spot, fault; @_றu. 9. Sin; Lßவu. 10. Male elephant of the West. ேம_றிைச
üßைன. 11. A tree; ம[வைக. 12. Indigo; அQ[. 13. Marble; ச0ைவð க0.
The above word seems to be not recorded by the Tamil Lexicons. However the same is
retained and mentioned in Sinhala language.
அதன andaṉam [Tamil] (obsolete) -> & [Sinhalese] n. collyrium or
application to the eyelashes to darken and improve them; eyesalve; antimony; lamp black.
[Sinhalese] n. the part under the eye which the natives of
India make black with antimony.
In Tamil, the word மணl maṇi means crystal stone, gem stone etc.
மணl maṇi [Tamil] n. 1. Gem, precious stone, of which nine are specified,
viz., kōmētakam, nīlam, pavaḷam, puṭparākam, marakatam, māṇikkam, muttu,
vaiṭūriyam, vayiram; ேகßேமதகu, ந uu, Lவuu, QLL[ßகu, ம[கதu,
மßணlðகu, @§, ைவ_[üu, வül[u OGற நவ [§தின0கu.
(Ll0.) 2. Sapphire; ந 0மணl. (திவß.) @Mடக0 கதி[மணl க_ßஅ0Qu
(சிLßM.148). 3. Ruby; மßணlðகu. மணlவßüð கிuைu (க00ß. 50,
23). 4. Pearl; @§. (Ll0.) 5. A supernatural gem. சி§தßமணl. AuL[த@
ேதமணlð கசிவßகி (தி@LQ. வlநßüக[தி, 2). 6. Crystal; Lu|0@.
மணlµL µக_த@ @0 ேLß0 (@றu, 1273). 7. Apple of the eye; கM
மணl. க@மணlül_ Lßவßü (@றu, 1123). 8. Sacred bead, as rudrak or
lotus seed; A@§தி[ßðகu தßமை[மணl @த0ிüன. மßசி0ßத
மணlதிக_ ேமன| (ML[üQ. தி@ððLட. 6). 9. Grain of corn;
தßன|üமணl. 10. Snake-stone; வlடu ந ð@0 க0. மணlம§தி[
மßதிüß0 (தßµ. L[@[ண. 9). 11. Moonstone; ச§தி[கߧதðக0. ந _ந[
மணlந @u (சவக. 2418). 12. Necklace of beads; மணl மßை0. 13. Jewel;
gL[ணu. 14. Small round thing, as bead; A@Mைட வµQuu MLß@u.
மணl ül@தை0µ@ ேச[§தி (சவக. 2977). 15. Round sinkers attached to a
net; வை0ül ேனß[§தி_ கLµü A@Mைடகu. @னமணl வlu|u
Qறð ேகߧ (தி@வß0வß. 22, 13). 16. Knot in a fishing net;
மGவை0ülG @µðð. மணlவை0. 17. Knuckle or joint of lobster,
scorpion, etc.; நM_ ேதu @த0ிüவ_றிG Mகß_ð@மணl. (W.) 18.
Wattle on the throat of a sheep; gLµனத[. (W.) 19. Liberated soul; வ _ML_ற
gGமß. மணlülð Mகßu| (சவக. 3100). 20. Beauty; அ_@. (@டß.)
மணlðக[§ (க00ß. 4). 21. cf. வlMமணl. Sun; @[üG. (Ll0.) 22.
Light; _u|. Mசuமணl மணlL@§ தைம§த வßü (கuL[ß.
@00ைகேக. 12). 23. Goodness, auspiciousness; நGைம. (Ll0.) 24. That
which is excellent; சிற§த. மணlüßன வlQü@ MசßG னßG. 25.
Blackness; க@ைம. (Ll0.) 26. Bell; gong; கMைட. மணlகிu[ @Gறி_
MறGனவG (Qறநß. 388, 13). 27. Sound, as of bell, gong, etc.;
கMைடேüßைச மணl ேகLகிற. 28. Hour; 60 நிமிQ@uu
ேந[u. Mod. 29. The number 9; _GL. மணlநßu (ைத0வ. ைத0. 115).
30. Tip of the penis; gM@றிülG @ன|. Loc. 31. A part of the pudendum
muliebre; MLM@றிülG @[ ALQ. (üß_. அக.)

மணl maṇi [Tamil] (i.e. stone)-> मनीकम् manīkam & मनीक manīka [Sanskrit] n. eye-salve,
collyrium (powdered antimony or other substances used as an application and ornament to
the eye).

அ§தனu andaṉam [Tamil] (obsolete) + மணl maṇi [Tamil] (i.e. stone)-> அ§தனமணl
andaṉamaṇi [Tamil] n. (obsolete). Antimony

அ§தனமணl andaṉamaṇi [Tamil] (obsolete) -> antimonium [Latin] antimony
According to linguists, the medieval Latin form, from which the modern languages and late
Byzantine Greek take their names for antimony, is antimonium and that the origin of this is
uncertain. They further rightly claimed that all suggestions of their have some difficulty either
of form or interpretation. The name of antimony was given to the sulphureous combination
of this metal, which was well known before it was understood how to extract from it.
Man knows long back about Antimony and as the metal, and in the form of some
compounds. Berthelot describes a fragment of antimony metal vases found in Tello
(southern Babylonia). Well known antimony bronze was used in the period of ancient
kingdom of Babylon; bronze contain copper and Supplements - tin, lead and significant
amounts of antimony. Antimony and lead alloys used in the manufacture of various products.
It should be noted, however, that in the past, antimony metal is apparently not considered to
individual metal, it was taken as lead.
It is made of mineral thin shiny black powder, used for cosmetic purposes, especially for
grimirovki eye "eye ointment." However, despite all of this data on the long-standing
dissemination of antimony and its compounds, well-known researcher in the field of
archaeological chemistry Lucas argues that in ancient Egypt ancient Egypt ancient Egypt ancient Egypt, ,, , antimony was almost antimony was almost antimony was almost antimony was almost
unknown unknown unknown unknown. In addition, according to Lucas, in all archaeological objects metal antimony is
present only as impurities; antimony sulphide same, at least until the time of the New
Kingdom and generally was not used for makeup, as evidenced by colouring mummies.
Meanwhile, in the III millennium BC, in Asian countries and even in Egypt, the cosmetic was
called as stimmi. Already in alchemical literature, as well as in the works of the Renaissance
and the metal antimony sulphide is usually described with sufficient accuracy. Starting from
the XVI century, antimony steel is used for various purposes, particularly in the metallurgy of
gold, polishing mirrors, later in typography and in medicine.
The ancient words for antimony mostly have, as their chief meaning, kohl, the sulphide of
antimony. Pliny the Elder, however, distinguishes between male and female forms of
antimony; the male form is probably the sulphide, while the female form, which is superior,
heavier, and less friable, has been suspected to be native metallic antimony.
Fantasy etymologies: Fantasy etymologies: Fantasy etymologies: Fantasy etymologies:
Origin of the word "antimony" was explained differently in speculation and erroneously.
1. There was a Basil Valentine story narrating about how a monk, who found a strong
laxative effect of antimony sulphide on a pig, recommended it to my colleagues. The
result of this medical advice has been disappointing - after receiving means all the
monks died. So supposedly called antimony produced by "anti-monahium" (an anti-
monks). But all this is more anecdotes. The popular wrong etymology is that is
derived from the greek word ἀντίμοναχός anti-monachos or French antimoine and
this would mean "monk-killer" and it still has adherents who claimed that since early
alchemists being monks, and antimony being poisonous, antimony is named as
monk-killer. There are, however, other explanations.

2. Some authors believe that "antimony" - the result of reducing the Greek. Antos
ammonos or flower god Amun (Jupiter), the so called antimony allegedly shines.

3. Another claimed wrong etymology is the hypothetical Greek word ἀντίμόνος
antimonos, "against aloneness" (the enemy of privacy), emphasizing that the natural
antimony always compatible with other minerals.
In Russian literature at the beginning of the XIX century, the used words denoting
Antimony are surmyak (Zakharov, 1810), Suremain, syurma, syurmovoy wren and
antimony. Russian word antimony was allegedly of Turkic origin, the original meaning of
the word - makeup, cream, ointment as in the case of Tamil and other Indian words. This
name is preserved in many eastern languages (Farsi, Uzbek, Azeri, Turkish, etc.).
antimonium [Latin] -> antimony [English] 1. A chemical element (symbol Sb) with an atomic
number of 51; 2. The alloy stibnite.
antimoon [Afrikaans]
antimon [Albanian]
ﻥﻮﻤﻴﺘﻧﺃ (ʾantimūn) [Arabic]
ծարիր [Armenian]
antimoniu [Asturian]
antimonioa [Basque]
сурма [Belarusian]
антимон (antimón) [Bulgarian]
antimoni [Catalan]
antymony [Cornish]
antimon [Czech]
antimon [Danish]
antimonium, antimoon [Dutch]
antimon [Estonian]
antimon [Faroese]
antimoni [Finnish]
antimoine [French]
antimoni [Friulian]
antimonio [Galician]
Antimon [German]
αντιμόνιο (antimónio) [Greek]
ןומיטנא (antimón) [Hebrew]
antimon [Hungarian]
antímon [Icelandic]
antamón [Irish]
antimonio [Italian]
アンチモン(anchimon), アンチモニー(anchimonī) [Japanese]
antimón [Kashubian]
អង់ ទី ៉ ន់ (ɑngtiiman) [Khmer]
±=± (antimon), ±=5I (antimoni) [Korean]
antimons [Latvian]
Antimon [Luxembourgish]
антимон (antimón) [Macedonian]
antimoni [Malay]
antimonju [Maltese]
antimoan [Manx]
antimon [Norwegian]
ﻥﺍﻮﻤﻴﺘﻧﺍ (antimoân) [Persian]
antymon [Polish]
antimónio, antimônio [Portuguese]
antimoniu [Romanian]
antamòn [Scottish Gaelic]
антимон (antimón) [Serbo-Croatian]
antimón [Slovak]
antimon [Slovene]
antimonio [Spanish]
antimon [Swedish]
antimon [Turkish]
antimon [Vietnamese]
antimoni [Welsh]
antimoon [West Frisian]
The most common name for the element is Antimonium. However, in his essay on the
chemical signs, Jakob Berzelius used for Antimony the symbol Sb (also St), being an
abbreviation of Stibium. This became the official symbol, despite the fact that Stibium or its
derivations are rarely used in the different languages. Further, the name Surma is used in
some Slavic and Altaic languages.
Antimony sulphide (Sb2S3) in the form of powder was used in the Orient as a cosmetic to
darken and beautify their eyebrows. This substance with the name στιμμι is described by
Dioskorides (Materia medica 5, 99) and Pliny (Naturalis historia 33, 34) so clearly, that it is
certain that it concerns Sb2S3. In turn, the Latin language borrowed their word from the
Greek as Stibium (which is now used as the Latin name for the element and the source for
the chemical symbol Sb Sb Sb Sb).
Antimony is also a metalloid. The oxidation states of Antimony are +3, -3, and +5. Atimony
exhibits allotropy with the most stable being the metallic form which has the same properies
as Arsenic of high density, moderate thermal conductivity and limited ability to conduct
electricity. The oxide of Antimony is Antimony (III) oxide which is amphoteric, meaning it can
act as both an acid and base.
Antimony is obtained mainly from its sulphide ores. At low temperatures, Antimony
vaporizes. Along with Arsenic, Antimony is commonly used in making alloys of other metals.
Arsenic, Antimony and Lead will produce an alloy that has desirable properties for electrodes
to use in lead-acid batteries. Arsenic and antimony are also used to produce semiconductor
materials such as GaAs, GaSb, and InSb in electronic devices.
Along with the same, etymology of Bismuth has to be discussed.
Bismuth is a metallic element. Bismuth is commonly used in cosmetic products and
medicine. Out of the group, Bismuth has the lowest electronegativeity and ionization energy
which means that it is more likely to lose an electron than the rest of the Group 15 elements.
By metonymy, it is used in medicine to name the salts of the metal, used in particular to
cloud the digestive tract from the late nineteenth century. It is used in the treatment of
gastroduodenal diseases.
Bismuth is also a poor electrical conductor. The oxide of Bismuth is Bismuth (III) Oxide
which acts as a base, an expected property of metal oxides. Bismuth is obtained as a by-
pruduct from the refining of other metals which allows other metals to recycle their by-
products into Bismuth. Bismuth is a poor metal that is similar to both Arsenic and Antimony.
Because of the same, names of lead, Antimony and Bismuth were invariably used by Greek,
Egypt and Arab languages while borrowing.
Bismuth is a name of yellowish white metal, soft and brittle, with a lamellar structure, known
and described by Paracelsus in 1526 under the name wiusmat.
According to linguists, its etymology is uncertain and claimed that possibly comes from
Arabic bi ismid, because it is having the properties of antimony or German words weisse
masse or wismuth ("white mass"), translated in the mid sixteenth century to New Latin
Bismuth metal has been known from ancient times, although until the 18th century it was
often confused with lead and tin, which share some physical properties.
Bismuth was probably unknown to the ancients. Miners believed there were three types of
Lead: Ordinary, Tin, and Bismuth. In Cadet's Dictionnaire de Chimie of 1803 Bismuth and
some of its compounds are described in detail and given many synonym
names: Demogorgon, Glaure, Nimphe (borrowed from the Tamil word நிமிை# nimiḷai) ,
Étain de glace, and Étain gris (gray tin). In early times Bismuth was confused with Antimony,
Tin and Lead. Von Lippmann explains the name as derived from the German Weisse
Masse = white material, which later altered to Wismuth and Bisemutum.
Often is the name Bismuth explained as a derivation from the German, from the saying that
one the element "in der Wiese mute" (applied for mineral rights in the meadow). According to
Thomas Witzke, the derivation of the element name from "in der Wiese muten" is unlikely.
According to him, "Wiese" is meadow, and "muten" means an announcement to mine for
special ores or metals. The owner of the mine must announce to the mining authorities the
ores or metals that he wants to mine before starting his work.
An origin of the name in the Erzgebirge area, especially at Schneeberg, is very likely. All the
early documents on Bismuth refer to Schneeberg. The mining at Schneeberg started
between 1400 and 1450. Schneeberg was noticed prominently as a result of the Silver
findings at this time. Main parts of the Erzgebirge were primeval forest, and meadows were
not a characteritic features at this time in this area. Main clearings of the forests were a
result of the growing population due to the mining. Bismuth was found at Schneeberg in
several mines in large quantities (in difference to other mining areas in Germany!), but the
need of Bismuth was rather low - a small quantity for medical use and somewhat for the
types for book printing. In all the early documents, there is only one Bismuth mine
mentioned. Typical announcements were for Silver, somewhat later also for Cobalt ores, but
not for Bismuth. With increasing book printing, the use of Bismuth grows, but at this time the
name was already known. However the etymology of Bismuth was wrongly given.
Therefore neither meadows were characteristic for the beginning of the mining in this area,
nor "muten" for Bismuth is likely or were of greater economic interest at the time of the origin
of the name.
Some speculations regarding the origin of the word Bismuth are
1. a derivation from the alleged Arab word "bi ismid" = having the properties of
Antimony [al-iṯmīd];
2. A derivation from the Greek "psimydos" = white lead (in French blanc d'argent), one
of the oldest paint pigments (basic lead carbonate, a mixture of lead carbonate and
lead hydroxide, (PbCO3)2 Pb(OH)2). However, the word "psimydos" does not exist,
the correct Greek word for white lead is ψιμυθιον (psimythion);
In order to produce a fair complexion, white lead (ψιμύθιον) was employed (Alexis, fr. 96, 17
In the II millennium BC, Indian word antimony appears, but all these names were wrongly
applied, but mainly for lead sulphide (galena). In Syria and Palestine long before AD black
make-up was called as stimmi and has the meaning of any thin, dry or chafed in an ointment
powder. Later writers (near the beginning of BC. E.), Such as Pliny, and called stimmi
stibolyl - cosmetic and pharmaceutical products for makeup and eye treatment. In Greek
literature, these words also mentioned as cosmetic black color (black powder). These items
go in Arabic literature with some variations.
So, in Avicenna's "Canon of Medicine" appears along with stimmi itmid or atemid - powder or
pellet (pasta) lead. It was believed that cosmetic and therapeutic agents to the eye contain a
mysterious spirit, hence, probably alcohol became known as volatile liquids. The dictionary
Ruhland explains this word as stone of lead ore veins, marcasite, saturn, antimony (stibium),
and stibium or stimmi as black sulphur or mineral that the Germans call spisglass
(Spiesglas). However, despite this confusion of names, it is in the alchemical period in
Western Europe, antimony and its compounds were finally separated from lead and its
Therefore accordingly all Greek, Egypt, Latin and Arab words denoting Antimony, Bismuth
and lead have the same origin. The words denoting lead have also denoted antimony.
ﺏﺮﺳ sarib, [Persian] Lead;
ﺏﺮﺳ sarib [Persian] -> ﺏﺮﺳ ﻪﺘﺧﻮﺳ surb-soḵẖta [Persian] Antimony, burnt lead,
wherewith females tinge their eye- brows.
ﺏﺮﺳ sarib [Persian] -> ﻪﻣﺮﺳ (surma/sorme) [Persian] A collyrium, with which the eye-
brows and lashes are tinged, antimony, lead-ore;
ﻪﻣﺮﺳ (surma/sorme) [Persian] -> sürme [ Turkish ] antimony
sürme [Crimean Tatar] antimony
сөрмә (sөrmä) [Tatar] antimony
сурма (surmá) [Belarusian] antimony
сурьма (swrʹma) [Kazakh] antimony
сурьма (surʹmá) [Russian] antimony
сурьма (surьma) [Tajik] antimony
сурма (surmá) [Ukrainian] antimony
сурьма (sur’ma) [Uzbek] antimony
@u Iḷ (To melt, thin)->(@ü iy) [ Tamil]-> @üüu iyyam [Tamil] n. (obsolete) lead.
@üüu (iyyam) [Tamil] ->Þüu īyam [Tamil] n. 1. White lead. Mவuu üu. (திவ!.1 2. Black-
lead; க!G/.
The word 2=/ (iyyam) in Tamil is now obsolete. However the same has been retained in
Malayalam language.
(2=/ iyyam) & B/ īyam [Tamil] -> Q¿ം (iyyam), Qcം/൦രംയം(īyam),
Q¿ം (īyyam) [Malayalam]Leadകsു±മിgാc ഒരു cmാmം =കാരlcം, cവ_lcംbeing
pewter.കാരlcം cവ _lcം _nിcരംKR.കcുc oരംcം ക_ിnു നnു, cവളുclcം
± (yeon) (鉛 (yeon) [Korian] n. lead

ÞüðகிLடu īya-k-kiṭṭam [Tamil] n. Lead rust; Þü§@. (W.)

Þüð@_வl īya-k-kuḻavi [Tamil] n. A prepared arsenic; ந0LßQßணu. (@.

Þüu@ð-த0 īyam-psu- [Tamil] v. intr. To coat with lead; Lߧதி[0கL@ Þü@0ß

Þüமண0 īya-maṇal [Tamil] n. Particles of lead; ÞüLMLßµ.

@§@ itturu [Tamil] n. [Þüu īyam + @ turu] Galena dust, lead-ore; வ0கமண0.
(@. அ.)
White lead was called as Mவuைuைம veḷḷaimai as it was used as white pigment/ink and
applied as collyrium.

Face whitener, using lead white replacement.
Mவuைuைம veḷḷaimai [Tamil] n. White lead; ÞüMவuைu.
The use of make-up existed in Europe also with men and women from aristocratic classes
plastering chalk powder and white lead on their faces for a ghostly look. During that period,
the pale look was very desirable as it distinguished the wealthy from the common people.
Further, in order to cure redness of the face, people took white lead [ceruse], rose water and
violet oil and mix together and anointed the face. Grecian women painted their faces with
white lead and apply crushed mulberries as rouge. They used white lead to give themselves
pale complexions. European women often attempt to lighten their skin using a variety of
products, including white lead paint. Queen Elizabeth I of England was one well-known user
of white lead, with which she created a look known as "the Mask of Youth."
Þüu īyam [Tamil] -> சüu sīyam [Tamil]n. (now obsolete) Lead; Þüu.
சüu sīyam [Tamil] -> சசu sīsam [Tamil] n. 1. Lead; Þüu. (@டß.) 2. [Telugu. sīsamu.]
Madness; ைL§திüu
சசu sīsam [Tamil] -> ೕಸ sīsa [Kannada] n. lead
ೕಸ sīsa [Tulu] lead
ೕ kīji[Tulu] white lead. ச ca/sa= க ka change in South Dravidian
சசu sīsam [Tamil] -> ସିଂସା Siṁsā [Oriya] n. ସୀସା (ଧାତୁ).Lead (metal).
சசu sīsam [Tamil] -> சð (sīsu) [Tamil] n. (obsolete) lead.
The word சð (sīsu) now obsolete in Tamil. However it has been borrowed by Kannada
சð (sīsu) [Tamil] -> ೕಸು sīsu [Kannada] n. lead
சசu sīsam [Tamil] -> सीस (sīsa), स ीस म् (sīsam) सीसक (sīsaka), सीसकम् (sīsakam),
सीस*@कम् (sīsapatrakam) & सीस*@म् (sīsapatram) [Sanskrit] n. 1. Lead (also used as
money). 2. The leaden weight used by weavers.
सीसजम् (sīsajam) [Sanskrit], Red lead. Minium
It is pertinent to note that there is no word “hīha” denoting lead in Persian equivalent to सीस
(sīsa) as in the case of Saraswatī of Sanskrit in Harax
atī of Persian. [Sanskrit sound of “S”
converts to “H” in the Persian language]
சüu sīyam [Tamil] -> cchiummo [Neapolitan] lead.
சüu sīyam [Tamil] -> sīyo [Kacchī dialect of Sindhī] m. ʻ lead ʼ
சüu sīyam [Tamil] -> (சமி
(psimýthion) [Greek] n. The white lead, used as a pigment, esp. to whiten the skin of the face
and even for the hair.
Later the word denoting white lead/lead has specifically denoted Antimony also because of
similar nature of lead and antimony.
(ψιμυ (psimý) [Greek]) -> στίμμι (st
στίμμι (stímmi) [Greek] -> (στίμι (st
στιβι [stibi] [Greek] -> (Stibi) [Latin]
stibium [Latin] -> stibium [English] 1. antimony. 2. kohl: stibnite used in ancient Egypt and
Rome for eye cosmetics.
stibium [Dutch] n antimony
(சதu sīdam )[Tamil] ->

στίμμι (stímmi) [Greek)->
In Greek, the word ψιμυθιον (psim
of similar nature of lead, the words in these following languages have denoted antimony
சð (sīsu) [Tamil] -> சK sīdu

சK sīdu [Tamil] -> (சதu sīdam )[Tamil]
1. Lead; Þüu. 2. Tarā, an alloy;
In Greek, the above word was borrowed from Tamil so as to denote Iron metal.
(சதu sīdam )[Tamil] -> σίδηρος (
blacksmith's shop, smithy
சமி sīmi) [Tamil] -> (ψιμυ (psimý) [Greek]) -> ψιμυθιον
(psimýthion) [Greek] n. The white lead, used as a pigment, esp. to whiten the skin of the face
Later the word denoting white lead/lead has specifically denoted Antimony also because of
nature of lead and antimony.
στίμμι (stímmi) [Greek] powdered antimony, used for eye
> (στίμι (stími) [Greek]) -> στιβι [stibi] [Greek]. Antimony
[Latin] -> stibium [Latin] n 1. antimony 2. kohl, stibnite
stibium [English] 1. antimony. 2. kohl: stibnite used in ancient Egypt and
stibium [Dutch] n antimony
s ss sṭ ṭṭ ṭym ym ym ymˀ ˀˀ ˀ [Classical Syriac] n.m.antimony

sdm. [Egypt] Antimony
In Greek, the word ψιμυθιον (psimýthion) is derived from the following Tamil word. Because
of similar nature of lead, the words in these following languages have denoted antimony
sīdu [Tamil] n. Tin; white lead; Þüu. (üß_.
sīdam )[Tamil] -> சதகu sīdagam n. (üß_.
2. Tarā, an alloy; த[ß.
In Greek, the above word was borrowed from Tamil so as to denote Iron metal.
σίδηρος (sidéros) [Greek] 1. Iron. 2. iron tool. 3. Sword. 4.
> ψιμυθιον
(psimýthion) [Greek] n. The white lead, used as a pigment, esp. to whiten the skin of the face
Later the word denoting white lead/lead has specifically denoted Antimony also because of
ímmi) [Greek] powdered antimony, used for eye-paint,
[Greek]. Antimony
tibium [Latin] n 1. antimony 2. kohl, stibnite
stibium [English] 1. antimony. 2. kohl: stibnite used in ancient Egypt and
the following Tamil word. Because
of similar nature of lead, the words in these following languages have denoted antimony
. அக.)
In Greek, the above word was borrowed from Tamil so as to denote Iron metal.
[Greek] 1. Iron. 2. iron tool. 3. Sword. 4.
σίδερο (sídero) [Greek] n, 1. (metallurgy) the metal iron. 2. iron, smoothing iron,
flat iron
σιδηρεος (sidereos) [Greek] made of iron:--(of) iron.
It is pertinent to note that the etymology of the above Greek word is unknown to Greeks.
The above word has been borrowed by English too.
Siderite is a mineral composed of iron carbonate (FeCO3). It takes its name from the Greek
word σίδηρος sideros, “iron”. It is a valuable iron mineral, since it is 48%.

σίδηρος (sidéros) [Greek] -> siderite [English] 1. a widespread brown mineral, FeCO3,
having the structure of calcite. 2. an iron meteorite. 3. An indigo-blue variety of quartz. 4.
(obsolete) magnetic iron ore; lodestone
siderite [English] -> Siderit [German]
siderita, siderosa [Spanish]

sidriet [Dutch]

siderita [Portuguese]

siderit [Turkish]

siderite [Italian]

sidérite [French]

сидерит (sidérit) [Russian]

Сидерит (sidérit) [Bulgarian]

siderit [Swedish]

сидерит (sidérit) [Ukrainian]

The name siderite (from the Greek sideros, iron) has been used in many different senses
and applies to several different minerals. In Latin, siderite was loadstone (magnetite) and
also a precious stone. There is no relationship/logic between the Greek sideros (iron) and
the Latin sidus, sideris (star).
ச sīdu [Tamil] -> ܕܨ (ṣ(ə)ḏīḏāʾ [Classical Syriac] n. Antimony
ծարիր (carir) [Armenian] & ծարիր (carir) [Old Armenian] antimony
ամալ ծարիր յաչս (amal carir yačʿs) [Old Armenian] to blacken with antimony, to
paint the eyebrows
ծարիր քար (carir kʿar) [Old Armenian] stibium
ச sīdu [Tamil] -> ṣadīdu [Akkadian] antimony ;
šimbizidû [Akkadian] antimony paste
This Greek word has been borrowed by Arab, Latin and Egypt languages to denote various
metals. The Egyptian name for any such powder was mesṭem, while the act of applying the
powder was called semtet, and the part painted was semṭi. The Egyptians called
antimony as mśdmt. !ﻴﻤﻳ"#ﻴﻣ misdimit of Arabic, a dark gray ore of lead, was derived to
denote either stibnite (antimony sulphide) or, more typically, galena (lead sulphide.) Galena
was found around Aswan and on the Red Sea Coast.
In ancient Egypt, preparations were a little more extensive. The cosmetic material had to be
powdered on a palette and then this powder mixed with ointments derived from animal fat to
make the powder adhere to the eye. Indians, Arabians and Egyptians decorated their eyes
with great aesthetic care. Eye cosmetics bestowed beauty and style.Galena possesses
disinfectant and fly-deterrent properties. It is believed to offer the eyes protection from
intense sun. The medical papyri frequently prescribe !ﻴﻤﻳ"#ﻴﻣ misdimit for assorted complaints
of the eye.
Eye make up provided psychic protection as well. An unadorned and thus unprotected eye
was believed vulnerable to the Evil Eye. Outlining the eyes thus became a personal
protective amulet drawn right upon the skin; an amulet that once applied could not be lost or
misplaced. There may very well also have been further spiritual dimensions to eye makeup.
Certainly kohl, as galena is known today, contains spiritual significance to many modern
North African women. The two types of surma used by women are stibnite (antimony
sulphide) or, more typically, galena (lead sulphide). Galena is still used in Egypt under the
name kohl.

According to some, galena/ sulphide of lead is called añjana/sauvirāñjana in Sanskrit, and
kṛṣṇa surmā/Black surmā. However as per Tamil dictionary, sauvīrāñjaṉam/sauvirāñjana
means white antimony (sulphide of lead) only & not black Antimony.

Mசuவ [ß@சனu sauvīrāñjaṉam [Tamil] n. White antimony; _@வைக
ம0க0 நிறமßன அ@சனðக0. (சß[0க. 342.)

सौवीरम् sauvīram [Sanskrit] 1 The fruit of the jujube.-2 Antimony.-3 Sour gruel.

सुवीरज suvīraja [Sanskrit] n. sulphuret of antimony.

सौवीरानम् sauvīrāñjaṉam [Sanskrit] a kind of antimony or collyrium.

सौवीर सारः sauvīrasāraḥ [Sanskrit] antimony.

Rasaratna samuccaya too has wrongly mentioned sauvīrāñjaṉam as black surmā

*णवण सु मा ).

स?वी,मजनं धTaं ,Eत'*+ह,ं हमम् $
'वषह&माUV,ो-Wनं bणHोधन,ो*णम् $$ ,स./012= $$

• 45का ,सस,6नसमु 7845का9
• स?वी,ं क
Aणवण सु मा ;त "ोकDाषााम् $$ ,स45./012=;1
Therefore it is not sulphide of lead and the same is wrongly applied similar to usage of
names by Arabians and Greek while naming the metals.

ψιμυθιον (psimýthion) [Greek] -> "ﻤ$ﺍ is̤mid, us̤mud [Persian] A stone from which antimony is

Wile forming the word "ﻤ$% (iṯmid, aṯmoud, oṯmod, or uṯmod), the Arabs have considered the
following Tamil word while borrowing Persian "ﻤ$ﺍ is̤mid, us̤mud.

@§@ itturu [Tamil] n. Galena dust, lead-ore; வ0கமண0. (@. அ.)

"ﻤ$ﺍ is̤mid, us̤ mud [Persian] -> "ﻤ$% (iṯmid, aṯmoud, oṯmod, or uṯmod) [Arabic] Antimony
The Arabic designation ﻥﻮﻤﻴﺘﻧﺍ ("uṯmud" or "oṯmod" or, with the article, "al-iṯmīd") is therefore a
loan word.
The word denoting lead in Greek was later used to denote the metal bismuth in other
languages due to similar natures and usage of lead and bismuth metals.
ψιμυθιον (psimýthion) [Greek] (ie. Lead) -> βισμούθιο (vismoúthio) [Greek] n. The metal
βισμούθιο (vismoúthio) [Greek]-> bisemutum [Latin] n. bismuth
bismut [Afrikaans]
bizmut [Albanian]
&ﻮﻣ'( (bizmúth) [Arabic]
բիսմութ (bismutʿ) [Armenian]
bismutu [Asturian]
bismutoa [Basque]
вiсмут (vísmut) [Belarusian]
bismut [Breton]
бисмут (bísmut) [Bulgarian]
bismut [Catalan]
bysmuth [Cornish]
bismut [Czech]
vismuth [Danish]
bismut [Dutch]
bismuto [Esperanto]
vismut [Estonian]
vismut [Faroese]
vismutti [Finnish]
bismuth [French]
bismut [Friulian]
bismuto [Galician]
ბისმუტი (bismuti) [Georgian]
Wismut, Bismut [German]
)ומ*י+ (bísmut) [Hebrew]
bizmut [Hungarian]
bismút [Icelandic]
biosmat [Irish]
bismuto [Italian]
ビスマス(bisumusu) [Japanese]
bizmùt [Kashubian]
¡·¬÷ (biseumuteu) [Korean]
bismuts [Latvian]
bismutas [Lithuanian]
Wismut [Luxembourgish]
бисмут (bísmut) [Macedonian]
bismut, [Malay]
biżmut [Maltese]
bismut [Manx]
бисмут (bísmut) [Mongolian]
vismut [Norwegian]
bismut [Occitan]
,ﻮﻤ#ﻴ( (bismut) [Persian]
bizmut [Polish]
bismuto [Portuguese]
bismut [Romanian]
висмут (vísmut) [Russian]
biosmat [Scottish Gaelic]
бизмут bizmut [Serbo-Croatian]
bismut [Slovak]
bizmut [Slovene]
bismuto [Spanish]
vismut [Swedish]
бисмут (bísmut) [Tajik]
บิสมัท (bìtmát) [Thai]
bizmut [Turkish]
вiсмут (vísmut) [Ukrainian]
висмут (vismut) [Uzbek]
bitmut, bismut [Vietnamese]
bismutin [Volapük]
bismwth [Welsh]
bismut [West Frisian]

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