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**James Yu Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853 April 6, 2003
**

Abstract The Dinsdale & Moore wall-eﬀect correction[1] for the falling sphere viscosity experiments has been generally accepted for many years. However, Schottenheimer’s model[2] predicts a new expression for ﬂuids with viscosity between 1 and 20 poise. In this experimental study, spheres of various radii and densities are dropped into a glycerine ﬁlled viscometer, and apparent viscosity measurements are recorded. When the two models are compared, Schottenheimer’s expression ﬁts the data more accurately than Dinsdale & Moore’s expression. A simple way to measure viscosity is with the falling sphere technique[3]. The apparent viscosity of the ﬂuid is related to the achieved terminal velocity of a ball falling freely in a ﬂuid, and this can be measured using a viscometer. However, this measured viscometer is only an apparent viscosity, since the wall of the container will aﬀect the movement of the sphere. In this experiment, the two wall-eﬀect correcting expressions from Dinsdale & Moore and Schottenheimer are compared for accuracy with glycerine. A viscometer is a ﬂuid ﬁlled cylinder with pairs of optical sensors mounted on the sides of the cylinder. The goal is to measure the terminal velocity Vt of a ball dropped into the ﬂuid. An optical sensor detects when the ball blocks the light beam, and the time ∆T that the ball takes to traverse between optical sensors can be measured. The velocity of the ball is then determined between each pair of optical sensors. In this experiment there are four sensors, and it is assumed that the ball reaches terminal velocity by the time it drops between the second and third sensor. Balls of varying radii and densities are dropped into the viscometer, and the resulting velocities are recorded for further analysis. From the measurement of Vt the apparent viscosity µ(

4 mb g − 3 πr3 ρg r )= R 6πVt r

(1)

where mb is the mass of the ball, ρ is the density of the ﬂuid, r is the radius of the ball , and g is the acceleration due to gravity. To obtain mb , calipers were used to measure the diameter of the ball. Then it is known that mb = 4 πr3 ρb , where ρb is the density of the ball. 3 The apparent viscosity varies with the radius of the ball r and the radius of the cylinder R. In order to ﬁnd r the true viscosity µ0 , an expression must be formulated to relate µ( R ) with µ0 . Dinsdale & Moore gives the expression[1] µ0 r (2) µ( ) = r r r R 1 − 2.104( R ) + 2.09( R )3 − 0.95( R )5 1

while Schottenheimer claims[2]

r r ) = µ0 ek R R for ﬂuids with viscosity 1 to 20 poise, where k is 3.8.

µ(

(3)

In order to compare the accuracy of these two expressions, the viscosity data points are plotted along with the expressions. However, a best ﬁt for the Schottenheimer parameter k must ﬁrst be found in order to gauge how close the data ﬁt his calculated value of 3.8. In order to ﬁnd this, an estimate of the value for µ0 is obtained by averaging the two calculated µ0 from (2) and (3) for the smallest ball at r = 0.125 inches (using the value of k = 3.8). This is reasonable since the wall eﬀect should be almost negligible for the smallest r ball; this is also seen through the fact that the two formulas converge for small values of R . Through this, an estimate of µ0 = 6.24 poise. Taking the natural log of (3) r r ) = ln(µ0 ) + k (4) R R r and a best ﬁt of the measurements yi = ln(µ( R )i ) is obtained by minimizing the sum of squares residuals ln µ(

n

SS =

i=1

yi − A − Bxi

(5)

where A = ln(µ0 ), B = k, xi = ri , and n is the number of measurements. Taking the partial derivative with R respect to B and setting it equal to zero minimizes the squared residuals ∂SS =0= ∂B

n

2xi (A + Bxi − yi )

i=1

(6) (7) (8)

**⇒ ASx + BSxx = Sxy ⇒B=k=
**

2 where Sxx = i=1 xi , Sx = squared uncertainties n n i=1

**(Sxy − ASx ) Sxx
**

n i=1

xi , Sy =

n i=1 n

yi , Sxy = ( ∂B 2 (δyi )2 ) ∂yi n

xi yi . Error propagation obtains the (9)

(∆B)2 =

i=1

And since

∂B ∂yi

=

xi Sxx n

(∆B)2 = (∆ ln µ)2

i=1

x2 (∆ ln µ)2 i = 2 Sxx Sxx

(10) (11)

∆ ln µ ⇒ ∆B = ∆k = √ Sxx where ∆ ln µ =

n (δyi )2 i=0 n

is the rms deviation for the residuals.

Using equation (8) and (11) along with the viscosity data, the parameter k was determined to be k = 3.61 ± 0.0683 (12)

r Figure 1 displays a plot of µ( R )/µ0 versus r/R for the data, Dinsdale & Moore, and Schottenheimer expressions, using both the prescribed value k = 3.8 and the ﬁtted value for k. It is seen that the two Schottenheimer curves are fairly close to each other, and both ﬁt the data better than the Dinsdale & Moore curve. The ﬁtted value for k agrees with Schottenheimer’s calculated value to within %4.91.

2

4 Data Schottenheimer with fitted k Dinsdale & Moore Schottenheimer with k=3.8

3.5

Apparent Viscosity / True Viscosity

3

2.5

2

1.5

1 0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2 r/R

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

Figure 1: Normalized Apparent Viscosity of Data, Dinsdale & Moore, and Schottenheimer Expressions A comparison of the data against the wall-eﬀect correcting expressions in question. In conclusion, Schottenheimer’s exponential form of the wall-eﬀect correcting expression did give rise to a more accurate ﬁt than the one given by Dinsdale & Moore. However, further investigation is needed to determine whether or not the wall-eﬀect correcting expression given by Schottenheimer is valid for all ﬂuids with viscosity within 1 and 20 poise, and not just for the case of glycerine. The wall-eﬀect correcting expressions need to be gauged against various ﬂuids, ball radii, and cylinder radii. Also, the experiments need to take into account the temperature, which viscosity is highly dependent on. A suggestion would be to conduct the experiments with various ﬂuids at various temperatures to determine which expressions are best under these various conditions.

References 1. A. Dinsdale and F. Moore, Viscosity and its Measurement (Reinhold Publishing, London, 1962), pp.47-50 2. M. Schottenheimer, Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluid Dynamics, San Francisco, CA, March 2003. 3. T. Cool, Computerized Instrumentation Design: Applied and Engineering Physics 264 (School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, 2003), pp. AIV31-AIV37

3

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