bavmh*grsm;

ESifh
qdik b
f mtwdu
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vufpGJ
e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY
NOVEMBER 2007 (BURMESE)

e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

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bavmh*grsm;

ESifh
qdik b
f mtwdu
k t
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vufpGJ
rmwdum

ISBN : 2-915536-36-8

© 2005 Reporters Without Borders
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09
10
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vGwv
f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG .
hf oHawmfqift
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*sLvD,ef yde;f (Julien Pain)
bavmhqw
kd m bmvJ
Pointblog.com
bavmha&;jcif; bmompum;
Pointblog.com
taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;
Cyril Fievet and Marc-Oliver Peyer
bavmhwckukd b,fvw
kd nfaqmuf/ a&S@qufrnfenf;
The Civiblog system, Citizenlab
bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfo@kd aom usi0hf wfrsK;d xm;&So
d ifo
h enf;
'ef a*;vfarm Dan Gillmor
oif. bavmhpmrsuEf mS udk tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm; (SEARCH-ENGINES) u &SmazGazmfxw
k af y;Edik &f efenf;
tdv
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oif. bavmhukd trSeaf wmufajymifvmatmif rnfonft
h csurf sm; vdo
k enf;
rmhuf *a&pm Mark Glaser

47

yk*Kd~ vfa&; b0pmrsuEf mS rsm;
47
• *smr%D - usaemfw@kd u vlrt
_ cGit
hf a&;rsm;ESihf vl@tcGit
hf a&;rsm;udk jri‡ w
hf ifay;rnf
rmukpf bufuD'g;vf (Markus Beckedahl)
51
• bm&de;f - usaemfw@kd u tpd;k &&J@ owif;vuf0g;}u;D tkyx
f m;r_ukd csK;d zsucf ahJ v+yD
csef tuf'fbm&defeD (Chan’ad Bahraini)
54
• tar&duefjynfaxmifpk - tckawmh usaemfawG;rdor#ukd a&;Edik af y+yD
a*s; ±dkqif (Jay Rosen)
59
• a[mifaumif - usq;kH oGm;cJ&h olrsm;tay: usaemfuwdwnfygrnf
,ef &Srf &Suu
f ,fweG f (Yan Sham-Shackelton)
62
• tD&ef - usaemfw@kd u bavmhrsm;ay:wGif vGwv
f yfpmG a&;Edik af y+yD
tm&mh&fS pD*gcsD (Arash Sigarchi)
65
• eDayg - jyifyurBmudk jzpfaeonfh tajctaetwdik ;f trSew
f ifjyEdik +f yD
vGwv
f yfaom eDayga&'D,kd (Radio Free Nepal)

69

trnfrazmfbJ rnfo@kd bavmha&;om;rnfenf;
tDoef Zufumrif (Ethan Zuckerman)
qifqmjzwfawmufrr_ sm;udk ausmv
f m$ ;&ef enf;ynmydik ;f qdik &f m
emwf ADvefE;l (Nart Villeneuve)
oif. tD;ar;vfu yk*Kd~ vfa&;t& vHjk cHKr_&adS =umif; aocsmapjcif;
vl'Akd pfuf yD&ufwf (Ludovic Pierrat)
tifwmeuf qifqmydwq
f @kd r_ urBmch syH ,
D rH sm;
*sLvD,H yde;f (Julien Pain)

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ed'gef;

vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifh\
oHawmfqifhtopf bavmh*grsm;
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f nfh teH@cHtm±Hk r&Edik =f uao;? Tod@k bavmhtjzpf
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pdwf0ifpm;zG,fjzpfonfh bavmhrsm;vnf; tv#iftjref wdk;yGm;aeygawmhonf?

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vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifh\ oHawmfqifhtopf bavmh*grsm;

odk@aomfvnf; bavmha&;jcif;onf vGwfvyfpGmxkwfazmf wifjycGifhtwGuf txl;tpGrf;xufvSaom
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14 ESpf csrSwfcH&ygonf? ol.jzpf&yfu bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfonfhtEW&m,f =uHK&onfjzpfap/ olwdk@
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vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifh\ oHawmfqifhtopf bavmh*grsm;

Tvrf;!$ef vufpGJpmtkyfwGif bavmhwckudk t"duusonfh &Smpuf (Search Engines) rsm;u
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tcsK@d aom bavmh*grsm;uvnf; qefcgcs ppfxw
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tarSmuf”[k qd=k uonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk qefcgppfyw
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vGwfvyfpGm azmfxkwfajymqdkcGifh &&Sda&;twGuf a&S@wef;rSwdkufyJG0ifae=uolrsm; jzpf=uygawmhonf?

*sLvD,H ydef;onf e,fpnf;rjcm;owif;axmufrsm;tzGJ@. tifwmeufvGwfvyfcGifhqdkif&mXme.
t}uD;tuJjzpfygonf?

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bavmhqdkwm bmvJ

bavmhh qdw
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Pointblog.com
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ydkif;wGif azmfjyay;onf?) odk@aomfvnf; wifxm;aom ydk@pftrsm;pkudk tkyfpkrsm;cGJjcm;I
rmwdumozG,f tvG,fwul jyef&SmazGEdkif&ef azmfjyay;Edkifonf?
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tool) jzifh pwifI bavmhwck wnfaqmufEdkifonf?
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• bavmhwckudk wnfaqmuf/ xdef;odrf;&ef ydkIvG,fulonf? ydkI touf0if &Sifoefv_yf&Sm;
r_&Sd+yD;/ r=umc% qdkovdk ydkI topfwifydk@Edkifonf?
• ydkI vGwfvyfyGifhvif;aom/ ydkI yk*~dKvfa&;qefqef wifjyEdkifaom/ ydkI yGifhvif;&if;ESD;aom
wifjycsufrsm; jyKEdkifonf?
• vma&mufvnfywf zwf±_olrsm;/ tjcm;bavmh*grsm;ESifhvnf; aqG;aEG;jiif;ckefr_rsm; ydkI
jyKEdkifzG,f jzpfaponf?

e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

HandBook.pmd

9

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

9

bavmhqdkwm bmvJ

urBmw0Srf;vHk;&Sd bavmhrsm;wGif wpHkw&mwlnDaom pHowfrSwfcsuf &Sdae+yD;/ yHkpHwl
enf;ynmrsm;udkvnf; oHk;pGJae=uonf? (Oyrm- aumfvH 2-ck/ 3- ck jyoxm;yHk/ wifydk@csuf
ydk@pfrsm;tay:wGif rSwfcsufrsm; ay;Edkif=ujcif;/ wifydk@onfh pm (ydk@pf) rsm;udk tvkdtav#muf
rSm,lEikd af om (RSS feed—Really Simple Syndication) udk aqmif&u
G Ef ikd jf cif;?
(RSS feed qdkonfrSm tvGefvG,fulaom pkzGJ@r_[k jyefqdkv#if jzpfEdkifrnf xifygonf?)

bavmha&;jcif; bmompum;
Pointblog.com

bavmh (Blog)
0ufbfavmh*f (Weblog) udk twdkaumuf ac:
qdkjcif;yif jzpfonf? a&;om;xm;aom ta=umif;
t&mrsm;/ csw
d q
f ufr_ vifch rf sm;/ "gwyf rkH sm;udk tcsed f
wdkif; wifydk@ay;Edkifaom 0ufbfqdkufwckyif jzpf
onf? a,bk,stm;jzifh yk*~dKvfwOD; wa,mufu
wifydk@a&;om;+yD;/ yk*~dKvfa&;qdkif&mtay: tajccHI
aqmif&Gufjcif; jzpfonf?
bavmha&;om;jcif; (to Blog)
bavmh w ck u d k pD p Of a &;om;aejcif ; / bavmh
wckodk@ ta=umif;t&mwck wifjya&;ydk@jcif;?
bavmh*g (Blogger)
bavmhwckudk pDpOfa&;om;aeol

bavmh0ef;usif (Blogosphere)
bavmhrsm; tm;vHk;/ bavmha&;om;ae=uolrsm;
. todkuft0ef;/
bavmh. qufpyfr_ (Blogroll)
bavmhwckwGif azmfjyxm;aom jyifyESifhquf
oG,fEdkifonfh csdwfqufr_ vifhcfrsm;/ Oyrmtm;jzifh
tjcm;bavmhwckESifh csdwfqufxm;r_/ a,bk,s
tm;jzifh tifwmeufpmrsufESmrS ta=umif;t&m
wckESifh csdwfqufxm;r_ jzpfonf? trsm;tm;jzifh
rdr.
d rdwaf qGrsm;udk azmfjycsw
d q
f ufxm;jcif;jzpf+y;D /
bavmhrsm;teufrS ti,fpm; aemufxyf todkif;
t0ef;av; wck jzpfonf?
bavmha&;onfh tEkxnfaqmhzf0J,m;rsm;
(Blogware)
bavmha&;om;&mwGif toHk;jyKonfh tEkxnf
aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;?

10 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

HandBook.pmd

10

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

bavmha&;jcif; bmompum;

aygufaomufay;ydk@onfh rSwfcsuf trd_ufrsm;
(Comment Spam)
tD;ar;vfwGif 0ifvmwwfonfh trd_ufpmrsm;
ozG,yf if jzpfonf? (Spambots) trdu
_ pf mrsm;
ay;ydk@rnfh pufrsm;u xkwfvdkufonfh rSwfcsufrsm;
u bavmhrsm;wGif jynfhodyfazmfjyr_rsm; jzpfvm
wwfonf? twkta,mifa=umfjimrsm;jzifhvnf;
a&mufvmavh&Sdonf? TonfrSm bavmh*grsm;
twGuf }uD;av;aomjy\emjzpf+yD;/ tcsKd@aom
toHk;jyKaeolrsm;udk z,f&Sm;Edkifrnfh/ tcsKd@aom
vdyfpm/ rSwfcsufrsm;udk ydwfqdk@wm;qD;xm;Edkifrnfh
ud&d,mrsKd; vdktyfonf?
&Sdaeaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pkpnf;jcif;
(Content Syndication)
Tenf;rSm bavmha&;om;ol/ odk@r[kwf pDrHcef@cGJ
aeolu ol.azmfjycsufrsm;tm;vHk;/ odk@r[kwf
tcsKd@aom tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk tjcm;0ufbfqdkuf
rsm;wGif wifjyEdkif&ef pkpnf;ay;jcif;rsKd; jzpfonf?
rdkbavmh (Moblog)
a&G@vsm;aeaom bavmh (mobile blog) udk
twdkaumuf ac:qdkjcif; jzpfonf? qdkvdkonfrSm
bavmhwckudk rnfonfh ae&murqdk topfwif/
jyifqifrrG ;f rHaeEdik jf cif; jzpfonf? zke;f jzifah omfvnf;
aumif;/ vufudkif 'pf*spfw,fypPnf;ud&d,mrsm;
jzifh aomfvnf;aumif; Todk@aqmif&GufEdkifonf?

tjrJwef; csdwfqufxm;r_ (Permalink)
tjrJwef; csdwfqufxm;r_ (Permalink) udk
twdkaumufac:qdkjcif; jzpfonf? ta=umif;t&m
wck . 0uf b f q d k u f v d y f p mud k bavmh a y:wG i f
wif j yay;apjcif ; jzpf o nf ? wif j yr_ w ck t ay:
tjrJwap rSwfom;xm;onfh vG,fulaom enf;
vrf;wckvnf; jzpfonf? Tta=umif;t&m.
rl&if;vm&mvrf;a=umif;udk bavmhwGifvnf;
rSwfwrf;wif odrf;qnf;xm;onfh yHkpHrsKd; jzpfonf?
"gwfyHk bavmh (Photoblog)
t"dutm;jzifh "gwfyHkrsm;udkom wifjyxm;onfh
bavmh/ yHkrSefqdkovdkESifh tpOftvdkuf "gwfyHkrsm;
udkom azmfjyavh&Sdonfh bavmhrsm;?
aygh'fuyfpfvkyfjcif; (Podcasting)
tdkifaygh (iPod) ESifh xkwfv$ifhjcif; (Broadcasting) [lonfh pum;ESpfvHk;udk twdkcsKyf ac:
qdkjcif; jzpfonf? bavmhay:wGif toHzdkifrsm;ESifh
AD'D,dkzdkifrsm; xkwfv$ifh+yD; 'pf*spfw,fud&d,mrsm;
jzifh jyefzGifhEdkif&ef (RSS Feed) pepf jyKvkyfxm;
ay;jcif; jzpfonf?

e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 11

HandBook.pmd

11

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

bavmha&;jcif; bmompum;

wifydk@jcif;/ ydk@pf (Post)
bavmhay:wGif wifjyxm;aom ta=umif;t&m
wck? owif;pum;wckvnf; jzpfEdkifonf? "gwfyHk
wckjzpfEdkifouJhodk@/ csdwfquf&rnfh vifhcfwck
vnf; jzpfEdkifonf? a,bk,stm;jzifh wdkawmif;
onfh wifjyr_rsKd; jzpfonf? jyifycsdwfqufr_ vifhcf
vnf ; jzpf E d k i f o nf ? Tta=umif ; t&mtay:
rl w nf I vma&muf v nf y wf zwf ± _ o l r sm;u
rSwfcsuf jyefay;Edkif=uonf?
tvG,fulqHk;aom pkpnf;r_ (tm tufpf tufpf)
RSS (Really Simple Syndication)
0ufbfqdkufwckwGif v$ifhwifvdkufaom aemuf
qHk;wifjyonfh ta=umif;t&mudk &,lEdkifonfh
enf;wckyif jzpfonf? bavmhrsm;twGuf txl;
oifhav#mfvSygonf? ta=umif;rSm vltrsm;u
olwdk@óuufESpfouf=uonfh bavmhrsm;u topf
wifydk@wdkif; owday;Edkifaompepf jzpfaoma=umifh
jzpfygonf? xd@k tjyif wify@kd aomta=umif;t&mudk
tm;vHk;udkaomfvnf;aumif;/ wpdwfwydkif;udk
aomfvnf;aumif; tjcm;qdkufwcku jyefvnf
azmfjyEdkif&ef (t±dk;&Sif;tvG,fulqHk;ESifh tvdkt
av#muf) vkyfxm;onfhpepfjzpfygonf? txl;v#if
jrefpGm ysH@ESH@apygonf? txlojzifh owif;rD'D,m
avmursm;twGi;f tv#it
f jref ys@H ES@H apEdik yf gonf?

tm tufpf tufpf pkpnf;ay;onfhud&d,m
(RSS Aggregator)
bavmh*grsm;taejzifh RSS Feed udk zwfEdkif
&ef t wG u f tEk x nf a qmh z f 0 J , m;/ od k @ r[k w f
tGefvdkif;rSwqifh toHk;csEdkifaom ud&d,mrsm; &Sdyg
onf? txl;ojzifh ‚wdk@. tESpfoufqHk;aom
bavmhrsm;rS topfwifydk@onfh ydk@pf rsm;udk zwf&_
Edkif+yD jzpfonf? ‚udk wenf;tm;jzifh pmzwfonfh
ud&d,m (Reader) odk@r[kwf zd'f (feed) rS
ydk@vmonfrsm;udk zwfEdkifonfhud&d,m (feedreader) [k ac:=uygonf?
tm tufpf tufpf oGwfoGif;r_ (RSS Feed)
bavmh w ck . aemuf q H k ; wif y d k @ xm;aom
ta=umif;t&m yg0ifonfh zdkifjzpfonf? ‚wdk@udk
(RSS Aggregator/ reader) jzif h
zwf ± _ E d k i f y gonf ? bavmh w ck u topf w if
vdu
k o
f nfEiS hf Tenf;jzifh csucf si;f zwf±E_ ikd yf gonf?
aemufa=umif;ajc&mcHjcif; (Trackback)
0uf q k d u f w ck t aejzif h bavmh w ck w G i f
wif v d k u f a om ta=umif ; t&mwck u d k ,cif
ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh jyKjyif ajymif;vJjcif; &Sd-r&Sd
tvdktav#muf aemufa=umif;cH jyefvnf ppfaq;
Edkifaom enf;vrf;jzpfygonf?

12 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

HandBook.pmd

12

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

bavmha&;jcif; bmompum;

0ufbf 'dkif,m&D (Web Diary)
bavmhwck?
0DuD (Wiki)
[m0dkiftDu|ef;a'oae vlrsKd;rsm;. pum;vHk;wck
jzpfaom 0Du0D u
D D (wikiwiki) (tv#it
f jref[k
t"dy`g,f&onf?) rS ,lxm;onfh a0g[m& jzpf
onf? vma&mufvnfywf zwf±_ol/ pma&;om;ol
pojzifh rnfonfholtwGufrqdk tvG,fwulESifh
tv#iftjref topf jyKjyifa&;om;Edkifaom 0ufbf
qdkufrsKd; jzpfygonf? ‚pum;vHk;onf 0DuDudk
zef w D ; &ef toH k ; jyKaom ud & d , m (wiki
engines) udk tpGJjyKIac:aom pum;vHk; vnf;
jzpfygonf? bavmhrsm;ESifh 0DuDt=um; wlnDr_
wpHkw&m &Sdaomfvnf; rwluGJjym;csufrsm;vnf;
ododomom &Sdygonf?
bavmh r sm;wG i f
rd r d v d k o vd k
jzef@csdazmfjyEdkif&eftwGuf enf;em/ ud&d,mrsm;
tv#iftjref wdk;yGm;vmae+yD;/ 0ufbfqdkufwckudk
topfwif&ef jyifqifrGrf;rH&eftwGuf rsm;pGm
vG,fulvmapygonf?

e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 13

HandBook.pmd

13

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

14 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

HandBook.pmd

14

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

toHk;0ifaom vrf;ñTefcsufrsm;

taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;
Cyril Fievet and Marc-Oliver Peyer

bavmhwckwiG f toH;k jyKEikd af om ud&,
d m (tool) wcka=umifh oH;k pGo
J rl sm;twGuf vG,u
f ,
l Ofyg;aponfh
pmrsufESmrsKd; jzpfap+yD; (0ufbfqdkuf vrf;!$efrsm;rSwqifh vG,fuloGm;a&mufEdkifonfh tajctae
jzpfonf?) ‚wGif yg0ifaom rmwdum/ ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pepfwus v_yf&Sm;ouf0ifapatmif
pkpnf;ay;ygonf? Todk@aom ud&d,mrsm;a=umifh pm=unfhwdkufozG,f pepfwus pkpnf;rSwfwrf;wif
xm;jcif;/ &SmazGjcif;wdk@ vG,fulap&efvnf; aqmif&Gufay;ygonf?
bavmhwckwGif tifwmeuf vdyfpm (2) ck&Sd+yD;/ bavmhwck wnfaqmuf+yD;pD;ygu ajymif;vJr_ r&Sd
awmhyg? ‚wdk@rSm• vltrsm;vma&muf=unfhEdkifaom vdyfpm
• pDrHcef@cGJaeol. vdyfpm (0ufbfqdkufudk pDrHcef@cGJaeolu v#Kd@0Sufuk'f (password) jzifh
umuG,fxdef;odrf;xm;ay;onfh vdyfpm)
oifhtaejzifh bavmhwckudk wnfaqmufawmhrnf qdkygu/ bavmhrsm; ay;xm;onfh &yf0ef; (ywf0ef;
usif) wckwGif yl;aygif;jcif;/ odk@r[kwf oifhudk,fydkif tifwmeuf qmAm (server) Y bavmha&;Edkifonfh
ud&d,mrsm;udk toHk;jyKIaomfvnf;aumif; aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?
bavmhrsm;. 0ef;usif (Blog Community)
(The Civiblog system rS a&;om;xm;onfh “bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf/ a&S@quf
rnfenf;” tcef;udk zwf±_apvdkygonf?)
wnf&Sdae+yD;om; bavmhpmrsufESmrsm;a&;Edkif&ef axmufyHhay;xm;onfh bavmhrsm;. 0ef;usifwGif
bavmhtopfwck zGifhI vkyfrnfqdkygu rdepftenf;i,fom =umEdkifygonf? oifu oif. toHk;jyKol
trnf (user-name) ESihf v#K@d 0Suu
f 'k f (password) udk a&G;cs,x
f nfo
h iG ;f +y;D tenf;i,f uvpf±rkH #
ESifhyif bavmhwck wnfaqmuf+yD;/ zGifh+yD; jzpfaeyg+yD? tcsKd@aom bavmhae&may;olrsm;u aiGa=u;
awmif;cHavh&Sdaomfvnf;/ tcsKd@rSm tcrJh jzpfygonf?
tu,fI oifu vltrsm; =unf±h o
kH ufoufom (view only) twGuf bavmhwck wnfaqmufrnf
qdkygu Tenf;u taumif;qHk; jzpfygonf? Todk@ wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf aiGukefa=u;us rrsm;vSyg?
(vpOf ,l±dk§ a':vm tenf;i,f ukefus±Hkr#ESifhyif pwifEdkifyg+yD?) v#ifjref/ ±dk;&Sif; vG,ful+yD; rlvuwnf;
u emrnf&Sd+yD;om; bavmh todkuft0ef;jzpfaom a=umifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ ‚todkuft0ef;twGif;&Sd
bavmh*grsm;. csdwfqufxm;r_/ qufoG,ful;vl;aer_rsm;a=umifh tusKd;aus;Zl; &apygonf?
e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 15

HandBook.pmd

15

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;

od@k aomfvnf; ay;xm;onfh yHpk rH sm;wGif ñu&H aomjy\emrSm av;atmuf (layout) 'DZikd ;f cs&eftwGuf
vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh tcGifhtvrf;enf;jcif;/ rdrdvkyfvdkonfh tqifhjrifhzefwD;csufrsm; aqmif&Guf&ef rjzpf
Edkifjcif;ESifh ‚bavmh*g todkuft0ef;u xnfhoGif;xm;onfh a=umfjimrsm; ay:vmwwfjcif;/ Todk@
rdrdbavmhvkyfxm;onfh todkuft0ef;wckvHk; wcgw&H ydwfoGm;/ &yfqdkif;oGm;jcif;rsKd;vnf; ñuH&Edkif
ygonf?
bavmha&;onfh ud&d,mrsm;udk toHk;csjcif;
tifwmeuf qmAmwGif xnfhoGif;xm;onfh uGefjyLwm y±dk*&rfrsm; &Sdaewwfygonf? Ta&;om;
xm;onfh uGefjyLwm pum;&yf (scripts) rsm;a=umifh bavmhqdkufudk tvdktav#muf azmfjyay;+yD;/
rd r d w if y d k @ azmf j yvd k u f a om tcsuf t vuf r sm;ud k v nf ; ‚. tcsuf t vuf o d k a vS m if r _ p epf
(database) xJwGif odrf;qnf;xm;ay;ygonf? w}udrf xnfhoGif;vdkufv#if/ pHowfrSwfxm;onfh
tGefvdkif; vrf;!$efrsm; (standard online navigators) rSwqifh tvkyfvkyfoGm;ygonf?
(HTML) uJhodk@aom tqifhjrifhonfh uGefjyLwmenf;ynm xl;xl;jcm;jcm; wwfu|rf;&ef rvdktyfbJ
bavmhwckukd pwifziG I
hf a&;om; a&S@qufEikd yf gonf? od@k aomfvnf; (installation) vkyI
f xnfo
h iG ;f
jcif;/ yHkpHcsjcif; (configuration) wdk@rSm &Hzef&Hcg ±_yfaxG;vSygonf? (&&SdEdkifolrsm;. pHudk owfrSwf
xm;jcif; (setting access criteria)/ odkrSD;xm;rnfh pepf xm;&Sd jcif; (craeting a database)/
zdkifrsm; v$Jajymif;azmfjyEdkifrnfh pDpOfowfrSwfjcif; (arranging FTP lodging) ponfvkyfief;rsKd;
jzpfygonf?)
TudpPrsm;twGuf tajzrSm bavmha&;jcif;ESifh u|rf;0ifaeolrsm;twGuf jy\em r&SdvSyg? oifu
vdkovdk pDrHcef@cGJEdkif+yD; oifvdkovdk vufcH/ jyKjyif ajymif;vJ/ topfpDpOf xnfhoGif;r_rsm; jyKEdkifygonf?
od@k aomfvnf; bavmhwck wnfaqmuf&eftwGuf xl;xl;jcm;jcm; enf;ynmu|r;f usi&f ef rvdyk g? od@k aomf
vnf; Todk@aom bavmhrsm;u rvdktyfbJ ay;ydk@vmaom trd_ufozG,f rSwfcsufpmrsm;udk ydkI
vufcH&zG,f tEW&m,f &Sdygonf? xdk@tjyif rdrdxnfhoGif;onfh tcsuftvufrsm;udkvnf; rdrdudk,fwdkif
odrf;qnf;xm;&ef vdktyfygvdrfhrnf?
bavmha&;onfh &yf0ef;ae&mudk rnfodk@a&G;cs,frnfenf;
bavmha&;Edkifonfh todkuft0ef; (&dyfðrH) wckrS tjcm;wckodk@ ajymif;vJoGm;&eftwGuf rvG,fulvSyg?
odk@twGufa=umifh yxrOD;qHk; pwifpOfuyif aocsma&G;cs,f&ef vdktyfygonf?
ra&G;cs,frD atmufygtcsufrsm;udk aocsmpOf;pm;yg

todkuft0ef; wcktwGif;&Sd tjcm;bavmhrsm;
tcsKd@aom tifwmeuftoHk;jyKolrsm;u rdrdwdk@pdwf0ifpm;onfh ta=umif;t&m/ touf ponfhtay:
wl&m pkzGJ@xm;=uonfrsm; &Sdygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh Ttodkuft0ef;twGif;&Sd tjcm;bavmhrsm;udk
taotcsm avhvm=unfhapvdkygonf? olwdk@taejzifh rnfonfhyHkpHwlrsm; pkzGJ@xm;onfudk oifoabm
aygufvmygvdrfhrnf?
16 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

HandBook.pmd

16

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;


bavmhrsm;u rnfuJhodk@ taetxm;&Sd=uoenf;
qufvuf pOf;pm;&rnfhudpPrSm wcgw&H bavmh*gtenf;pkom &Sdwwfaom bavmhtodkuft0ef;wGif
oifhbavmha&;onfh tcg a&G;cs,fp&m ta&mif/ pmvHk;azmifh/ aemufcH 'DZdkif; av;atmuf tenf;i,fr#
om a&G;cs,&f ef &Sw
d wfygonf? od@k twGuaf =umifh tjcm;aom bavmh todu
k t
f 0ef;rsm;udk [do
k nfveS I
f
avhvm=unfjh cif;tm;jzifv
h nf; rnfo@kd a&S@quf&rnfukd oift=uaH umif; &&Sv
d mEdik yf gonf? tcrJh toH;k jyK
cGifhay;xm;aom bavmh todkuft0ef; trsm;wGif tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm;Y a=umfjimrsm; yg0if
aewwfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- pojzifh (http://myblog.thecommunity.com, http://
thecommunity.com/myblog, http://thecommunity.com/mynumber) ponfh
bavmhzGifhcGifhay;onfh pmrsufESmrsm; jzpfygonf?

toifhxm;ay;onfh vkyfaqmifzG,frsm; (Features on offer)
tu,fI oifhu bavmhudk 'DZdkif;jyefvnfa&;qGJEdkif&eftwGuf wwfEdkifonfqdkv#if TvkyfaqmifEdkif
onfh tcsufrsm;udkvnf; =unfhapvdkygonf? tjcm;bavmhvufcHonfh ae&mrsm;wGif ay;xm;onfh
ydk@pfwifjyEdkifr_/ toH/ ±kyfyHkwifjyEdkifr_/ zkef;jzifh rdrda&;om;vdkonfrsm; wifjyEdkifjcif; &Sd-r&Sd/ rSwfyHkwifxm;
aom toHk;jyKolwOD;twGuf (wpdwfwydkif;jzpfap/ wpHkvHk;jzpfap) wm;jrpfxm;onfh udpPrsm; ponfjzifh
udkvnf; avhvm=unfhapvdkygonf? xdk@tjyif rdrdwifxm;onfh ydk@pfwckudk tjcm; bavmh todkuf
t0ef;rsm;odk@ xyfrHay;ydk@EdkifcGifh &Sd-r&Sd/ 0ifaiG 0ifvrf;&&Sd&eftwGuf a=umfjimxnfhoGif; vufcHEdkifcGifh
ponfrsm;udkvnf; =unfhoifhygonf?

zHk;uG,fxm;aom ukefuspm;&dwfrsm;
tcsKd@aom bavmhvufcHonfh todkuft0ef;rsm;onf tcrJhjzpfaomfvnf;/ tajctaewck a&mufvm
v#if ydkufqHay;&rnf qdkonfrsKd; &Sdwwfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh odkavSmifxm;onfh tcsuftvuf
a'wmrsm; tay:rlwnfIaomfvnf;aumif;/ toHk;jyKonfh bef;'f0pf'f (bandwidth) tay: rlwnfI
aomfvnf;aumif; tcawmif;onfrsm; &Sdygonf? rlvuwnf;u óuwifppfaq;xm;oifhygonf?

e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 17

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taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;

bavmhfrsm; vufcHzGifhay;onfh EdkifiHwumrS yvufazmif;rsm;
(International Platforms)
bavmh*g
Blogger- http://www.blogger.com
tcrJh jzpfonf?
1999 ckESpfwGif pwifwnfaxmifcJh+yD;/ *l;*Jvfukr`%Du 2003 ckESpfwGif 0,f,lcJhonf?
bavmhyvufazmif;rsm;teufwGif t}uD;qHk;jzpf+yD;/ bavmh 8 oef;ausmfudk vufcHzGifhay;
xm;onf? oHk;pGJ&efvG,fulaomfvnf;/ tcsKd@udpPrsm;udk uef@owfxm;onf?
vdkufzf*sme,f
Livejournal- http://www.livejournal.com
tcrJh&ovdk/ aiGay;&onfvnf; &Sdonf? (wvv#if 2 a':vmr# ay;&onf?)
oufwrf;t&ifhqHk;aom bavmhyvufazmif; jzpf+yD;/ bavmh 6 oef;ausmf vufcHzGifhay;
xm;onf? trsm;tm;jzifh vli,frsm;. qHk&yfjzpfonf?
trf-tufpf-tef payhpf
MSN Spaces- http://www.msnspaces.com
tcrJh jzpfonf?
rdkuU±dkaqmhzf ukr`%D. yvufazmif;jzpfonf? 2004 ckESpf aemufydkif;wGif pwifzGifhvSpfcJh+yD;/
vkyaf qmifEikd zf ,
G f udpt
P rsm; tjym; ygonf? tcsK@d aom vkyaf qmifEikd rf r_ sm;rSm bavmhxufyif
ydkus,f0ef;onf? ("gwfyHkrsm; a0iSvufcHjcif;/ rufqif*sm qufoG,fjcif; (Messanger
link)/ ponfrsm;vnf; aqmif&GufEdkifonf? rSwfyHkwif bavmhzGifh&eftwGuf touf 13ESpf txufom cGifhjyKonf?

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taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;

jyifopfbmomjzifh bavmh yvufazmif;rsm;
wGefwD-qpf
20six- http://www.20six.fr
tcrJhjzpfonf? aiGay;&onfvnf; &Sdonf? (wvv#if 3 ,l&dkrS 7 ,l&dk usEdkifonf?)
vk y f a qmif z G , f r sm;pG m cG i f h j yKxm;onf ? tajccH t qif h & S d o vd k / tcsKd @ bavmh r sm;wG i f
tqifhjrifhudpPrsm;udkyg aqmif&GufcGifh jyKonf?
tdkAm-bavmh
Over-blog- http://www.over-blog.com
tcrJh jzpfonf?
aocsmpGm jyifqif'DZdkif;a&;qGJxm;+yD;/ oHk;pGJ&ef vG,fulonf?
pudkif;bavmh
Skyblog- http://www.skyblog.com
tcrJh jzpfonf? (a=umfjimrsm; ygonf?)
jyifopfEdkifiHwGif t}uD;qHk; bavmhyvufazmif; jzpf+yD;/ vli,frsm; t=um; a&yef;pm;onf?
odk@aomfvnf; vkyfaqmifzG,frsm;rSm &Hzef&Hcg uef@owfcsufjzifhom cGifhjyKonf?)
wdkuf yuf'f
TypePad- http://www.typepad.com
tcay;&onf? (wvv#if ,l±dk 5 rS 15 txday;&+yD;/ vkyfaqmifEdkifzG,f udpPrsm;tay:
rlwnfonf?)
txl; tqifjh rifv
h +S y;D / vkyaf qmifz,
G f udpt
P rsm; vkyI
f &onf? tjcm;aom wwd,vlwOD;u
zGifhay;yguvnf; tcrJhbavmhudk toHk;jyKI &Edkifonf?
Oyrm- Noos- http://www.noosblog.fr
or
Neuf Telecom - http://www.nuefblog.com
Adkif,m bavmh
Viablog- http://www.viabloga.com
tusKd;tjrwfr,lonfh tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;twGuf tcrJhay;xm;onf? odk@r[kwfygu wvv#if
5 ,l&dkcef@ ay;&onf?
rl&if; jzpf+yD;/ ouf0ifv_yf&Sm;r_ &Sdonf? txl;uGJjym;jcm;em;onfh vkyfaqmifzG,f features
rsm;vnf; yg&Sdonf?

e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 19

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taumif;qHk; enf;emud&d,mrsm;udk oHk;jcif;

t"duusonfh bavmha&;om;Edkifonfh ud&d,mrsm;
a'gh uvD;,m;
DotClear- http://www.dotclear.net
rlzfaA;bJ wkdufyf
Movable Type- http://www.movabletype.org
a0gh'f y&ufpf
Wordpress- http://www.wordpress.org
Pointblog.com onf acwfopf tifwmeuf awmfvSefa&;. t"dy`g,fESifh twdkif;tqudk
tav;teuf rD;armif;xdk;jy&ef &nf&G,f aqmif&Gufaeaom tzGJ@jzpfygonf?
TtifwmeufpmrsufESmwGif pwiftoHk;jyKolrsm;/ 0g&ifh toHk;jyKolrsm;/ tvnftywfvma&muf
=unfh±_olrsm; yg0if=u+yD;/ bavmhwckESifh tjcm; oD;jcm;vGwfvyfonfh tcef;u¾rsm;vnf;
azmfjyxm;ygonf? Pointblog SARL u pDrHaqmif&Gufae+yD;/ c&pPwdkzD *ifepPwD
(Christophe Ginisty) ESifh qDa&;vf zDAuf (Cyril Fievet) wdk@u
yl;wGJwnfaxmifum a&S@aqmifaeygonf?

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22 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

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11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf? a&SUqufrnfenf;

bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf?
a&SUqufrnfenf;
The Civiblog system, Citizenlab
bavmhwcku yHkrSef0ufbfqdkufwckxufpmv#if xdef;odrf;&ef ydkrdkvG,ful+yD;/ topfwif jyifqifrGrf;rH&ef
ydkrdkvG,fulygonf? bavmh. yvufazmif;[k (Platforms) ac:aom qmAmrsm;wGif ydk@pftopfrsm;
wif&mY tenf;i,fuGJvGJaom enf;emrsm; &Sdae=uaomfvnf;/ rloabmt&rSm twlwlyif jzpfonf?
,ckaqmif;yg;rSm pDADbavmhpepf (Civiblog) udk toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf taxmuftyHhjzpfap&ef
wifjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? Tyvufazmif;udk urBmt&yf&yf&Sd t&yfzuf vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u toHk;jyK
ae=uygonf? odk@aomfvnf; Tt=uHay;csufenf;pepfrsm;udk tjcm;qmAmrsm; toD;oD;wGifvnf; toHk;
jyKEdkifygonf? pDADbavmhu bavmh0J,m; yvufazmif; (Blogware platform) udk toHk;jyK+yD;
‚aqmh0J,m;udk wyfaumif;pf ukr`%D (Tucows) u tcrJh toHk;jyKcGifhay;xm;jcif; jzpfygonf?
yxrtcsuftaejzifh bavmha&;om;jcif;udk vltrsm;t=um; a&yef;pm;vm&jcif; ta=umif;udk
avhvm=uygpdk@?
bavmh0ef;usif[k qdkEdkifrnfh (blogosphere) wGif ta&;ygaom enf;ynmaomhcsufrSm (RSSReally Simple Syndication) [kac:aom pepfjzpfygonf? ‚rSm bavmhwcku topfwif
vdkufonfESifh Tenf;jzifh csufcsif;zwf±_Edkifaom enf;pepf jzpfygonf? XML (eXtensible
Markup Language) file &Sd (RSS item) udk bavmhu tvdktav#muf Ed_;ay;vdkuf+yD;/
tjcm; 0ufbfqdkufwck/ tjcm;bavmhwckuvnf; Tpepfjzifh csdwfqufxm;Edkifygonf? tu,fI
oifu (RSS Feed) udk (syndicate) [kac:onfh pkpnf;r_pepfjyKaomtcg ‚ydk@pftopf
wifvdkufonfh acgif;pOfudk oif. owif;zwfonfh ud&d,m (news reader) wGif jrif&ygvdrfhrnf?
(oif. tD;ar;vfrsm; vufcHEdkifonfh Outlook odk@r[kwf Thunderbird y±dk*&rfwGif zwf&_I
&Edkifygonf?) odk@r[kwf oif. 0ufufqdkuf/ yk*~dKvfa&;bavmhwGifvnf; topfwifay;vdkufI zwf&_Edkif
ygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh owif;tcsuftvufrsm;u v#ifjrefpGm/ tvdktav#muf ysH@ESH@apEdkifygonf?
bavmha&;ol bavmh*grsm;u Tenf;ynmudk u|rf;usifpGm toHk;jyKjcif;tm;jzifh owif; tcsuftvuf
rsm;udk xda&mufpGm jzef@jzL;ay;Edkifygonf?
bavmha&;om;jcif;wGif aemufxyfta&;ygonfh enf;ynmwckrSm “aemufa=umif;jyefvdkufjcif;” [k
ac:onfh (tracebacks) jzpfygonf? Tenf;ynmudk yvufazmif;trsm;wGif toHk;jyK=u+yD;/ bavmh&Sd
owif;tcsuftvuf wck. rl&if;ae&mudkvnf; jyefvdkufEdkifygonf?

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bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf? a&SUqufrnfenf;

tu,fI rdrdtopfwifvdkufaom ydk@pfta=umif;t&monf tjcm;ydk@pfwckudk tajccHygu/ tjcm;
bavmhwckrS &,lxm;ygu (traceback) enf;ynmudk xnfhoGif;ay;Edkif+yD;/ tvdktav#muf
ta=umif;jyef=um;ay;jcif;/ ydk@pftay: jyefvnfazmfjyjcif; jyKonfh/ rSwfcsufa&;om;onfh qdkufudk
jyefvnfar;cGef;xkwfjcif;rsm; jyKEdkifapygonf? Todk@zwf&onfrSm ±_yfaxG;onfhozG,f &Sdaomfvnf;/
trSefwGif tvGef±dk;&Sif;vS+yD; *k%f,lzG,fvnf; jzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm oif.wifjycsufudk óuufESpf
oufI tjcm;wOD;u jyefvnfjzef@jzL;ay;a=umif; odEdkifaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif ta=umif;
t&mwckudk ydkrdkus,fjyef@pGm jzef@a0Edkif+yD;/ bavmhrsm; tcsif;csif;t=um; aqG;aEG;jiif;ckefr_rsm;vnf;
jyKEdkifapygonf?
Tenf;ynmudk u|rf;usifvmap&eftwGuf tcsdef tenf;i,fay;apvdkygonf?
atmufwGif (The Civiblog homepage) . yifrpmrsufESmudk azmfjyxm;ygonf?

(RSS Feed) rSm nmzufwGif awG@&ygvdrfhrnf? tu,fI rdrd. todkuft0ef;twGif;&Sd tzGJ@0if
0ufbfqdkufwcku ydk@pf topfwifvdkufonfh tcgwdkif; tvdktav#muf topfjznfhqD;ay;vdrfhrnf
jzpfonf?

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bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf? a&SUqufrnfenf;

pm&if;oGi;f jcif; (Singing Up)
oifu bavmhwck pwif rwnf
aqmufrD rSwyf w
kH if&ef vdt
k yfygonf?
bavmhyvufazmif; (vufcH&mae
&m) trsm;pku vG,u
f al tmif aqmif
&Guf ay;xm;=uygonf? pDAb
D avmht
aejzifh tajccHusaom tao;pdwf
tcsuf t vuf t csKd @ jznf h a y;&ef
awmif;qdkygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf;
Todk@jznfhoGif;&jcif;rSm ‚u tdrf&Siftjzpf vufcHay;xm;rnfh bavmhwckonf t&yfzuf vlr_tzGJ@t
pnf; (civil society group) wck tppftrSef [kwf-r[kwf ppfaq;&efom jzpfygonf? ‚u
rdom;pkrsm;/ oli,fcsif;rsm;twGuf yk*~dKvfa&;bavmhudk cGifhjyKrnfr[kwfyg? rSwfyHkwifvdkufonfh
tcsdefrSpI rdrd bavmhudk tGefvdkif;ay:wGif jrifawG@Edkif&eftwGufqdkv#if 24-em&Dr# tcsdef,l&ygvdrfhrnf?
rdrdbavmhtwGif;odk@ 0ifEdkifrnfh v#Kd@0Sufpmom; (access code) udk bavmha&;olxHodk@ tD;ar;vfrS
wqifh ydk@ay;rnf jzpfonf?
pDrHcef@cGJa&;twGuf 0ifa&mufjcif; (Administration Log-In)
bavmh w ck w G i f (Front End)
0ifa&mufzwf&_ol {nfhonfu =unfh
EdkifaompmrsufESmESifh (back end)
ZmwfcHkaemufbuf[k qdkEdkifrnfh pm
rsuf E S m [l I &S d y gonf ? Taemuf
bufwGif topfjyifqif wnf;jzwf
jcif;/ pDrHcef@cGJjcif;/ a&S@qufaqmif&Guf
jcif;rsm; jyKEikd yf gonf/ Tae&mod@k toH;k jyKo.
l trnf (username) ESihf v#K@d 0Suu
f 'k rf sm; (password)
jzifh rSwfyHkwif0ifa&muf+yD;rS pDrH&onfhae&m jzpfygonf?
pufcvkyfcHk 'uf&Sfbkwf (dashboard)
bavmh t rsm;pk w G i f puf c vk y f c H k
ozG,f 'uf&b
fS w
k f &Syd gonf? Tae&m
udk wcsuf=unfh±Hkr#ESifhyif bavmh
wGif rnfo@kd jzpfysuaf eonfh t&mtm;
vHk;udk odEdkifygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh
aemufqHk;wifydk@azmfjyr_rsm;/ rSwfcsuf
rsm;ESifh aemufa=umif;jyef ajc&mcHr_
rsm; (tracebacks) ud k v nf ;
awG @ &ygvd r f h r nf ? Tae&mrS a eI
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bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf? a&SUqufrnfenf;

bavmh. vkyfief;aqmifwmrsm; tm;vHk;odk@ oGm;Edkif+yD;/ ‚wdk@. toGiftjyif/ bef;0pf'ftus,f/ ponf
wdk@udk jyKjyifEdkifouJhodk@ ,cifazmfjyr_ta[mif;rsm;udk jyefvnf wnf;jzwfEdkifjcif;/ toHk;jyKolrsm;ESifh
tjcm;cGifhjyKxm;csufrsm;udk jyifqifajymif;vJ Edkifygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh tjcm;olrsm;u rSwfcsufa&;om;
azmfjycGifhudkvnf; Tae&mrS xdef;csKyfEdkifygonf?
rnfuJhodk@ ydk@pf a&;om;azmfjyrnfenf;
bavmhwckESifh yHkrSef 0ufbfpmrsufESmwck. jcm;em;
csufrSm bavmhwckudk topfjyifqif azmfjy&eftwGuf
vG,u
f jl cif;jzpfygonf? yvufazmif;trsm;pku pm±du
k f
a&;om;Edkifonfhae&m ay;xm;ygonf? 'DZdkif;av;
atmufudpPrsm;twGuf ylyefpdk;&drfae&ef rvdkyg? pDAD
bavmhuo
hJ @kd aom bavmhyvufazmif;topfrsm;wGif
oifu pmom;rsm;. azmifh/ pmvHk; t&G,ftpm;/
ta&mif r sm;omru csd w f q uf r _ v if h c f r sm;/ yH k r sm;
wifEdkif&eftwGufyg pDpOfay;xm;ygonf?
oifu ydk@pfazmfjyr_ topfwifrnfqdkygu1? rSwfyHkwifa&;xdk;I 0ifyg? (Logging in.)
2? ydk@pf (post) [laom ae&mudk uvpfvkyfyg?
3? oif. ydk@pfazmfjyr_udk trnfay;I pmom;rsm; a&;xnfhyg?
4? tifwmazhpf (interface) pmrsufESmudk toHk;jyKI pmom;rsm;udk pDpOfyg?
5? ydk@pfudk vuQ%m/ trsKd;tpm; (category) owfrSwfay;yg? (xdktcg wl&m ta=umif;
t&mrsm;jzifh pkpnf;ay;ygvdrfhrnf?) odk@r[kwf trsKd;tpm; topfwrsKd; xyfzGifhyg?
6? pmrsufESm atmufajc&Sd “odrf;qnf;yg”[k qdkonfh (save) udk uvpfvkyfyg?
Tr#om jzpfygonf? tenf;ti,f tawG@tñuH&Sd±Hkr#ESifhyif oifu Oyrm- (tracebacks, ping,
keywords) ponfh tjcm;enf;ynm trsKd;trnfrsm;udkvnf; toHk;jyKEdkifygvdrfhrnf?
aemufa=umif;jyefvdkufjcif; (Tracebacks)
‚udk aygi;f xnfo
h iG ;f &ef vG,u
f yl gonf? oift
h aejzifh
oifudk;um;azmfjyonfh tifwmeufpmrsufESm. tjrJ
wrf;vdyfpm (permanant URL) udk nmzuf&Sd
(tracktback URLs to notify) ae&mwGif
xnf h o G i f ; rS w f o m;ay;±H k o m jzpf y gonf ? oif u
(save) vkyfaomtcsdefwGif Tpepfu rl&if;qdkuf
ae&mod@k tvdt
k av#muf ta=umif;=um;ay;rnf jzpfyg
onf?
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bavmhwckudk b,fvdkwnfaqmuf? a&SUqufrnfenf;

tm&f-tufpf-tufpf pepfjzifh pkpnf;jcif;
(RSS Syndication)
tjcm;aom 0ufbfqdkufrsm;/ bavmhrsm;udk (RSS
Feed) pepfjzifh pkpnf;jcif;rSm tvGefyif vG,fulvSyg
onf?
1? bavmh. twGif;pmrsufESm (“back end”) odk@
0ifa&muf&eftwGuf (log in) vkyfyg?
2/ rdrt
d ESpo
f ufq;kH [k t"dyg` ,&f onfh (favourites)
ae&mudk uvpfvkyfyg?
3? (RSS Headline Components) ae&mudk
uvpfvkyfyg?
4? !$ef=um;csufrsm;twdkif; vdkufemvkyfaqmifI tifwmeufpmrsufESm. (URL) udk xnfhoGif;yg?
(qdv
k o
kd nfrmS rdrpd pk nf;vdak om tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS vdypf mrsm;rSm (.xml, .rdf, .py, or .php)
wdk@ESifh tqHk;owfavh &Sdygonf?)
5? rdrdxnfhoGif;onfh (feed) udk trnfay;I (add feed) udk uvpfvkyfyg?
6? tcktcsdefwGif rdrdxnfhoGif;onfh (feed) udk zefwD;+yD;+yD jzpfygonf? bavmh. av;atmuf
'DZdkif;twGif; xnfhoGif; azmfjy+yD; jzpfygonf?
7? (look and feel) [laom ae&mudk uvpfvkyfyg?
8? (layout) [laom ae&mudk uvpfvkyfyg?
9? (RSS: your feed) [laomae&mudk uvpfvkyfyg? (your feed qdkonfrSm tqifh (5) wkef;
u oiftrnfay;cJhaom ta=umif;t&m jzpfygonf? TaumfvHudk uvpfvkyfI qGJcsvm+yD;/ oifu
Tta=umif;t&may:apvdkaom ae&mwGif xnfhoGif;azmfjyEdkifygonf?)
10? pmrsufESm atmufajc&Sd (save) udk uvpfvkyfyg? +yD;pD;+yD jzpfygonf?
bavmha&;om;jcif;ta=umif;ESifh ywfoufI tao;pdwfudk azmfjyxm;aom tjcm;0ufbfqdkuf
trsm;tjym;vnf; &Sdaeygonf?
pDADbavmh. yifr t&if;tjrpfae&m
http://central.civiblog.org/blog/BloggingResources
bavmh rnfo@kd a&;om;rnfenf;
http://blogging.typepad.com/how_to_blog
onf bavmh*dk pzD;,m; (bavmhtodkuft0ef;)
http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogsphere
0ufbf bavmhtvkyf±Hk (The Weblog Workshop)
http://cyber.law.harvard.edu:8080/glovalvoices/wiki/index.php/
WeblogWorkshop
bavmha&;om;jcif; 101 (Blogging 101)
http://www.unc.edu/%7Ezuiker/blogging101/index.html
e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 27

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vlrsm;u
rGwfa;axmuf
e=ucsdefwrGism;tzG
f &JyvdyJY frsm;u 4if;wdk@aemufrS waumufaumuf vdkufzrf;v#uf&Sdaeonf
28 vrf
e,f;rrsm;ay:wG
pnf;rjcm;if iwf
owif

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bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;

bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom
usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;
'ef a*;vfarm (Dan Gillmor)
bavmha&;oltm;vHk;u owif;axmuf tvkyfrsKd; rvkyfaqmif=uyg? bavmha&;ol trsm;pkrSmvnf;
owif;axmufrsm; r[kwf=uyg? odk@aomfvnf; owif;wifjyonfh owif;axmufwm0efrsKd; xrf;aqmif
v#if usifh0wftwdkif;awmh jzpfoifhygonf?
qdkvdkonfrSm Tbavmha&;olrsm;u owfrSwfjyXmef;xm;onfh wnf&Sd+yD; usifh0wfwckckudk vdkufem
=u&rnfvm;? Todk@ vdktyfonf[k usaemfawmh rxifyg?
owif;pmynmjzifh oufarG;0rf;ausmif;jyK=uolrsm; avmuY vdkufemapmifhxdef;&rnfh usifh0wfrsm;
&Sdygonf? tcsKd@aom usifh0wfrsm;rSm a&;xm;vdkufonfrSm tar&duefjynfaxmifpk zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'xufudkyif ydkI &Snfvsm;ygonf? jzpfEdkifajc&Sdaom usifh0wfpnf; usKd;aygufzG,fudpPrsm;udk
ar#mfrSef;I a&;om;xm;aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? tcsKd@rSm xdxdrdrdESifh wdkwdkawmif;awmif;rsm;vnf;
&Sdygonf? ‚wdk@u tjyKoabmqefqef vrf;!$efcsufrsm;r#om azmfjyxm;=uygonf? qdkifbm owif;
axmufrsm; (cyber-journalist) 0ufbfqdkufu tar&dueftajcpdkuf tzGJ@wckjzpfaom owif;pm
ynmjzifh oufarG;0rf;ausmif;jyK=uolrsm;. vlr_tzGJ@tpnf; (Society of Professional
Journalists) . rlrsm;udk tajccHI bavmh*grsm; vdu
k ef m&rnfh usi0hf wftcsK@d udk owfrw
S f azmfjyxm;
ygonf? (http://www.cyberjournalist.net/news/000215.php) wGif =unf&h E_ ikd yf gonf?
Tusi0hf wfrsm;rSm ta&;ygvo
S nfu
h pd w
P ckjzpfonfh ,H=k unfr&_ &Sad &;twGuf &nf&,
G I
f csrw
S x
f m;jcif;om
jzpfygonf? tu,fI pmzwfol (vma&mufvnfywfol/ em;axmifolvnf; jzpfcsifjzpfrnf) u wifjy
xm;onfh ta=umif;t&mudk r,Hk=unfygu pawG@uwnf;uyif qufvuf 'kuQcHpOf;pm;+yD;/ tav;xm;
zG,f r&Sdawmhyg? c|if;csufwckrSm usifh0wft& rnD[k odxm;onfh udpPwckudk (avhvm&ef &nf&G,fcsuf
oufoufjzifh) =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh rnfodk@a&Smif&Sm;&rnfudk trSef A[kokw &apEdkifygonf? vltrsm;.
usifh0wfESifh rav#mfnDaom trltusifhrsm;udk =unfhjcif;tm;jzifhvnf; tuJjzwf avhvmEdkifygonf?
usaemhftwGufrl usifh0wfqdkonfrSm &Sif;vSygonf? “*k%foduQm” [kyif ±dk;&Sif;pGm jrifrdygonf? Tpum;
vHk;udk,fYuyif rsm;pGmt"dy`g,f us,f0ef;vSygonf? rdrdwdk@u *k%foduQmESifh tnD rusifhv#if/ tjcm;
olrsm;. ,Hk=unfr_udk &&Sdvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg?

e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 29

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bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;

tar&duefEdkifiH&Sd owif;pmavmuwGif ,Hk=unfr_qdkonfrSm rsm;aomtm;jzifh “bufrvdkuf r#wr_”
(objectivity) [k ac:aom pHowfrSwfcsufESifhvnf; wGJaewwf=uygonf? qdkvdkonfrSm ta=umif;
t&mwckukd r#wpGm/ yHzk suaf zmfjyr_ uif;pGm wifjya&;yifjzpfonf? pmzwfou
l kd qH;k jzwfcsucf sEikd &f eftwGuf
cGifhay;jcif;om jzpfonf? usaemhftjrifwGifrl bufrvdkuf r#wr_onf ta&;ygaomfvnf;/ rdrdwdk@ OD;wnf
xm;aetyfaom udpPr[kwfyg? ta=umif;rSm rdrdwdk@ vlom;tm;vHk;u vkyfaqmifr_wdkif;wGif wckr[kwf
wck tpGJruif;/ bufvdkufr_ &Sdwwf=uaoma=umifh jzpfygonf?
acwfopf owif;pmynmavmuwGifrl rdrdwdk@ rsm;pGmajymif;vJcJh+yD jzpfonf? ,cifu q&mu wynfhudk
ydk@csrdef@cGef;ajymaeonfh yHkpHrS tjyeftvSef pum;ajymqdkr_bufodk@ ydka&mufvmygonf? usifh0wftnD
aqmif&u
G =f uaom owif;pmynm vkyx
f ;kH qdo
k nfrmS vnf;/ usi0hf wfOya'rsm;tay: trSjD yKr_ enf;vm+y;D /
*k%foduQm&Sdaom owif;pmwapmifjzpfapa&;twGuf wefzdk;xm;r_ESifh pHE_ef;rsm;bufodk@ ydkI a&mufvm
ygonf?
owif;pmorm;aumif; wOD;jzpf&eftwGuf tajccHusonfh tkwfjrpfaxmufwdkifrsm; &Sdygonf?
‚wd@k rSm- tao;pdwf jzpfjcif;/ wdusjcif;/ r#wjcif;/ yGiv
hf if;jrifomjcif;ESihf vGwv
f yfr&_ jdS cif; wd@k jzpfygonf?
TudpPrsm;tay: pnf;jcm;xm;r_rSm tpOfojzifh jywfjywfom;om; r&SdvSyg? tus,ftjyef@ t"dy`g,fzGifhI
&ygonf? T t"dy`g,fzGifhcsufrsm;Yyif udk,fvdkovdk qGJajymae=uonfrsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? odk@aomfvnf;
usaemhftjrifwGif Ttcsufrsm;onf usifh0wfnD owif;pmorm;jzpf&eftwGuf toHk;usonfh csOf;uyf
enf;rsm; jzpfygonf? tGefvdkif;ay:wGif wifjya&;om;&mY rdrd&nfrSef;csufudk a&muf&ef vG,fulpGm usifhoHk;
Edkifaom enf;rsm;vnf; jzpfygonf? qufvufavhvm=unfh =uygpdk@?
tao;pdwfjzpfjcif; (Thoroughness)
usaemhftaejzifh ,cifu owif;pmorm;tjzpf/ aemufydkif; aumfvHrsm;wGifa&;onfh yifwdkifpma&;ol
owif;orm;tjzpf aqmif&GufpOfu usaemf. yxrOD;wnfcsufrSm jzpfEdkifor# avhvmod&SdEdkifa&;yif
jzpfygonf? aemufqHk;qdk&v#if tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh vltrsm;. xifjrifcsufrsm; pkaqmif;jcif;onfuyif
owif;ay;ydk@jcif;. tajccHtkwfjrpf jzpfygonf? aemufqHk; pmtacsmtjzpf rxkwfcif usaemhftaejzifh
95 &mcdkifE_ef;cef@ tcsuftvufrsm; pkaqmif;aerd+yD[k ,lqv#if taumif;qHk;tajctae jzpfygonf?
usaemfox
d m;aom taumif;qH;k qdo
k nfh owif;pmorm;rsm;yifv#if ydrk jkd ynfph akH p&ef aemufxyf w,fvD
zkef;wcg xyfac:vdk=uygao;onf? aemufxyf owif;t&if;tjrpfwckESifh xyfrHwdkufqdkif ppfaq;vdk
ae=uygao;onf? (tifwmAsL;ar;jref;onft
h cgwikd ;f usaemf aemufq;kH ar;avh&adS om ar;cGe;f rSm- usaemf
aemufxyf b,foleJ@rsm; pum;xyfajym&v#if aumif;OD;rnfenf;[k ar;avh&Sdygonf?)
,ae@umvwGif tao;pdwfjzpfjcif; qdkonfrSm usaemfwdk@. vdyfpmpmtkyftwGif;&Sd yk*~dKvfrsm;udk ar;cGef;
rsm; ar;±Hkr#om ruawmhbJ/ tjcm;ae&mrsm;vnf; &Sdvmygonf? trSefwu,f vlawG@ar;&efvdkovdk/
tifwmeufrsm;rSwqifhvnf; &Edkif ygao;onf? qdkvdkonfrSm usaemfwdk@. pmzwfolrsm;udk jzpfEdkifygu
30 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

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bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;

a&;om;xm;onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufI tjrifawmif;cH&efyif jzpfygonf? 2004 ckESpfwGif
atmufajcxk v_yf&Sm;ol owif;axmufrsm;twGuf vrf;!$efpmtkyf usaemfa&;pOfu (tjcm;olrsm;u
olwdk@oufqdkif&m tydkif;rsm;udk a&;aeqJ jzpfygao;onf?) vnf; tvm;wl usaemf aqmif&GufcJhygao;
onf? vltrsm;t=um; tòyiftqdkif óu;yrf;ae&aomumvY Todk@tjrifawmif;cH&ef cufcJaumif;
cufcJEdkifygonf? odk@aomfvnf; owif;axmuftrsm;u Todk@jyef=um;vdk=urnf[k ,lqygonf?
wdusjcif; (Accuracy)
tcsuftvufay;&ef vdkygonf?
oif rnfodk@vkyfaqmifaeonfudkom azmfjy&ef r[kwfbJ/ oif rnfonfhtcsufrsm;udk roda=umif;vnf;
azmfjy&ygvdrfhrnf? (tu,fI pmzwfol§vm=unfhol§ em;axmifolrsm;u oifrodaomtcsufrsm;udk
olwdk@ od&Sdygu/ oifhukd,fpm; jznfhpGufay;&ef xdkolrsm;udk zdwfac:Edkifygonf?)
wdusjcif;qdkonfrSm oifrSm;aeonfh tcsuftvufrsm;udk jyefjyifjcif;vnf; jzpfygonf? csufcsif; rSm;ae
onfudk jyefvnf jyifqif&ef jzpfygonf? tGefvdkif;ay:wGif a&;om;jcif; jzpfygu jyifqif&ef ydkrdkvG,ful+yD;/
owif;trSm; azmfjyr_twGuf jyifqif&ef/ qdk;usKd;oufa&muf&r_ enf;ap&eftwGuf aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?
r#wr_ (Fairness)
TtcsufrSm vufawG@wGif usifhoHk;Edkif&ef cufcJvSygonf? wdusr_ jzpf&efu ydkrdkvG,fulygonf? r#wr_qdk
onfrSm pmzwfolu oifhtay: qHk;jzwfrnfh tcsufjzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; TudpPtwGuf vltrsm;
taejzifh a,bk,stoHk;jyKEdkifrnf ,lqI azmfjytyfygonf?
r#wr_qo
kd nfrmS tjcm;udpt
P rsm; &Sad omfvnf;/ rwlujJG ym;aom tjrifrsm;udk em;axmifjcif;yif jzpfygonf?
Ttjrifrsm;udk rdrdowif;wifjy&mwGif xnfhoGif;azmfjy&efyif jzpfygonf? Todk@ r#wr_qdkonfrSm
=uufwla&G;&Gwfovdk vdrfvnfazmfjyjcif;rsKd; r[kwfyg? tcsuftvuftrsm;u tjcm;wbufudk
axmufjyaeonfhtcsdefwGif/ qef@usifbuftjrifudk &&ef[lI vlysif;vHk@vjzifh vG,fvG,fwa,muf
a,mufudk udk;um;azmfjyjcif;rsKd; rjzpfapoifhyg?
r#wr_qo
kd nfrmS oifu rSm;,Gi;f aeonf[k tjcm;olrsm;u ,lqaomtcg/ oif.tjrifEiS hf rwlaomtcg
vltrsm;udk wkH@jyefcGifhay;jcif;vnf; yg0ifygonf? yHkESdyfowif;pm/ pmapmifrsm;xufpmv#if tGefvdkif;
azmfjycsufrsm;xufpmv#if Todk@ aqmif&Guf&eftwGuf ydkvG,fygonf? toHxkwfv$ifhr_rsm;wGif jyefvnf
jyifqif&ef ydkcufygonf?
aemufqHk;azmfjy&v#if r#wr_qdkonfrSm vltrsm;. pdwfcHpm;r_ tajctaeESifh ydkoufqdkifygonf?
usaemfwdk@udk aphaqmfaompdwfudk ydkI tav;ay;oifh+yD;/ oabmrwlnDaom tjrifrsm;udk em;axmif&ef
vnf; ydkIpdwfvdkvuf& &Sdoifhygonf? pum;ajymqdk&mwGif yxrOD;qHk;vdkufem&rnfh pnf;rsOf;rSm em;
axmif&efyif jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif usaemf odxm;onfrSm usaemfESifh oabmwlnDolrsm;xufpmv#if/
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bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;

usaemf rSm;,Gif;aeonf[k ,lqolrsm;xHrS em;xmif&ef ydkvdktyfjcif;yif jzpfygonf?
yGifhvif;jrifomr_ (Transparency)
pmzwfolrsm;twGuf zGifhcs&Sif;vif;apjcif;onf owif;pmynmtwGuf aemufxyfomvGef tusKd;&Sdaom
udpP jzpfygonf? odk@aomf tajymxuf vufawG@ vkyfaqmif&onfu ydkcufygonf?
owif;axmufrsm;taejzifh tusKd;pD;yGm;qdkif&m yÉdyuQjzpf&r_rsKd;/ aiGa=u;qdkif&m ywfoufaer_rsKd; uJhodk@
aom tcsKd@aom udpPrsm;udkyg &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; zGifhcsazmfjyoifha=umif; tcsKd@aomolrsm;u jiif;csufxkwf
ajymqdk=uygonf? odk@aomf pma&;olrsm;u rnfonfh twdkif;twmtxd azmfjyrnfenf;? owif;axmuf
rsm;tm;vHk;udk olwdk@b0udk vltm;vHk; [if;vif;jrifae=u&aom b0rsKd;/ zGifhxm;onfh aiGpm&if;
pmtkyfuJhodk@ aqmif&Gufoifhygonfvm;? rnfodk@ yGifhvif;jrifomr_ &Sdapatmif aqmif&Gufrnfenf;?
vlwdkif;u bufvdkufr_&Sdwwf=u+yD;/ wcgw&H rodbJESifhjzpfap aqmif&Gufwwf=uaoma=umifh owif;pm
ynmtwGufvnf; xdcdkufr_ &SdapEdkifygonf? usaemfu tar&duefvlrsKd;jzpf+yD;/ wpHkw&maom ,Hk=unfr_
rsm;ESifh }uD;jyif;vmjcif;jzpfonf? tjcm;a'orsm;wGif usaemfESifh ,Hk=unfr_ vHk;0rwlol/ jiif;y,frnfh
olrsm;vnf; &SdEdkifygonf? (tar&duefEdkifiHwGifvnf; &SdEdkifygonf?) usaemfudk pdefac: jiif;ckefvm=uonfh
tcsufrsm;udkvnf;/ rwl=uonfh tjrifrsm;udkvnf; rawmif;bJ &xm;onfh tcGifhta&;rsm;ozG,f
udk,fwdkifcH,l tav;xm; *±kpdkufem;axmif&efvnf; vdkygvdrfhrnf?
yGifhvif;jrifomr_ &Sdap&eftwGuf tjcm;enf;wckrSm owif;ta=umif;t&mwckudk rnfodk@ wifjyrnf
[laom tcsufyif jzpfygonf? &Edkifor#aom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk aygif;pnf;xnfhoGif;&efvnf;
vdkygvdrfhrnf? vufawG@jzpfysufaeaom uGif;xJ&Sd vltrsm;. owif;/ tcsuftvufrsm;udk &Edkifor#&
atmif wl;qG&ygvdrfhrnf? (TtcsufrSm tao;pdwf jzpfjcif;/ wdusjcif;wdk@ESifh oufqdkifr_&Sdaomfvnf;/
Tae&mwGifvnf; oufqdkifqufpyfr_ &Sdrnf ,lqygonf?)
vGwfvyfr_&Sdjcif; (Independence)
*k%o
f u
d mQ &Sad om owif;tvkyq
f o
kd nfrmS owif;jzpfonft
h wdik ;f azmfjyjcif;/ aemufa,mifcv
H u
kd jf cif;om
jzpfygonf? owif;rD'D,mvkyfief;taejzifh ukr`%D}uD;rsm;tjzpf aygif;pkzGJ@pnf;vm=uaomtcg/ tpdk;&.
csKyfudkif xdef;csKyfr_atmuf usa&muf&onfhtcg Todk@azmfjyr_rsKd;rSm rjzpfEdkifawmhyg?
tGefvdkif;ay:wGif vGwfvyfpGmazmfjyEdkif&eftwGuf rsm;pGmvG,fulvSygonf? bavmhwckzGifh a&;om;±Hkom
jzpfygonf? bavmha&;om;olwOD;taejzifh rdrb
d mom oufarG;0rf;ausmif;I ol. oufarG;0rf;ausmif;r_
opfjzifh óu;yrf;rnfhtaetxm;Y ukr`%D}uD;rsm;/ tpdk;&rsm;xHrS vmrnfh zdtm;ay;r_rsKd; tvm;wl
cH&zG,f r&Sdyg?

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bavmh*grsm;taejzifh rnfodkYaom usifh0wfrsKd;xm;&Sdoifhoenf;

tar&d u ef E d k i f i H & S d xif & S m ;aom bavmh * gwOD ; jzpf o l *suf z f *sm;Apf (Jeff Jarvis)
(buzzmachine.com) u tjcm;aom pHowfrSwfcsufrsm;udkvnf; jznfhxm;cJhygonf? ‚u
bavmh*grsm;onf “pum;tjyeftvSef ajymqdkr_. wefzdk;” udkvnf; tav;xm;&rnf qdkygonf?
olu usaemfhudk ajymcJhonfrSm ,ckay:aeonfh acwfopfurBmavmu. atmufajc pnf;rsOf;yif
jzpfygonf? “pum;ajymqdkjcif;tm;jzifh em;vnfr_udk &&Sdaponf” [k qdkygonf?

'ef a*;vfarm (Dan Gillmor) onf atmufajcxk owif;rD'D,maumfydka&;&Sif; (Grass-roots
Media Inc.) udk pwifwnfaxmifcJhol wOD;jzpf+yD;/ atmufajcxk jynfolrsm;. owif;rD'D,m
vkyfief;ESifh ‚.us,fjyef@r_udk wdk;wufap&ef &nf
&G,f aqmif&Gufaeygonf? ol. yxrOD;qHk;aom
tif w meuf p mrsuf E S m rS m qef z &ef p pP u d k &S d
(Bayosphere.com) jzpf o nf ? ol u
“usaemfwdk@. owif;rD'D,m? vlxkrsm;twGuf
vlxkrsm;u aqmif&Gufonfh atmufajcxk owif;
pmynm” (We the Media: Grassroots
Journalism by the People, for the
People, O’reilly Media, 2004)
pmtkyfudk a&;om;cJhonf?
ol. bavmhrSm (http://bayosphere/
blog/dangillmor) jzpfonf?

e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 33

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Source: David Sifry's photostream
(http://www.flickr.com/photos/dsifry/36042738/)

pum;ajymqdk&mwGif yxrOD;qHk; Oya'orSm em;axmif&efyif jzpfonf? usifh0wfqdkonfrSmvnf;
em;axmif&eftcsuf yg0ifygonf? Tenf;tm;jzifhom rdrdwdk@avhvm oif=um;Edkif=uaoma=umifh
jzpfygonf?

toHk;0ifaom vrf;ñTefcsufrsm;

oifb
h avmhpmrsuEf mS udk tifwmeuf&mS pufrsm;
(SEARCH-ENGINES) u
&SmazG azmfxw
k af y;Edik &f efenf;
tdkvDAD,m tef'a&,l (Olivier Andrieu)
bavmhu,
kd Yf u 0ufbq
f u
kd rf sm; jzpf=u+y;D / olw@kd udk *l;*J (Google)/ &[l; qmhcsf (Yahoo Search)
od@k r[kwf trftufpf tJef qmhcsf (MSN Search) pouJo
h @kd aom tifwmeuf&mS pufrsm; (searchengines) uvnf; &SmazGay; =uonf? rdr.
d bavmhwck atmifjrifr&_ &Sad p&eftwGuf T&Smpufrsm;u
&S m ay;onf h &v'f r sm;wG i f ygae&ef v d k t yf + yD ; ta&;ygonf h y if r pum;vH k ; rsm; (keywords)
xnfhoGif;ay;&ef vdktyfonf? odk@twGufa=umifh qdkufwckudk pwifwnf aqmufpOfumvuyif
Ttifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u toHk;jyKonfh enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m trsKd;tpm;cGJjcm;r_rsm; (mechanical
classification) udk wkH@jyef&ef pepfwus pDpOfaqmif&Gufxm;oifh ygonf?
bavmhrsm;wGif rlvuwnf;u xnfhoGif;wnfaqmufxm;+yD; owfrSwfazmfjycsufrsm; &Sd=u+yD;/ Todk@
&Sdaejcif;a=umifh &Hzef&Hcg tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u aumuf,lazmfjyay;=uygonf? pepfwus pDpOfxm;
Edkifygu &SmonfESifh ay:Edkifaom pm&if;/ xif&Sm;aomae&mwGif &&SdapEdkifygonf?

bavmhrsm;tm;vHk;onf vlwOD;csif;. ae@pOfrSwfwrf; 'dkif,m&Drsm;ozG,f (tenf;qHk;
tpydkif;umvrsm;wGif) jzpfaoma=umifh tifwmeuf&SmazGpufrsm;u aumuf,lay;Edkifonfh
pmom; pum;vHk; trsm;tjym; yg0ifae=uygonf? tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm;u yHktrsm;tjym;
yg0ifaeaom/ tifeDar;&Sif; (Flash animations) pepfjzifh *&yfzpfyHkazmfjycsuf trsm;
yg0ifae+yD;/ pmom;odyfrygaom qkdufrsm;udk aumuf,lavh r&Sd=uyg?
ydk@pfwdkif;onf a,bk,stm;jzifh pmrsufESmwrsufESm ae&m,lxm;ygonf? (permalink)
pepfjzifh aumuf,lEdkif+yD; ta=umif;t&m wckudk azmfjyxm;csufrsKd; jzpfwwfygonf? ‚ydk@pf
wifjycsufwckjcif;udk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u ydkI aumuf,lazmfjyay;avh&Sd+yD;/ pmrsufESm
trsm;tjym;yg0ifaom/ ta=umif;t&m trsKd;pHkyg0ifaom udpPrsKd;udk aumuf,lavh r&Sdyg?
(Oyrmtm;jzifh bavmhwckvHk;/ odk@r[kwf rmwdumrSwfwrf; pkaqmif;xm;r_rsm; jzpfygonf?)
yd@k pfwck. acgi;f pOf (heading) udk pmrsuEf mS . acgi;f pOftjzpf a,bk,s jyefazmfjyay;wwf
+yD;/ ‚. (URL) vdyfpmudkvnf; azmfjyay;avh &Sdygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh vGwfvyfaom
eDayga&'D,dk "Free Nepal Radio" bavmhpmrsufESm (http://freenepal.
blogspot.com) wGif ydk@pfwckwdkif;onf wpfrsufESmjzpfygonf? Oyrm (URL)wGif
(http://freenepal.bolgspot.com/2005/04/state-vandalism-innepal.html: ) [k azmfjyygonf?

34 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

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11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;

ydk@.acgif;pOf (heading) onf eDaygEdkifiHwGif tpdk;&u tzsufvkyfief;rsm; vkyfukdifaejcif; "State
Vandalism in Nepal" jzpf+yD; TpmrsufESm. tifwmeufwGif =unfh&_Edkifonfh vifhcf (URL)
jzpf±Hkr#omru/ atmufwGif azmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif; TrSwfwrf;. acgif;pOfvnf; jzpfygonf?
odk@twGufa=umifh ydk@pfacgif;pOfudk bavmhtrnf. aemufwGif aygif;xnfhay;ygonf? bavmhtrnf
qdkonfrSm bavmh. rl&if;pmrsufESm (homepage) wGif ay:aomtrnf (http://freenepal.
blogspot.com) jzpfygonf?
odk@twGufa=umifh pmrsufESm. acgif;pOfwGif rdrdazmfjyvdkonfudk ay:vGifaponfh pum;vHk;rsm;
(descriptive keywords) yg0ifygu tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u ydkI &SmazGxkwfay;Edkifygonf?
ta=umif;rSm tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u (URL) &Sd (content of the <TITLE> tag in
HTML language) udk &SmazGazmfxw
k af y;aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? od@k twGuaf =umifh rdrw
d ifjyaom
yd@k pfacgi;f pOfukd aocsma&G;cs,I
f tifwmeuf&mS pufrsm;u azmfxw
k f
ay;Edkif&ef óu;yrf;oifhygonf?
PREVIOUS POSTS
• Todk@ vifhcfcsdwfqufr_rsm;rSm tvdktav#muf pufu zefwD;
azmfxkwfay;jcif;jzpf+yD;/ rmwdumtjzpf pkpnf; (archives) &ef
jzpfygonf? pmrsuEf mS nmzufwiG v
f nf; acgi;f pD;udk pmom; (text)
tjzpf azmfjyay;ygonf? (azmfjyxm;aom a&,dk z&D;eDayg bavmh.
pmrsufESm nmbufudk =unfhyg?)

State Vandalism in Nepal
Peace Bond: Sign of Problems
Must-Read Stories: April 20
Municipal Election: For
Covering Up the Death of
Democracy
Articles of Interst: April 16
Attempts to Blur Borderlines
Articles of Interest: April 7
Press: Support King or Die
Vote for Radio Free Nepal!

e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 35

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11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;

Tod@k rmwdumwGif yg0ifaom pmom; (text)/ csw
d q
f ufrr_ sm; (links) udk owdxm; azmfjyjcif;tm;jzifh
tifwmeuf&Smpuf azmfjycH&r_ aumif;aumif;&apEdkifygonf? ‚udk enf;ynm&yfydkif;qdkif&mt&
(anchors) [k ac:ygonf? ‚onf oufqdkif&mpmrsufESmrsm;twGuf t"duus+yD;/ &Smpufrsm;udk
Tae&m a&mufvmatmif !$efjyay;Edkifygonf? Oyrm tm;jzifh- yxrcsdwfqufr_ (link) wGif "State
Vandalism in Nepal" [kazmfjyxm;+yD;/ 9 ckajrmuf csdwfqufr_wGif "Radio Free Nepal"
[k azmfjyxm;jcif;tm;jzifh Tpmom;rsm;a=umifh oufqdkif&mpmrsufESmudk a&muf&Sdvmap&ef vrf;!$ef
ay;Edkifygonf? xdk@tjyif Tcsdwfqufr_ vifhcf (links) rsm;azmfjyxm;aom/ “uvpf” vkyfvdkufygu
&Edkifaom csdwfqufr_rsm; rdrdpmrsufESmwGif yg0ifyguvnf;/ tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazGawG@&Sd&ef
twGuf taxmuftuljyKyg onf? ‚pmom;rsm;azmfjyxm;onfh pmrsuEf mS rsm;udv
k nf; oufqikd o
f nf[k
&Smpufrsm;u tvdktav#muf owfrSwf xm;aoma=umifh jzpfygonf?
rdrdbavmhudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u ydk&SmazGawG@Edkif&ef rnfodk@vkyfaqmif&rnfenf;
bavmhrsm;wGif tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u r=umc%qdkovdk &SmazGawG@&SdEdkif&ef rlvuwnf;u jrKyfESH
xnfo
h iG ;f xm;aom enf;ynm tm;aumif;csurf sm; &Syd gonf? tu,fI tifwmeuf&mS pufu wpHw
k OD;u
jznfhoGif; &SmazGvmaoma=umifh jzpfap/ &Smpuf. ydkufuGef uGef&ufrsm;u vifhcfwckckudk &SmazGrdaom
a=umifh jzpfap/ bavmhwckukd &SmazGawG@&Sv
d mEdik yf g onf? bavmhwcku omref0ufbq
f u
kd w
f ckxufyif/
&SmazGawG@&SEd ikd &f eftwGuf obm0t&ud,
k yf if tcGit
hf vrf; ydo
k mygonf? od@k aomfvnf; oifu tenf;i,f
óu;yrf;aqmif&Gufjcif;tm;jzifh oifh.bavmhudk &SmazGawG@&SdEdkifr_ ydkI &&SdapEdkifygonf?
atmufazmfjyyg tcsufrsm;rSm bavmhwckudk &Smpufrsm;u ydkI &SmazGawG@&SdEdkif&ef t=uHjyKcsufrsm;
jzpfygonf? t"duusaom pum;vH;k rsm;udk azmfjyay;jcif;tm;jzifh oif.bavmhukd vltrsm;ydI
k vm=unfh
ap&ef aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?
1? rdrdbavmhpmrsufESmudk ydkI &SmazGawG@&SdapEdkifrnfh enf;ynmudk tav;xm;yg?
,cktcsdeftxd oif. bavmhqdkufu tGefvdkif;ay:wGif ay:rvmao;v#if/ oif bavmha&;&ef toHk;jyK
onfh enf;ynmudk *±kwpdkuf jyef=unfhyg? (Oyrmtm;jzifh (Blogger, Dotclear, BlogSprint,
Joueb) pojzifh rsm;pGm&Sdygonf? oif.bavmhudk tifwmeuf&SmazGpufrsm;u trsm;qHk; aumuf,l
xkwEf w
k af y;Edik o
f nfh enf;ynmrsm;yg0ifaom tao;pdwt
f csut
f vufrsm; yg0ifonfq
h u
kd rf sm;udk a&G;yg?
• ydk@pf. acgif;pOf (heading) taejzifh pmrsufESm acgif;pD;tjzpf jyefvnfazmfjyay;Edkif&rnf?
(the <TITLE> tag) tvm;wl TpmrsufESmudk vm=unfhEdkifrnfh (URL) tjzpf
vnf; azmfjyay;&rnf? (tcsKd@aomae&mrsm;wGif tvdktav#muf ajymif;ay;jcif;r&SdbJ/
tcsKd@aomud&d,mrsm;jzifh aqmif&Guf+yD;rSom ajymif;ay;onfvnf; &Sdwwfonf?)
• tjrJwrf; csdwfqufEdkifr_rsm; (permalinks) tjzpf zefwD;ay;Edkif&rnf? qdkvdkonfrSm
rdrdwifxm;aomydk@pfwckjcif;pDudk csdwfqufEdkifaom vifhcfrsm;tjzpf ajymif;ay;jcif;?)
• toHk;jyKxm;aom enf;ynmt& oif.bavmhudk wwfEdkifor# 'DZdkif;jyifqifcGifhESifh oif.
qdkufudk udk,fydkifxl;jcm;csufrsm;jzifh xif&Sm;vmatmif jyifqifcGifhjyK&rnf? qdkvdkonfrSm
36 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

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oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;

oifwifxm;vdkaom *&yfzpfyHkazmfcsufrsm;/ udk,fydkif[ef (personal style-sheets)
azmfxkwfEdkif&rnf? zefwD;Edkifor# enf;ynmpGrf;t& rnfr#vkyfaqmifEdkifrnfudk oifavhvm
=unfo
h ifo
h nf? Tod@k aqmif&u
G jf cif;tm;jzifh oif.bavmhqu
kd u
f kd tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm;u
ydkI &SmazGawG@&Sdvmatmif aqmif&GufEdkifrnf jzpfonf?
Ttcsufrsm;tm;vHk;udk ppfaq;yg? oifzefwD;vdkaom enf;ynmrsm; yg0ifaer_ &Sdr&Sd qdkufaygif;pHkudk
=unfhyg? (oifhtaejzifh erlem,lp&mrsm;pGm &Sdaeygonf?) trsm;u rnfodk@wifjy yHkazmfxm;=uonfudk
=unfhapvdkygonf? Todk@ avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh rsm;pGmavhvmEdkifvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf?
2? oif. ydk@pftwGuf taumif;qHk; acgif;pD;rsm; (headings) a&G;yg?
Ttcsufu ta&;}uD;ygonf? oifhydk@pf. acgif;pD;udk pmrsufESmwckcsif;. acgif;pD;tjzpf jyefvnfazmfjy
ay;vdrfhrnf jzpf+yD;/ oif. pmrsufESmudk !$ef;qdkazmfjyay;rnfh (URL) wGifvnf; jyefvnfyg0ifvdrfhrnf
jzpfonf? Tae&mu tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm;twGuf ta&;ygaom ae&mjzpfygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh
acgi;f pD;wGif pum;vH;k tenf;i,fom yg0if&ef vdt
k yf+y;D / txl;ta&;}u;D aom pmvH;k rsm; yg0if&ygvrd rhf nf?
odk@rSom &Smpufrsm;u ‚wdk@udk &SmazGazmfxkwfay;vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? odk@twGufa=umifh acgif;pD;rsm;a&;
om;&mwGif (“Well said!”, “Welcome”, or “Great”) [laom ta&;tom;rsKd; a&Smifap
vdkygonf? acgif;pD;wGif oifazmfjyaom ta=umif;t&m. tESpfcsKyf/ ‚udk !$ef;qdkEdkifrnfh pum;vHk; 5
vHk;cef@om yg0ifapvdkygonf? tifwmeuf&Smpufu &SmazGawG@jrifapvdkonfh pmom;rsKd; pOf;pm;yg? T
pum;vHk;rsm;udk acgif;pD; (heading) wGif xnfhoGif;yg? rvG,fulvSyg? odk@aomf rsm;pGmtusKd;ouf
a&mufr_ &Sdapygonf?
3? (Text) xnfhoGif;ay;yg?
tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;uudk }udKuf=uygonf? oifu wifydk@vdkaom "gwfyHkrsm;udk wifydk@Edkifygonf?
odk@aomf yl;wGJI pmom;rsm; (Text) yg&ef vdktyfygonf? wifjyor# ydk@pfwdkif;wGif pum;vHk; tenf;qHk;
(200) r# yg0ifap&ef óu;pm;azmfjy ay;yg? odk@rSom tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazGay;Edkif&ef taxmuf
tuljyKygonf? ydk@pfwifjyr_ wckxJwGif rwluGJjym;vGef;aom ta=umif;t&mrsm; wòyifwnf; wifjyxm;
jcif;rsKd; a&Smifapvdkygonf? tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u Ttaetxm;udk róuuf=uyg? t"duxm;&rnfh
Oya'owckrSm “ta=umif;t&mwck/ ydk@pfwck” jzpfygonf?
4? oifwifjyrnfh ydk@pf. yxrOD;qHk;pmykd'fudk *±kpdkufa&;om;yg?
t"duusaom pum;vHk; (Text) rsm;udk Tae&mwGif azmfjyay;&efrSmvnf; txl; ta&;}uD;vSygonf?
oif. ydk@pf yxrOD;qHk; pmydk'fudk txl;tav;ay; a&;om;yg? Oyrm -"g;pmcH zrf;xm;olrsm; v$wfay;
"Release hostages" [laom pum;vHk;udk &Smpufrsm;u awG@&Sdazmfjyapvdkygu rdrdydk@pf. yxr
pmvHk; (50) twGif; ygatmif azmfjyay;yg? tvm;wl rdrdu tav;xm;aom pum;vHk; (keywords)
wdkif;udkvnf; Todk@ jzpfap&ef a&;om;&ygvdrfhrnf? Todk@ (keywords) rsm;udk pmrsufESm a&S@qHk;u
azmfjyxm;aom pmrsufESmrsm;onf/ ed*Hk;wGif azmfjyxm;onfh pmrsufESmrsm;xufpmv#if tifwmeuf
e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 37

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11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;

&Smpufrsm;wGif ydkI a&S@wef;u ae&m&/ azmfjycH&EdkifzG,f &Sdygonf? (tjcm;tcsufrsm;rSm twlwlyif
jzpfygonf?) TpmvHk;rsm;udk ta&;ay;yg/ vdktyfygu trJa&mifokwf (bold) vkyfI azmfjyay;yg?
Todk@ tcsufjyr_rsm;u tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm;twGuf ta&;ygygonf?
5? ydk@pfxJwGif xyfaeaom wifjyr_rsm; a&Smifyg?
tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm; (search-engines) u pmrsufESm ESpfck twlwljzpfaev#if od&SdEdkifaom
enf;emrsm;&Sd=uygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh acgif;pOfwlaeygu pmrsufESmwckudkom a&G;cs,fazmfjy+yD;/
tjcm;usefpmrsufESmudk &Smpuf. &v'frsm;wGif azmfjyawG@&Sd&cJvSygonf? *l;*Jvf tifwmeuf&SmpufwGif
atmufazmfjyygtwdkif; azmfjyay;onfudk awG@&ygvdrfhrnf?
((txl ; oif h a v#mf o nf h &v'f u d k ay;Ed k i f & ef t wG u f ,ck a zmf j yxm;onf h xnf h o G i f ; csuf r sm;ES i f h
tvGefwlaeaom tcsufrsm;udk csefvSyfxm;cJhygonf? tu,fI oif=unhfrnfqdkygu jyefI xyfrH&SmazG
jcif; tm;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ z,fcsefxm; aom pmrsufESmrsm;udk =unfh&_Edkifygonf?)) ((In order
to show you the most relavent results, we have omitted some entries
very similar to those already displayed. If you like, you can repeat the
search with the omitted results included.)) [k azmfjyxm;onfudk awG@&ygvdrfhrnf?
TudpPrsKd;udk bavmhrsm;wGif trsm;qHk;awG@=u&ygonf? ta=umif;rSm wifjyxm;aomydk@pfrsm;onf
twlwljzpfaewwf=u aoma=umifh jzpfygonf?
Oyrmtm;jzifh- oif. pmrsufESmrsm;wGif twlwluJhodk@jzpfaeaom rdwfquftcsD;rsm;jzifh azmfjyxm;ygu
atmufajcYom azmfjywwfygonf? odk@r[kwf rl&if;pmrsufESm (homepage) udkom azmfjywwf
ygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh oif. ydk@pf pmrsufESmrsm;udk rwluGJjym;/ xl;jcm;ap&ef aqmif&Gufoifhygonf?
6? oif. bavmhudk &Snfvsm;vGef;aom (Title) trnfrsm; ray;ygESifh?
tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazGazmfxkwfay;Edkifonfh taumif;qHk;acgif;pD; (Title) (the content
of the blog <TITLE> ) rSm pum;vHk; 5 vHk;/ odk@r[kwf 10 vHk;r#om jzpfygonf? tcsKd@aom
(Stop words) rsm;jzpfonfh (“the”, “and”) wdk@udk pufrsm;u xnfhoGif;wGufcsufay;jcif;
rjyKyg? pmrsufESmwck. xdyfpD;wGif a,bk,stm;jzifh 2-ydkif; yg0ifwwfygonf?
‚wdk@rSm• bavmh. a,bk,s acgif;pD; (general title)
• ydk@pf. acgif;pD; (heading) udk jyefvnfazmfjyjcif; wdk@ jzpfonf?
odk@twGufa=umifh ydk@pfwck.xdyfydkif;wGif azmfjyaom pmrsufESm a,bk,sacgif;pD;wGif pmvHk; 10 vHk;xuf
rydkoifhbJ/ bavmh. acgif;pD;wGif pmvHk; 5 vHk;txuf rydkoifhyg? ydk@pf. acgif;pD;onf 5 vHk;cef@om
jzpfoifyh gonf? pmvH;k rrsm;vSaoma=umifh wdak wmif;wdus&efv+kd y;D / rdrad jymvdak om owif;tcsut
f vuf
jzpfap&efvnf; vdyk gonf? od@k rSom tifwmeuf &Smpufrsm;u vG,v
f ,
G u
f u
l l &SmazGay;vdrrhf nf jzpfonf?
38 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

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oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;

tu,fI jzpfEdkifygu (oifh&&Sdrnfh enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m ud&d,mrsm;u Todk@aqmif&GufcGifh jyKcsifrS
jyKygvdrfhrnf?) ydk@. acgif;pD; (heading) udk t&ifazmfjy+yD;/ bavmh. a,bk,sta=umif;t&m
(General title) udk aemufydkif;Y xnfhoGif;apvdkygonf?
7? oif. bavmhudk qif'Dudwf (syndicate) vkyfyg?
bavmhwGif; a&;om;onfhud&d,mrsm;u oifhudk (XML thread) vkyf&ef/ odk@r[kwf (RSS
feed) vkyf&ef cGifhjyKxm;ygvdrfhrnf? xdktcg pmzwfolrsm;u oifhawmfonfh enf;ynmaqmh0J,m;udk
oHk;I oifwifjyvdkufaom ydk@pfudk zwfEdkifygvdrfhrnf? Tud&d,mudk oif. bavmhwGifvnf; wyfqif
ay;xm;Edkifygonf? Todk@aqmif&Guf&eftwGuf rdepftenf;i,fom tcsdef,l&ygonf? oifhtwGuf
pmzwfy&dowfydkrsm;vmaprnfomru/ &[l; qmhcsf &SmpufwGifvnf; azmfjycH&ygvdrfhrnf? atmufwGif
azmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif; xifxif&Sm;&Sm; awG@&ygvdrfhrnf? ((View as XML.))
Ttcsufudk toHk;csyg?

8? oifazmfjyxm;aom vifhcfrsm;udk tpOf wnf;jzwf&&Sdaeapjcif;? (Keep your links
updated.)
csdwfqufxm;aom vifhcfrsm;onf tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;twGuf txl; ta&;}uD;vSygonf? ta=umif;
rS m Tvif h c f r sm;rS wqif h 0uf b uf p mrsuf E S m rsm; t=um; vl ó uuf r sm;onf h pmrsuf E S m tjzpf
owf r S w f c suf u d k pk a qmif ; azmf j yay;rnf jzpf a oma=umif h jzpf y gonf ? (*l ; *J v f u yd w f c sf &J e f @ cf
(PageRank) [k ac:ygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh oifhbavmhudk vma&mufcsdwfquf=uolrsm;udk
rdrdtwGuf trSwfozG,f jzpfapatmif zefwD;wnfaqmufEdkifygonf?
4if;wdk@udk• rmwdum 'g±dkufx&D (directories) wGif xnfhoGif;ay;jcif;? (atmufwGif azmfjyxm;
ygonf?)
• armifESrozG,f qdkufrsm; (cousin sites) udk &SmazGjcif;? ‚qdkufrsm;rSm +ydKifzufrsm;
r[kw=f ubJ ta=umif;t&mwl/ toGiw
f u
l pd rP sm; jzpfygonf? bavmhrsm;twGi;f wGif tóuuf/
pdwf0ifpm;r_wlaom udpPrsm;udk vifhcfrsm; csdwfqufazmfjy=ujcif;tm;jzifh &SmazG&ef ydkrdkv#ifjref
vG,u
f al pygonf? (Tod@k aqmif&u
G rf r_ sK;d udk r=umc%awG@&S=d u&+y;D / bavmh*g todu
k t
f 0ef;
uvnf; cGifhjyKwwf=uygonf? TonfrSmvnf; bavmhrsm;. aemufxyf tcGifhomr_
tm;aumif;csuw
f ck jzpfygonf?) bavmhrsm;onf Tudpt
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ab;tem;owfrsm;onf uGufvyfozG,f jzpfaewwf=u+yD;/ Tae&mrsm;wGif xnfhoGif;
azmfjyEdkifygonf?
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oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;

acgif;pD;/ rmwdum/ 'g±dkufx&Drsm; (topic dircetories) wGif zefwD;jcif;
pdwf0ifpm;zG,f bmom&yf/ ta=umif;t&m tvdkuf&SmazGay;aom (Google, MSN, Yahoo!
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(Yahoo! Directory, Open Dircetory) rsm;wGifvnf; rdrdta=umif;t&mudk xnfhoGif;
azmfjyapa&;rSm ta&;ygvSygonf?
ta=umif;rSm• ta=umif;t&m/ tm±Hkpdwf0ifpm;r_tvdkuf vm=uonfh {nfhonfrsm; ydkrdk&&SdEdkifjcif;?
• oif. bavmhudk csdwfqufr_rsm; ydkrdk&&SdEdkifjcif;? (Tenf;tm;jzifh oif.bavmh ydkrdkxif&Sm;
vmapEdkifygonf?)
• tjcm;bavmhrsm;rSwqifh oifhudk vlodrsm;vmapEdkifjcif;? tjcm; tvmwlqdkufrsm;ESifh
csw
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tifwmeuf &Smpuftrsm;pk (Search-engines and directories) teufrS bavmhrsm;udk
a&G;cs,fazmfjyavh&Sdaom &Smpufrsm;rSmt*Fvdyfbmomjzifh- Blogwise:
Daypop:
Feedster:
Technorati:
Waypath:
Blogarama:
Syndic8:
jyifopfbmomjzifh-

http://www.blogwise.com/
http://www.daypop.com/
http://www.feedster.com/
http://www.technorati.com/
http://www.waypath.com/
http://www.blogarama.com/
http://www.syndic8.com/

Blogonauties:
http://www.blogonautes.com/
Blogolist:
http://www.blogolist.com/
Weblogues:
http://www.weblogues.com/
Blogerea:
http://www.blogarea.net/links/
Pointblog:
http://www.pointblog.com/
Les Pages Joueb: http://www.pages.joueb.com/

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oifhbavmhpmrsufESmudk tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;u &SmazG azmfxkwfay;Edkif&efenf;

bavmh pm&if;udk atmufygae&mwGif =unfhEdkifygonf?
http://search-engines.blogs.com/mon_weblog/2005/05/les_searchengines_de_.html
xdk@tjyif enf;ynmaxmufyHhay;aeolrsm;udk atmufygvifhcfrsm;wGif =unfh&_Edkifygonf?
http://canalblog.com/cf/browseBlogs.cfm
http://www.dotclear.net/user.html
http://www.blogspirit.com/fr/communautes_blogspirit.html
ed*Hk;
bavmhwGif tifwmeuf&Smpufrsm;rS tvG,fwul &SmazGawG@&Sdap&eftwGuf ud&d,mrsm; wyfqifay;
xm;=uygonf? azmfjyxm;ay;aom t=uHjyKcsufrsm;udk vdkufemjcif;tm;jzifh ydkI&v'faumif;xGufapEdkif
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tr# tESpftom;onfvnf; bk&ifozG,f ta&;}uD;a=umif; awG@&Sdvmygvdrfhrnf?

tdkvDAD,m tif'a&,l (Olivier Andrieu) onf tvGwf tifwmeufydkif;qdkif&m
t=uHay;wOD;jzpf+yD;/ rdrdbavmhqdkufrsm;udk tifwmeufrsm;u ydkI aumuf,lazmfjyapaomenf;udk
txl;jyKavhvmxm;ol jzpfygonf? olu www.abondance.com 0ufbfqdkufudkvnf;
aqmif&Guf }uD;=uyfaeygonf?

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trsm;=um;wGif wa,mufxifay:ap&ef

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oifh bavmhudk trSefawmufajymifvmatmif rnfonfhtcsufrsm; vdkoenf;

oifh bavmhudk trSefawmufajymifvmatmif
rnfonfhtcsufrsm; vdkoenf;
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urBmwv$rf;&Sd oef;ESifhcsDaom bavmh*grsm;u pmvHk;a&oef;aygif;oef;ESifh csDaom ydk@rsm;t=um;wGif
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rnfenf;? rnfonfhtcsufrsm;a=umifh bavmha&;oludk txl;wef;tqifhodk@ wufvmaprnfenf;?
rnfonfhtcsufrsm;a=umifh pmzwfolrsm;u aemufwae@/ aemufwae@wGif Tbavmhodk@ jyefvmI
zwf=urnfenf;? owif;rD'D,mrsm;u rnfonfhtcsufrsm;a=umifh oifa&;om;aeonfudk rsufaphus
pifawmfaumuf=urnfenf;?
ta=umif;rSm qufo,
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zGiahf y;onfjzpfap wenf;enf;jzifh qufpyf&ef vkyd gonf? tcsK@d aomolrsm;u bavmha&;olrsm;ESihf tjcm;
pma&;q&mrsm; (owif;pmq&mrsm;/ 0wˆKa&;q&mrsm;/ aps;uGufqefqef pma&;olrsm;) ESifh cGJjcm;azmfjy
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aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?
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oifh bavmhudk trSefawmufajymifvmatmif rnfonfhtcsufrsm; vdkoenf;

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o±kyfaqmif&if; azsmfajzonfhol (performance artist) wOD;jzpfonf? olu urBmtESH@tjym;
vSnfhvnfaexdkif&if; w±kwfEdkifiHu wdkufyuf (TypePad) bavmhqdkufudk ydwfyifxm;onfhudpPudk
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ay;Edkifygonf? odk@r[kwf rdrdwifjyaom ydk@pfwckwdkif;atmufY rSwfcsuf (comments) ay;Edkifrnfh

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oifh bavmhudk trSefawmufajymifvmatmif rnfonfhtcsufrsm; vdkoenf;

ae&mudkvnf; xm;Edkifygonf? ‚wifxm;aom ydk@wGif olrsm;vma&;oGm;aom rSwfcsufwcka=umifh/
*sufzf tDG;udk rav;&Sm;tm%mydkifrsm;u +cdrf;ajcmufcJhygonf? ol. bavmhrSrSwfcsuf (comment)
rsm; tm;vHk;udk ydwfypfrnfhtpm;/ olu olaqG;aEG;onfh ta=umif;t&mtay: Yom pmzwfolrsm;u
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udkvnf; pwifwnfaxmifxm;cJh+yD;/ rav;
bavmh*grsm;ESifh w±kwfbavmhtodkuf
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trSefw&m;onf cGeftm;jzpfaponf?
bavmhtrsm;pkwiG f a0zefo;kH oyfcsurf sm; azmfjy=uaomfvnf;/ bavmh*gtcsK@d u ,cifypkH aH [mif; twdik ;f
owif;a&;aeqJvnf; &Sdygonf? rnfonfhenf;u trSefqdkonf[lI r&Sdyg? odk@aomfvnf; rl&if;twdkif;
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t,lcHwifxm;&qJ jzpfonf? t"duusaomtcsufrSm bavmh*grsm;ESifh tjcm;aom jynfoltrsm;rSm
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xkwfazmfajymqdk&ef owWd&Sd&SdESifh bavmhtodkuft0ef;wckvHk; pkaygif;aqmif&Gufr_jzifh/ trSefw&m;udk
zkH;uG,fxm;aom tm%mydkifrsm;udk &ifqdkifum x&yfajymqdkvm =ujcif;vnf; jzpfonf?

rmhuf *avpm (Mark Glaser) onf awmifydkif;
umvDzdk;eD;,m;wuUodkvf/ tmeefbmh*f
qufoG,fa&;ynmoif ausmif;rS xkwfa0jzef@csdonfh
tGefvdkif; owif;pmynm &DAsL; (Online
Journalism Review, www.ojr.org) wGif
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tajcpdkuf tvGwfpma&;q&mwOD;vnf; jzpfonf? ol@udk
(glaze@sprintmail.com) odk@
qufoG,fEdkifygonf?

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yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm;

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usaemfwdkYu EdkifiHom;tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh vlYtcGifhta&;rsm;udk jrifhwifay;rnf
rmukpf bufuD'g;vf (Markus Beckedahl)
1990 ckESpfrsm; aemufydkif;wGif usaemfu touf 20 yJ &Sdao;onf? usaemfu vGwfvyf/ yGifhvif;aom
owif;rsm;vufcH &&SdEdkifonfh vl@tzGJ@tpnf;jzpfay:vmapa&;twGuf rdwfaqGrsm;ESifhtwl v_H@aqmf
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tpdk;&r[kwfonfhtzGJ@tpnf;trsm;ESifhvnf; csdwfqufaqmif&GufcJh=uao;onf? Oyrmtm;jzifh usaemfwdk@u owif;enf;ynmavmu urBmhxdyfoD;tpnf;ta0; (WorldSummit on the
Information Society—WSIS) usif;yEdkifa&;twGuf *smreft&yfbuf vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;
yl;aygif;aqmif&GufEdkif&ef }udK;yrf;aqmif&GufcJh=uygonf?
usaemf. EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ yxrOD;qHk;umvrsm;wGif usaemhftaejzifh eufa0gh (networks) uGef&uf
twGif;&Sd vdyfpmrsm;udk toHk;jyKI owif;rsm;ay;ydk@±Hkom jzpfonf? eufEdkifiHa&; (netpolitics) ESifh
ywfoufonfh aqmif;yg;rsm;ESifh xkwfjyefa=ujimcsufrsm; (5˜000) cef@udk usaemfay;ydk@cJhonf? odk@aomf
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tcsdefrsm;pGm,l&onf? usaemfu “urBmhEdkifiHa&;odk@ ausmydk;tdwfjzifh e,fvSnfhc&D;oGm; wOD;ozG,f
taetxm;jzifh csif;eif; 0ifa&mufvmjcif;” (Backpacking to world politics) [k trnf&
aom bavmhrSwqifh ukvor*~tqifh&Sd EdkifiHa&;vkyfief;rsm;tay: usaemhfxifjrifcsufrsm;udk a&;ae
cJhonf? Tbavmhu usaemf. yxrOD;qHk; bavmhjzpfonf?
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yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? *smrPD

usaemfu r=umao;rDumvtxd toH;k jyKaeonfh eufZEf ikd if aH &; (netzpolitik.org) [lonfh usaemhf
bavmhudk (2004) ckESpf aEGaESmif;&moDwGif pwifcJhonf? a0g'fy&ufpf (Wordpress) yvufazmif;
wGif rwnfaqmufrDY usaemfu enf;trsKd;rsKd;udk óu;pm;oHk;cJhao;onf? a0gh'fy&ufpfu vltrsm;
toHk;ðyae=uonfh tcrJhaqmhzf0J,m; pepfvnf; jzpfonf? 0ufbfbavmhu usaemhtwGuf v#ifjref
onf/ tqifajyaponf? wifjyvdkonfrsm; a&;&ef/ wnf;jzwf&ef/ jzef@csd&ef rsm;pGmvG,fulaponf?
xdkxufydkI ta&;}uD;aomudpPrSm rdrda&;vdkonfhta=umif;udk tm&Hkpdkuf+yD;a&;Edkifonfh rsufESmjyif
tifwmazhpf (interface) &Sdaejcif;yif jzpfonf? ,cifu tifwmeuf uk'frsm; (HTML
markup) a&;om;&if;jzifhom tvkyf&_yfae&onf? usaemfu tifwmazhpf rsufESmjyifay:wGif
pma&;Edik rf nf/h owif;rsm; pkpnf;azmfjyEdik rf nf/h cvkyw
f ck ESyd &f jkH zifh yHEk ydS af zmfjyEdik rf nfh pepfrsK;d vdck siaf eonf?
Tbavmh &Sdvmjcif;tm;jzifh usaemhftvkyftm;vHk; vG,fulapcJhonf? xdk@tjyif tHh=ozG,ftcsufrSm
“qGJac:Edkifonfh/ wGef;ydk@Edkifonfh” enf;ynm (push-pull technology) udk xnfhoGif;xm;jcif;yif
jzpfonf? usaemf. pmzwfoltrsm;pku (RSS Feed) pepfjzifh usaemfwifor# zwf&_Edkif&ef rSm,l
pm&if;ay;xm;Edkif+yD;/ (feed readers) jzifh zwfEdkif=uonf? usefonfh tjcm;olrsm;uvnf; 0uf
&SmazGpufrsm;/ tifwmeuf &SmazGpufrsm; (search-engines) jzifh usaemhxHa&muf&Sd vm=uonf?
usaemf EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pk trsm;tjym;ESifh ywfoufqufpyfaecJh+yD;/ usaemh 0ufbfqdkuf (netzpoli
tik.org) twGuf ta&;ygonfh owif;tcsut
f vufrsm;udk &,lpak qmif;/ ay;yd@k Edik cf o
hJ nf? usaemfw@kd u
ta&;ygonf[k,lqonfh EdkifiHom; tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh vlr_tcGifhta&;rsm;/ tcrJh aqmhzf0J,m;a&;onfh
(Open Source World) ta=umif;/ owif;A[kokwrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGmESifh tcrJh&&SdEdkifcGifh/
owif;enf;ynmavmuwGif ydkrkdqufpyfyl;aygif;r_/ rlydkifcGifhtcGifhta&; e,fy,fwGif r#wcGifh&&Sda&;
paom tcsut
f vufrsm;udk wifjycJyh gonf? vGwv
f yfpmG ajymqdck iG Ehf iS hf vGwv
f yfpmG xkwaf zmfwifjycGirhf mS
rlydkcGifh Oya'rsm;ESifh 'pf*spfw,f tcGifhta&; pDrHcef@cGJr_udpPrsm;ESifh rsm;pGm oufqdkifqufpyfr_ &Sdaeygonf?
odk@aomfvnf; vltenf;ur#om Ttcsufrsm; ta&;}uD;a=umif; oabmaygufem;vnfxm;=uygonf?
odk@twGufa=umifh usaemfu vltrsm; olwdk@.tcGifhta&;udk ydkrdktav;xm;vmapa&;twGuf pnf;&Hk;
aqmif&GufcJhjcif; jzpfygonf? urBmw0Srf;vHk;wGif vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;twGuf tEW&m,f+cdrf;ajcmufr_ESifh
ñuHae&aomumv jzpf+yD;/ *smr%DEdkifiHwGifvnf; tvm;wl ñuHawG@ae&ygonf? vHkðcHa&;udpPrsm; ydkrdkwif;
usyf vmonfEiS t
hf r# vlrsm;rSm ydrk akd pmif=h unfh wif;usyrf c_ v
H m&+y;D TtajctaerSm olw@kd . tcGit
hf a&;
rsm;udk xdcdkufqHk;&_H;vmapa=umif; vltrsm;u owdrjyKrd=uao;yg?

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vif;eufpf uJhodk@aom tcrJhay;onfh uGefjyLwmvnfywfxdef;csKyfr_pepf (Linux operating
system) onfvnf; vltrsm;. vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfcGifh/ A[k0g'ESifh 'pf*spfw,f acwfwGif a&&Snf
wnfwHhcdkifjrJr_qdkif&m udpPrsm;twGuf yl;aygif; aqmif&Gufap&ef t}uD;tus,f tcGifhtvrf;yGifhapygonf?
[kwfygonf? usaemhf uGefjyLwmrsm;tm;vHk;u vif;eufpfpepfjzifhom toHk;jyKxm;ygonf? xdk@tjyif
usaemfu tcrJh toHk;jyKcGifhay;onfh tEkxnf aqmhzf0J,m;avmuY jzpfay:wdk;wufr_rsm;/ ‚wdk@u
EdkifiHa&;tay: tusKd;oufa&mufEdkifyHkudkvnf; a&;om;wifjyygao;onf? yxrOD;qHk;t}udrftoHk;jyK
aeol taejzifh rnfodk@rnfyHk toHk;csEdkifonfudkvnf; &Sif;vif;azmfjyay;ygonf? usaemfu tGefvdkif;&Sd
vltrsm;u yg0if jznfhpGufa&;om;Edkifonfh pG,fpHkusrf; 0DuDyd'd, zGH@òz;vmyHkudkvnf; rsufajcrjywf
apmifh=unfhaeygonf? xdk@tjyif vltrsm;zefwD;Edkifonfh (creative commons liscences—
CC) udkvnf; avhvmapmihf=unfhaeygonf? usaemfwifjyaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udkvnf; (CC
Liscence) atmufwGif a&;om;azmfjyjcif;jzpf+yD;/ usaemf a&;om;wifjyor#udk pD;yGm;a&; tusKd;pD;yGm;
qdkif&m r[kwfaomudpPrsm;twGuf ul;,l&ef/ jzef@a0&ef txl;wdkufwGef; tm;ay;aeygonf? rnfonfh
ae&mrS&&Sda=umif; rl&if;ae&mudk udk;um;azmfjy&Hkr#om vdktyfygvdrfhrnf?
tjcm; ta&;}uD;aomtcsufrSm t&yfzufvlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh vlr_v_yf&Sm;r_ urfydef;rsm;u
rdrv
d yk if ef;rsm;wGif tifwmeufukd xda&mufpmG toH;k csEikd jf cif;yif jzpfonf? usaemfu tifwmeufay:wGif
EdkifiHa&;qufpyfr_rsm; aqmif&Gufjcif; v_yf&Sm;r_ESifh tD;-urfydef; (e-campaigning) ESifh tD;'Drdkua&pD (e-democracy) pDrHcsufwck. acgif;aqmiftjzpf wm0ef,lcJhzl;+yD;/ Tta=umif;udkvnf;
bavmhwGif wu¾azmfjyay;xm;ao;onf? usaemfu yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ESifh v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;
aqmif&Gufjcif;twGuf tcrJh&aom vkyfaqmifzG,f uGefjyLwmenf;emrsm;udk aqG;aEG;a&;om;+yD; vlr_a&;
qdkif&m aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;. tjcm;aom &_axmifhtjrif/ tusKd;oufa&mufyHkrsm;udk oHk;oyfavhvmr_
jyKygonf? ydI
k vltrsm;yg0ifaqmif&u
G jf cif;jzifh A[kow
k rsm;udk pkaygi;f I/ vlra_ &;t& 0dik ;f 0ef;aqmif&u
G I
f
pkaqmif;zGH@òz;apEdkifyHkudk tav;ay; azmfjyygonf?
usaemf. bavmhpmrsufESm (netzpolitik.org) wGif vmrnfhumvrsm;wGif owif; vl@tzGJ@tpnf;
qdkif&m ta&;udpPESifh ywfoufI usif;yrnfh uGefz&ifhrsm;/ aqG;aEG;ydk@cscsufrsm;/ tpnf;ta0;rsm;/ owif;
tcsuftvufrsm; pkaqmif;xm;ay;ygrnf? uGefz&ifhrsm;wufa&mufI xdkrSaeI owif;ydk@ay;+yD;
usaemf. xifjrifcsufudkvnf; azmfjyay;ygonf? ae@pOfvdkvdkyif owif;oHk;oyfcsufrsm;udk oGm;a&muf
zwf & _ E d k i f a om [d k u f y gvif h c f (hyperlinks) trsm;ES i f h t wl yl ; wG J a zmf j yEd k i f + yD ; / usaemf u
Oya'jyXmef;r_topfrsm;ESifh TudpPESifh ywfoufI tpdk;&r[kwfaom (tef*sDtdk) tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;.
aqmif&Gufaecsufrsm;udk rSwfcsufa&;om;ygonf? Todk@jzifh usaemf. bavmhu *smrefbmompum;
ajymaom t&yfbufvrl t
_ zG@J tpnf;rsm;/ vlru
_ eG &f ufrsm; t=um;wGif qHck suo
f zG,f qufwu
kd f zG@H +zKd ;vm
cJhygonf? qufvufjzef@jzL;ay;rnfh vlr_a&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;twGuf tcsuftvufrsm;vnf; axmufyHhay;
Edkifygonf? tvm;wl bavmha&;om;ae=uaom rdwfaqGrsm; odk@vnf; t"duusaom jy\emrsm;ESifh
ywfoufI a&;om;ay;yg&ef arwWm&yfcH+yD; owif;rsm;udk ydkrdkv#ifjrefpGm jyef@yGm; apygonf? usaemfu

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(RSS) pepf owif;zwfonfh ud&d,mudk tm;udk;I oHk;oyfcsufay;&rnfh owif;rsm;udk taqmwv#if
&&Sad tmif &SmazGEikd yf gonf? yxr (10) vtwGi;f rSmyif usaemfu rdwaf qGtcsK@d . tultnDjzifh aqmif;yg;
(800) cef@udk yHkESdyfjzef@csdEdkifcJhygonf?

Copyright: linuxwochen.at

tHh=o&onfhtcsufrSm ysrf;r#vlOD;a& (2˜500) cef@u usaemf. bavmhudk vmzwf=ujcif;jzpf+yD;/ vli,f
rsm;xHrS aumif;rGefa=umif; tm;ay;onfh wkH@jyefr_rsm; &&SdcJhygonf? olwdk@udkvnf; udk,fydkifbavmhrsm;
pwif&ef usaemfu tm;ay;cJhygonf?
uHaumif;axmufronfrSm *smrefEdkifiHwGif vGwfvyfpGmazmfjyajymqdkcGifhtwGuf Oya'jzifh umuG,fay;
xm;jcif; jzpfygonf? tpdk;&udk a0zefjcif;twGufvnf; usaemhfudk axmifxJydk@rnfhol r&SdcJhyg? tm%m&Sif
pepfrsm; atmufwiG f aexdik &f if; olw@kd .b0rsm;udk &if;I owWad jymifajrmufpmG jzifh olw@kd .bavmhrsm;udk
topfwifydk@ae=uaom olrsm;udk txl;yif av;pm;rdygawmhonf?

rm;ukpf bufuD'g;vf (Markus Beckedahl) u touf 28 ESpft&G,f&Sd+yDjzpf+yD;/ tcrJh
vltrsm; vGwfvyfpGmoHk;Edkifaom enf;ynmrsm;ESifh ‚udpPqdkif&m r[mAsL[mrsm;twGuf
vkyfaqmifay;aeonfh Xmewckjzpfaom “topfjrif qufoG,fa&;” (Newthinking
Communications) tzGJ@. tr_aqmifrefae*sm jzpfygonf? *smrefEdkifiH.
'pf*spfw,ftcGifhta&;qdkif&m tJef*sDtdkwckjzpfaom (Netzwerk Neue Medien) .
pwifwnfaxmifolESifh OuUXvnf; jzpfygonf? ol. bavmhtrnfrSm
www.netzpolitik.org jzpfygonf?

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bm&def;
usaemfwdkYu tpdk;&&JY owif;vuf0g;BuD;tkyfxm;rIudk csKd;zsufcJhavNyD
csef tuf'f bm&defeD (Chan’ad Bahraini)
usaemfu ta=umif; (2) ckjzifh bavmha&;om;&ef pwifvmcJhjcif; jzpfonf? (1) yHkrSefuef@owfcsufrsm;
r&Sb
d J a&;om;Edik jf cif;/ rnfonft
h csed f +y;D &rnf[al om tcsed u
f ef@owfcsuf r&Sjd cif;ESihf tjcm;vdt
k yfcsurf sm;
r&SdbJ rdrdpdwfóuuf a&;&onfrSm aysmf&$ifzG,f jzpfouJhodk@ (2) bm&def;. a'ocH yifrowif;rD'D,m
avmuwGif tav;ay;azmfjyjcif; rcH&onfh udpPrsm;udk aqG;aEG;wifjy&efESifh qufvufaqG;aEG;
jiif;ckef=u&eftwGuf }uKd;yrf;Edkifjcif;a=umifh jzpfonf?
vuf&SdtajctaewGif bm&def;EdkifiHwGif&Sdaom ±kyfjrifoH=um;ESifh a&'D,dktoHv$ifhXmersm;rSm tpdk;&u
csKyfudkifxm;+yD; xkwfv$ifhaejcif; jzpfonf? odk@twGufa=umifh jynfwGif;EdkifiHa&;ESifh odyfroufqdkifaom
owif;rsm;/ jy\emrsm;udk xkwfv$ifhay;jcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif; r&Sdoavmufyif jzpfonf? jynfwGif;&Sd owif;
pmrsm;rSm yk*~vduydkifrsm; jzpf=u+yD;/ olwdk@u tpdk;& xkwfv$ifhaeonfh owif;pmrsm;xufpmv#if ydkI
vGwfvyfpGm azmfjyEdkif=uonf? yHkESdyfxkwfa0ae=uaom owif;rD'D,mrsm;wGifyif tajctaeu odyf+yD;
xl;jcm;wdk;wuf rvmcJhyg? ta=umif;rSm t,f'Dwmrsm;u =oZm}uD;rm;aomolrsm;udk ajymifajymifwif;
wif; a0zefajymqdk&eftwGuf owWdr&Sd=uyg? Oyrm tpdk;&tzGJ@0ifrsm;/ bk&ifhrdom;pk0ifrsm; (txl;ojzifh
bk&ifESifh ‚.OD;av;awmfpyfol 0ef}uD;csKyf) udk a0zef&ef r&J=uyg?
odk@aomfvnf; tifwmeufrsm;u vlwOD;csif;udk ‚wdk@.tjrifrsm;twdkif; jynfolvlxkudk wifjy&ef
twGuf enf;vrf;jzpf vmapygonf? Todk@a&;om;=u&mwGif tpdk;&. apmifh=unfhwnf;jzwfr_vnf;
rcH=u&yg? bm&def;tpdk;&u EdkifiHa&;ESifh ywfoufonfh tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm;udk apmifh=unfhjcif;/
ydwfyifjcif; jyKonfh tpOftvm&SdcJhaomfvnf; vGefcJhaom wpfESpf/ ESpfESpfwmumvtwGif; tenf;i,f
av#mhayghay;vmcJhygonf? odk@aomfvnf; r=umao;cifumvrsm;u tajctae jyefvnfqdk;&Gm;vmcJh
jyefonf? xdkr#ru vlwOD;u 0ufbfqdkufwck wnfaqmuf&ef vG,fulvmjcif;/ (usaemf,ck a&;ouJh
odk@) trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;I &Edkifjcif;wdk@a=umifh tpdk;&rsm;u pma&;olrsm;udk ta&;,lEdkif&ef cufcJ
vm&ygonf?
Tta=umif;rsm;a=umifh usaemfu (Edik if aH &; tygt0if) jy\emtm;vH;k udk yGiv
hf if;&if;ES;D pGm/ vGwv
f yfpmG
aqG;aEG;Edkif=uaom ae&mvdkonf[k cHpm;vm&ygonf? txl;ojzifh 'Drdkua&pDpepfodk@ ul;ajymif;aeyg
onf[k azmfjyaeonfh EdkifiHwckwGif ydkI vdktyfygonf? Todk@jzifh tifwmeufu taumif;qHk;enf;vrf;
jzpfvm+yD;/ usaemf. xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm aqG;aEG;vmEdkifygonf? usaemfu bm&def;EdkifiH
. bavmh*grsm;xJwGif ueOD;pwifzefwD;cJhol rmrGwf (www.mahmood.tv) udk awG@&aomtcg
tm;wuf&ygonf? olu usaemfpwif ra&;rD wESpfausmft=umuwnf;u a&;om;aecJhol jzpfonf?
tpdk;&ESifhvnf; jy\emrwufcJh&yg?
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usaemhbavmh. t"duOD;wnfcsufwckrSm bm&def;EdkifiHwGif; jzpfysufaeaom tjzpftysufrsm;udk
aqG;aEG;/ oHk;oyfEdkif=u&ef jzpfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; &&SdEdkifaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;u tuef@
towf&Sdaoma=umifh usaemfu owif;orm; tppfvnf; r[kwf/ w0ufwysuf twk owif;pm
ynmjzifh vkyfaqmifcJh&ygonf? qdkvdkonfrSm tajctaeay; or# usaemfu udk,fwdkif tcrf;tem;rsm;udk
vdkufwuf&ygonf? (txl;ojzifh uef@uGufqENjyyGJrsm; wuf&ygonf?) usaemhbavhmwGif Tta=umif;
udk jyefa&;I "gwfyHkrsm;vnf; azmfjyay;ygonf?
,ckawmh bm&def;wGif bavmh*gtcsKd@&SdvmcJh+yD;/ ‚wdk@u vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;u tusKd;&Sdwefoavmuf
&Sdygonf? aqG;aEG;jiif;ckefEdkif&ef ae&mwck&vm+yD; tus,ftjyef@aom jy\emrsm;udk ±dk;om;pGm aqG;aEG;
EdkifcJh=uygonf? tjcm; bm&def;EdkifiHom; bavmh*grsm;xHrSaeI usaemfu trsm;tjym; avhvm&,l
EdkifcJhygonf? Towif;rsm;udk tjcm;rnfonfhae&mrsm;rS &,lEdkifjcif; r&Sdyg? Ttodkuft0ef;rSm tGefvdkif;
avvd_if;xJwGifom &Sdae=uonf r[kwfyg? bm&def; bavmh*grsm;u tjyifwGifvnf; awG@qHk=u+yD;/
wvw}udrfcef@ awG@=uonf? udk,fa&;jy\emrsm;ESifh usaemfwdk@ bavmha&;ae=uaom udpPrsm;udk
zvS,faqG;aEG;=uygonf?
od@k aomfvnf; rsm;pGmaom bm&de;f &Sd tGev
f ikd ;f v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;rSm tma&Asbmom pum;jzifyh if tGev
f ikd ;f wGif
aqG;aEG;a&;om;=u+yD;/ tGefvdkif;wGif aqG;aEG;=uaom zdk&rfrsm; (Oyrm bahrainonline.org wdk@rSm)
umv=um&Snfuyif &Sdae+yD; jzpfygonf? bavmha&;jcif;rSm ,cktcsdeftxd bm&def;wGif vltrsm;t=um;
a&yef;odyfrpm;vSao;yg? yifra&pD; owif; rD'D,mtjzpf a&mufrvmao;yg? rnfodk@jzpfap usaemfwdk@.
qdkufrsm;u aygif;ul;bavmhrsm; tjzpf ydkIydkI ae&m,lvm cJh=uygonf? aygif;ul;bavmh (“bridge
blogs”) qdo
k nfrmS [lped f 'g&uf&eS f u ol. bavmh (http://hoder.com/weblog/archives/
013982.shtml). wGif &Si;f jyxm;ygonf? ta=umif;rSm bm&de;f &Sd bavmh*grsm;rSm t*Fvyd b
f momjzifh

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a&;om;=uaoma=umifh usaemfw@kd u bufEpS b
f ufv;kH od@k qufo,
G Ef ikd yf gonf? urBmt&yf&yf&dS jynforl sm;
ESifh qufoG,fEdkifovdk/ usaemfwdk@. owif;rsm;udk tajcjyKI owif;rsm;ay;Edkifaoma=umifhvnf;
bm&def;EdkifiHwGif rnfodk@jzpfysufaeyHkudk “trSeftwdkif;” today;EdkifcJh=uygonf?
Oyrmtm;jzifh (bahrainonline.org) . pDrHcef@cGJol armf'a&wm 3 OD;/ 2005 ckESpf azaz:0g&DvwGif
tzrf;cH&aomtcg usaemfwdk@u Tta=umif;udk bavmhrsm;wGif a&;=uygonf? Towif;rsm;u
urBmodk@ysH@ESH@cJh+yD; bm&def;EdkifiHtwGif; owif;ysH@onfxuf jyifyurBmwGif ydkjrefcJhygonf? e,fpnf;rjcm;
owif;axmufrsm;tzGJ@u TudpPtay: zrf;cH&onfhae@rSmyif a=ujimcsuf xkwfjyefEdkifcJhygonf? EdkifiHw
um tm±Hkpdkufr_ &vmapcJh+yD;/ aemuf&ufowWywf tenf;i,fwGif Tolrsm;udk jyefv$wfay;&ef tpdk;&u
qH;k jzwfcsucf s&mY rsm;pGmoufa&mufr&_ adS pcJah =umif; usaemf,=kH unfygonf? a,bk,sq&kd v#if usaemfw@kd
. bavmhrsm;u bm&def;EdkifiHESifh jyifyurBmt=um; qufoG,fa&;wGif tpdk;&u vuf0g;}uD;tkyf csKyfudkif
xm;onfh tajctaeudk csKd;zsufEdkifcJhay+yD?
ajym&v#if bm&def;EdkifiH&Sd bavmh*grsm;rSm ola&;om;aeonfh ta=umif;t&mESifh ywfoufI tpdk;&u
jypfwif ta&;,lr_ tusKd;qufrsm; cH=u&jcif; r&Sdyg? odk@aomfvnf; TtajctaerSm TESpfqef;ydkif;rSpI
ajymif;vJjzpfay:vmcJhjcif; jzpfyg onf? txufwGif azmfjycJhonfhtwdkif; tGefvdkif; aqG;aEG;cef; zdk&rfwckudk
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onf”[laom pGyfpGJcsufjzifh zrf;qD;cH&jcif; jzpfonf? ‚wdk@teufrS armf'a&wm pDpOfolwOD;jzpfonfh
tmvD tA'lrifrSm ol.udk,fydkif bavmhwckvnf; &Sdxm;ygonf? {+yDvwGif tpdk;&u 0ufbfqdkuf
ydkifqdkifxm;ol tm;vHk; tpdk;&. jyef=um;a&;0ef}uD;XmewGif rSwfyHkwif&rnfjzpfa=umif;ESifh r[kwfygu
Oya't& ta&;,lcH&rnfjzpfa=umif; xkwfjyefa=ujimcJhygonf? Tonfudk =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh tpdk;&u
tifwmeuftay: (bavmhrsm; tygt0if) em;vnfr_ r&Sdao;a=umif; jyoaeygonf? tGefvdkif;pma&;ol
rsm;u ‚wd@k udk +crd ;f ajcmufaeonf [k ,lqvmaom tajctaeY rnfo@kd udik w
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aexdkifv#uf &Sdygonf? ol. bavmhtrnfrSm http://chanad.weblogs.us jzpfygonf?
olu ,cktcsdefwGif trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;aeqJ jzpfygonf?

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yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk

tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
tckawmh usaemfawG;rdorQudk a&;EdkifayNyD
a*s; ±dkqif (Jay Rosen)
0ufbavmhwck rnfodk@vkyf&rnfudk usaemfu teD;tem;&Sdvlrsm;udk vdkufvHar;jref;cJhpOfu tajztrsKd;
rsK;d &&Scd o
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k akd &;oifjh cif;yif jzpfonf?
'gu ol@yHkpH pwdkifyJ? tcsKd@u ajymonf? 'Dvdka&;&if tvkyfydkjzpfw,f? tcsKd@u jznfhpGufygao;onf?
ydI
k pdwx
f J ouFmruif;zG,yf if jzpf&aom tcsurf mS / tcsK@d u t=uaH y;onf? 0ufbt
f rsm;od@k vSnv
hf nf
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f zJG wfz@kd tcsed rf &Sb
d ;l / cifAsm; av;av;eufeufpOf;pm; a0zefcikd ;f aewmawG
tvkyfrjzpfEdkifbl;[kyif qdk=uygonf? trsm;vkyfovdkyif vdkufvkyfzdk@ &Sdawmhonf?
Todk@ ajym=ujcif;udk usaemf oHo,&Sdaeonf? usaemfu &Snf&Snfvsm;vsm; pmvHk;a& (2˜000) ausmf
a&;&efvnf; &nf&,
G rf xm;yg? od@k aomfvnf; usaemf. pOf;pm;csurf sm;udk bavmhpmrsuEf mS ay: wifonfh
tcg &Snfvmygonf? TudpPu tjcm;olrsm; ajymrae=uaom udpPjzpfIvnf; &Snf&Snfvsm;vsm;awmh
&Sif;&rnf? odk@aomfvnf; owdjyK&eftcsuf wck &vmygonf? (usaemfwdkvdkonfh tcgwGifvnf;
wdkEdkifygonf?) usaemfu twm;tqD; tuef@towfawG &Sdaewm rvdkcsif/ usaemf a&;or#udk
udk,fhbmom vGwfvGwfvyfvyfa&;csifonf? usaemfu y&ufpf oifhcf (Press Think) udkvnf;
'Dtwdkif;yJ jzpfapcsifonf?
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r,Hk=unfyg? T t=uHjyKcsufrsKd;u usaemhftwGuf usaemf.vGwfvyfcGifhudk csKyfcs,fonf[k jrifygonf?
usaemf vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:cGifh/ a&;cGihfudk csKyfcs,faeonf[k jrifygonf? usaemf y&ufpf oifhcfudk
pwifcJhaom ta=umif;rSmvnf; vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf jzpfygonf? “a[; æ usaemhfrSm udk,fydkif
r*~Zif;&Sdae+yD/ usaemfa&;csifwm a&;vdk@&+yD” T&nf&G,fcsufrsKd; jzpfygonf? usaemf pdwf0ifpm;aom
tcsufrSm twGif;usus pOf;pm;/ av;av;eufeuf awG;vdkol tcsdef&Sdolrsm;twGuf jzpfonf?
ta&twGuf udef;*%ef;u oufaojy&ef cufcJaomfvnf;/ ork'N&mwckrS wckodk@/ ydk@pfwckrS wckodk@
ul;ajymif;zwfaeol rsm;vnf; &Sdonf[k ,lqygonf?
usaemfu csnf;uyfaomyHkrSm “'DrSm y&ufpf oifhcf r*~Zif;vm+yD? oifóuufygovm;/ jyefvmzwfyg”
[lIyif jzpfonf? usaemf aqmif&Gufcsufu ao;i,fcsifi,frnf? rxifr&Sm;0dk;w0g; jzpfcsifjzpfrnf?
odk@aomf usaemfhbavmhu owif;rD'D,m aps;uGufwckwGif;&Sd bavmhwck jzpfcsifjzpfrnf? *drf;&_d;
tpDtpOfrsm;/ abmvHk;yGJrsm;/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; (Law and Order) [laom tpDtpOfudk
xyfcgxyfcg ausmhjyaeaom wDAGDtpDtpOfrsm;ESifh ,SOf+ydKifae&onfh rD'D,mwckom jzpfygonf? usaemfu
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Todk@rxifyg? apwemh0efxrf;trsm;&Sdae=uaom EdkifiHwckrS vGwfvyfaomEdkifiHom;wOD; jzpfonfh
usaemf . y&ufpf oifch u
f aps;uGut
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owdjyK&eftcsufrSm 0ufbfrsm;onf tjcm;qef@usifbufudpPtrsm;twGufvnf; aumif;onf[k
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tifwmeufudk oHk;=uonf? pum;ajym&ef/ tjyeftvSef qufoG,f&ef tifwmeufudk oHk;=uonf?
xdkr#ru av;av;eufeufudpP pOf;pm;vdk=uolrsm;/ vl@rSwf^m%frsm; odkavSmifrSD;xm;&m ud&d,mtjzpf
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awmfv#if awmf=uygvrd rhf nf? tifwmeuf 0ufbu
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odk@aomfvnf; usaemfu owif;rD'D,m vkyfief; vkyfaejcif; r[kwfyg? xl;qef;aomtcsufrSm usaemfu
wdkwdk/ tusOf;csKyf csifhcsdefa&;aepOfwGif pmrsm;u &SnfI &SnfI oGm;wwf=uonf? tcsKd@aom
pmvmzwf=uolrsm;u Ttcsufudk apm'uwufwwf=uygonf? (“a&G;cs,frSm;aeaom acgif;pOf
twGuf pmvHk;rsm;pGm ðzef;wD;aeonf” [k a&;=uygao;onf? Tta&;tom;rsKd;u tpOfvdkvdk awG@&
ygonf?) TwkH@jyefa&;om;csufrsm;a=umifh usaemf c%wðzwf &,farm&ygao;onf?
bavmhaumif;wdkif;vdkvdku tpOD;ydkif;wGifyif ar;cGef;wckjzifh 0ufbfay:wufvmap&ef pwifavh
&Sdygonf? usaemfwdk@u rdrdrl&if;tjzpf wifjycsufudk awmif;qdkaeonfh y&dowfrsm; &Sdygovm;[laom
ar;cGef;yif jzpfonf? txl;ojzifh usaemf wifjyrnfhtcsufudk zwfrnfhol &Sdrnfvm;? Todk@tajzudk
oJoJuGJuGJ rodao;cifumvwGifyif/ bavmhudk pwifa&;&awmhrnf jzpfygonf?
y&ufpf oifhcf[laomtrnfrSm tkyfpktvdkuf pkqHkaqG;aEG;r_ (Group think) [laom pum;vHk;rS
,lxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? Tae&mY tkyfpkqdkonfrSm owif;rD'D,m (Press) udk qdkvdkjcif;yif jzpfonf?
Tacgif;pOfuyif owif;rsm;upOf;pm;awG;ac:Edkifr_twGuf twdkaumuftrnfjzpfovdk/ owif;axmuf
wOD;. ,Hk=unfonfh t,ltqcH,lcsufvnf; jzpfonf? owif;axmufwOD;. bmomw&m;[lIvnf;
ajymEdik o
f nf? Tonfu usaemf pdw0f ifpm;aom bmom&yfjzpfonf? y&ufpf oifch o
f nf a0zefo;kH oyfol
ESifh pma&;q&mwOD;tjzpf usaemf,Hk=unfpGm vkyfaqmifaeomudpPvnf; jzpfonf? usaemfbavmha&;
onfhtcg xnfhoGif;azmfjyaeaom/ usaemfay;&ef }udK;pm;aeaom udpPvnf;jzpfonf? usaemfht,ltq
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jzpfonf? prf;oyf=unfh&ef jzpfonf? odk@r[kwf tjcm;olrsm;tvm;wl vkyfaqmifvmap&eftwGuf qGJ
aqmif&efvnf;jzpfonf? Tonfuyif usaemfay;xm;aom emrnfuazmfjyvdkonfh tcsufjzpfonf?
bavmhu “y&ufpfoifhcf” ta=umif;yifjzpfonf? Tbavmhu owif;pmrsm;xuf ydkrdkawG;awm
qifjcifap&ef v_H@aqmfay;rnfh ud&d,myifjzpfonf? usaemf,lqonfrSm tcsKd@aombavmh*grsm;u
olwkd@. acgif;pOfrsm;twGif;odk@ av;av;eufeufawG;ac:r_rsm; xnfhoGif;azmfjyjcif;r&Sd=uyg? usaemfh
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twGufrl bavmhtrnfaumif;wckudk pwif&ef tqifoifhrjzpfao;rDumv txdwdkif usaemfbavmh
udk pwifa&;om;aejcif; jzpfonf?
usaemfu t,l0g'a&;&mrsm; tpGJjyKI owif;rsm;udk a0zefoHk;oyfaejcif;udk tjcm;olrsm;twGuf
xm;vdkufygonf? woD;yk*~v vltrsm;ESifh tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm aqmif&Gufae=uygonf?
aumif;rGefpGmvnf; aqmif&Gufae=uygonf? usaemfu owif;rD'D,mtcsKd@udk apmifh=unfha0zefcJhonfh
wdkif y&ufpf oifhcfu owif;rD'D,mrsm;udk apmifh=unfhavhvm ppfa=umaeonfh qdkufwck r[kwfyg?
y&ufpf oifhcfu rnfolbufvdkufonfudk xdkifa0zefaeonfh trJvdkufrkqdk; r[kwfyg? odk@aomfvnf;
a,bk,stm;jzifh usaemfu bufvdkufonf[k jrifonfhudpPudk a&;cJhygonf? usaemfu a*smhbk&Sfudk
raxmufcHyg/ odk@aomfvnf; ol. owif;tay:tjrif y&ufpf oifhcfudk a&;cJhygonf? usaemf. 0ufbf
bavmh rdwfquf ed'gef;wGif a&;cJhovdk “usaemfwdk@ ,ae@a&;om;xkwfv$ifhae=uaom owif;rD'D,m
rsm;a=umifh urBmay:wGif &v'ftjzpf jzpfysufawG@ñuHvm&rnfh tusKd;qufrsm;udk &SmazGazmfxkwfEdkif&ef
usaemfóu;yrf;aqmif&Gufaeygonf” [k a&;om; xm;cJhygonf?
wpHkwa,mufu usaemhfwGif bavmha&;enf; “enf;ed\,rsm;” &Sdoavm[k apma=um; ar;jref;&ef
&Syd gonf? usaemfu owif;rsm;udk zwfonf? owif;xkwv
f i$ chf surf sm;udk =unfo
h nf? usaemh bavmhx&J dS
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aeonfudk azmfjyxm;onfh/ pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;onfh owif;rsm;udk &SmazGteH@cH trJvdkufonf?
xdk@aemuf oufqdkif&mvifhcfrsm;udk pkonf? xdk@aemuf usaemf.tjrifudk pa&;ygonf? tu,fI wpHk
wa,mufu tD;ar;vfydk@vmcJhaomf Towif;udk tajccHIvnf; usaemhydk@pfwyk'f jzpfoGm;Edkifygonf?
rsm;aomtm;jzifh tjzpftysufwck jzpfysufvm+yD;/ usaemf. pmzwfolrsm;u pdwf0ifpm;rnf ,lqygu
usaemfu ydk@pfa&;wifygonf? odk@aomfvnf; usaemfhwGif yHkpHpwdkif (Style sheet) [k ac:Edkifrnfh
cdkifcdkifrmrm csxm;aom udk,fydkifenf;emawmh &Sdygonf? y&ufpf oifhcf ydk@pfwckudk vkyfawmhrnfqdkv#if
rdrdukd,fwdkifcsrSwfxm;aom Tenf;emrsm;twdkif; wdwdususvdkufemygonf?
,ck aqmif;yg;uJhodk@aom yHkrSefwifjyaeonfh y&ufpf oifhcf wifjycsufydk@pfwckonf “ypfrSwfudk
aoaocsmcsmxdap&ef twGuf nifnifomom owif;pmudkcsyg” qdkonfhtwdkif; a&;ygonf? (http:/
/journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone/weblogs/pressthink/2005/03/29/
nwsp_dwn.html) udk =unfhyg? TyHkpHwGif jznfhpGuf&eftwGuf tuGuf (5) ck&Sdygonf? acgif;pOf/
acgif;pOfi,f/ tufaq;/ (aemufqufwGJ udpPrsm;/ Oyrm- rSwfpkrsm;/ wkH@jyefcsufrsm;ESifh csdwfquf&ef
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oD;oef@ rwluGJjym;aomyHkpH &Sdygonf? Tydk@pfu rnfonfhtcsufudk azmfjyxm;a=umif; tESpfcsKyfoabm
ouf0ifaponfh acgif;pOf/ vltrsm;udk qGJaqmifEdkifrnfh pum;vHk; ponfjzifh &Sdygonf? acgif;pOfi,fwGif
aqG;aEG;jiif;cHkcsufudk azmfjyygonf? tufaq;ta=umif; t+rD;oabm azmfjycsufjzpfonf? tufaq;u
pmvHk;a& 1˜500 rSonf 2˜500 txd yg0ifonfh pmudk,fjzpfonf? Tae&mwGif vifhcf 20 rS 30
cef@vnf; yg0ifygvdrfhrnf? Tvifhcfrsm;u ‚wdk@. udk,fydkif[efudk azmfjy=urnf jzpfygonf? aemufquf
wGJudpPrsm; tcef;wGif Tta=umif;t&mtay: tjcm;bavmh 0ef;usifrsm;Y aqG;aEG;a&;om;ae=uonfh
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tcsufrsm;udk wnf;jzwf azmfjyrnfjzpfonf? usaemfwifxm;aom ydk@pftay: wkH@jyefcsufvnf; yg0ifrnf
jzpfygonf? rSwfcsufac: (Comments) u tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;jiif;ckHr_udk pwifapvdrfhrnf jzpfonf?
aumif;rGefatmifjrifonf[k ,lqEdkifonfh y&ufpf oifhcfydk@pfrSm Ttcsuf (5) ckvHk;u tjyeftvSef
taxmuftuljyKae =u+yD;/ tcsufwcku tcsufwckudk tjyeftvSef jiif;csufxkwfae=uaom
bufpHkaxmifhpHk azmfjyr_rsKd; jzpfygonf? jyefvnf ajc&mcHEdkifaom (tracebacks) rsm;/ rSwfcsufrsm;
(Comments) ponfh azmfjy+yD;aemufydkif; wkH@jyefvmcsufrsm; r&Sdao; or#umvywfvHk; jynfhpHk+yD[k
r,lqEdik yf g? wcgw&H Tod@k jynfph akH p&eftwGuf wywf=umr# apmif&h wwfygonf? TonfrmS 0ufbavmh
wck. vnfywfyHk oufwrf;umv[kyif qdk&ygvdrfhrnf? Todk@ tcsuftvufrsm; jynfhpHkvmonfhtcg
(vlóuufrsm;I =unfhvmonfrsm; &SdEdkifovdk/ ºuif;usef&pfonfrsm;vnf; &SdEdkifonf?) ta=umif;t&m
w&yftay: tajcwnf aqG;aEG;=uonfh zdk&rfwckozG,f ajymif;oGm;wwf=uygonf? Tzdk&rfonfyif
oifhcf (Think) [k usaemfazmfjyvdk onfh aqG;aEG;pOf;pm;=u&ef ta=umif;t&m jzpfawmhonf? ,cifu
usaemfu TpwdkifyHkpH/ ydk@pfrsm; wifjyonfh tajccH pOf;pm;csufudk rod&SdcJhyg? odk@aomf rkqdk;pdkifoifqdkovdk
vkyf&if;/ rSm;&if; jyifqif&if;jzifh Toabmw&m;udk awG@&Sdvmjcif; jzpfygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh usaemf
t=uaH y;vdo
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h m rnfo@kd
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usaemfu y&ufpf oifhcf rpwifrDu owif;pmynm (*sme,fvpfZif)ESifh owif;
axmufrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh usaemf awG;xifxm;onfh ta=umif;rsm;udk
owif ; pmrsm;u wqif h o m azmf j y&ygonf ? ‚wd k @ uvnf ; *d w f a yguf
tapmifhrsm;ozG,f usaemhudk wm;qD;ydwfqdk@xm;=uygonf? ,cktcg usaemhf
udk,fydkif r*~Zif;&Sdaeyg+yD? ,cifuuJhodk@ usaemfu apmifhaep&m rvdkawmhyg?
*dwfayguftapmifh vkyfae=uolrsm;uyif usaemhf bavmhodk@ vm=unfhI usaemf
pOf;pm;awG;ac:xm;r_rsm;udk zwfae=u&yg+yD? TonfrSm t}uD;tus,f ajymif;vJ
uGmjcm;oGm;r_yif jzpfonf? ,ckawmh usaemfu ynm&yfydkif;qdkif&m vGwfvyfcGifh
&oGm;cJh+yD[k qdkcsifygawmhonf?

a*s; ±dkqif (Jay Rosen) u e,l;a,mufwuUodkvfwGif 1986
ckESpfrSpI *sme,fvpfZif owif;pmynm ydk@csaecJhol ygarmuQwOD;
jzpfygonf? (1999) rS (2005) ckESpftxd TXme. OuUXtjzpf
wm0ef,lcJhonf? olu e,l;a,mufòr@wGif aexdkifolwOD; jzpfonf? olu
y&ufpf oifhcf[k ac:aom owif;pmynmESifh ‚. csifhcsdefydkif;qr_
usifh0wfudk azmfjyxm;onfh www.pressthink.org bavmhudk
a&;om;aeolvnf; jzpfonf? olu (2003) ckESpf/ pufwifbmvrSpI
(http://journalism.nyu.edu/pubzones/weblogs/
pressthink) bavmh pmrsufESmudk pwifa&;om;aecJholvnf; jzpfonf?
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yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? a[mifaumif

a[mifaumif
usqHk;oGm;cJh&olrsm;tay: usaemfwdkY uwdwnfygrnf
,ef &Srf &Sufu,fwGef (Yan Sham-Shackelton)
,ae@u ZGefv (4) &ufae@ oef;acgifausmfI eHeufcif; tpOD; jzpfonf? tcsdefu oef;acgifpGef;p
12;23 em&D? ,ae@u 1989 ckESpfwGif jzpfyGm;cJhaom ab*sif;/ wD,eftifrif ,ifjyif qENjyyGJudk
+zKdcGJacsr_ef;cJhonfh tpktjyHKvdkuf vlowfr_}uD;. 16 ESpfajrmuf ESpfywfvnfae@vnf; jzpfonf? xdktcsdef
1989 ckESpfu usru a[mifaumif&Sd qif[Gmowif;Xme±Hk;. tjyifbuf OriftwGif;Y xdkifaecJhonf?
Tae&mwGif vltrsm;u tpmtiwfcH qENjy&ef pDpOfxm;=u+yD;/ usrwdk@u w±kwfEdkifiHrS qENjyausmif;
om;rsm;udk axmufcHaomtm;jzifh qENjyaecJh=ujcif;vnf; jzpfonf? usrwdk@u olwdk@udk 'Drdkua&pD
tcGifhta&;rsm; cHpm;&&Sd apcsifovdk/ usrwdk@udk,fwdkifuvnf; 'Drdkua&pDudk cHpm;vdk=uonf? usrwdk@u
+Adwdo#udkvdkeD tpdwftydkif;wcktjzpf raecsifovdk/ uGefjrLepfygwD. vufatmufcH tpdwftydkif;wck
tjzpfvnf; raevdk=uyg? usrwdk@u vGwfvyfpGm aevdk=uygonf?
aemufxyf 2 em&Dcef@t=um/ 3 em&Dcef@t=umwGiv
f nf; jzpfcsijf zpfvrd rhf nf/ a&'D,rkd w
S qifh aoewforH sm;
udk pwif=um;cJh =u&onf? xdk@aemufwGif oDcsif;oH+ydKif[pfaºu;oHrsm;/ atmf[pfoHrsm;/ wifhum;rsm;u
eH&Hrsm;udk wdkuf+zdKoHrsm;udkvnf; =um;aecJh&ygonf? usrwdk@u wOD;udkwOD; =unfhvdkufrd=uaom
tcsdefwGif rsuf&nfrsm; usrwdk@ rsufvHk;rsm;xJwGif awGawG pD;usaeonfukd jrifcJh=u&ygonf?
tckawmh 'Drdkua&pDqENjyawmif;qdkolrsm;udk wifhum;rsm;oHk;I acsr_ef;ae+yDudk usrwdk@ odvdkuf=u&yg+yD?
,cifu usrwdk@u Todk@awG;xif rxm;cJh=uyg? 1989 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHk &_H;edrfhoGm;+yDjzpfa=umif;
a&'D,dkrSwqifh usrwdk@ odvdkuf&onf? Ttcsdefu usrwdk@OrifxJY rD;acsmif;tvif;a&mifrsm; atmuf
wGif xdkifae=uqJjzpfonf? TtcsdefwGifyif usracgif;xJY }uD;av;aom awmif}uD;wck ay:xGef;vmonf
[k cHpm;vdkuf&ygonf? xdktcsdefu usr touf 15 ESpfom&Sdygao;onf?
Ttcsdefu ay:xGef;vmcJhjcif; r[kwfv#ifaomfrS/ rsm;r=umrD aemufydkif;umvwGif ay:aygufvmcJhjcif;
jzpfygvdrfhrnf? urBm}uD;ESifh ywfoufI tawG@t=uHKvHk;0 r&Sdao;[k qdkEdkifonfh rdef;ri,fav; wOD;om
jzpfonfh usru uwdjyKcJhygonf? oHo,pdk;pOf;r# r&SdbJ TuwdudkjyKcJhjcif; jzpfygonf?
“ig olwdk@udk vHk;0rarhbl;? ig olwdk@vkyf&yfawGudk tjrJwrf; trSwf&aer,f? usrb0udk ydkwdk;wuf
aumif;rGefatmif wnfaqmufr,f? tm;vHk;twGuf usr qufvkyfay;r,f? ta=umif;uawmh usru
touf&Sifusef&pfae+yD;/ olwdk@u toufr&SifEdkif=uawmhbl;? 'Dvdk tjzpfqdk;rsKd; aemufwcg xyfrjzpf
ap&bl;? wD,iftefrif &ifjyifu ausmif;om;awG udk,fpm;/ olwdk@udk,fpm; usr urBmudk qufvuf
e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 59

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yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? a[mifaumif

E_d;aqmfowday;aer,f? olwdk@[m usr&J@ ol&Jaumif;awG jzpfw,f? usr&J@ tudktrawG? ol&Jaumif;
awG jzpfw,f?“
usru Tuwdudk tv#iftjrefyif jyKcJhonf? vHk;0ra=umufr&G@H/ ±dk;om;pGmyif opPmjyKcJhonf? jyKcJhonfh
opPmtwdkif; jzpfEdkif-rjzpfEdkif usr rawG;awmrdcJh? Tuwdtwdkif; txajrmufap&ef rnfodk@ qufvuf
aqmif&Guf&rnfudkvnf; usr rpOf;pm;rdcJh? usrodonfuawmh Ttcsufu rSefonfxifonfhtwdkif;
qH;k jzwfcsucf scjhJ cif;om jzpfonf? usef vl}u;D trsm;uvnf; Ttwdik ;f avmufpyDum toHcs@J pufraS eI
atmf[pfaºu;a=umfae=uonf r[kwfygvm;?
,ckn usrTpma&;aeonfh tcsed w
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'Drdkua&pDta&;twGuf aqmif&GufcJhjcif; jzpfonf? usr pnf;±Hk;aqmif&GufcJhonfh qdkifbm-qENjyyGJrS
wqifh aqmif&GufcJhjcif;jzpfonf? usroabmwlnD vufcHaqmif&GufcJhonfh awG@qHkar;jref;cef; tifwm
AsL;rsm;/ usr xkwfazmfa&;om;cJhonfh Zmwfvrf;rsm;rSm vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkcGifhudk udkifpGJaqmif
&GufcJh±Hkr#omru/ usrudk,fwdkif TvGwfvyfcGifhtay:wGif t&l;trl; ,Hk=unfouf0ifI aqmif&GufcJhjcif;
vnf; jzpfonf? xdrk #ru wenf;qd&k aomf usr. rodpw
d u
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jzpfEdkifonf? bavmha&;om;jcif;u usqHk;cJh&olrsm;twGuf usrjyKcJhaom uwdu0wfudk jznfhqD;
Edkif&eftwGufrsm;pGm taxmuftuljyKcJhonf?
usr ,ckuJhodk@ a&;ae&jcif;rSm “ausmufawmif”(Glutter) [laom bavmhpmpOfudk zefwD;I
qufvufa&;om;cJh&jcif; ta=umif;udk vltrsm;od&Sdap&ef vdktyfrnf[k ,lqrdaoma=umifhvnf;
jzpfonf? usru tjcm;olrsm; csrSwfxm;aom pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk rvdkufembJ/ rnfonfhyHkpHudkr# ul;rcsbJ
ud,
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f efjzifh pcJo
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wdwfae+yD;/ bavmhudk acwWc%r# aooGm;ap&efvnf; &yfqdkif;xm;cJhygao;onf? ta=umif;u usra&;
vdkonfudkom a&;om;azmfjyae
aoma=umifh jzpfonf? rnfonfh
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ud k od o if h o nf [ k ,l q onf h
twdkif; a&;om;vdkaoma=umifh
vnf; jzpfonf? usr}uKdufovdk
tvdkus a&;vdkaoma=umifhvnf;
jzpfonf?

60 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

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yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? a[mifaumif

bavmhwckpa&;&ef =upH nfaeolrsm;twGuf usrt=uaH y;vdo
k nfrmS oifu,
kd w
f ikd .
f toHrv
S I
JG rnfo@l
udkr# em;raxmif&ef jzpfygonf? tjcm;olrsm;. bavmhrsm;udkvnf; tm;us=unfharm raeygESifh?
+ydKifqdkifraeygESifh? rnfonfhudpPrsm;udk “rjzpfraeaqmif&Guf&ef”[lI pm&if;csxm;+yD; vkyfaejcif;/ wckck
udk &nf&G,fcsufxm;+yD; vkyfaejcif;vnf; vkyfraeygESifh? usru pnf;rsOf;trsm;tjym; csKd;azmufrdcJhonf?
&Sif;&Sif;av;/ usru Tpnf;rsOf;rsm;udk od&Sdrxm;ovdk/ usr aumif;onf xifonfhtwdkif; vkyfaeaom
a=umifhvnf; jzpfonf?
oifbavmhwckudk pa&;rnfqdkv#if bavmhpzGifh/ a&;vdkuf±Hkomjzpfonf?
quf+yD; bavmhudk quf&Sifoefaeapvdkv#if oifajymcsifor#udk a&;om;/ rSwfwrf;wifxm;vdkuf±Hkom
jzpfonf?
usrwdk@tm;vHk;vdkvdkyif/ wcsdefr[kwf wcsdef EdkifiHa&;xufoefEdk;=um;vmr_rsKd;udk =uHKzl;ygvdrfhrnf? qdkvdk
onfrmS rw&m; rr#wr_ukd usrwd@k odjrifem;vnfvmonft
h csed /f Tudpu
P kd jyKjyifr&S awmhrnf[k jrifvm
onfh tcsdefrsKd;jzpfygonf? odk@r[kwfygu oif.udpPwckckudk vufudkifxm;+yD; wpdkufrwfrwf aqmif&Guf
v_yf&Sm;aeonfh v_yf&Sm;ol tufwDApfwOD; jzpfrvmEdkifyg? Todk@ udpPwcktay: rw&m;/ ajymif;vJ&awmh
rnf[k odjrifem;vnfvdkufr_u oifhudk vrf;a=umif;ay; vrf;!$efOD;aqmifoGm;vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? xdktcg
tajymif;tvJjzpfay:vmap&eftwGuf wdkufcdkuf&ef/ v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Guf&ef tjcm;olrsm;udk wdkufwGef;E_d;
aqmfz@kd vnf; oifw
h iG t
f m;rmef &Sv
d mvdrrhf nfjzpfonf? oif. cdik =f unfaom oHEXdM mefuv
kd nf; tjcm;olrsm;
xH ul;pufa&muf&SdapEdkifvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? Ttcsufu 'Dwn usrr#a0csifaom usr. pOf;pm;
awG;ac:csufom jzpfonf?
tckawmh n 2; 33 em&D &Sd+yD? aoewfoHrsm;udk usr=um;ae&onf? 'dkif;-'dkif;-'dkif;? ,ckvdktcsdefrsKd;wGif
usrESpfwdkif; jyefvnf =um;a,mifae&aom aoewfoHrsm;vnf; jzpfonf? xdktcsdefu usr 15 ESpfom
&Sdao;onf? usr ñuHawG@cJh&ovdk tjzpfrsKd;twGuf odyfEke,fvGef;ao;aom t&G,frsKd;vnf; jzpfcsifjzpf
ygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomf tcsKd@aomolrsm;u i,f&G,fEke,fpOfrSmyif aoqHk;cJh=u&av+yD æ ?

,ef &Srf &Sufu,fvfwGef (Yan Sham-Shackelton) u odapvdkaomtcsufrSm
Taqmif;yg;twGuf 6 ywf=umr#/ 6 }udrf wdkifwdkif yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;jzifh a&;om;&ef óu;pm;cJh&jcif;yif
jzpfygonf? bavmha&;om;jcif;ESifh ywfoufI olrodor#aom tcsuftvufrsm;udk
pkpnf;a&;om;&ef óu;pm;cJh+yD;aemuf/ aemufqHk; “oif. udk,fydkif[efjzifh a&;jcif;onfom
taumif;qHk;” [laom Twifjyr_ bavmh rD'D,H=um;cH. tvSw&m;udk awG@cJhygonf?
olr bavmh.trnfrSm (glutter.com) jzpf+yD;/ EdkifiHa&;udpPrsm;tjyif tEkynmudpPrsm;udkvnf;
a&;om;azmfjycJhygonf? olr. yGifhvif;pGm a0zefwifjyr_ESifh a[mifaumifwGif ppfrSefaom
'Drdkua&pDay:xGef;apvdkaom tom;ay;azmfjycsufrsm;a=umifh w±kwfEdkifiHrS tjrJwap
qifqmjzwfawmuf ydwfqdk@jcif; cHcJh&ygonf?
e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 61

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yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? tD&ef

tD&ef
usaemfwdkUu bavmhrsm;ay:wGif vGwfvyfpGm a&;EdkifayNyD
tm&mh&Sf pD*g*sD (Arash Sigarchi)
,ae@tcsdefwGifawmh usaemfwdk@u rm&S,f ruf (uf) vl[ef (Marshall McLuhan) ajymcJhonfh
“urBm}uD;u &GmES,f jzpfawmhonf” qdkonfh oHk;oyfcsufudk ‚xufyif ydkI em;vnfvmcJhav+yD?
rjrif&onfh tifwmeufvd_if;rsm;u csdwfqufrdvm=u+yD; tm&Swdkuf/ tar&duwdkuf/ Oa&mywdkuf/
xdrk #ru a0;vHacgio
f v
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kd #iyf if usaemfw@kd u
odaeEdkif=u+yD?
ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm owif;pmynmqdkonfh *sme,fvpfZifu csKyfaESmifwnf; pnf;=uyfxm;r_rsm;ESifh
&ifqdkifcJh&onf? ,ckawmh Tt&mtm;vHk;udk enf;ynmtpGrf;jzifh z,f&Sm;cJh=u+yD?
usaemfu owif;axmufwOD;jzpf+yD;/ usaemf. vkyfief;rsm;udk yHkrSef rvkyfaqmifEdkifatmif csKyfcs,fxm;
onfh EdkifiHwckY aexdkif&ol jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif urBmhowif;rD'D,m avmuwGif ñuHawG@ae&onfh
“tzGJ@tpnf;tcsif;csif; qufqHa&;” udpPrsm; &SdouJhodk@/ Oya't& xdef;csKyfxm;r_rsm;/ tpdk;& odk@r[kwf
vlyk*~dKvfwOD;OD;. =oZmoufa&muf v$rf;rdk;r_ponfh “tzGJ@tpnf;jyify udpPrsm;” vnf; &Sdaeao;onf?
xdk@r#ru wbufowf owif;axmufyHh ay;ae=uolrsm;/ zdtm;ay;onfh tkyfpkrsm;ESifh aiG&Sifa=u;&Sifrsm;
ponfrsm;uvnf; zdtm;oufa&mufae=uonf? zG@H òz;wd;k wuf+y;D Edik if rH sm;xufpmv#if rdrw
d @kd Edik if rH sm;wGif
TuJhodk@aom zdtm;rsKd;u ydkrsm;aeonf? xdktcsufrsm;u usaemhfEdkifiH. vGwfvyfr_ tajctaeudk
jyefawG;rdap ouJhodk@/ owif; tppftrSef wyk'fqdkonfrSm rnfodk@enf;[k jyefawG;rdaponf? usaemf.
owif;a0zefcsufrsm;udka&m rnfodk@ azmfjyEdkifygrnfenf;? Todk@ aESmifhqGJzifhav;aeapaom udpPrsm;udk
ausmfv$m;&ef wckaomenf;rSm bavmha&;&efyif jzpfawmhonf?
usaemfwdk@u bavmhay:wGif vGwfvyfpGma&;Edkifonf? bavmhrsm;u yHkESdyfxkwfa0&ef rvdktyfouJhodk@/
toH±kyfjrif (Audio-visual) udpPrsm;ESifhvnf; r&_yfaxG;aoma=umifhvnf; owif;a&;jcif;/ rdrdtjrif
wifjyjcif;udk ydkI vGwfvyfpGm/ v#ifjrefpGm aqmif&GufEdkifonf? bavmhudk owif;pmi,fuav; tjzpf
jrifEikd o
f uJo
h @kd / owif;rSwcf suaf y;onfh Xmetjzpfvnf; wm0efxrf;aqmifapEdik o
f nf? a&;olvnf;ud,
k /f
t,f'DwmcsKyfvnf; udk,fyif jzpfawmhonf?
tcsKk @d aomolrsm;u bavmhrsm;onf owif;rsm;udck sn;f tav;xm;vkyaf qmifr_ enf;onf[k qdyk gonf?
vltrsm;u rdrdae@pOf aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;rSwf&m xm;EdkifouJhodk@/ taysmfwrf; pma&;olrsm;
uvnf; vufaoG;Edkifygonf? pmzwfy&dowfawmh &Sdygonf? tenf;qHk; oli,fcsif;rsm;/ aqGrsKd; todkif;
t0dkif;rsm;u zwf=uygvdrfhrnf?
62 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

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yk*¾dKvfa&; b0pmrsufESmrsm; ? tD&eff

od@k aomfvnf; xif&mS ;aom owif;pmq&mrsm;/ tEkynmonfrsm;/ Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;/ tm;upm;
avmursm;rS yk*Kd~ vrf sm;uvnf; olw@kd .tjrif/ olw@kd .ta=umif;udk wifjyEdik yf gonf? olw@kd ae@pOfb0udk
a&;±Hkr#ESifhvnf; jzpfEdkifygonf? ta=umif;rSm xdkolrsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;aejcif;/ ausmf=um;r_wdk@a=umifh
olwdk@ wifjyor#udkyif owif;jzpfaewwfygonf? xdkolrsm;u ta=umif;t&mtaxGaxGudk a&;om;
wifjyEdkif=u+yD;/ pmzwfolrsm;udk qGJaqmifEkdif=uygonf?
usaemf ,Hk=unfxm;onfrSm bavmhwdkif;u ‚udk,fydkif pmzwfolrsm;&Sd+yD; xdkolrsm;. pdwf0ifpm;r_
tvdkuf qGJaqmifxm;Edkif=uygonf? bavmha&;om;jcif;wGif rnfonfhcsKyfcs,fr_r# r&Sdyg?
usaemfu bavmha&;&eftwGuf enf;vrf; (2) ckudk a&G;ygonf? yxrwGif w&m;0ifyHkpH r[kwfaom
azmfjyr_rsKd;jzifh vufiif;umv jy\emrsm;ESifh ywfoufI rdrdtjrifudk csjyjcif; jzpfygonf? (yGifhvif;
&if;ESD;aom yHkpHjzifha&;onf?) 'kwd,enf;rSm owif;rsm;/ owif;a0zefcsufrsm;/ tifwmAsL;rsm;/ tpD&ifcH
pmrsm;/ odk@r[kwf tufaq;rsm;udk a&;om;jcif; jzpfygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh usaemhftwGuf pmzwfol
(2) pk &&Sdapygonf? wpku ,ckwavm usaemfbmvkyfaeoenf;udk od&Sd pl;prf;vdkaom tkyfpkjzpf+yD;/
usefwpku usaemf owif;pmq&mtjzpf/ pma&;q&mtjzpf/ uAsmq&mtjzpf a&;om;onfudk zwfvdk
aom tkyfpk jzpfygonf?
bavmhqo
kd nfrmS wenf;tm;jzifh tGev
f ikd ;f owif;rD',
D myifjzpfI pma&;ola&;or#tay: pmzwforl sm;u
&if;ESD;yGifhvif;pGmjzifh tjrifESifh a0zefcsufjyefay;Edkifonfh ae&mvnf; jzpfonf? pmzwfolrsm;udk pmjyefEdkif
ovdk/ rdrdudk,fudkvnf; wdk;wufatmif aqmif&GufEdkifygonf? Todk@ pmzwfolrsm;ESifh eD;uyfpGm &Sdaeonfh
tajctaewGif bavmha&;olrsm;u pmzwfolrsm;udk wdkuf±dkuf!$ef=um;Edkif+yD;/ pmzwfolrsm; t}udKuf
awG@aprnfh tjrifrsm;/ udpP&yfrsm;udk ydkI a&;om;azmfjy EdkifcGifh&Sdygonf?
usaemfazmfjycJo
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H iG f tu,fI pmtkyw
f tkyf yHEk ydS x
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&,l&ygvdrfhrnf? pma&;ol trsm;pkrSm Todk@wif;usyfxm;r_rsm;udk rausmfEdkif=uyg?
0wˆKwtkyf/ uAsmwyk'f/ tufaq;wyk'f/ owif;pmwapmif/ r*~Zif;wtkyf xkwfa0rnfqdkv#if qifqm
wnf;jzwfcH=u &rnfuawmh aocsmvSygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh tD&ef&Sd pma&;q&m trsm;pku
bavmhwGif a&;=uygonf? ukefuspm;&dwf enf;ovdk/ rdrdudk,fwdkif vufcsdefI qifqmwnf;jzwf
e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 63

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ae&jcif;rsK;d udv
k nf; vkyaf qmifp&m rvdak wmhyg? Ttcg w±kwf
EdkifiHuJhodk@yif tjcm;aom tpdk;& trsm;uvnf; tifwmeufudk
ydwfqdk@uef@owf vm=uygawmhonf?
tifwmeuf owif;pmynmac: tifwmeuf *sme,fvpfZif
a=umifh vGwfvyfpGmazmfjy ajymqdkcGifhudk wdk;wufvmapovdk/
ydkIus,fjyef@aom tjrifrsm;udkvnf; wifjyEdkifcJh=uygonf?
usaemfhtaejzifh tD&efEdkifiH w&m;±Hk;rS tjypf&Sdonf[k pGJcsufcs
aomfvnf; usaemf. ar#mv
f ifch surf sm; ukecf rf;roGm;yg? usaemf
,lqxm;onfrSm aemifvmrnfhESpfrsm;wGif usaemhfEdkifiH.
tpdk;&uvnf; tifwmeuftwGif; owif;rsm; vGwfvyfpGm
pD;qif;jzwfoef; oGm;vmcGifhudk em;vnfoabmaygufvmrnf/
vGwfvyfpGm azmfjyajymqdkcGifhudk wm;qD;r&Edkif[k oabmayguf
vm=uygvdrfhrnf?

owif;pmq&mESifh owif;axmufwOD;jzpfol tm&mh&Sf pD*gcsD
(Arash Sigarchi) udk 1978 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf?
&Sm;bk&ifudk awmfvSefðzwfcscJhaom awmfvSefa&;jzpfay:
aeaom umvwGif arG;zGm;vmcJhjcif;jzpfonf? 1993 ckESpf/
touf 15 ESpf t&G,fwGifyif owif;axmufvkyfief;udk
pwifaqmif&GufcJhonf? jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;0g'D orw
rdk[mrufcgwmrD a&G;aumufcH&pOf (1997) ckESpfY
jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;0g'Drsm;. owif;pmavmuodk@
Source: Gheraf.ir
ol0ifa&muf yl;aygif;cJhonf? (2000) ckESpf {+yDvwGif
owif;pmrsm;tm;vHk; &yfqdkif;cH&+yD;aemuf tD&efEdkifiH ajrmufydkif;odk@ ajymif;a&$@aexdkifcJh+yD;
pmrsufESm (12) rsufESmyg owif;pm *Dvef trfa&mufZf (Gilan Emrouz) udk (,ck
*Dvefowif;pm[k ac:onf) wnf;jzwfcJhonf?
*DvJh rm'f (*DvefrS vlrsm;) (Gileh Mard) [kac:aom vltrsm;pkaygif;a&;om;onfh
bavmhjzifh (2001) ckESpfrSpI bavmh pa&;cJhonf? (2002) ckESpfwGif yef*sm&J@ t,fvfwD[ufbf
(Panjereh Eltehab) [kac:aom ar#mfvifhcsuf jyLwif;ayguf[k t"dy`g,f&onfh
udk,fydkif0ufbfqdkufudk pwifcJhonf? www.sigarchi.com
(2005) ckESpf/ ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif ol@udk owif;ESifh vHkðcHa&;0ef}uD;Xmeu (2) v=umr# xdef;odrf;xm;
cJh+yD;aemuf axmif'%f (14) ESpf jypf'%fcsrSwfcJhonf? toem;cHpmwif+yD;aemuf
qdkif;iHhaxmif'%fjzifh jyefvGwfajrmufvmcJhonf?
64 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

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eDayg
jyifyurÇmudk jzpfaeonfh tajctaetwdkif; trSefwifjyEdkifNyD
vGwfvyfaom eDayga&'D,dk (Radio Free Nepal) (http://freenepal.blogspot.com)
(2005) ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv 1 &ufae@wGif eDaygbk&if *smeif'&mu tm%modrf;,lvdkuf+yD;/ Tta=umif;
udk ±kyfjrifoH=um; rdef@cGef;rSwqifh vltrsm;odk@ odapcJhonf? rdef@cGef;qHk;oGm;onfhtcg usaemfu EdkifiH
wumrS TudpPtay: rnfodk@ wkH@jyefrnfudk odvdkvmonf? odk@ESifh w,fvDzkef;jzifh ac:&onfh (dial
up) tifwmeufudk zGifhvdkufonf? odk@aomfvnf; zkef;vdkif; jywfaea=umif;/ rnfonfhzkef;r# csdwfquf
xm;r_ r&Sda=umif;om ay:vmcJhonf? zkef;vdkif;yg jzwfvdkuf+yD qdkonfudk usaemfodvdkufonf? ol.
vkyfaqmifcsuftay: uef@uGufqef@usif=uonfh owif;rsm; jyifyodk@ ysH@ESH@roGm;apa&;twGuf vkyfvdkuf
jcif; jzpfonf? bk&ifu tifwmeufqmAmrsm;udk zGifhray;&ef ppfwyfudk !$ef=um;xm;onfh tjyif
w,fvDzkef; qufoG,fa&;pepfrsm;udkyg ydwfcsvdkufonf?
TtcsdefwGif vltrsm;u jzpfvmEdkifonfh aumif;usKd;qdk;usKd;rsm;udk ajymae=uonf? tcsKd@u Todk@
vkyfaqmifcsufudk tm;ay;=uonf? usaemfvkyfonfh owif;pm±Hk;wGifawmh vlwdkif;u arSmifrdkif;aeonfh
tem*wfudk óuwifjrifI &ifav;ae=u+yD;/ ppfwyftm%mydkifrsm;u ±kyfjrifoH=um; owif;±Hk;cef;rsm;odk@
usL;ausmo
f rd ;f ydu
k u
f m qifqmjzwfawmuf=uawmhrnf jzpfonf? Ttcsed w
f iG f usaemfu t=u&H onfrmS
ae@pOfjzpfysufor#udk 'dkif,m&DozG,f rSwfwrf;wifxm;v#ifawmh oifhawmfvdrfhrnf/ zwf&olrsm;uvnf;
'dkif,m&D ae@pOfrSwfwrf;wck ozG,fyif oabmxm;=uvdrfhrnf? Todk@jzifh jzpfysufor#udk usaemhf
uGefjyLwmxJwGif rSwfwrf;wif odrf;qnf;xm;cJhygonf?
azaz:0g&Dv (8) &ufae@wGif tajccH w,fvDzkef;vdkif;rsm;ESifh tifwmeuf 0efaqmifr_rsm; jyefzGifhay;
vmcJo
h nf? vltrsm;uvnf; eDaygwiG f rnfo@kd jzpfysucf o
hJ nfukd tD;ar;vfjzifh ar;vm=uonf? usaemfu
usaemfrw
S w
f rf;jyKxm;aom ae@pOfrw
S w
f rf; 'dik ,
f m&Duav;awmh Tae&mwGif toH;k wnf+y[
D k ,lqvm
onf? tar&duefEdkifiHrS rdwfaqGrsm;u T'dkif,m&Duav;udk bavmhozG,f aemufa=umif;jyef ae@pGJ
rsm;jzifh jyefa&;&ef t=ujH yKc=hJ uonf? usaemfuvnf; bavmhqo
kd nfu
h pd rP sK;w
d iG f tpdr;f oufouf? usaemf
u bavmhwckzGifhvdkuf+yD; ydk@pfrsm; pxnfhoGif;onf? usaemfu trnfrazmfbJ a&;v#if ydkaumif;rnf
oabm&ovdk/ usefolrsm;udkvnf; trnfrazmfbJ a&;aponf? odk@rSom ESdyfuGyfcH&jcif; uif;vdrfhrnf/
axmifuswef;usjzpf&r_ uif;vdrfhrnf jzpfonf?
tapmydkif;umvrsm;wGif owif;rD'D,m qifqmwnf;jzwfr_u jyif;xefvGef;vS+yD;/ a&'D,dkz&D;eDaygqdkuf
wGif owif;rsm;u vGwfvyfpGm wufvmEdkifjcif;a=umifh csufjcif;qdkovdkyif vl}udKufrsm;vmcJhonf?
(blogger.com) uyif Tqdkufodk@ oGm;=unfh&ef !$ef;cJh&onf? tar&duef&Sd usaemf. rdwfaqGrsm;
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uvnf; Tqdkufudk vltrsm;ydkI vm=unfhapa&;twGuf v_H@aqmfpnf;±Hk;ay;cJh=uonf? &ufowWywf
twGif;yif tawmfemrnf}uD;vmonf?
a&'D,dkz&D;eDayg (RFN) qdkuf wnfaqmuf&ef qHk;jzwfcJhaoma=umifhom bk&if. wdkuf&dkuftkyfcsKyfa&;
pepftay: eDaygjynfolrsm;u rnfodk@xifjrif=ua=umif; urBmudk odapEdkifcJhonf? qifwmwif;usyf
xm;onfh atmufwGif eDaygEdkifiHwGif;&Sd owif;rsm;u bk&iftóuufudkom a&;om;azmfjy=u&+yD;/ wrdk;vHk;
azsmufqdwf jzpfaeapcJhonf? odk@aomf jynfolvlxk. oabmxm;trSefudk rxif[yfapEdkifcJhyg? a&'D,dk
z&D; eDayg (RFN) qdkufudk woD;yk*~v vlwOD;wa,muf. óu;yrf;csuf/ vltcsKd@. yg0ifjznfhqD;
ay;r_jzifh aqmif&GufcJhaomfvnf; vltrsm;pk. toHudk xif[yfazmfjyEdkifcJhonf? qifqmwnf;jzwf
r_rS uif;vGwfaecJh+yD;/ zrf;qD;ESdyfuGyfrnfudk a=umuf&GH@p&mrvdkbJ usaemfwdk@ a&;om;EdkifcJh=uonf?
a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg (RFN) qdkufwGif ueOD;wifjycsufrsm;onf 'dkif,m&Dqefqef jzpf+yD;/ ae@pOf jzpfysuf
or#udkom wifjycJhjcif; jzpfonf? aemufydkif;wGif xifjrifcsufrsm;/ owif;a0zefcsufrsm;ESifh tjcm;udpP
rsm;vnf; pHknDa0qm azmfjyvmEdkifcJhonf? vlxkqENudk ausmfvGefI bk&ifu wdkuf±dkuftkyfcsKyfvmonfh
eDaygEdkifiH. EdkifiHa&;tajctaeu yHkrSefwifjyae&ef cGifhrjyKawmh/ a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg (RFN) uJhodk@aom
bavmhrsKd;u ydkI oifhavsmfonfh =um;cHjzpfvmonf? ta=umif;u omrefvlrsm;. oabmxm;rsm;udk
xif[yfazmfjyvmEdkifaoma=umifh jzpfonf?
usaemf trSefwu,f awmif;waomudpPrSm EdkifiHtwGif; 'Drdkua&pD xGef;um;vmapa&;yif jzpfonf?
Tenf;jzifo
h m Edik if u
H kd wd;k wuf}u;D yGm;Edik af prnf jzpf+y;D / usaemf oufarG;0rf;ausmif;jyKaeonfh owif;pm
ynmjzifhvnf; t"dy`g,f&Sd&Sd vkyfudkif pm;aomufEdkifvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? qifqmwnf;jzwfr_ atmufwGif
pma&;ae&jcif;u o=um;rygbJ aumfzDaomuf&ouJhodk@ &Sdonf? t&omr&Sd? ,cifu usaemfwdk@u
owif;rsm;&&Sdaomfvnf; owif;pm pmrsufESmrsm;ay: ra&mufEdkifcJh? ,ckawmh a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg
(RFN) wGif bk&if. ydkifqdkifr_rsm;udk enf;vrf;wus ppfaq;&ef azmfjyEdkifcJh=uonf? owif;pmq&m
trsm;pku Towif;rsm;udk od=uonf? a0zefajymqdkae=uonf? bk&ifudk [movkyfae=uonf?
odk@aomf Ttcsufrsm;udk ra&;EdkifcJh=uyg? pmrsufESmay: rwifEdkifcJh=uyg?
a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg (RFN) u vkyfaqmifEdkifcJhaom tjcm;tcsufwckrSm eDaygEdkifiH. tajctaeudk
urBmwv$m;&Sd jynfot
l rsm;od@k wifjyEdik jf cif; jzpfygonf? tu,fI Tbavmhom jzpfrvmcJyh gu axmif
aygif;rsm;pGmaom olrsm;rSm eDaygEdkifiH. tajctaeudk od&SdEdkif=uvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? TEdkifiHESifhywfoufI
urBmhjynfolrsm;t=um; ydkrdkEdk;=um;od od&SdEdkifatmifvnf; pGrf;aqmifEdkifcJhygonf?
tDvufx&Gef;epf enf;ynmwdk;wufr_rsm;u usaemfwdk@ vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;twGuf rsm;pGm tusKd;aqmif
ay;cJhygonf? bavmhay:wGif a&;aejcif;a=umifh usaemfu twm;tqD;r&Sd/ ta=umuftvef@r&Sd a&;om;
aeEdkifcJhygonf? bavmhay:wGif a&;jcif;/ odk@r[kwf tar&duef&Sd rdwfaqGxH tD;ar;vfydk@I bavmhwif
apjcif;jzifh aemufa=umif;cH vdkufjcif;udkvnf; uGif;a&SmifEdkifcJhygonf? enf;ynmawmf±Hkr#/ omref
wif;usyfr_rsKd;r#jzifh od&SdazmfxkwfEdkif&ef rvG,fulawmhyg? tu,fI usaemfh EdkifiHwGif 'Drdkua&pD jyefvnf
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xGef;um;vmygu/ vGwfvyfyGifhvif;aom avxkudkom &_&d_ufcGifh &Sdvmygu usaemfu rdrdóu;yrf;
aqmif&GufcJhr_rsm;twGuf *k%f,laernf jzpfygonf? usaemfu wpHkw&m/ tenf;tusOf; yHhydk;ay;EdkifcJhr_
twGuf 0rf;omaerdrnf jzpfonf?
usaemhfxHodk@ tD;ar;vfrsm;jzifh vlrsm;pGmu jyefar;vm=uygonf? Twifydk@xm;aom owif;rsm;udk
rnfr# ,Hk=unf&ygrnfenf;[k ar;jref;cJh=uygonf? usaemfhemrnf&if; azmfajymvdkuf±Hkr#ESifhyif ToHo,
rsm;udk uG,faysmuf roGm;apEdkifyg? 'Drdkua&pD a&mifeDroef;ao;or# umvywfvHk; usaemf. trnf
tppftrSefudk zGifhajym&ef qENr&Sdyg? tajctaeu ydkqdk;oGm;Edkifovdk/ usaemfvnf; bavmha&;ojzifh
axmifxJ a&mufoGm;Edkifygonf? usaemf axmifus&rnfudk ra=umufyg? odk@aomfvnf; a&'D,dk z&D;
eDayg (RFN) u urBmodk@ owif;rsm; qufvuf ray;ydk@Edkifawmhrnfh tajctaeudk pdk;&drfrdygonf?
bk&iftkyfcsKyfa&;pepf tqHk;owfcJhygu usaemfu trnfrSefudk zGifhajymrnf[kom olwdk@udk jyefajymEdkif
cJyh gonf?
Ttcsdefumvwdkif oifwdk@. axmufcHyHhydk;r_rsm; qufvuf&&Sdaeao;onfhtwGuf aus;Zl;txl;
wif&Sdygonf?
a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg (RFN) bavmh*g/ eDaygEdkifiH?
(wewantdemocracy@gmail.com)

a&'D,dk z&D; eDayg (RFN) u bk&if *smeif'&m wdkuf±dkuftm%m xdef;csKyfvdkufr_ESifh
owif;rD'D,m qifqmwnf;jzwfr_udk tmcHqef@usifaeaom bavmhwck jzpfygonf? a&'D,dk z&D;
eDayg (RFN) onf eDaygEdkifiHwGif jzpfysufaeaom owif;rsm;udk yxrOD;qHk; urBmodk@today;
wifjyaeonfh bavmhpmrsufESm jzpf+yD;/ tm%mydkifrsm;. &efa=umifh trnfrazmfbJ
a&;om;ae=uolrsm; jzpfygonf?

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toHk;0ifaom vrf;ñTefcsufrsm;

trnfrazmfbJ
rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;
tDoef Zufumrif (Ethan Zuckerman)

Taqmif;ygu trnfrazmfbJ bavmha&;om;&eftwGuf ta&;ay: vrf;!$efcsufr#om jzpfygonf?
tpd;k &u yGiv
hf if;jrifomr_ r&Sb
d /J xifovdk aqmif&u
G af e=uaom tajctaeY tpd;k &vkyif ef;rsm;twGi;f rS
TudpPrsm;udk azmufonfcs today;rnfh rD;vSef@oHacsmif;acgufolwOD;. ae&mrS cHpm;a&;om;xm;jcif;
jzpfygonf? rdrw
d @kd . yk*v
~ u
d udprP sm;udk v#K@d 0Suv
f rf;a=umif;rSwqifh ay;yd@k zvS,af e=uonfh u|r;f usio
f l
ynm&Sif qdkifzmyef@cfrsm; (cypherpunks) twGuf &nf&G,fxm;jcif; r[kwfyg? zGH@òz;qJEdkifiHrsm;wGif
aexdkif=uonfh ta=umif;wckudk wifjyrnfqdkv#if ‚wdk@. yk*~dKvfa&;vHkðcHa&;twGuf pdk;&drfae=u&onfh
olrsm;twGuf &nf&G,fazmfjyxm;jcif;om jzpfygonf? ‚wdk@. yk*~dKvfa&;qdkif&m tcsuftvufrsm;udk
vHkjcKHpGm xdef;odrf;xm;Edkifrnfh vufawG@usaom enf;vrf;rsm;udkom azmfjyxm;jcif; jzpfygonf?
tDvufx&Gefepf a&S@wef;ppfrsufESm azmifa';&Sif; (Electronic Frontier Foundation) .
vrf;!$ef “vHkjcHK tEW&m,fuif;pGm bavmha&;enf;” (http://www.eff.org/Privacy/
Anonymity/blog-anonymously.php) onfvnf; ,ck vHkðcHa&;udpPESifh ywfoufI t=uH
aumif;rsm; ay;Edkifonfh pmwrf;wck jzpfygonf? zwf&_zG,f pmwrf;wck jzpfygonf?
tusOf;csKyf- qm&mESifh rdwfqufay;jcif;
tqifh 1) emrnf0Suf
tqifh 2) vltrsm;oHk; uGefjyLwm
tqifh 3) trnfrazmfaom ya&mufqDrsm;
tqifh 4) Tw}udrfwGifawmh vlyk*~dKvfu ulnDay;jcif;
tqifh 5) (Onion Routing through Tor)
tqifh 6) (Mixmaster, Invisiblog and GPG) ud,
k af ysmuf tifApfqD bavmh
ESifh *sDyD*sD
rnfodk@aom tajctaeu trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;jcif;twGuf vHkavmuf+yD[k ,lqEdkif
ygoenf;?
qm&mESifh rdwfqufay;jcif;
qm&mu tpdk;&±Hk;wckwGif aiGpm&if;udkif 0efxrf;wOD; jzpfonf? olr. txufvl}uD; 'kwd,0ef}uD;
jzpfolu tpdk;&b¾mrS aiGt}uD;tus,fcdk;,laea=umif; olrowdjyKrdvmonf? ,ckuJhodk@ tpdk;&0ef}uD;
e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 69

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trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;

udk,fYu &mZ0wfr_usL;vGefaeonfudk urBmodk@ olu today;wifjycsifvmonf? odk@aomfvnf;
wbufu tvkyjf yKwo
f mG ;rnfuv
kd nf; pd;k &draf e&jyefonf? tu,fI (0ef}u;D ESiahf wG@&ef csed ;f qdk cGijhf yKcsuf
&cJhv#ifaomfrS) 0ef}uD;xHwifjy&ef rjzpfEdkif? olr tvkyfjyKwfoGm;Edkifonf? olru a'owGif; xkwfa0
aeaomowif;pmwapmifrS owif;axmufwOD;udk zkef;ac:I Tta=umif;udk owif;ay;onf? ‚u
aocsmcdkifvHkaom tjcm;taxmuftxm;rsm; r&SdygbJESifh Towif;udk razmfjyEdkif[k qdkjyefonf?
Todk@jzifh qm&mu olrodor#udk bavmhwGifa&;I wurBmvHk;udk today;&ef/ 0ef}uD;XmetwGif;
jzpfysufaeonfrsm;udk ukd,fwdkifa&;&ef qHk;jzwfcsuf csvdkufawmhonf? odk@aomf olrtwGuf vHkðcHa&;
vdkao;onf? olr. bavmhwGif azmfjyxm;aom tcsuftvufrsm;udk olrudk,fwdkif a&;aerSef;
vltrsm;u rodap&efvnf; vdktyfonf? odk@twGufa=umifh olru trnfrazmfbJ bavmha&;&ef
pOf;pm;vm& awmhonf?
Todk@ trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;aepOfwGif olrudk vlrdEdkifonfhta=umif; (2) csuf&Sdonf? wcsufu
olra&;om;onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk,fYu olra&;aea=umif; ay:vGifazmfjyaejcif; jzpfonf? Oyrm
tm;jzifh- “usaemfu owWKwGif;0ef}uD;Xme 'k0ef}uD;.&Hk;rS t}uD;tuJ.trdef@udk vdkufemtaumif
txnfazmf&aom pm&if;udkifjzpfonf” [k azmfjyxm;v#if zwf&olu csufcsif; olra&;aerSef;
odawmhrnf?
qm&mudk zrf;rdEdkifaom aemufwenf;rSm oloHk;aeaom 0ufbfba&mufZm (Web browser) rS
ay;ydk@vmaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;/ tD;ar;vfyg uGefjyLwmowif; tcsuftvufrsm;udk
aumuf,lI odEdkifjcif;jzpfonf? tifwmeufESifh csdwfqufxm;aom/ odk@r[kwf &S,f,mvkyf a0iSoHk;
aeaom pepftwGif;&Sd uGefjyLwmwdkif;wGif vdyfpm&Sdygonf? ‚udk tdkifyD tuf'&ufpf (IP Address)
[kac:ygonf? ‚rSm okn (0) rS (255) txd udef;*%ef;rsm;jzpfI tpuf (dos) rsm;jzifh jcm;I
azmfjyxm;onfh vdypf mjzpfonf? Oyrm (213.24.124.38) uJo
h @kd jzpfygvrd rhf nf? olru olr0ef}u;D .
bavmhtwGif; rSwfcsufjyKazmfjy a&;om;onfhtcg olray;ydk@vdkufonfhpmwGif olr. vdyfpmyg
yg0ifazmfjyaeygonf?
tenf;i,fr# vdkuf±Hkr#ESifhyif 0ef}uD;. uGefjyLwmynm&Sifu qm&m. tdkifyDvdyfpmrSwqifh olr
rnfojl zpfonfukd &SmazG awG@oGm;Edik yf gonf? tu,fI qm&mu tdrrf u
S eG jf yLwmudk oH;k I w,fvzD ek ;f jzifh
ac:&aom (dial up ISP) rSwqifh tifwmeufudk toHk;jyKyguvnf; qmAmu rnfonfhtcsdefu
rnfonfhzkef;eHywfrS ac:qdkxm;onfudk &SmazGI awG@Edkifygonf? tcsKd@aom EdkifiHrsm;wGif 0ef}uD;jzpfolu
Ttcsuftvufrsm;udk &,l&eftwGuf w&m;±Hk;rS cGifhjyKcsufawmif;cH&ef vdktyfaumif; vdktyf
ygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf; tpdk;&udk,fYu tifwmeufqmAmrsm;udk csKyfudkifxm;aom EdkifiHrsm;wGifrl
tifwmeuf0efaqmifr_ay;aeaom qmAmu Ttcsuftvufrsm;udk tvG,fwulyif &SmazGxkwfay;
ygvdrfhrnf? qm&m 'kuQawG@oGm;zG,f &Sdygonf?

70 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

HandBook.pmd

70

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;

odk@aomfvnf; tifwmeufoHk;aepOfumvwGif qm&mu olr rnfolqdkonfudk azsmufxm;Edkifonfh
enf;vrf;trsm;tjym; &Sdygonf? a,bk,spnf;rsOf; Oya'orSm olru ydkIvHkðcHpGm a&;om;vdkv#if/
olru tyifyef;cH tvkyfydkvkyf&vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? odk@rSom olr. Oy"d±kyf tppftrSefudk zkef;uG,fxm;
Edkifrnf jzpfonf? qm&m odk@r[kwf bavmhwckudk trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;vdkolrsm;twGuf ‚wdk@.
rl&if;trnf tppftrSefudk zkef;uG,f&ef/ rnfr# pdk;&drfa=umuf&GH@ae&onfudk em;vnf&ef vdktyfygonf?
Todk@ tGefvdkif;ay:wGif rdrd. yifudk,f±kyf tppftrSefudk zkef;uG,fa&;om;=u&mwGif rnfr#}udK;yrf;
aqmif&Guf=u&a=umif;/ pufydkif;qdkif&m enf;ynmrsm;ESifh AsL[mrsm; trsm;tjym;vdka=umif; awG@=u
&ygvdrfhrnf?
tqifh 1) emrnf0Sufrsm;
qm&mu olr. yifudk,fOy"d±kyfudk azsmufEdkifaomenf;rSm 0ufbfay:rS tcrJhay;aom ar;vfrsm;udk
toHk;jyKjcif;yif jzpfygonf? odk@r[kwf rdrdEdkifiHjyifyrS tcrJhay;aom bavmh (free blog host)
rsm;udk toHk;jyKjcif; jzpfonf? (ydkufqHay;&onfh tD;ar;vf/ odk@r[kwf 0ufbfvufcH&m tdrf&Sifrsm;udk
toHk;jyKjcif;onf csifhcsdefydkif;qr_enf;&m a&mufygonf? rdrday;&aom aiGa=u;wefzdk;rSwqifh c&uf'pfu'f
ac: taºu;0,fu'fjym;/ b%fpm&if;/ ay;y,fvf (Paypal account) pm&if;wdk@ESifh csdwfqufxm;r_
&Sdaeygonf? Tcsdwfrsm;rSwqifh qm&mudk &SmazGEdkifygonf?) olru aemufxyf Oy"d±kyftopf- emrnf
0Sufudk zefwD;&ef vdktyfygonf? olru TtcrJh tD;ar;vfudk 0ifonfhtcsdefwGifjzpfap/ 0ef}uD;u olr
bavmhudk awG@oGm;onfjzpfap ‚u trnfrazmfxm;olwOD;/ tD;ar;vfvdyfpm (anonymous.
whistleblower@hotmail.com) pojzifhudkom awG@&rnf jzpfonf?
tcrJhoHk;Edkifaom 0ufbftajccH tD;ar;vf 0efaqmifr_rsm;rSmHotmail, Yahoo wd@k jzpfonf?
Hushmail u vHkðcHr_ ydkaumif;aom 0Sufpmpepfjzifh ydk@Edkifonfh 0ufbfar;vf jzpfonf?
tcrJh 0ufbfbavmh&,lEdkifaom 0efaqmifr_rsm;rSmBlogsome— Free wordpress blog
Blogger
Seo Blog pojzifh jzpfonf?
Tenf;emAsL[mwGifvnf; jy\em&Sdygao;onf? qm&mu olr. tD;ar;vf qm;Apfudk (sign up)
vkyfonfjzpfap/ 0ufbfbavmhudk 0ifonfjzpfap olr0ifonfh 0ufbfba&mufZmu olr. tdkifyD vdyfpm
(IP address) udk rSwfwrf;wif (log) vkyfxm;ygonf? Todk@ toHk;jyKjcif;udk tdrf&Sd uGefjyLwmrS
oHk;onfjzpfap/ tvkyfrSjzpfap oHk;ygu olrxHodk@ aemufa=umif;cH vdkufvmEdkifygonf? tu,fI tD;
ar;vf 0efaqmifr_ay;aom ukr`%D/ 0ufbfbavmhukr`%Dudk Towif;rsm;ay;&ef twif;tusyf
awmif;qdv
k mygu aemufq;kH olrudk &SmazGawG@&SEd ikd yf gonf? od@k aomfvnf; Tod@k tcrJh 0ufbf 0efaqmifr_
ay;aom ukr`%Dtrsm;pkrSm Todk@tcsuftvufrsm;udk vG,fvG,fulul azmfxkwfay;wwfonfh Xmersm;
r[kwf=uyg? Oyrm tm;jzifh- a[mhwfar;vf (hotmail) qdkygpdk@? 0ef}uD;u qm&mtoHk;jyKcJhaom
e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 71

HandBook.pmd

71

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;

tdkifyD vdyfpmudk &&Sdvdkonf qdkygpdk@/ w&m;±Hk;cGifhjyKcsufukd awmif;cHwifjy&ef vdktyfvdrfhrnf jzpf+yD;
tar&duefjynfaxmifpk&Sd Oya'pnf;=uyfa&;Xmersm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef vdktyfvmygvdrfhrnf?
odk@aomfvnf; oltoHk;jyKaom tD;ar;vf0efaqmifr_ay;onfh ukr`%D/ 0ufbfbavmh ukr`%DrS olr.
tcsuftvufrsm;udk xkwfay;&ef tpdk;&u awmif;qdkcH&rnfh taetxm;rsKd;udk qm&mu rvdkvm;rnf
uawmh trSefyif jzpfonf?
tqifh 2) vltrsm;oHk; uGefjyLwm
qm&mu ‚. udk,fydkifOy"d±kyfudk azsmuf&eftwGuf vkyfaqmifEdkifonfh aemufxyftqifh wqifhrSm
olr. bavmhxHodk@ vltrsm;toHk;jyKaeaom uGefjyLwmrS 0ifI ydk@pfa&;jcif;yif jzpfonf? olr. tdrf&Sd
uGefjyLwm/ ±Hk;rS uGefjyLwmrS olr. 0uftajccH tD;ar;vf/ 0ufbfbavmh taumifhudk zGifhrnfhtpm;
qdkifbmuzD; ponfh vltrsm;oHk;onfh uGefjyLwmrsm;rS aeI topfzGifhonfu ydkIaumif;ygonf?
xd@k tjyif pm=unfw
h u
kd /f wuUov
kd f uGejf yLwmtcef;rsm;&Sd uGejf yLwmrsm;udk toH;k jyKIvnf; aqmif&u
G Ef ikd f
ygonf? 0ef}u;D u ar;vfy@kd vmonf/h od@k r[kwf rSwcf suaf &;om;vmonfh tdik yf v
D yd pf mudk aemufa=umif;cH
vdkufyguvnf; qdkifbmuzD;wcku ydk@xm;a=umif;om awG@&ygvdrfhrnf? vltrsm;u toHk;jyKae=uaom
ae&m jzpfaoma=umifhvnf; rnfolqdkonfudk pGyfpGJ&ef cufygvdrfhrnf?
Tenf;emAsL[mwGiv
f nf; tm;enf;csurf sm; &Sad eygao;onf? Oyrm qdik b
f muzD;u rnfonfu
h eG jf yLwm
udk rnfou
l rnfonft
h csed w
f iG f toH;k jyKcahJ =umif; rSww
f rf;wifxm;ygu qm&mudk aemufq;kH &SmazGawG@&Sd
oGm;Edik yf gonf? qm&mu vltrsm;uGejf yLwm roH;k =uaom nydik ;f wGiv
f nf; Ttcsurf sm;udk wify@kd vdv
k rd hf
rnf r[kwfyg? ta=umif;rSm uGefjyLwmtcef;wGif olrwOD;wnf;om usef&Sdaeonfudk vlrSwfrdEdkif+yD;/
wm0ef&Sd apmifh=uyfae&olu olrudk tvG,fwul rSwfrdazmfajymEdkifygvdrfhrnf? xdk@tjyif olru qdkifbm
uzD;ac: uGefjyLwmqdkifrsm;udkvnf; r=umc%qdkovdk ajymif;a&$@I toHk;csoifhygonf? tu,fI
0ef}uD;u wifydk@vmor#aom ydk@pfrsm;onf yifrvrf;r}uD;&Sd (Joe’s Beer and Bits) qdkifrSom
ydk@vmaea=umif; awG@&Sdygu ‚qdkifbmuzD;udk apmifh=unfhaeap&ef vlwa,muf v$wfxm;aumif;
apv$wfxm; Edkifygonf? qm&m bavmha&;aepOfvnf; &SmazGawG@&Sd oGm;Edkifygonf?
tqifh 3) trnfrazmfaom ya&mufqDrsm; (Anonymous proxies)
qm&mu bavmhodk@ ydk@pftopfa&;vdkwdkif; tjrJwap (Joe’s Beer and Bits) qdkifodk@oGm;I
ydk@ae/ a&;ae&onfudk +iD;aiG@ vmonf? tdrfeD;csif;&Sd uGefjyLwmu|rf;usifolwOD;. tultnDjzifh olru
olr uGefjyLwmudk trnfrazmfaom ya&muf qD qmAm (anonymous proxy) rSwqifh 0ufbo
f @kd
wufEdkif&ef pepfwck qifcdkif;vdkufonf? tcktcg olru a&;aeus/ oHk;aeus 0ufbfar;vfESifh
0ufbavmhodk@ wufEdkif+yD? ‚0ufbfwGif usefcJhrnfh trSwftom;uawmh olrtoHk;jyKonfh ya&mufqD
qmAm. vdyfpmom usefchJawmhrnf? tdrf&Sd olruGefjyLwm. vdyfpm usef&pf raeEdkifawmh? olr.
0ef}uD;taejzifh ,ckqdkv#if &SmazGazmfxkwf&ef ydkIcufoGm;+yD jzpfonf?

72 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

HandBook.pmd

72

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;

yxrtaejzifh olru tGefvdkif;ay:wGif ya&mufqDqmAmrsm; pm&if;udk &SmazG&vdrfhrnf? *l;*Jvf &Smpuf
(Google search-engine) wGif [lI “proxy server” ±dkufI &SmEdkifonf? olru
(publicproxyservers.com) [laom ae&mrS ya&mufqD qmAmwckudk a&G;cs,fvdkufonf?
Tae&mu trnfrazmfvdkaom tqifhjrifhae&m (high anonymity) tjzpf owfrSwfxm;onfh
ae&mjzpfonf? olru Tya&mufqD qmAm. tdkifyD vdyfpmudk a&;csvdkuf+yD;/ ya&mufqDpm&if;wGif
azmfjyxm;onfh ydk@wf (port) trnfrsm;udk rSwfom;vdkufonf?
vltrsm;oHk;Edkifonfh tm;xm;avmufaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;rSm • publicproxyservers.com, anonymous and non-anonymous
proxies,
• Samair (http://samair.ru/proxy/) -only anonymous proxies, and
includes information on proxies that suport SSL.
• rosinstrument proxy database (http://tools.rosinstrument.com/
proxy/) - searchable database of proxy servers.
wdk@ jzpfonf?
xdk@aemuf olru 0ufbf ba&mufZm (web browser) &Sd a&G;cs,f&ef “preference” ae&mudk
zGifhygonf? “General” “network” “security” [laom acgif;pOfrsm;atmufwGif olru
ya&mufqDrSwqifh tifwmeuf wuf&efenf;udk qifxm; (set up) Edkifygonf? zdkif;,m; azmufpf
(rD;v#HajracG;[k jrefrmtrsm; ac:qdkae=uaom firefox browser ba&mufZm) wGifrl Todk@vkyf&ef
(Preferences— General— Connection— Settings) wGif awG@Edkifygonf?)
olru “manual proxy configuration” udk zGifhvdkuf+yD; ya&mufqD qmAm. tdkifyD vdyfpmudk
jznfhoGif;ygonf? xdk@aemuf (HTTP proxy and SSL proxy) udk jznfh+yD; olr. qufwif
(setting) udk aqhzf (save) vkyfygonf? olru ba&mufZmudk ydwfI aemufw}udrf jyefzGifh+yD;
0ufbfay:odk@wufI vdkufoGm;Edkifygonf?
0ufbfrsm;tay:odk@ vdkufIoGm;=unfh&onfrSm tenf;i,faES;onf[k olr cHpm;&ygonf? ta=umif;rSm
olr oGm;=unfo
h r#aom 0ufbpf mrsuEf mS rsm;onf auG@ywfI vm&aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? a[mhar;vf
(hotmail.com) od@k wdu
k ±f u
kd f qufo,
G rf nft
h pm; olru ya&mufqo
D @kd qufo,
G +f y;D / ya&mufqrD S
wqifhcHI a[mhwfar;vfodk@ qufoG,f,laoma=umifh jzpfygonf? a[mhwfar;vfxHrS olrxHodk@ jyefvm
aomtcgwGifvnf; ya&mufqDqmAmxHodk@ t&ifa&mufygonf? aemufrS olrxHodk@ a&mufygonf?
xdk@tjyif 0ufbfqdkufrsm;udk oGm;a&muf=unhf&_&onfrSm jy\emtenf;i,f&Sdonf[kvnf; cHpm;&wwf
ygonf? txl;ojzifh Tya&mufqDqmAmrsm;u (log in) vkyf&ef awmif;qdkonfh tcgrsKd;wGif jzpfyg
onf? odk@aomfvnf; olr. tdkifyD vdyfpmrSm 0ufbfbavmhay:wGif usef&pfaevdrfhrnf r[kwfyg?

e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 73

HandBook.pmd

73

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;

ya&mufqD toHk;jyK&eftwGuf avhusifhapvdkygonf? aysmfp&maumif;rnf[k ,lqygonf?
vltrsm;u rdrdar;vfrsm;udk vrf;a=umif;v$J&mwGif toHk;rsm;=uonfh (noreply.org) udk oGm;yg?
‚pmrsufESmu oifrl&if;vm&m tdkifyD vdyfpmudk azmfjyI E_wfqufóuqdkygvdrfhrnf? Oyrm (“Hello
pool-151-203-182-212-wma.east.verizon.net 151.203.182.212, please to
meet you.”) [k pojzifh azmfjyygvdrfhrnf?
,cktcsed w
f iG f (anonymizer.com) od@k oGm;yg? Tae&mrSwqifh (tcsK@d aom) 0ufbpf mrsuEf mS rsm;
udk trnfrazmfaom ya&mufqD qmAmudkjzwfI zwfEdkifygvdrfhrnf? (anonymizer.com) .
pmrsufESm nmbufxdyfwGif (URL for http://noreply.org this link) odk@r[kwf (http://
anon.free.anonymizer.com/http://noreply.org this link) udk oGm;I uvpfvyk &f ykH if
jzpfygonf? ,cktcg (noreply.org) u oifu (vortex.anonymizer.com) rS vmonf[k
,lqrSwo
f m;aeygvrd rhf nf? (anonymizer) onf oif. ba&mufZm qufwifukd ajymif;vJjcif;r&Sb
d J
oif. ya&mufqD ajymif;vJr_ &Sd-r&Sd prf;oyf=unfhEdkifonfh enf;yif jzpfygonf? odk@aomfvnf;
tqifhjrifhaom 0ufbf0efaqmifr_rsm;/ 0ufbf ar;vfrsm;ESifh 0ufbfbavmh qmAmrsm;twGufrl
tvkyfvkyfrnf r[kwfyg?)
aemufqHk;taejzifh txufazmfjyxm;onfh enf;vrf;rsm;twdkif; vdkufemI oif. 0ufbfba&mufZmudk
(set up) vkyf+yD;aemuf (noreply.org) odk@oGm;I oifvm&mae&m tdkifyDvdyfpmudk jyefI
=unfhEdkifygonf?
tif; æ æ ya&mufqDrsm;onfvnf; jynfhpHkvHkðcHonfh udpP r[kwfao;yg? tu,fI qm&m aexdkifonfh
EdkifiHonf uef@owfcsKyfcs,fxm;onfh tifwmeuf Oya'rsm; jyXmef;xm;jcif; &Sdygu tpdk;&u wm;jrpf
xm;onfh qkdufrsm;odk@ ya&mufqDqmAmrsm;udk oHk;I oGm;=unfhol trsm;tjym; &SdEdkifygonf? odk@twGuf
a=umifh vlodrsm;onfh ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk ydwfqdk@xm;&ef tpdk;&u trdef@xkwfxm;aumif;
xkwfxm;Edkifygonf? tifwmeuf toHk;jyKolrsm;u ya&mufqD topfrsm; xyfoHk;=urnf? tpdk;&uvnf;
Tya&mufqDrsm;udk vdkufvHydwfyif=uygvdrfhOD;rnf? Todk@jzifh 0dkif;}uD;ywfywf 'la0a0 jzpfaeygvdrfhrnf?
Todk@ tqifhrsm;udk jzwfoef;aqmif&Guf&rnfrSm tcsdef=umjrifh+yD; cufcJyifyef;vSygonf?
qm&mwGif aemufxyf jy\emwck &Sdaeygao;onf? ta=umif;rSm TEdkifiHwGif vltenf;pkuom
ya&mufqDqmAmrsm;udk oHk;ae=ujcif; jzpfonf? olr. bavmhwGif wifxm;onfh ydk@pfrsm;rSm ya&mufqD
qmAmwckwnf;rSom vmonfudk awG@&Sdygu 0ef}uD;u EdkifiHtwGif;&Sd (ISPs) qmAmrsm;tm;vHk;rS
tifwmeuf wufxm;or# pm&if;rsm;udk awmif;I ppfaq;Edkifygao;onf? Ttcg qm&m. uGefjyLwm
wckwnf;uom ya&mufqD qmAmwckodk@ t}udrf}udrf wufaea=umif; awG@&Sd azmfxkwfEdkifygonf?
qm&mu ya&mufqD qmAmudk oHk;I bavmha&;aea=umif;awmh twdtus azmfxkwfEdkifvdrfhrnf
r[kwyf g? od@k aomfvnf; Tya&mufqu
D o
kd ;kH I 0ufbb
f avmha&;aea=umif; ed*;kH csKyo
f ;kH oyfEikd yf g vdrrhf nf?

74 e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY

HandBook.pmd

74

11/6/2007, 11:30 PM

trnfrazmfbJ rnfodkY bavmha&;om;rnfenf;

vltenf;i,fuom ya&mufqDoHk;aeaoma=umifh oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm;t& olrom Todk@
bavmha&;aea=umif;vnf; azmfxkwfEdkifygvdrfhrnf? qm&mtaejzifh ya&mufqD qmAmudk u|rf;usifpGm
toHk;jyKEdkifygu ‚a'otwGif; vltrsm;toHk;jyKaeaom ya&mufqD/ odk@r[kwf ya&mufqDrsm;udk
ajymif;vJtoHk;jyKI aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?
tqifh 4) Tw}udrfwGifawmh vlyk*~dKvfu ulnDay;jcif;
tu,fI olrtoHk;jyKaeaom ya&mufqD qmAmrSwqifh ayguf=um;cJhv#ifawmh qm&mwa,muf
tvGeftrif; tHhtm;oifh&vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? tu,fI 0ef}uD;u ya&mufqD qmAm ukr`%Dodk@
Oya'a=umif;t& jzpfap/ aiGay;vmbfxdk;I jzpfap csOf;uyfwdkufwGef;Edkifygu ol.EdkifiHrS Tya&mufqD
odk@ wufvmaom olrsm;/ vdyfpmrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifxm;&ef olwdk@u rnfonfhqdkufrsm;udk toHk;jyKae
onfudk od&Sd&ef/ aqmif&GufEdkifygonf? qm&mu ya&mufqD qmAmudkom olr twGuf tumtuG,f
tjzpf vH k ; 0 tm;ud k ; ae&aoma=umif h v nf ; / Tya&muf q D qmAmud k rnf o l u xd e f ; csKyf u d k i f
wG,faeonfudkyif owdjyKrdcsifrS jyKrdygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf; ya&mufqD qmAmydkif&Sifrsm;u olr
Tae&mrS jzwfI oHk;aea=umif;vnf; owdjyKrdcsifrS jyKrdygvdrfhrnf? ta=umif;rSm ya&mufqDrsm;udk
tr_rJh trSwfrJhoabm zGifhxm;wwf=uaoma=umifhvnf; jzpfygonf?
qm&mu uae'gEdkifiHwGif oli,fcsif;wOD; &Sdonf qdkygpdk@? uae'gEdkifiHu qm&m. EdkifiHxufawmh
tifwmeufvGwfvyfr_ ydk&SdEdkifygonf? ‚u qm&mtwGuf bavmhwifay;&ef ulnDay;Edkif+yD;/ qm&mu
aqmif & G u f a ea=umif ; zk e f ; uG , f x m;Ed k i f y gonf ? qm&mu ‚ud k zk e f ; quf I ol . pepf w G i f
“Circumventor” jyifqifay;&efvnf; awmif;qkdEdkifygonf? “Circumventor” qdkonfrSm
vltenf;i,fom oH;k onfh ya&mufqD qmAmrsK;d jzpf+y;D / ‚. uGejf yLwmudk ya&mufqD qmAmtjzpfo;kH &ef
cGifhjyKxm;ay;onfh pepfrsKd; jzpfygonf?
qm&m. oli,fcsif; *sifrf u “Circumventor” udk (peacefire.org) &Sd (http://www.
peacefire.org/circumventor/simple-circumventor-instructions.html)
vifhcfwGif a'gif;vkyfvkyfI ‚udk,fydkif 0if;'dk;pf pepfwGif xnfhoGif; (install) vkyf&efyif jzpfonf?
(install) vkyf&onfrSmvnf; vG,fonfawmh r[kwfyg? olu uGefjyLwmwGif (Perl, Open SA)
xdk@aemufrS (circumventor) wkd@udk tifpawm (install) vkyf&ef vdkygonf? ,cktcsdefrSpI
‚. uGefjyLwmudk tifwmeufESifh pOfqufrjywf csdwfqufay;xm;&ef vdktyfygonf? xdktcg qm&mu
ol@udk zGiahf y;&ef xyfrt
H a=umif;=um;p&m rvdak wmhbJ ya&mufqu
D kd tcsed rf a&G; toH;k jyKEikd +f yD jzpfygonf?
olu T aqmhzf0J,m;rsm; qif+yD;aomtcg qm&mxH zkef;ac:I ya&mufqDrSwqifh tifwmeufrsm;ay:
av#muf=unfhEdkif+yD jzpfonfh (URL) vdyfpmudkay;&ef vdkygonf? bavmhvnf; a&;Edkif+yD jzpfonf?
Tenf;u ydkI tqifajyygonf? qm&mu tdrf&Sd uGefjyLwmrS jzpfap/ tifwmeufuzD;rS jzpfap
ya&mufqDudk toHk;jyKEdkif+yD jzpfaoma=umifhyif? olr. pepftwGif;wGifvnf; rnfodk@r# ajymif;vJr_rsm;
vkyfaqmif&ef rvdktyfawmhyg?

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qm&mu *sifrf. ulnDapmifrr_twGuf txl;aus;Zl;wif&SdaecsdefwGif TpDpOfaqmif&Gufxm;r_wGif
t"dujy\em &SdvmEdkifygonf? *sifrfu zGifhxm;onfh uGefjyLwm r=umc%qdkovdk (reboot)
jyefvkyf&ef vdkygonf? TtcsdefwGif ol. tdkifyDvdyfpmonfvnf; vdyfpmtopfwcktjzpf ajymif;vJ
oGm;wwfygonf? Todk@jzpfwdkif; qm&mtaejzifh oHk;I &Edkifawmhrnf r[kwfyg? *sifrfu qm&mxH
xyfrHqufoG,f&ef vdktyf+yD; qmurfAifhwmESifh csdwfqufxm;onfh tdkifyDvdyfpmtopfudk xyfay;&ef
vdkygvdrfhrnf? Todk@aqmif&Guf&onfrSm aiGukefa=u;usrsm;ovdk &Hzef&Hcg pdwfysufzG,fvnf; jzpfygonf?
qm&mu tdkifyDvdyfpmwckudk umv=um&SnfpGm oHk;aev#if Tvdyfpmudk tpdk;&u &dyfrd+yD; ydwfyifcH
&onfvnf; ñuH&Edkifygonf? TtwGufvnf; qm&mu pdk;&drfylyefpdwf &SdaeEdkifygonf?
tqifh 5) (Onion Routing Through TOR)
*sifrfu qm&mudk (Tor) pepfudk prf;oHk;=unfh&ef t=uHjyKaumif; jyKEdkifygonf? TpepfrSm rdrdtrnfudk
vlord cHbJ aumifreG v
f ðkH cpH mG toH;k csEikd o
f nfh pepfopfwrsK;d jzpfygonf? (Onion Routing) qdo
k nfrmS
ya&mufqD qmAm tajccHrS t=uHxkwfI jyKjyifxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? uGefjyLwmwcku oif.udk,fpm;
aqmif&Gufay;jcif; jzpf+yD;/ tqifhjrifhenf;ynmqdkif&m &_yfaxG;r_rsm;jzifh aqmif&Gufxm;ygonf? oifu
awmif;qdkvdkufaom pmrsufESmwdkif;onf (Onion Routing network) rSwqifhoGm;+yD; tjcm;
uGefjyLwm 2-ckrS tck 20 ausmfudk jzwfI oGm;ygonf? xdktcg rl&if;wufvmaom uGefjyLwmudk
aemufa=umif;cH vdkufEdkifa&;twGuf tawmfcufcJoGm;+yD jzpfygonf?
(Onion Routing Chain) uGif;quf. tqifhwdkif;onf 0Sufxm;aompepfjzifh oGm;aoma=umifh
qm&m. Edik if H tpd;k &u vdu
k v
f &H mS azG&ef ydI
k cufcaJ pygonf? xdrk #ru Tpepfx&J dS uGejf yLwm tvH;k wdik ;f
uvnf; teD;qHk; tdrfeD;csif;uGefjyLwmudkom od&Sdygonf? wenf;qdk&wm a&mufwm bD (Router
B) u TuGefjyLwm qufoG,fr_udk awmif;qdkvmonfh (Router A) uGefjyLwmudkom od&Sdygonf?
xdkrSwqifh uGefjyLwm (Router C) udk xyfrHydk@ay;jyefonf? Todk@ uGefjyLwmcsif; qufoG,f
awmif;qdrk t
_ m;vH;k onfvnf; pum;0Supf epfjzifh jzwfvmjcif; jzpfonf? od@k twGuaf =umifh rl&if; qm&mu
awmif;qdkvmaom pmrsufESmudk od&SdEdkifrnf r[kwfyg? aemufqHk; awmif;qdkonfh pmrsufESmodk@
a&mufoGm;onfh uGefjyLwmudkvnf; od&SdEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg?
Todk@enf;ynmu tqifhjrifh&_yfaxG;aomfvnf; tifpawm (install) vkyf&onfrSm vG,fulvGef;vS
ojzifh qm&mu thHtm;oifh 0rf;om&ygonf? (Onion Routing system) y±dk*&rfudk (http://
tor.eff.org/cvs.tor/doc/tor-doc-win32.html) rS a'gif;vkyfvkyfI xnfhoGif;Edkifygonf?
olru (Tor) y±dk*&rfudk a'gif;vkyf vkyfvdkuf+yD; olr. puftwGif; xnfhoGif; (install) vkyf±Hkyif
jzpfonf? xdk@aemuf (Tor) ESifh yl;wGJ tvkyfvkyfrnfh ya&mufqDudk a'gif;vkyfvkyfI tifpawmvkyf&ef
vdkygonf? Tpepf. tm;aumif;csufrSm qm&moGm;=unfhrnfh tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm;rS a=umfjim
(Ad) rsm;udk z,f&Sm;csefxm;cJhjcif;yif jzpfonf?

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aqmhzf0J,m;udk tifpawmvkyfI pufudk jyefvnfzGifh+yD;aomtcg qm&mu (noreply.org) udk
jyefI ppfaq;=unfhygonf? olr. pufudk (Tor system) pepfu atmifjrifpGm 0Sufxm;ay;+yD
jzpfa=umif; awG@vdkuf&ygonf? Oyrm- (noreply.org) u olrtaejzifh [m;AwfwuUodkvf&Sd
pufwvHk;rS wufvmonf[k ,lqaeygonf? olru aemufw}udrfjyef prf;jyefonf? ,ckawmh *smreDu
wufvmonf[k ,lqaeonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh olrawmif;qdkor# pmrsufESmrsm;udk (Tor) pepfu
tdkifyD vdyfpmrsm;ajymif;I &SmazGay;aea=umif; awG@&ygonf? olr. yifudk,fOy"d±kyfudk zkef;uG,fxm;Edkif
+yD jzpfygonf?
TpepfwGif xl;qef;aom tjcm;tusKd;quf aemufqufwGJrsm;vnf; &Sdygao;onf? olru *l;*Jvfudk
(Tor) pepfrSwqifh oHk;I &SmazGaomtcg olr. bmompum; (language) udk ajymif;jypfygonf?
w}urd w
f iG f t*Fvyd b
f momjzifh azmfjyaomfvnf; aemufw}urd w
f iG f *syefbmomjzifh azmfjyygonf? *smref/
'def;rwf/ 'wfcsf pojzifh rdepftenf;i,ftwGif;rSmyif trsKd;rsKd; ajymif;aeygonf? qm&mu bmompum;
topfrsm; avhvm&onfhtwGuf 0rf;ajrmufaomfvnf; tjcm;tusKd;quf jy\emrsm;twGuf
pdwfylygonf? qm&mu 0DuDyD;'D, (Wikipedia) tifwmeufpG,fpHkusrf;wGif 0ifa&;&jcif;udk oabm
awG@ygonf? odk@aomfvnf; olru (Tor) pepfoHk;I 0DuDyD;'D,wGif 0ifa&mufjyifqifjcif;/ jznfhpGuf
a&;om;jcif;udk ydwfyif xm;ygonf?
qm&m tjcm; ya&mufqDrsm;wGif awG@&ovdk/ (Tor) pepfjzifhvnf; jy\emtcsKd@ ñuH&ygao;onf?
olr. tifwmeufrsm;tay: av#mufvnfonfhtcg tjcm;ya&mufqDrcHbJ oGm;&onfESifh pmv#if
tenf;i,faES;oGm;ygonf? olru Tpepfudk uef@owfxm;onfh 0ufbfqdkufrsm;odk@ oGm;onfhtcg/
bavmha&;onfh tcgrSom oHk;ygawmhonf? jyify&Sd uGefjyLwmrsm;wGifvnf; Tpepfudk tvG,fwul
xnfhoGif;I r&aoma=umifh tdrf&SduGefjyLwmrSom bavmha&;& ygawmhonf?
ydI
k pd;k &drzf ,
G t
f csuw
f ckrmS wcgw&H (Tor) pepfu tvkyrf vkyb
f J &yfqikd ;f aeonfvnf; &Sw
d wfygonf?
ta=umif;rSm olr. tdkifyDvdyfpmu (Tor) pepf. uGefjyLwmwckwGif wpfqdk@ &yfwef@aeaoma=umifh
jzpfygonf? wcgw&H rdepftcsK@d apmifah e&wwfygonf? olr=unfv
h o
kd nfh 0ufbpf mrsuEf mS udv
k nf; rjrif&/
rzwf&yg?
tqif h 6) (Mixmaster, Invisiblog and GPG)
udk,faysmuf tifApfqDbavmhESif *sDyD*sD
ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;ESifh ywfoufjcif; r&SdbJ bavmha&;jcif;oufouftwGuf tjcm;ajz&Sif;Edkifaom
enf;vrf;rsm;vnf; &Sdygao;onf? Tpepfuvnf; (Tor) pepfuJhodk@yif tqifhjrifhygonf?
olrt&yf&Sd uGefjyLwmu|rf;usifolESifh &ufowWywftcsKd@r# tcsdefjzKef;+yD;onfhtcg qm&mu aemufxyf
enf;vrf;wck &vmygonf? udk,faysmuf tifApfqDbavmh (Invisiblog—http://invisiblog.
com/) [kac:aom enf;jzpfonf? =opa=wvsEdkifiHrS (vigilant.tv) [kac:onfh trnf rxif&Sm;/
azmfjyrxm;onfh tzGJ@wcku aqmif&Gufaejcif; jzpfonf? Tqdkufudk pdwfylyef pdk;&drfr_ &Sdae=uolrsm;
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twGuf &nf&G,fI xGifxm;jcif;jzpfovdk/ Tqdkuf'fudk vkyfudkifae=uolrsm;rSmvnf; Tvdk vlpm;rsm;yif
jzpfonf? oifu 0ufbfrSwqifh tifApfqDbavmhxHodk@ wifydk@I r&yg? ±dk;±dk;yHkrSef bavmh wifydk@yHktwdkif;
azmfjywifydk@&ef cGifhjyKrxm;yg? oifu txl;pDrHjyKjyifxm;aom tD;ar;vfrSwqifh ydk@&ef vdktyfygonf?
(MixMaster remailer system) pepfrSwqifh ay;ydk@&ygonf? vufrSwfozG,f (sign) xdk;I
pm0Suf (encrypt) +yD; ydk@&ygonf?
qm&mu tay:pmydk'f aemufqHk;wGif azmfjyxm;onfh pma=umif;u bmqdkonfudk t}udrftenf;i,f
}udK;yrf;=unfh±HkESifhyif oabmaygufvmygonf? aemufqHk; olru (GPG) (http://gnupg.org/)
pepfukd vkyu
f ikd &f ef vdt
k yfvmygonf? t"dyg` ,rf mS txl;aumif;rGeo
f nfh yk*Kd~ vaf &; vHjk cKH r&_ adS om *st
D eJ ,
f l
taumiftxnfazmfr_pepf (the GNU implementation of Pretty Good Privacy)
jzpfygonf? vltrsm;twGuf oHk;Edkifonfh pm0Sufpepf (public-key encryption system)
jzpfonf? (http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Publiv-key_cryptography)
Tpma=umif;wGif udpP (2) ck&ydS gonf? vltrsm;oH;k aomhjzifh pm0Sujf cif; (public-key encryption)
qdkonfrSm wpHkwa,mufxHodk@ olrydk@aompmudk xdkoluom zwfEdkifaom enf;ynmjzpfonf? v#Kd@0Suf
aomhudk r#a0xm;&efvnf; rvdktyfyg? tjcm;olrsm;u qm&mxHjyefydk@aom pmrsm;udkvnf; Tenf;jzifh
zwfEdkifygonf? (public-key encryption) u rdrdpmudk 'pf*spfw,fpepfjzifh vufrSwfa&;xdk;Edkif
&efvnf; cGifhjyKxm;ygao;onf? odk@twGufa=umifh tjcm;olrsm;u twkvkyf&efvnf; rjzpfEdkifyg?
olru ydk@pftwGuf ay;ydk@&mwGif oHk;Edkifrnfh aomhwHwpHk (key pair) udk zefwD;vdkufygonf? ydk@pfwckudk
olrudk,fydkifaomh (private-key) jzifh vufrSwfa&;xdk;I ay;ydk@onf? bavmhqmAmwGif &Sdaeolu
olray;xm;onfh trsm;oHk;aomh (public-key) rS wqifh olr. pmudk zwfEdkifygonf? xdk@aemuf
bavmhtay:wifay;ygonf? (oif. tD-ar;vfudk udk,fydkif yk*~vduudpPtjzpf ,Hk=unfpGm ay;ydk@enf;
tcef;wGifvnf; =unfhEdkifygonf?)
xdk@aemuf olru (MixMaster) udk (set up) vkyfygonf? TpepfrSm pmydk@aompepfjzpf+yD;
rl&if;ydk@onfhae&mudk azsmufxm;ygonf? (MixMaster) pepfu jyefvnfar;vfydk@ay;onfh
pepf&n
S }f u;D (anonymous remailer chain) udk toH;k jyKxm;ygonf? Tpepfu yd@k ol. ud,
k af &;
ta=umif;udprP sm;udk ðzwfcsex
f m;+y;D / rdryd @kd vdak om ae&m vdypf mod@k pma&mufap&ef yd@k aompepfjzpfygonf?
odk@twGufa=umifh tD;ar;vfwckudk rdrd rnfolrSef; rodap&bJ vHkðcHpGm ay;ydk@Edkifygonf? TpepfwGif
(2) ckrS (20) cef@aom ul;ajymif;tD;ar;vfay;ydk@onfh uGefjyLwm trsm;udk jzwfoef;oGm;+yD;rS wbufodk@
a&muf&SdoGm;jcif; jzpfygonf? tD;-ar;vf. rl&if;udk vdkufvH&SmazG&ef tvGefcufygonf? tu,fI
=um;cHuGefjyKwm wvHk; uazmufI rdrdudk,fa&;tcsuftvufrsm; rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf xm;OD;/
Todk@ od&SdEdkif&ef rvG,fulyg? olru (MixMaster) y±dk*&rfudk qdk@pfuk'frsm; (source code)

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pkaqmif;I wnfaqmuf&ygonf? Tvkyfief;u enf;ynmt& u|rf;usifr_&Sd&efvdktyf+yD; uGefjyLwm
u|rf;usifolrsm;xHrS tultnD &,l&efvnf; vdktyfygvdrfhrnf?
olru (MixMaster) jzifh yxrOD;qHk; tD;ar;vfudk tifApfqDbavmhodk@ ay;ydk@ygonf? TtD;ar;vf
wGif olru trsm;oHk;&ef jyifqifxm;onfh trsm;oHk;aomh (Public key) yg&ygrnf? tifApfqD
bavmh u Taomh (uD ; ) ud k od r f ; qnf ; xm;I bavmh t opf w ck zG i f h a y;ygonf ? qd k y gpd k @ /
(“invisiblog.com/ac4589d7001ac238”) jzpfvdrfhrnf? Tpma=umif;&Snf }uD;wGif olr
*sDyD*sD uD; (GPG Key) . aemufqHkpma=umif;rS 16 bdkuf (16 bytes) yg0ifygonf? xdk@aemuf
olr aemufxyfa&;vdkaom ydk@pfrsm;udk tifApfqDbavmhodk@ ydk@ygonf? pmom; (text) jzifh a&;om;+yD;/
vltrsm;oHk; uD; (public key) jzifh vufrSwfa&;xdk;I (MixMaster program) rSwqifh
ay;ydk@vdkuf±Hkyif jzpfonf?
Tenf;u ,cifolr bavmha&;&oavmuf rjrefqefyg? (MixMaster) pepfu olr. tD;ar;vf
rsm;udk vrf;a=umif;v$J oGm;aeaponfrSm ‚tD;ar;vf qmAmodk@a&mufap&ef wcgw&H 2-em&D/
wcgw&H 2-&ufr# =umwwfygonf? xdk@tjyif olru bavmhodk@ jyef=unfhrnfqdkv#ifvnf; tvGef
owdxm;&ygonf? tu,fI olru r=umc% jyef-jyef=unhfaernf qdkyguvnf; olr. tdkifyD
vdyfpmu xdkbavmhwGif usef&pfaeygvdrfhrnf? xdktcg bavmhydkif&SifrSm olrjzpfa=umif; od&Sd
oGm;Edkifygonf? odk@aomfvnf; tifApfqDbavmhpepfuyif ydkif&SifrSm rnfoljzpfrSef; rodap&atmif
tmrcHxm;aoma=umifh olr tenf;i,fpdwfat;&ygonf?
tifApfqDbavmh. t"dujy\emrSm toHk;jyK&ef cufcJvS+yD;/ omrefvlrsm; raqmif&GufEdkifjcif;yif
jzpfonf? vltrsm;pku *sDyD*sDpepf (GPG system) pwif (set up) vkyf&efyif cufae=uygonf?
xdk@tjyif rdrdudk,fydkifxm;&rnfh aomhESifh trsm;twGufaomh (private key and public key)
pojzifh &_yaf xG;aewwf=uygonf? vltrsm;tvG,o
f ;kH Edik af om pm0Suf onfph epfrmS qdik zf m&D (Ciphire)
jzpfygonf? enf;ynm odyfu|rf;usifp&m rvdktyfbJ aqmif&GufEdkifygonf? TtwGufa=umifh vltenf;pk
om (tvGef@tvGef vHkðcHr_ vdktyfvGef;aom olrsm;rSom) tD;ar;vfudk pm0Sufpepfjzifh ydk@jcif;
(encryption) jyK=uygonf?
(MixMaster) pepfonf vltrsm;twGuf enf;ynmt& cufcv
J yS gonf? 0if;'d;k pfpepf toH;k jyKorl sm;
u ,cif (Dos) pepfudkoHk;I Tae&mrS (http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/
maxima er/mix204b46.zip?download) a'gif;vkyfvkyf,l Edkif=uygonf? usaemfu
a'gif;vkyfvkyf,l+yD; prf;oyf=unfhygonf? tvkyf rvkyfyg? odk@r[kwf usaemf ydk@xm;aom tD;ar;vfu
tjyeftvSef qufydk@ae=uaom (remailers) uGefjyLwmrsm;t=um; tvkyfrsm;aeqJvnf; jzpf
Edkifygonf? odk@r[kwf ydkItqifhjrifhaom Am;&Sif; odk@r[kwf vif;eufpepf/ ruf pepfrsm;jzifh toHk;jyKvdk
olrsm;twGuf olwdk@udk,fwdkif pkaqmif;&,l&ef vdktyfygonf? Tvkyfief;onf omrefenf;ynm
u|rf;usifr_xuf ydkI od&efvdktyfonfh cufcJaom vkyfief;rsKd; jzpfygonf? tu,fI 0ufbfrsm;rSwqifh
ydk@Edkifonfh xyfqifhar;vfydk@onfhpepf (web remailer) udk vufcHygu tifApfqDbavmhudk ydkI
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vlo;kH rsm;vmzG,f &Syd gonf? Oyrm (riot.eu.org) uJo
h @kd xyfqifah r;vfy@kd Edik o
f nfh 0ufbrf sK;d jzpfygonf?
od k @ aomf v nf ; ,ck t csd e f t xd tif A pf q D b avmh r S m trS e f w u,f v d k t yf a eol r sm; toH k ; jyKEd k i f
avmufatmif ulnDyHhydk;r_ rjzpfEdkifao;yg?
xdk@tjyif tvGeftrif;zdESdyfxm;aom EdkifiHrsm;wGif txl;v#Kd@0Suf pm0Sufaejcif; (strong encryption) uvnf; jy\emwck jzpfaeygonf? tu,fI qm&m. uGejf yLwmudk tpd;k &u odr;f qnf;
&rd+yD;/ pm0Sufpepf aomhrsm; (encryption keys) xm;onfudk awG@&Sdygu qm&mudk bavmha&;
aeonf/ v#Kd@0SufudpPrsm; vkyfaeonf[k ouFmruif;jzpfcH&rnfrSm aocsmvSonf? pm0Sufpepfudk
us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ roHk;=uaom EdkifiHrsm;wGif (MixMaster system) jzifh ydk@vmaompmrsm;
awG@yguvnf; qm&m. tifwmeufvkyfudkifyHkrsm;udk qufvufapmifh=unfh&ef taxmuftxm; vHk
avmufae+yD jzpfonf?
rnfodk@aom tajctaeu trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;jcif;twGuf vHkavmuf+yD[k ,lqEdkifygoenf;/
rnfr#twdkif;twmtxd 'kuQcHEdkifrnfenf;
qm&mtaejzifh pm0Sufjcif; (encryption) ta=umif;/ (MixMaster) aqmhzJ0J,m;ta=umif;
avhvmwD;acgufrdor# avhvmxm;EdkifcJh+yD? trSefwu,f olrtwGuf taxmuftuljyKonfh
tajzavm? odk@r[kwf tqifh 1 rS 5 txdudk yl;wGJoHk;v#if vHkjcKHygrnfavm? wdusaom tajzr&Sdyg?
trnfrazmfbJ a&;vdkonfh taetxm;tm;vHk;wGif ol@umvH a'otvdkuf xl;jcm;csufrsm;&Sdygonf?
oif. enf;ynm u|rf;usifwwfajrmufr_/ oifrnfr# pdk;&drfae&aom tajctae ponfhtay:wGifvnf;
rlwnfygonf? tu,fI oifu ar;vfwcky@kd &rnfukd pd;k &draf eygu/ y±d*k &rftopfwck xnfo
h iG ;f &rnfukd
pdk;&drfae&ygu/ (Tor) pepfrSwqifh ay;ydk@jcif;onfom taumif;qHk;enf;vrf; jzpfygonf?
aemufxyfwcsuf usefygao;onf? oifu trnfrazmfvdkbJa&;xm;onfh bavmhydk@pfudk oif.
trnfrSefESifh vufrSwf rxdk;rdap&ef jzpfygawmhonf?

tDoef Zufumrif (Ethan Zuckerman) onf
[m;AwfwuUodkvf/ Oya'ausmif;&Sd tifwmeufESifh vlr_tzGJ@
tpnf;qdkif&m A[dkXmerS tqifhjrifhynm&SifwOD; jzpfygonf?
TXmewGif olu t&yfom;vlxkrsm;. owif;pmynm (*sm
e,fvpfZif)ESifh 0d0g'uGJp&mudpPrsm;udk ydk@aom owif;rD'D,mrsm;/
txl;ojzifh zGH@òz;qJEdkifiHrsm;&Sd tajctaeudk avhvmaeol
jzpfygonf? olu *dudkaumhyf (Geekcorps) tzGJ@udk
wnfaxmifolwOD;ESifh ,cif'±dkufwm wm0ef,lcJholvnf;
jzpfonf? TtzGJ@u zGH@òz;qJEdkifiHrsm;odk@ enf;ynmqdkif&m
oifwef;rsm; ay;aeonfh tusKd;tjrwfr,lonfh tzGJ@vnf; jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif x±dkifaygh
(Tripod) [kac:onfh 0ufbftdrf&SifjyKonfh ukr`%Dudk pwifwnfaxmifcJholvnf; jzpfygonf?
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toHk;0ifaom vrf;ñTefcsufrsm;

qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef
enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m
emwf ADvefEl; (Nart Villeneuve)
rmwdum
• tifwmeuf&Sd ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDppfjcif;
• ausmcGoGm;aom enf;ynm (Circumvention Technologies)
• rdrdvdktyfcsufESifh pGrf;aqmif&nftay: rlwnfI qHk;jzwfjcif;
• 0ufbftajcjyKI wnfaqmufxm;aom qmurfAif;wm (Circumventors) rsm;
vltrsm;oHk; 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wm 0efaqmifr_rsm;
0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wm aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;
0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; (vHkjcHKa&;qdkif&m pdk;&drfylyef&r_rsm;)
• ya&mufqD qmAmrsm; (Proxy Servers)
ya&mufqD qmAm aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;
vltrsm;oHk;Edkifaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;
- yGifhaeaom ya&mufqDrsm;udk &SmazGjcif;?
- yGifhaeaom ya&mufqDrsm;? (yHkrSefr[kwfaom ydk@wfrsm;)
ya&mufqD qmAm (vHkðcHa&;qdkif&m pdk;&drfylyef&r_rsm;)
• ajrmif;azmufI oGm;jcif; (Tunneling)
• trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfhpepf (Anonymous Communications System)
• ed*Hk;
tifwmeuf&Sd ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDppfjcif;
tifwmeufygta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDppfonfh enf;ynm (Filtering technology) tm;jzifh
tifwmeufay:wGif&Sdaeonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk r&,l/ r=unfh±_Edkifatmif xdef;csKyfxm;Edkifygonf?
odk@aomfvnf; Tenf;ynm. tpysKd;&nf±G,fcsufrSm vlwOD;csif;twGuf yk*~vduoHk;&ef jzpfygonf?
oabmrSm rdbrsm;u rdrd.uav;rsm;udk roifhavsmfonfh tifwmeufyg ta=umif;t&mrsm; r=unfhrd
ap&ef wm;qD;jcif;rsKd; jzpfygonf? rnfodk@yifjzpfap ,cktcg Todk@tifwmeuf pDppfonfhenf;ynmudk
tzG@J tpnf;rsm;a&m/ Edik if t
H rsm;tjym;yg us,u
f s,jf yef@jyef@ toH;k jyKae=u+yD jzpfygonf? tifwmeufay:wGif
&Sdonfhta=umif;t&mrsm;udk xdef;csKyfxm;&ef tzGJ@tpnf;tcsKd@uvnf; t"duOD;pm;ay;aqmif±Gufae
=u+yD; Oyrmtm;jzifh ausmif;rsm;/ pm=unfhwdkufrsm;/ aumfydka&;&Sif;rsm;u oHk;=uygonf? EdkifiHtrsm;tjym;
uvnf; Tenf;ynmudk toHk;jyKvm=uygonf? wdwdusus uef@owfxm;onfh tifwmeufpmrsufESm
rsm;udk vltm;vHk;u =unfh±_Ir& Edkifatmif ydwfqdk@xm;jcif; vkyfxm;=u+yD;/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh rnfonfh
ta=umif;a=umifh aqmif±Gufxm;&a=umif; wm0ef,l&Sif;jyr_ tenf;i,fr#om &Sdygonf?
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tifwmeufyg ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDppfonfhenf;ynm (Content filtering) onf pm&if;Z,m;
wcktay: tajccHI ydwfqdk@xm;jcif;jzpf+yD;/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh t"duusaom pum;vHk; (keyword
matching) rsm;udk ydwfqdk@xm;onfh enf;ynmESifh yl;wGJI toHk;jyK=uygonf? 'dkrdef;trnfrsm;
(domain name) ESifh tifwmeufvdyfpm (URL) rsm;udk pkaqmif;+yD;/ trsKd;tpm;cGJjcm;um
pDppfonfeh nf;ynmtwGi;f od@k xnfo
h iG ;f xm;ygonf? TaemufwiG f tcsK@d aom trsK;d tpm;rsm;udk ydwq
f @kd r_
jyKygonf? toH;k jyKou
l 0ufbpf mrsuEf mS od@k 0if&ef }uKd ;pm;onft
h cg pDppf&ef jyKxm;aom aqmhz0f ,
J m;u
ppfaq;um pm&if;wGifyg&Sdaom vdyfpmrsm;qdkygu ydwfqdk@r_ jyKygonf? tu,fI t"duusonfh
pum;vH;k rsm; (keywords) ydwq
f @kd onfeh nf;ynm yg&ydS gu aqmhz0f ,
J m;u 0ufbpf mrsuEf mS wckwikd ;f
('dkrdef;trnf/ URL vdyfpm/ yify pmrsufESm&Sd pmom;rsm;) udk ppfaq;+yD; ydwfqdk@&rnf[k owfrSwfxm;
onfh ta=umif;t&mrsm; yg0ifygu ydwfqdk@ay;ygonf?
Todk@ tifwmeuf ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pDppfydwfqdk@onfh enf;ynmonf rl&if;ADZoabmt&yif
tm;enf;csuf (2) ck &Sdaeygonf? vGefuJ ydwfqdk@jcif;ESifh av#mhenf;I ydwfqdk@jcif; jzpfygonf? &Hzef&Hcg
qdkovdk tcsKd@aom trsKd;tpm; tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm;udk rSm;,Gif;ydwfqdk@wwf+yD;/ wcgw&H ydwfqdk@
&rnfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk rydwfqdk@rdbJ &Sdaewwfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; jy\emrSm ydwfqdk@&efpm&if;
xnfhoGif;xm;onfh udpPu v#Kd@0SufI vltrsm;rod=ubJ vkyfaqmifxm;aomudpPjzpf+yD;/ Tpm&if;rsm;
t&om ydwfqdk@r_vkyfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; yGifhaeaom&if;jrpfrsm; (Open source lists) &Sdae+yD;/
txl;ojzifh tjymnpfnrf;"gwfyHkrsm;udk wifxm;wwf=uygonf? tcsKd@u pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&ma=umfjimrsm;udk
pDppfydwfqdk@ay;ygonf? wcgw&H EdkifiHtrsm;u ydwfqdk@=uonf? odk@aomf rnfonfhpm&if;rsm;udk tajccHI
ydwfqdk@xm;a=umif;rSm v#Kd@0Sufcsuf jzpfaeygonf? pD;yGm;a&;t& ydwfqdk@xm;onfh pm&if;rsm;wGif ypPnf;
rsm;wGif xkwv
f yk =f uolrsm;. rlyikd cf iG u
hf pd rP sm;/ ypPn;f trsK;d tpm;rsm;rSmvnf; vltrsm;od&adS tmif xkwjf yef
ay;xm;jcif; r&Sd=uyg? odk@aomfvnf; tcsKd@aom tifwmeufpDppfonfh enf;ynm/ aqmhzf0J,m; xkwfvkyf
a&mif;csolrsm;u rnfonfh 'dkrdef;vdyfpm/ URL rsm;udk ydwfqdk@xm;=ua=umif; ‚wdk@. tifwmeuf
pmrsuEf mS rsm;wGif pm&if;azmfjyxm;=uygonf? od@k aomfvnf; wpHv
k ;kH pm&if;rSmrl v#K@d 0Sut
f aejzifh &Sad eqJ
jzpfygonf?
rsm;aomtm;jzifh Edik if rH sm;u pD;yGm;a&;qdik &f m pDppfaomenf;ynmrsm; xnfo
h iG ;f xm;=u+y;D / olw@kd Edik if rH sm;.
tajctae xl;jcm;csuftvdkuf pm&if;xnfhoGif;xm;=uygonf? ydwfqdk@xm;aom 0ufbfqdkufrsm;rSm
twdu
k t
f cHEikd if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf twdu
k t
f cHowif;pmrsm;/ vl@tcGit
hf a&;tzG@J rsm;/ Edik if w
H um owif;Xme
rsm;/ odk@r[kwf tpdk;&udka0zefazmfjyaeonfh qdkufrsm; jzpfavh&Sdygonf? EdkifiHtrsm;u a'ocHbmom
pum;jzifh wifjyonfh tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS rsm;udk ydI
k tm&Hx
k m;avh &S=d uygonf? od@k aomfvnf; t*Fvyd f
bmomjzifh a&;om;xm;onfh qdu
k rf sm;udv
k nf; ydwyf ifwwf=uygonf? xd@k tjyif tjyeftvSef qufo,
G f
I&aom bavmhrsm;ESihf aqG;aEG;pum;ajymcef; zd&k rfrsm;udv
k nf; txl;ypfrw
S x
f m; ydwq
f @kd vm=uygonf?

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ausmcGoGm;aom enf;ynm (Circumvention Technologies)
tpdk;&rsm;u tifwmeufrsm;udk ydwfqdk@onfh/ apmifh=unfhaeonfh vkyfief;rsm;!$ef=um;vkyfudkifvm
=uaoma=umifh Todk@ ydwfqdk@pDppfxm;r_rsm;udk toHk;jyKolrsm; ausmfv$m;Edkif&ef ausmfcGoGm;onhf
enf;ynmrsm; (Circumvention Technologies) vnf; ay:ayguv
f mygonf? ,cktcg Edik if o
H m;
rsm;ESihf t&yfzufvrl t
_ zG@J tpnf;rsm;taejzifh tifwmeufukd vHðk cpH mG toH;k jyKEikd &f ef/ od@k r[kwf tifwmeuf
ydwfqdk@xm;r_/ qifqmjzwfawmufr_/ apmifh=unfhaer_rsm;udk uGif;a&SmifoGm;Edkif&ef/ enf;ynmrsm;
zGH@+zdK;ap&ef aqmif±Gufaeonfh pDrHcsuftrsm;tjym;vnf; &Sdae=u+yD jzpfonf? TuJhodk@aom enf;ynm
ud&d,mrsm;udk ausmfcGoGm;aom enf;ynmrsm; wenf; (Circumvention Technologies) [k
ac:=uygonf? a,bk,stm;jzifh azmfjy&v#if tifwmeufrsm;udk pDppfyw
d q
f @kd xm;aom Edik if w
H ck&dS toH;k jyK
olwOD;. awmif;qdkvmr_udk tjcm;=um;cHpufwckrS jzwfoef;I olvdk&modk@ a&mufapjcif; jzpfygonf?
Tjyify&Sd =um;cHueG jf yLwmudk ydwq
f @kd xm;aom Edik if u
H vdu
k v
f yH w
d q
f @kd pDppfEikd jf cif; r&Syd g? ‚uGejf yLwmu
&&Sv
d maom owif;tcsurf sm;udk rl&if;u awmif;cHox
l o
H @kd jyefvnfy@kd ay;ygonf? wcgw&H Tenf;ynm
u pDppfydwfqdk@xm;aom EdkifiHwck/ tajctaewcktwGuf oD;oef@pDpOf aqmif±Gufay;xm;jcif; jzpfyg
onf? useftajctaersm;wGif tifwmeuftoHk;jyKolrsm;u vufiif;&Sdaeaom ausmfcGoGm;onfh enf;
ynmrsm; (Circumvention Technologies) udk toHk;jyKI vdktyfonfrsm;udk &SmazGEdkifygonf?
Tenf;ynmrsm;uvnf; olvdktyfcsuftwGuf &nf±G,fI wDxGifxm;jcif; jzpfcsifrS jzpfygvdrfhrnf?
Tenf;ynmrsm;rS tcsKd@udk yk*~vduukr`%Drsm;u wDxGifxm;cJhjcif; jzpfygonf? tjcm;aom enf;ynm
trsKd;rsKd;rSm uGefjyLwmu|rf;usifI xdk;azmuf0ifa&mufEdkifol [ufumrsm; (hackers) uaomf
vnf;aumif;/ v_yf&Sm;wufºuolrsm;uaomfvnf;aumif;/ pepfwusr[kwfbJ ,m,DpkzGJ@aom
tkyfpkrsm;uaomfvnf;aumif; aqmif±Gufxm;jcif; jzpfEdkifygonf? tcsKd@aom enf;ynmrsm;rSm
vkyif ef;ao;ao;twGu/f vG,v
f ,
G u
f u
l l pDpOfxm;onfh y±d*k &rfrsm;jzpf+y;D / tcsK@d rSm tqifjh rifh zefw;D xm;
onfh rdwfaqGtcsif;csif; zvS,foHk;Edkifonfh uGef,uf enf;pepfrsm; (network protocol) jzpf=u
ygonf? Tod@k tus,t
f jyef@enf;ynmrsm; &Sad eaoma=umifh oH;k pGo
J u
l tm;omcsu/f tm;enf;csurf sm;udk
csifhcsdefI olwdk@ESifh vufawG@udkufnDrnfh enf;ynmudk oHk;Edkifygonf?
ausmcf o
G mG ;onfh enf;ynmudk toH;k jyKol (2) rsK;d &Syd gonf? ausmcf o
G mG ;onfh enf;ynmudk zefw;D axmufyhH
ay;xm;olrsm; (Circumvention provider) ESihf ausmcf o
G mG ;enf;udk toH;k jyKorl sm; (Circumvention user) jzpf=uygonf? ausmfcGoGm;onfh enf;ynm (qmurfAif;&Sif;) axmufyHhay;xm;ol
rsm;u tifwmeufpDppfydwfqdk@xm;r_ r&Sdonfh ae&mwGif &Sdae=u+yD;/ olwdk@. 0efaqmifr_udk toHk;jyKI
ydwfqdk@xm;aom EdkifiHrsm;rS toHk;jyKolrsm; oHk;Edkif&ef pDpOfay;xm;=uygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh ESpfOD;
ESpfzuf tusKd;jzpfapygonf?
Tpmwrf;. &nf±G,fcsufrSm qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmtoHk;jyKvdkolrsm;udk rnfonfhtcGifhtvrf;rsm;
&Sda=umif;ESifh csifhcsdefI qHk;jzwfEdkifap&ef jzpfygonf? toHk;jyKolu rdrd.vdktyfcsufESifhtnD rnfonfh
taetxm;u taumif;qH;k jzpfa=umif; odap&ef jzpfygonf? toH;k jyKou
l vdt
k yfcsuEf iS hf rdr.
d pGr;f aqmif
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Edkif&nftay:rlwnfI qHk;jzwfvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf? tvm;wl axmufyHhay;oluvnf; vdktyfcsufESifh
pGrf;aqmifEdkif&nftay:rlwnfI aqmif±GufEdkifygonf? xdk@tjyif aemufqHk;toHk;jyKolxHwGif vHkjcHKr_
tqifhtwef;udkvnf; xnfhwGuf&ygvdrfhrnf? xda&mufaom/ vHkjcHKaom/ wnf+idrfpdwfcs&onfh qmurf
Aif;&Sif;pepfwckjzpfap&ef oifhavsmfaomenf;ynmESifh oifhavsmfaom toHk;jyKoljzpf&efvnf; vdktyfyg
onf?
rdrdvdktyfcsufESifh pGrf;aqmif&nftay: rlwnfI qHk;jzwfjcif;
qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmrsm;onf wcgw&H yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;ESifhvmaom toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf pDpOfaqmif
±Gufxm;jcif; jzpf+yD;/ toHk;jyKolrsm;wGif u|rf;usifr_tqifh trsKd;rsKd;&SdEdkifonf? toHk;jyKolrsm;wGifvnf;
&Sdaeonfh t&if;tjrpftrsKd;rsKd; jzpfaeEdkifygonf? wcsdefwGif tvkyfjzpfaomfvnf; wcsdefwGif tvkyfrjzpf
onfrsK;d =uKH &Edik yf gonf? toH;k jyKrnfh qmurfAif;&Si;f enf;ynmtwGuf toH;k jyKoal &m/ axmufyahH y;olyg
atmufygar;cGef;rsm;udk ar;=unfh&ef vdktyfygvdrfhrnf?
• toHk;jyKol rnfr# &SdEdkifoenf;? bef;'f0pf'f (bandwidth) rnfr# &SdEdkifoenf;? (qmurf
Aif;&Sif; axmufyHholESifh toHk;jyKol)
• ar#mfvifhxm;onfh toHk;jyKvmrnfholrsm;u rnfonfhae&m (Primary point of
internet access) rS wufvm=urnfenf;? rnfonfhudpPrsm;twGuf oHk;=urnfenf;?
• enf;ynmu|r;f usirf _ tqifh rnfr#&=dS urnfenf;? (qmurfAif;&Si;f axmufyo
hH El iS hf toH;k jyKo)l
• aemufqHk;toHk;jyKrnfh olrsm;twGuf EdkifiHjyify&Sd ,Hk=unf&onfh tquftoG,f rnfr#&Sdrnf
enf;?
• T qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmudk oHk;ygu/ tu,fI zrf;qD;rdcJhygv#if tjypf'%f rnfr#
csrSwfcH=u&rnfenf;?
• T qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmudk oHk;jcif;tm;jzifh/ jzpfay:vmEdkifonfh tEW&m,f tusKd;quf
rsm;udkvnf; oHk;pGJolu ausvnfpGm oabmaygufem;vnfxm;ygovm;?
ponfh ar;cGef;rsm; jzpfygonf?
toHk;jyKol ta&twGufESifh bef;'f0pf'f (bandwidth)
qmurfAif;&Si;f enf;ynmaxmufyahH y;xm;olu Tenf;ynmudk toH;k jyKvmrnfh oH;k pGo
J t
l a&twGuu
f kd
cef@rSe;f xm;&ygrnf? ta=umif;rSm &&SEd ikd o
f r#aom bef'0f pf'f (bandwidth) ESihf csed q
f Edik &f efjzpfygonf?
aemufq;kH toH;k jyKou
l vnf; olw@kd . bef;'f0pf'u
f kd wGuq
f xm;&ygvrd rhf nf? ta=umif;rSm Tod@k ausmcf G
oGm;onfh qmurfAif;&Sif;enf;ynmu olwdk@. tifwmeufrsm;udk aES;oGm;aprnf jzpfaoma=umifhyif?
vltrsm;oHk;Edkifonfh ya&mufqD aqmif±Gufxm;ay;rnfholrsm;u }udKwifwGufxm;&rnfrSm olwdk@.
0efaqmifr_udk tjcm; r&nf±G,fxm;onfh/ qifqmydwfxm;jcif; r[kwfonfh EdkifiHrsm;rS vltrsm;vnf;
vma&muftoH;k jyK=urnf qdjk cif;yif? Oyrmtm;jzifh aqmif±u
G x
f m;onfh qmurfAifwmpepfu ±ky&f iS w
f ck
vHk;udk a'gif;vkyf vkyf qGJcs,l&ef &nf±G,fxm;jcif; r[kwfaoma=umifh/ Todk@ toHk;jyKvmygu bef;'f0pf'f
trsm;tjym; ukefqHk;apEdkifygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh oif. qmurfAifwm toHk;jyKr_udk uef@owfxm;r_
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jyKaumif;vnf; jyKygvdrfhrnf? tjcm;enf;ynmtrsKd;rsKd;a=umifhvnf; T aqmif&Gufvdkor#aom vkyfief;
tcsKd@/ odk@r[kwf vkyfief;rsm;tm;vHk;udk aqmif±GufI &apEdkifygonf?
yxrpwifI toHk;jyKvm=urnfholrsm;.ae&m
(Primary point of internet access)
yxr pwifI toHk;jyKvm=urnfholrsm;. ae&mtay:rlwnfI olwdk@. qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_udk
trsK;d rsK;d pDraH qmif±u
G x
f m;Edik o
f uJo
h @kd / TpepftwGi;f rnfonf0h efaqmifrr_ sm; xnfo
h iG ;f ay;xm;&rnfukd
vnf; odxm;Edkifygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- vltrsm;oHk; uGefjyLwmrsm;/ tifwmeufuzD;rsm;rS toHk;jyKvm
=uolrsm;onf uGefjyLwmtwGif;odk@ aqmhzf0J,m; topfrsm; xyfrHxnfhoGif;cGifh r&Sd=uaoma=umifh/
0ufbfay:rS wdkuf±dkuf&,lEdkifaom enf;ynmrsKd; xnfhoGif;xm;&ef vdktyfygonf? tcsKd@aom olrsm;u
0ufbfrS &SmazG,l&onfh tajctae (HTTP) xuf ydkI oHk;pGJvdkonfvnf; &SdEdkifygonf? Oyrm tD;ar;vfydk@jcif; (SMTP) ESifh zdkifrsm; a0iSay;ydk@jcif; (FTP) rsm;vnf; aqmif±Gufvdk=uayrnf?
xdkolwdk@u olwdk@uGefjyLwmtvkyfcef;twGif; aqmh0J,m;rsm; xnfhoGif;Iaomfvnf;aumif;/ olwdk@
uGefjyLwmqufwifudk ajymif;I vSnfhpm;Iaomfvnf;aumif; aqmif±Gufvdkolrsm;vnf; &Sdayrnf? Todk@
aqmif±u
G &f efrmS toH;k jyKob
l ufwiG f enf;ynmu|r;f usirf _ wpHw
k &m vdt
k yfonfrmS trSeyf if jzpfygonf?
enf;ynm u|rf;usifr_ tqifhtwef;
enf;ynmu|rf;usifr_ tqifhtwef; jrifhavav (Todk@aom toHk;jyKolrsKd;u tenf;tusOf;om &SdEdkifyg
onf?) qmurfAif;&Si;f enf;ynmudk toH;k jyKEikd rf _ ydu
k s,jf yef@avyif jzpfonf? enf;ynm ru|r;f usio
f rl sm;
twGufrl aqmhzf0J,m;rsm; xnfhoGif;&mYaomfvnf;aumif;/ qufwifajymif;&mYaomfvnf;aumif;/
(configuration change) jyKjyifajymif;vJ&mY aomfvnf;aumif; tcuftcJ &SEd ikd yf gonf? qmurf
Aif;&Sif; enf;ynm toHk;jyKvdkv#if tydkvkyfief;rsm; aqmif±Guf&aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? qmurfAif;&Sif;
enf;ynm axmufyHhay;ola&m/ toHk;jyKolrsm;twGufyg u|rf;usifr_ vdktyfygonf? qmurfAif;&Sif;
enf;ynmudk rSm;,Gif;toHk;jyKrdygu rvdkvm;tyfaom tEW&m,frsm; toHk;jyKolrsm;bufwGif usa&muf
Edik yf gonf?
,Hk=unf&avmufaom tquftoG,frsm; &Sdxm;r_
Edik if jH yifywGif ,H=k unf&avmufaom tquftoG,rf sm; &Sx
d m;onf/ rnfo@kd aom qmurfAif;&Si;f enf;em
rsm;udk oHk;I &onfudk odxm;ygu aemufqHk;toHk;jyKoltwGuf rsm;pGm taxmuftyhHjzpfapygonf?
tu,fI toHk;jyKolwGif ,Hk=unf&avmufaom tquftoG,frsm; r&Sdxm;ygu olwdk@u vltrsm;oHk;
ae=uaom pepfrsm;xJrSyif a±G;cs,foHk;=u&awmhrnf jzpfygonf? toHk;jyKoluyif Todk@ qmurfAif;&Sif;
enf;ynmoH;k Edik o
f nfh ae&mrsm;udk &SmazGawG@&SEd ikd v
f #i/f tifwmeuf pDppfyw
d q
f @kd aeolrsm;uvnf; odxm;
=urnfyif jzpfonf? tu,fI ,Hk=unf&avmufaom tquftoG,frsm; &Sdxm;ygu ‚wdk@ESifh olwdk@.
vdktyfr_twdtusudk azmfjyI nd‡Ed_if;aqmif±GufapEdkifygonf? axmufvSrf;&SmazGrawG@Edkif ap&efvnf;
vHkjcHKpGm xm;Edkifygonf? atmifjrifxda&mufonfh/ a&&SnfcHonfh/ wnf+idrf pdwfcs&onfh qmurfAif;&Sif;
pepfrsK;d udk tifwmeufppD pfjzwfawmufjcif; rcH&onfh jyifyEdik if aH e vl,u
kH aqmif±u
G x
f m;ay;Edik yf gonf?
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qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m

jypf'%fcH&Edkifaom tvm;tvm
tu,fI toHk;jyKaeolu qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmudk toHk;jyKaea=umif; azmfxkwfzrf;qD;&rdygu
rnfodk@jypf'%fcsrSwf cH&rnfudk od&Sdxm;&ef vGefpGmta&;}uD;ygonf? jypf'%f tjyif;taysmhudk vdkufI
ajymif;vJvkyfaqmif&ef vdktyfygonf? tu,fI Oya't& aysmhajymif;nifomr_&Sd+yD;/ jypf'%fus
cH&Edkifr_vnf; oufomzG,f &Sdygu toHk;jyKolu a±G;cs,fp&m tcGifhtvrf; ydkrsm;ygonf? qmurfAif;&Sif;
enf;pepfjzifh ausmaf eaomfvnf; vHjk cKH r_ r&Sv
d yS g? tu,fI tEW&,f}u;D aom tajctaeqdyk gu enf;ynm
pwifxnfhoGif;&mY owd}uD;pGmxm;&ef vdktyf+yD;/ vHkjcHKaom xdk;azmufr0ifEdkifaompepfrsKd; xm;&ygvdrfh
rnf? tcsKd@toHk;jyKolrsm;uvnf; w&m;0ifajz&Sif;Edkifrnfh qifajcay;csufrsm;/ yHkzsufzkef;uG,fxm;aom
Zmwfvrf;rsm;/ tjcm;a00g;apEdkifonfh udpPrsm; }udKwifjyifqifxm;&ef vdkygonf?
vHkjcHKr_ tEW&m,f (ayguf=um;Edkifr_)
rsm;aomtm;jzifh qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmtoHk;jyKolrsm;udk Tpepfta=umif; jynfhpHkpGm &Sif;vif;jyjcif;
r&SdbJ toHk;jyK&ef wdkufwGef;apcdkif;=uygonf? &ifqdkif&Edkifaom tEW&m,frsm;udkvnf; vHkavmufpGm
}udKwif od&Sdxm;apoifhygonf? odk@rSom taumif;qHk; enf;ynmudkoHk;I enf;vrf;rSefuefpGm toHk;csEdkif
vdrfhrnf jzpfygonf?
0ufbftajcjyKI wnfaqmufxm;aom qmurfAif;wm (Circumventors) rsm;
0ufbt
f ajcjyKI wnfaqmufxm;aom qmurf
Aif;wm (Circumventors) rsm;rSm txl;pDrH
xm;aom 0ufbpf mrsuEf mS rsm; jzpf+y;D / Tae&mrS
wqif h toH k ; jyKol u =unf h v d k o nf h vd y f p m
(URL) udk wifay;Edkifygonf? xdktcg 0ufbf
tajccH qmurf A if ; wmu awmif ; qd k a om
pmrsufESmudk &,lvm+yD;/ zwfoludk vmjyefjyyg
onf? toH;k jyKoEl iS hf &&Sv
d monfh pmrsuEf mS =um;
wGif wdkuf±dkufqufpyfr_ r&Sdyg? qmurfAif;wm
pepfu yGiv
hf if;pGm ya&mufqpD epfraS eI ESpzf uf
t=um; pOfqufrjywf qufoG,fay; aeygonf?
0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;wmrsm;u vifhcf
(link) rsm;udk jyefa&; (re-write) vkyfay;
+yD;/ qmurfAif;wmpepfxHodk@ jyefydk@ay;aeaom
a=umifhvnf; taESmifht,Sufr&Sd yHkrSeftwdkif;
0ufbf pmrsufESmrsm;udk av#mufzwf oGm;Edkif
ygonf? 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmrsm;udk
toHk;jyKaomtcg toHk;jyKolu uGefjyLwmrsm;
xJwGif rnfonfh aqmhzf0J,m; y±dk*&rfudkr#
xnfhoGif;p&mrvdkyg? olwdk@ 0ufbf=unhfaeonfh
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ba&mufZmudkvnf; qufwif ajymif;vJ&ef rvdktyfyg? pmzwfoltaejzifh vkyfaqmif&efudpPrSm qmurf
Aif;wm. vdyfpm (URL) udk xnfhoGif;±Hkyif jzpfonf? ay:vmaom yHkpHtwGif; olwdk@=unfhvdkonfh
0ufbfvdyfpmudk ±dkufxnfhay;I awmif;qdkvdkuf±Hkyif jzpfygonf? (0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmrsm;rSm
wckEiS w
hf ck jcm;em;onfh oGijf yif&=dS uaomfvnf;/ tajccHvyk af qmifyrkH mS twlwyl if jzpfygonf?) od@k twGuf
a=umifh txl;u|rf;usifr_ rvdktyfbJ rnfonfhae&m (Point of access) rSrqdk toHk;jyKEdkifygonf?
tm;omcsurf sm;
0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmpepfrSm oHk;&ef ydkIvG,ful+yD;/ aemufqHk;toHk;jyKolxHwGif rnfonfh aqmhzf
0J,m;r# xnfhoGif;&ef rvdktyfyg?
vltrsm; toHk;jyKEdkifonfh qmurfAif;wm 0efaqmifr_rSm tvG,f&Edkif+yD;/ jyify&Sd tifwmeuf qifqm
jzwfawmufr_ r&Sad om Edik if w
H iG f tquftoG,f r&Sx
d m;v#iv
f nf; udprP &Syd g? toH;k jyKEikd yf gonf? vltrsm;
toHk;jyKEdkifonfh qmurfAif;wmudk u|rf;0ifvmjcif;tm;jzifh rdrdvdktyfonfh qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_udk
twdtus a±G;cs,fvmapEdkifygonf? tm%mydkifrsm;uvnf; pHkprf;od&SdEdkif&ef tcGifhtenf;enf;ygonf?
tm;enf;csurf sm;
0ufbftajcjyK qmurfAif;&Sif;pepfonf rsm;aomtm;jzifh (HTTP) 0ufbfpmrsufESmrsm;odk@om
oGm;=unfh&ef uef@owfxm;+yD;/ 0SufpmpepfoHk;aom ae&mrsm; (encryted access, SSL) odk@
oGm;=unfh&ef r&wwfyg? 0ufbftajccH tD;ar;vfrsm;wGif pm0Suf (Password authentication)
xnfhoGif;&mY wcgw&H tvkyf rvkyfwwfyg?
vltrsm;toH;k jyKEikd o
f nfh qmurfAif;&Si;f pepfrsm;rSm vltrsm;u a,bk,stm;jzifh od&x
dS m;=u+y;D / tm%m
ydkifrsm;u }udKwifydwfqdk@xm;onfvnf; jzpfEdkifygonf? TqmurfAif;wm 0efaqmifr_udk pD;yGm;a&;t&
pDppfwnf;jzwfEdkifonfh aqmhzf0J,m;trsm;pku }udKwifydwfqdk@xm;=u+yD; jzpfygonf?
yk*~vdu oD;oef@pDpOfxm;onfh 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_udk oHk;&ef qdkonfrSm/ tifwm
euf pDppfwnf; jzwfr_ r&Sdaomae&mwGif rdrdtqiftoG,fu pDpOfxm;ay;&ef vdktyfygonf? xdkr#ru
Tol 2-OD;=um;wGif vG,fvG,fulul axmufvSrf;I r&Edkifonfh tjcm;qufoG,fa&;enf;pepfvnf;
&Sdxm;&ef vdktyfygvdrfhrnf?
vltrsm;toHk;jyKEdkifonfh 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_rsm;
vltrsm;toHk;jyKEdkifonfh 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; aqmhzf0J,m;rsm; &Sdovdk/ 0efaqmifr_rsm;vnf;
tqifoih&f adS eyg onf? trsm;pkaom T0efaqmifrr_ sm;rSm tcrJo
h ;kH I &+y;D / tcsK@d aom0efaqmifrr_ sm;wGif
toHk;jyKp&m enf;emtrsm;tjym;/ vkyfief;trsm;tjym; cGifhjyKxm;wwfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- 0Sufpm
vdktyfaomae&mrsm; (encrypted access) udkvnf; tcay;ygu toHk;jyKEdkifonfh ae&mXme
rsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? tcsKd@aom 0efaqmifr_rsm;rSm pD;yGm;a&;ukr`%Drsm;u aqmif±Gufxm;jcif;jzpfaomf

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vnf;/ tcsKd@rSm vltrsm;toHk;jyKEdkif&ef apwemh0efxrf; vkyfaqmifxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? atmufygwdk@rSm
toHk;jyKEdkifaom ae&mrsm;. erlemvdyfpmrsm; jzpfygonf?
http://www.anonymizer.com/
http://www.anonymouse.ws/
http://www.guardster.com/
http://proximal.com/

http://www.unipeak.com/
http://www.proxyweb.net/
http://www.webwarper.net/
http://www.the-cloak.com/

T 0ufbv
f yd pf mrsm;rSm vltrsm;u od&x
dS m;=u+y;D jzpfaoma=umifh tifwmeuf pDppfjzwfawmuf=uonfh
aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;wGif Tpm&if;rsm;udk ydwfqdk@&ef xnfhoGif;xm;=u+yD; jzpfygonf? EdkifiHtrsm;uvnf;
olwdk@ qifqmjzwfawmufydwfqdk@&mwGif xnfhoGif;xm;+yD; jzpfaewwfygonf? tu,fI T0ufbf
pmrsufESmrsm;udk ydwfqdk@xm;ygu/ toHk;jyKolu oHk;Edkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? xdk@tjyif vltrsm;
toHk;jyKEdkifonfh 0ufbf qmurfAif;wmrsm;rSm T0efaqmifr_ay;onfhae&mrsm;ESifh toHk;jyKolt=um;
vHjk cKH a&;0Supf mpepf (encryption) rxm;&S=d uyg? od@k twGuaf =umifh toH;k jyKou
l awmif;qdv
k u
kd af om
pmrsufESm/ owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_ay;aeolu od&SdaeEdkifygonf?

0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_rsm;udk oHk;rnfholrsm;rSm vHkjcHKa&;t&tEW&m,f odyfr}uD;aom
ae&mrsm;wGif aexdkif=uolrsm;jzpfygu ydkI oifhav#mfygonf? xdkolrsm;u jyifywGif ,Hk=unf&avmuf
aom tquftoG,fr&Sdygu/ ,m,Dtm;jzifh csufcsif; qmurfAif;&Sif; 0efaqmifr_vdktyfvmygu oHk;Edkifyg
onf? ta&;}uD;aom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ay;ydk@&ef rjzpfoifhyg?
0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; tEkxnf (aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;)
0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; tEkxnf (aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;) xnfhoGif;&eftwGuf enf;ynmt& u|rf;
usifr_ wpHkw&m vdktyfovdk/ oifhav#mfaom t&if;tjrpf &Sd&efvnf; vdktyfygonf? (Oyrm-t&if;
tjrpf[k qdk&mY 0ufbfqmAmESifh bef;'f0pf'fwdk@ jzpfonf?) yk*~vdu qmurfAif;wmudk wnfaqmufxm;
+y;D / owfrw
S x
f m;aom toH;k jyKrnfo
h rl sm;udk om today;xm;yg+y;D oH;k apEdik yf gonf? vltrsm;oH;k aeaom
qmurfAif;wmrsm;ESihf trnfrazmfbJ qufo,
G Ef ikd o
f nfh 0efaqmifrr_ sm;rSm trsm;u od&x
dS m;+y;D jzpfaom
a=umifh (pD;yGm;a&;t& a&mif;csonfh tifwmeufpDppfydwfyifa&; aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;uyif od&Sdydwfyif
xm;+yD; jzpfaewwf=uygonf?) yk*~vdu qmurfAif;wm 0efaqmifr_udk toHk;jyKjcif;tm;jzifh/ vltrsm;oHk;
ae=uaom 0efaqmifr_rsm;xufpmv#if axmufvSrf;od&SdEdkifr_/ ydwfqdk@cH&r_ ydkI oufomzG,f &Sdygonf?
yk*~vdu qmurfAif;wmrsm;udk tenf;i,f u|rf;usifr_&Sd&HkESifhyif aqmif±GufEdkif+yD;/ aemufqHk;oHk;rnfhol
rsm;. vdt
k yfcsuEf iS t
hf nD aqmif&u
G x
f m;Edik yf gonf? tcsK@d aom u|r;f usirf v
_ t
kd yfonfu
h pd rP sm;rSm 0ufbf
qmAm vnfywfaeonfh ydk@wf trSwf (port number) ajymif;vJjcif;ESifh vHkðcHonfh pm0Sufpepf
(encryption) toHk;jyKEdkifjcif;wdk@ jzpfygonf? (Secure Sockets Layer—SSL) onf
tifwmeufay:wGif owif;tcsut
f vufrsm;udk vHðk cpH mG jzwfoef;ay;yd@k Edik af om pepf jzpfygonf? Tpepf
udk 0ufbfqdkufrsm;u &Hzef&Hcg vHkðcHa&;vdktyfonfh tcsuftvufrsm; wifydk@&efoHk;+yD;/ Oyrmtm;jzifh
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qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m

taºu;0,fu'fjym; (c&uf'pfu'f) tcsuftvufrsm; ay;ydk@&ef jzpfygonf? (SSL) vkyfaqmifEdkifaom
0ufbfqdkufrsm;rSm (HTTP) tpm; (HTTPS) pepfjzifh oGm;ygonf?
(SSL) pepfudk toHk;jyKaom aemufxyfenf;wckrSm 0ufbf qmAm. t&if;tjrpf (root of web
server) wGif ouFmruif;jzpfzG,f r&Sdaom/ tEW&m,fr&SdapEdkifaom 0ufbf pmrsufESmwck zefwD;
xm;+yD;/ qmurfAif;wm pepfudk zHk;uG,fI usyef;pepf zdkifemrnfrsm;/ vrf;a=umif;emrnfrsm; (random
path and file name) jzifh oGm;apjcif; jzpfonf? =um;cH aqmif&Gufay;aeolu toHk;jyKaeol
qufoG,faeaom qmAmudk od&SdEdkifaomfvnf;/ rnfonfhvrf;a=umif; (path) udk oGm;=unfhaerSef;
od&SdEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? ta=umif;rSm Todk@oGm;=unfh&ef awmif;qdkr_ owif;pum; wpdwfwydkif;udk
0S u f p mpepf j zif h jyKxm;aoma=umif h jzpf y gonf ? Oyrmtm;jzif h - toH k ; jyKaeol u “http://
example.com/secretcircumventor/” udk qufoG,fv#if =um;cHaqmif&Gufay;aeolu
(example.com) udk qufoG,foHk;aea=umif; od&Sdaomfvnf;/ tao;pdwf oloGm;=unfhaeonfh
ae&mudkrl od&SdEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? tu,fI qmurfAif;wm pDpOfxm;olu (example.com)
wGif ±dk;±dk;omrefozG,f/ ouFmruif;jzpfp&m r&Sdonfh 0ufbfpmrsufESm wck pDpOfxm;&SdcJhv#if/ apmifh=unfh
aeonfjzpfap qmurfAif;wmudk zkH;uG,fxm;aoma=umifh oloGm;a&mufaom pmrsufESmrsm;udk
axmufvSrf; od&SdEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg?
• CGIProxy: A CGI script acts as an HTTP or FTP proxy.
http://www.jmarshall.com/tools/cgiproxy
• Peacefire’s Circumventor: An automated installer program
that makes it much easier for non-technical users to install
and configure CGIProxy.
http://www.peacefire.org/circumventor/simplecircumventor-instructions.html
• pHproxy: An experimental, highly configurable web-based
circumventor.
http://ice.citizenlab.org/projects/phproxy
• Psiphon: An SSL-enabled webserver with built-in web-based
circumventor.
http://soon to be released

yk*~vdu 0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;wmrsm;onf/ pm0Sufpepf (emcyrption) udk oHk;Edkifjcif;&Sdygu
wnf+ird f onfh qmurfAif;&Si;f pepfukd toH;k jyKorl sm;twGuf toifah wmfq;kH jzpfygonf? jyify&Sd tifwmeuf
qifwmwnf;jzwfxm;jcif; rcH&onfhae&mwGif &Sdaeonfh ,Hk=unf&aomrdwfaqGu 0ufbftajccH qm
urfAif;wmudk pDpOfxm;ay;Edkifygonf? oifhav#mfonfh enf;ynmESifh bef;'f0pfudkvnf; toHk;jyKxm;&rnf
jzpfonf? Tenf;onf omref0ufbfpmrsufESmrsm;odk@ oGm;&ef/ txl;aumif;rGef vG,fulonfh enf;jzpf+yD;/
axmufvSrf;cH&&ef/ ydwfqdk@cH&&ef tcGifhtvrf;enf;ygonf?
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0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;&Sif; (vHkjcHKa&;qdkif&m pdk;&drfylyef&r_rsm;)
qmurf;Aif;&Sif;pepfonf trnfrazmfbJ a&;om;ay;ydk@onfh pepfudk aqmif±Gufxm;ay;jcif; r&Sdyg?
aemufq;kH toH;k jyKo.
l ud,
k af &;tcsut
f vufrsm; (identity) udk olomG ;a&mufco
hJ nfh 0ufbq
f u
kd .
f
pDrHcef@cGJol rjrif&ap&ef umuG,fay;xm;aomfvnf;/ toHk;jyKolESifh qmurfAif;wmt=um; qufoG,f
onfh bmompum;rSm &dk;&dk;pmom; (plain text—HTTP) om jzpfygonf? tcrJhay;xm;aom
0efaqmifr_rsm;wGif qmurfAif;wmudk oHk;&onfhtcg ay;ydk@qufoG,faer_rsm;udk tvG,fwul=um;jzwf
zrf;,lEdkif+yD;/ =um;cHay;aeolu tvG,ftul oHk;oyftuJjzwfEdkifygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- tifwmeuf
qm;Apf 0efaqmifr_ay;aeol (ISPs) rsm;u =um;jzwfzrf;,lum od&SdEdkifygonf? qmurfAif;wmjzifh
rdrdtvdk&Sdonfh ae&mudkausmfI =unfhEdkifaomfvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u Ttcsufudk axmufvSrf;
od&SdEdkifygonf? toHk;jyKolu 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmrSwqifh oGm;a&muf=unfhaea=umif;
odEikd yf gonf? xdrk #ru rnfonft
h a=umif;t&mudk =unfch o
hJ nf/ rnfonfh 0ufbq
f u
kd rf sm;od@k wufa&muf
cJhonfudkyg odEdkifygonf?
0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmrsm;onf &dk;&dk;pmom; (text) udk (pm0Sufpepf r[kwfyJ) (nonencrypted) toHk;jyK=u+yD;/ wcgw&HwGif (Uniform Resource Locators—URL) yg
t"duusaom pum;vHk;rsm; (keyword) udk pDppfydwfqdk@xm;aom pepfudk ausmfEdkif&eftwGuf
zke;f uG,v
f n
S phf m;±Hrk #om (URL obfuscation) aqmif±u
G Ef ikd yf gonf? Oyrmtm;jzif-h vG,u
f al om
(ROT-13) pepfudk oHk;rnfqdkygpdk@? Tae&mwGif rdrd.rl&if; pmvHk;udk ‚&Sd pmvHk; 13 vHk;rS wckckESifh
zvS,fay;±Hkom jzpfygonf? (URL) (http://ice.citizenlab.org) u (uggc://vpr.
pvgvmrayno.bet) odk@ ajymif;ay;±Hkr#om jzpfygonf? tusKd;oufa&mufr_t& (URL) .
t"duusaom pum;vHk;udk ajymif;vJvdkufonfhtwGufa=umifh pDppfwnf;jzwfvdkonfh pm&if;yg
(URLs) ESifh vGwfuif;I oGm;=unfhEdkifygawmhonf? odk@aomfvnf; Todk@ ‚quf&Sif tydkif;wGif
vkyfaqmifcJhor#udk teH@cH=unfh±_ ppfaq;Edkifygao;onf?
xd@k tjyif (cookies) ESihf (scripts) toH;k jyKrt
_ ay: rlwnfI tEW&m,f &Sad eygao;onf? 0ufbt
f ajccH
qmurfAif;wmrsm;u uluD; (cookies) ESifh pc&pfyf (scripts) rsm;udk z,f&Sm;ay;=uaomfvnf;/
trsm;pkaom qdkufrsm; (Oyrm- 0ufbf tajccHar;vfydk@Edkifonfh qkdufrsm;) rSm uluD; (cookies)
ESifh pc&pfyf (scripts) rsm; toHk;jyK&ef vdktyfygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh Tenf;emrsm;udk toHk;jyKrnf
qdkygu txl;owdxm;oifhygonf? xdk@tjyif oufqdkifaeom tjcm;tEW&m,fwckrSm T0efaqmifr_
(service) rsm;udk 0ifygu trnf (Logins) ESifh pum;0Sufrsm; (passwords) jznfhoGif;&ygonf?
TwGif qmurfAif;wmrsm;udk ±dk;±dk;pmom; (plain text) ESifh 0if=u&+yD;/ (encrypted servers)
rsm;rS owif;tcsuf tvufrsm;udk awmif;,l&aoma=umifh jzpfygonf? TtajctaewGif qmurfAif;
wmrsm;u awmif;qdak omtcsuf tvufrsm;udk vHjk cKH r&_ adS om qdu
k rf sm; (SSL-enabled servers)
rS v#Kd@0Sufpm0Sufrsm;jzifh &,lvdkuf+yD;/ toHk;jyKolxHodk@ ±dk;±dk;pmom;jzifh jyefvnfay;ydk@onfhES,f jzpfaeyg
onf? xdktcg =um;jzwfzrf;,l=unfh±_aernfqdkygu rdrd. ta&;}uD;aom tcsuftvufrsm;udk
ay:vGifaponfhES,f jzpfapygawmhonf?
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Todk@ vHkjcHKa&;qdkif&mjy\emrsm;udk 0ufbftajccH ya&mufqD (proxies) rsm;rS pum;0Suf qufo,
G f
r_ (encrypted connection) oH;k I ajz&Si;f Edik yf gonf? tcsK@d aom 0ufbt
f ajccH ya&mufqrD sm;onf
(SSL) (HTTPS) toH;k jyKEikd &f eftwGuf pDpOfxm;=uygonf? Tpepfu aemufq;kH toH;k jyKaeolEiS hf
0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wm=um;wGif ±dk;±dk;pmom; r[kwfawmhbJ 0Sufay;ygonf? Todk@ toHk;jyKonfh
tajctaewGif/ =um;cHvlu toHk;jyKaeoltaejzifh 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmudk oHk;aea=umif;om
cef@rSef;Edkif+yD;/ oltoHk;jyKonfh quf&Sif. ta=umif;t&mudk rodEdkifyg? odk@twGufa=umifh toHk;jyKolrsm;
taejzifh (SSL-enabled web-based circumventors) udk oHk;&ef txl;t=uHjyKvdkygonf?
rnfodk@yif qdkapumrl/ aemufqHk; toHk;jyKolESifh 0ufbftajccH qmurfAif;wmt=um; qufoG,fr_rSm
vHkjcHKonf[k qdk&rnfjzpfaomfvnf;/ 0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;wmudk jzwfoGm;aom owif;tcsuf
tvufrsm;udk 0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;wm ydkifqdkifolu =um;jzwfod&SdEdkifygonf? tjcm;pdk;&drfzG,f
udpPwckrSm qmurfAif;wmu odrf;qnf;rSwfwrf; wifxm;rnfh tcsufrsm; jzpfygonf? qmurfAif;wm
wnf&Sdaeonfh ae&mtay:rlwnfI/ odk@r[kwf qmAmwnf&Sdaeonfh ae&mtay: rlwnfI tm%mydkif
rsm;u xdkolrsm;. (log files) rsm;udk &,lEdkif=uygao;onf?
xdkr#ru toHk;jyKolrsm;taejzifh (SSL-enabled web-based circumventor) rsm; toHk;jyK
aomfvnf; tjcm;pdk;&drf owdxm;zG,f tcsufrsm;vnf; &Sdaeygao;onf? Todk@ pm0Sufpepf (encryption) udk oHk;aoma=umifh qmurfAif;wmoHk;aeolrsm; t=um; txl;owdxm;apmifh=unfhcH&zG,f
&Sdaeygonf? ae&mtrsm;tjym;wGif Todk@ pm0Sufpepf (encryption) toHk;jyKr_onf Oya't&
wm;jrpfxm;csuf jzpfaewwfygonf? xdk@tjyif vHkjcHKaom0ufbf tajccH qmurfAif;wmrSwqifh
toHk;jyKolu rnfonfh0ufbfqdkufrsm;odk@ oGm;aea=umif;vnf; pDppfae=uonfh tm%mydkifrsm;u
(HTTPS fingerprinting and Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attacks) rsm;jyKI
od&SdoGm;Edkifygao;onf? odk@aomfvnf; v_yf&Sm;r_&Sdaeaom pmrsufESmrsm; (dynamic content)
ESifh qmurfAif;wmrsm;u usyef; 'DudGKif; pmom;rsm; (random decoy text) r=umc%
(content) txJodk@ xnfhay;jcif;tm;jzifh odomapEdkifonfh tEW&m,f avsmhusapEdkifygonf? tu,fI
toHk;jyKolu (fingerprint) ac: vHkjcHKa&; vufrSwfxdk;jcif; (security signature of the
SSL certificate) ay;xm;ygu/ rSef-rrSef ppfaq;Edkif+yD; =um;jzwfI (MITM attack)1
rsm;udkvnf; a&Smif&Sm;Edkifvdrfhrnf jzpfonf?

1

For potential attacks on circumvention systems, see Bennett Haselton’s
article (“List of possible weaknesses in systems to circumvent Internet
censorship”) at http://peacefire.org/circumventor/list-of-possibleweaknesses.html and a reply by Paul Baranowski at www.peek-a-booty.org/
pbhtml/downloads/ResponseToLopwistcic.pdf

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ya&mufqD qmAmrsm; (Proxy Servers)
ya&mufqD qmAm qdo
k nfrmS toH;k jyKol (Oyrm-0ufbu
f kd wuf=unfrh nfo
h )l ESihf qmAm t=um;&Sad eonfh
=um;cH qmAmyif jzpfygonf? ya&mufqD qmAmu toH;k jyKoEl iS hf qmAmt=um; =um;cHZkH ozG,f (buffer)
jyKrlygonf? ‚u (data request including web traffic (HTTP), file transfer
(FTP) and encrypted traffic (SSL) rsm;udk aqmif±GufcGifhay;ygonf?
ya&mufqDqmAmrsm;udk vlwOD;
csif;uaomfvnf;aumif;/ tzGJ@
tpnf;rsm;uaomfvnf;aumif;/
Ed k i f i H r sm;uaomf v nf ; aumif ;
ta=umif ; rsKd ; pH k j zif h toH k ; jyK=u
ygonf? Tta=umif;tcsufrsm;
wGif vHkðcHr_twGuf/ trnfrazmf
vdo
k nft
h wGu/f pDppf qifqmjyK&ef
(caching and filtering)
twGuf toHk;jyK=uygonf?
ya&mufqD qmAmudk toHk;jyK&ef
twGuf aemufqHk;toHk;jyKrnfholu ol. 0ufbfba&mufZm qufwifudk (IP address or host
name of proxy server) ya&mufqD qmAm. tdkifyD vdyfpm/ odk@r[kwf tdrf&Sif [dk@pftrnfjzifh
jyifqif&ef vdkygonf? xdk@tjyif ya&mufqD qmAm tvkyfvkyf aeaom ydk@wfeHygwfudkvnf; ajymif;vJ&ef
vdkygonf? Todk@ajymif;vJ&efrSm odyfcufcJaom udpP r[kwfyg? odk@aomfvnf; vltrsm;oHk;ae=uaom
pm=unfhwdkufrsm;/ tifwmeuf uzD;rsm;ESifh vkyfief;Xmersm;wGif Todk@ ba&mufZmudk jyifqif
ajymif;vJ&ef rjzpfEdkifyg?
tm;omcsurf sm;
a±G;cs,fp&m ya&mufqD aqmhzf0J,m; trsm;tjym;&Sd+yD;/ ‚wdk@u (web traffic HTTP) tjyif
yGifhvif;jrifomonfh ya&mufqD qufoG,fr_ (transparent proxy traffic) udkvnf; aqmif±Guf
ay;Edkif=uygonf? ‚wdk@u yHkrSef pHowfrSwfcsufr[kwfaom ydk@wfrsm; (non-standard ports)
wGifvnf; tvkyfvkyfEdkif=uygonf? vltrsm; toHk;jyKEdkifonfh ya&mufqD qmAm trsm;tjym;&Sdygonf?
tm;enf;csurf sm;
trsm;pkaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;onf zGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufxm;r_ yHkpHt&yif pm0Sufpepf (encryption) udk toHk;jyK&ef r&yg? odk@twGufa=umifh toHk;jyKolESifh ya&mufqDt=um; qufoG,fa&;rSm
vHkjcHKr_r&Sdyg?

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toHk;jyKolu ba&mufZm qufwif (browser setting) udk jyKjyifajymif;vJ&eftwGuf cGifhjyKcsuf
awmif;&ef vdktyfygonf? tu,fI tifwmeuf 0efaqmifr_ay;ol (ISPs) u ‚. ya&mufqD
qmAmudk jzwfoGm;&rnfh owif;tcsuf tvuftm;vHk;udk &,laernfqdkygu vGwfvyfyGifhvif;aom
ya&mufqD qmAm (Open proxy server) udk oHk;&ef rjzpfEdkifyg?
vltrsm; toH;k jyKEikd af om ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk &SmazGjcif;ESihf toH;k jyKjcif;onf w&m;r0if[k owfrw
S f
xm;jcif; &Sdaumif; &SdEdkifygonf? xdk@tjyif Tya&mufqDrsm;uvnf; rdrdtoHk;jyKvdkonfh tcsdefwdkif;
tvkyfvkyfcsifrS vkyfygvdrfhrnf?
ya&mufqD qmAm aqmhzf0J,m;rsm;
ya&mufqD qmAm aqmhz0f ,
J m;udk tifwmeufqifqm pDppfwnf;jzwfc&H onfh Edik if jH yify&Sd ,H=k unf&onfh
rdwfaqGu enf;ynmu|rf;usifr_ tweftoifh &Sd±Hkr#ESifhyif xnfhoGif;Edkifygonf? ya&mufqD qmAmaqmhzf
0J,m;udk bef;'f0pf'ftrsm;tjym; toHk;jyKcGifhay;aom/ pm0Sufpepf (encryption technology)
ay;oHk;onfh ae&mrsm;wGif wyfqifoifhygonf? tzGJ@tpnf;wck/ odk@r[kwf ±Hk;i,fwcku qmurfAif;&Sif;
pepf oHk;vdkonfh tajctaersKd;wGif wyfqifxm;&ef oifhav#mfygonf? ydwfyifcHxm;&onfh EdkifiH&Sd vlwOD;
u olwdk@. 0ufbf ba&mufZmrsm;udk jyifqifvdkuf+yD;onfESifh ya&mufqD qmAmrSwqifh tifwmeuf
xJodk@ vGwfvGwfvyfvyf av#muf=unfhEdkif+yD jzpfygonf? txl;tqifhjrifh v#Kd@0Suf qmurfAif;&Sif;
(0ufbfausmfv$m;enf;) tajz r[kwfaomfvnf; yk*~vduoD;oef@ydkif ya&mufqD qmAm&Sdjcif;tm;jzifh
ydkI vGwfvyfpGm v_yf&Sm;aqmif±GufEdkifygonf? Tpepfu 0ufbftajccH ya&mufqD pepfxufydkI
xda&mufr_ &Sdapygonf? T ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;xm;jcif;u/ 0ufbfay:&Sd ay;xm;aom ya&mufqDrsm;
oHk;jcif;xuf ydkI pOfqufrjywf qufoG,fEdkif+yD;/ 0ufbftajccH ar;vfydk@qufoG,fr_rsm;twGuf vHkðcHa&;
pepf (authentication) ESifh uluD;rsm; (cookies) twGufvnf; tqifajyapygonf? ya&mufqD
qmAmrsm;udk aemufqHk; toHk;jyKrnfhol. vdktyfcsuft& jyifqifxm;Edkif+yD;/ tpdk;&. ydwfqdk@wnf;jzwf
aer_udk ausmfv$m;&efvnf; pDrHxm;Edkifygonf?
• Squid is free proxy server software and can be secured with
Stunnel server.
http://www.squid-cache.org
http://www.stunnel.org
http://ice.citizenlab.org/projects/aardvark
• Privoxy is a proxy with advanced filtering capabilities for
protecting privacy.
http://www.privoxy.org
• Secure Shell (SSH) has a built-in socks proxy ($ ssh -D port
secure.host.com)
http://www.openssh.com

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• HTTPport/HTTPhost allows you to bypass your HTTP proxy,
which is blocking you from the internet

yk*~vdu oD;oef@vkyfxm;I pm0Sufpepf (encryption) udk cGifhjyKaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;onf
tkyfpkwck/ odk@r[kwf ±Hk;wck&Sd toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf txl; oifhavsmfygonf? Tpepfu yHkrSef/ wnf+idrf
onfh 0ufbfrsm;udk ausmfcG qufoG,fEdkifonfh qmurfAif;&Sif;pepfudk aqmif±Gufay;rnf jzpf+yD;/
EdkifiHjyifywGif &Sdaeonfh ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&onfh rdwfaqGu (enf;ynm tweftoifh u|rf;usifr_&Sdv#if/
vdktyfaom bef;'f0pf'f&Sdv#if ya&mufqD qmAm wnfaxmifay;xm;Edkifygonf?
vltrsm;toHk;jyKEdkifaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;
(Publicly Accessible Proxy Servers)
vltrsm;oHk;&ef zGifhxm;ay;aom ya&mufqDqmAmrsm; (Open proxies) onf &nf±G,fcsufwckjzifh
aomfvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;ta=umif;rsm; a=umifhaomfvnf;aumif; ta0;uGefjyLwmrsm;rS qufoG,fEdkif
&ef zGix
hf m;ay;onfh qmAmrsm; jzpfygonf? vltrsm; toH;k jyK&ef[k a=ujimI zGix
hf m;ay;aom ya&mufqD
qmAmrsm;[lI r=um;zl;yg? odk@r[kwf olwdk@u uGefjyLwm. uGefzpf*ga&;&Sif; (configuration)
wGif tvGJvGJtrSm;rSm;jzpf+yD; &nf±G,fcsuf r&Sdaomfvnf; vltrsm;oHk;ozG,f jzpfaeonfrsKd;vnf; jzpfEdkif
ygonf?
owdjyK&ef?
? a'oqdkif&m Oya'rsm;. t"dy`g,fzGifhqdkcsuft& yGifhaeaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;
(Open proxy servers) udk oHk;jcif;onf/ cGifhjyKcsufr&bJ qufoG,fjcif;[k owfrSwfEdkifygonf?
TudpPtwGuf Oya't& ta&;,lcH&r_rsm; &SdEdkifygonf? yGifhaeaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk toHk;jyK&ef
twGuf t=uHrjyKvdkyg?
yGifhaeaom ya&mufqDrsm;udk &SmazGjcif; (Locating Open Proxies)
0ufbfqdkuftrsm;pku yGifhaeaom ya&mufqDrsm;udk pm&if;azmfjyxm;wwf=uygonf? odk@aomfvnf;
Tya&mufqrD sm; qufvufI oH;k I&aeao;a=umif; tmrrcHEikd yf g? Tpm&if;azmfjyxm;aom ya&mufqD
rsm;twGufvnf; tmrcHcsuf r&Sdyg? rdrd trnfrazmfbJ aqmif&GufEdkifonfh vHkjcHKpdwfcs&r_/ ya&mufqD.
wnf&Sdaeonfh yx0Dtaetxm;/ rnfonfhudkr# tmrcHcsuf rjyKEdkifyg? Tya&mufqDrsm;udk oHk;ygu
oifhudk,fydkif tEW&m,fudk pOf;pm;csifhcsdef+yD;rS oHk;apvdkygonf?

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yGifhaeaom ya&mufqD 0ufbfqdkufrsm;
http://www.samair.ru/proxy/
http://www.antiproxy.com/
http://tools.rosinstrument.com/proxy/
http://www.multiproxy.org/
http://www.publicproxyservers.com/
aqmhzf 0J,m; (Proxy Tools/LocalProxy)
http://proxytools.sourceforge.net

yGifhaeom ya&mufqDrsm; (yHkrSefr[kwfaom ydk@wfrsm;)
(Open proxies: uncommon ports)
tcsKd@EdkifiHrsm;u pH0if ya&mufqD ydk@wfrsm; (standard proxy ports) udkom pDppfydwfqdk@ xm;avh
&Sd=uygonf? ydk@wf “port” qdkonfrSm wdusowfrSwfjyXmef;xm;onfh pnf;rsOf;rsm;twdkif; ae&mwckESifh
qufoG,fjcif;yif jzpfygonf (a logical connection used by specific protocols)?
rwluGJjym;aom tifwmeuf qm;Apf (0efaqmifr_) rsm;u owfrSwfxm;aom ydk@wf eHygwfrsm;rS jzwfoef;
I tcsuftvuf (a'wm) rsm;udk ay;ydk@=uygonf? tcsKd@aom ydk@wfeHygwfrsm;rSm wdwdusus owfrSwf
ay;xm;+yD;/ tifwmeuf eHywfcsay;aom tm%mydkifrsm; (Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority— IANA) u owfrSwfay;xm;=uygonf? olwdk@u owfowfrSwfrSwf y±dkwdkaum
pnf;urf;rsm; (protocols)/ 0efaqmifr_ qm;Apfrsm; owfrSwfay;xm;=uygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifhydk@wfeHygwf (80) (Port 80) udk tdyfcsf wDwDyD jzwfoef;r_ (HTTP traffic) rsm;twGuf toHk;jyK
=uygonf? oifu oif. ba&mufZmrSwqifh 0ufbfqdkufwck udk oGm;=unhfaomtcg/ ydk@wf 80 ay:wGif
vkyfudkifxm;aom qmAmwckudk 0ifa&mufoGm;jcif;yif jzpfygonf? ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;wGifvnf;
ydk@wfeHygwf&Sd+yD;/ olwdk@udk rl&if;'DZdkif;t& (default) yif owfrSwfxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? odk@twGuf
a=umifh 0ufbfrsm;udk pDppfydwfqdk@&ef pDpOfxm;aom aqmhzf0J,m;trsm;pku Tae&mrsm;odk@oGm;&ef
ydwq
f @kd xm;avh&=dS uygonf? od@k twGuaf =umifh atmifjrifpmG ausmcf o
G mG ;Edik &f ef jyKvyk x
f m;aom ya&muf
qDrsm;onf yHrk eS rf [kwaf om yd@k wf eHygwrf sm;jzifh pDpOfaqmif&u
G f (configure) vkyx
f m;avh &S=d uygonf?
http://www.web.freerk.com/proxylist.htm

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ya&mufqD qmAmrsm; (vHkðcHa&;qdkif&m pdk;&drfylyef&r_rsm;)
ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk pDpOfaqmif±Guf (configuration) &mY txl;ta&;}uD;vSygonf?
ta=umif;rSm Tpufrsm;u puf. vHkjcHKa&;ESifh trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fEdkifr_udk pDrHxdef;csKyfay;rnf
jzpfaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? pm0Sufpepf wyfqifrxm;yJ csKd@,Gif;ae±Hkr#ru/ ya&mufqDqmAmrsm;u
aemufqHk; toHk;jyKrnfhol. udk,fa&;tcsuftvufrsm;udk tjcm;wbufodk@ ayguf=um;apEdkifygonf?
Oyrmtm;jzifh tjcm;0ufbfqdkufwckodk@oGm;&ef awmif;cHonfh tdkifyDvdyfpmrsm; ºuif;usef&pfaumif;
usef&pfEdkifonf? xdkr#ru oifESifh ya&mufqD qmAmt=um; qufoG,fr_onf ±dk;±dk;pmom; (Plain
text) jzifh qufoG,fr_vnf; jzpfaeEdkifygonf? xdktcg tay:rSxdkifapmifhI pDppfapmifh=unfhae=uaom
tm%mydik rf sm;u tvG,t
f ulyif =um;jzwfzrf;,lEikd =f uygonf? ya&mufqD qmAmudk jzwfoef;oGm;onfh
owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udkvnf; ya&mufqD qmAmydkifqdkifonfholu =um;jzwfzrf;,l od&SdaeEdkifygao;
onf?
vltrsm; toHk;jyK&ef cGifhjyKxm;aom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk &SmazGprf;oyf=unfhjcif;/ toHk;csjcif;rsm;udk
t=uHrjyKvdkyg? yGifhaeaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk wcgw&HtoHk;jyK=ujcif;rSm tvG,ftul toHk;jyKI
&aoma=umifo
h m jzpf+y;D / vHjk cKH a&; twGuf tmrcHcsurf &Syd g? od@k aomf ydwyf ifxm;aom tifwmeufrsm;udk
ausmfcGI=unfh&ef jzpfaumif; jzpfEdkifygvdrfhrnf?
0ufbf tajccH ya&mufqDrsm;wGifvnf; ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;onf vHkjcHKa&;twGuf tvm;wl pdk;&drf
ylyef&r_ &Sdaumif; &SdaeEdkifygonf? tEW&m,f&SdapEdkifaom pmom; pc&pfrsm; (scripts) / uluD;rsm;
(cookies) aemufqHk; toHk;jyKaeolxHodk@ jzwfoef; ydk@v$wfay;=u&onf jzpf+yD;/ pm0Sufpepf
(encryption technology) jzifh a&mpyfI toHk;jyKonf qdkapOD;awmh/ ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;onf
(MITM) wdkufcdkufr_rsm; (txufwGif &Sif;jycJh+yD;/ jyef=unfhyg) ESifh vHkðcHa&;vufaAG&m (HTTPS
fingerprinting attacks) &SmazGwu
kd cf u
kd rf r_ sm; =uKH &Edik yf gao;onf? xd@k tjyif aqmhupf f ya&mufqD
(a socks proxy) toHk;jyKaeqJumvwGif tcsKd@aom ba&mufZmrsm;rS ta&;}uD;onfh owif;rsm;
aygu=f um;Edik yf gao;onf? aqmhupf f ya&mufqD qdo
k nfrmS 0ufbf jzwfoef;oGm;vmr_ (web traffic)
tjyif/ tjcm;aom yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;jzifh jzwfoef;oGm;vmr_rsm; (traffic) udkvnf; aqmif&Gufay;Edkifonfh
ya&mufqDrsKd; jzpfygonf? 0ufbfqdkufwckodk@ =unfh&efawmif; qdkonfhtcg 'dkrdef;trnf (domain
name) udk tdkifyD vdyfpmxJodk@ ydk@v$wfay;ygonf? tcsKd@aom ba&mufZmrsm;rSm a'otwGif;Yyif
pDraH qmif&u
G x
f m;=uonf jzpfaoma=umif/h ya&mufqu
D kd jzwfoef;I oGm;jcif; r&Sw
d wfyg? Tod@k jzpf&yfrsK;d
wGif ydwfqdk@xm;aom 0ufbfqdkufwck. vdyfpmudk awmif;qdkvmaom tdkifyD vdyfpmonf ydwfqdk@
qifqmjzwf awmufxm;onfh EdkifiHwck twGif;&Sd 'dkrdef;trnf pepf (Domain Name System
(DNS) Servers) xJYom tvkyfvkyfaoma=umifh usefae&pfEdkifygonf? 2

2

For more, see the Tor site: http://tor.eff.org/cvs/tor/doc/CLIENTS

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yGifhaeaom/ vltrsm; toHk;jyKEdkifaom ya&mufqD qmAmrsm;udk toHk;jyK&ef a,bk,stm;jzifh
t=urH jyKvykd g? ody+f y;D tEW&m,fr}u;D vSonfh 0ef;usiw
f iG f aexdik o
f rl sm;om (,m,D oH;k vdv
k #i/f od@k r[kwf
c%wmr# trnfrazmfvdkbJ oHk;vdkv#if) toHk;jyKoifhygonf? ta&;}uD;aom owif;rsm;twGuf
toHk;rjyKygESifh?)
ajrmif ; azmuf I oG m ;jcif ; ? (Tunneling)
ajrmif;azmufI oGm;jcif; (Tunneling)
qdkonfrSm wenf;tm;jzifh ydk@wfrsm;udk quf
ay;ydk@jcif; (Port forwarding) r#om
jzpfygonf? pm0Sufxm;aom pepf (encrypted protocol) wcktwGif;Y vHkðcHr_ r&Sd
aom/ pm0Sufxm;r_ r&Sdaom tcsuftvuf
rsm; (insecure and unencrypted
traffic) udk zHk;tkyfoGm;apjcif; jzpfonf?
tifwmeuf ydwfqdk@xm;onfh EdkifiHwckwGif
aexd k i f toH k ; jyKrnf h o l u aqmh z f 0 J , m;
(client software) udk a'gif;vkyfvkyf&ef
vdktyf+yD;/ ydwfqdk@xm;r_r&Sdaom EdkifiHwck&Sd
uGefjyLwmwckodk@ ajrmif;azmuf,ljcif;yif jzpf
onf? toH;k jyKo.
l uGejf yLwmwGif tjcm;vkyf
ief;rsm;rSm yHkrSef jzpfaomfvnf;/ toHk;jyKolu
tifwmeuf=unfh&ef awmif;cHvmonfhtcg pm0Sufxm;onfh ajrmif;ayguf (encrypted tunnel)
rSwqifh/ ydwfqdk@xm;jcif; cH&r_r&Sdaom ae&mrS uGefjyLwmodk@ qufoG,frnf jzpfonf? ‚u toHk;jyK
aeol. awmif;qdkvmr_udk yGifhvif;pGm jyefvnfv$Jajymif;ay;vdrfhrnf jzpfonf? Todk@ ajrmif;azmufonfh
ozG,f oHk;Edkifonfh enf;em ud&d,mtrsKd;rsKd; &Sdygonf? toHk;jyKolu ydwfqdk@xm;jcif; r&Sdonfh EdkifiH&Sd
rdwfaqGxH qufoG,fI yk*~vduoufouf oHk;Edkifaom ajrmif;zufxm;onfhozG,fpepf (Tunneling
service) udk aqmif&GufEdkifygonf? Todk@ tquftoG,f r&Sdolrsm;u pD;yGm;a&;t& a&mif;0,f
0efaqmifr_ay;aom ajrmif;azmufxm;onfhpepfudk &,lEdkifygonf? yHkrSeftm;jzifh vpOf ay;oGif;&ygonf?
tcrJhoHk;Edkifaom ajrmufazmufxm;onfh pepfrsKd;wGif wcgw&H a=umfjimrsm;yg ygvmwwfa=umif; awG@&
ygvdrfhrnf? Todk@ a=umfjimrsm;udk &,l&ef ±dk;±dk;pmpepf (Plain text request) jzifh ydk@v$wfae=u+yD;/
=um;cH qm;Apfaqmif&Gufay;aeolu (Oyrm- tm%mydkifrsm;u) ,ck toHk;jyKaeolonf ajrmif;azmuf
onfo
h zG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) udk oH;k aea=umif; od&cdS ef@rSe;f Edik =f uygonf? xdrk #ru
ajrmif;azmufonfhozG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) rsm;onf aqmhufpf ya&mufqDrsm;
(socks proxies) udk oHk;=uaoma=umifh/ 'dkrdef;trnfawmif;cHr_rsm;vnf; ayguf=um;wwfygonf?

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http://www.http-tunnel.com/
http://www.hopster.com/
http://htthost.com/

tm;omcsurf sm;
ajrmif;azmufonfhozG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) rsm;u pm0Suf uGef&ufpepf
(encrypted network) jzifh v$Jajymif;ay;Edkif=uygonf?
ajrmif;azmufonfo
h zG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) rsm;u ya&mufqD y±dw
k u
kd ;kd (proxy
protocols) trsm;udk vHkjcHKpGm aqmif&GufEdkifcGifh jyKygonf? 0ufbf v$Jajymif;ay;ydk@r_rsm;omru ydkI
aqmif&GufEdkifygonf?
pD;yGm;a&;t& 0efaqmifr_ay;aeaom vkyfief;rsm;vnf; &Sdae+yD;/ jyifywGif tquftoG,f r&Sdolrsm;u
0,f,loHk;pGJEdkif=uygonf?
tm;enf;csurf sm;
pD;yGm;a&;t& 0efaqmifra_ y;aeaom vkyif ef;rsm;onf vltrsm;od&adS e=u+y;D / ydwq
f @kd xm;onfh pm&if;wGif
yg0if+yD;vnf; jzpfaewwfygonf?
Todk@ ajrmif;azmufonfhozG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) rsm;udk vltrsm;oHk; uGefjyLwm
rsm; (Oyrm pm=unfhwdkufrsm;/ tifwmeuf uzD;rsm;) wGif oHk;I rjzpfEdkifyg? aqmhzf0J,m; xnfhoGif;&ef
vdktyfaoma=umifh jzpfonf?
Tenf;ynm oHk;&eftwGuf enf;ynmu|rf;usifr_ tweftoifhvdktyf+yD;/ tjcm;ausmfcGr_ enf;ynmrsm;
xuf ydkrdkcufcJygonf?
T ajrmif;azmufonfhozG,f 0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) ay;aom enf;ynmudk enf;ynm
u|rf;usifoljzpfygu oHk;pGJ&ef toifhavsmfqHk;jzpf+yD;/ vHkjcHKpGm oHk;Edkifygonf? (odk@aomf trnfrazmfbJ
oHk;EdkifonfhudpP r[kwfyg?) 0ufbf=unfh±Hk xufydkI oHk;pGJ&ef jzpfEdkifygonf? odk@aomf vltrsm;oHk;
uGefjyLwmrsm;rS oHk;pGJ&ef rjzpfEdkifyg? pD;yGm;a&;t& 0efaqmifr_ay;aeaom ajrmif;azmufonfhozG,f
0efaqmifr_ (Tunneling service) rsm;rSm qifqmwnf;jzwf ydwfqdk@xm;onfh EdkifiHrsm;&Sd vlxkrsm;
twGuf txl;oifhawmf+yD;/ jyifyEdkifiHrsm;wGif todrdwfaqGr&Sdolrsm; oHk;Edkifygonf?
trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfh enf;pepfrsm; (Anonymous Communications
Systems)
ausmfcGoGm;onfh qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmrsm;ESifh trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfh enf;pepfrsm;rSm
wln+D y;D / tcsi;f csi;f tjyeftvSef csw
d q
f ufr_ &Sad e=uygonf? od@k aomf rwlnaD om enf;pHowfrw
S cf surf sm;
atmufwGif tvkyfvkyfudkif=uygonf? trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfhpepfrsm;onf toHk;jyKol.
udk,fa&;tcsuftvufrsm; vHkjcHKr_&Sdapa&;Y tav;xm;+yD;/ awmif;cHvmonfh toHk;jyKol. udk,fa&;
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tcsut
f vufrsm; (identity) udk zH;k uG,af y;xm;ygonf? olomG ;=unfh 0ufbq
f u
kd u
f kd pDrcH ef@cGaJ eolu
rjrif&yg? xdk@tjyif tqifhjrifhpepfrsm;u tqifhqifh vufv$Jajymif;ay;ydk@ (variety of routing
techniques) +yD; TtrnfrazmfbJ qufoG,faeonfh pepfudk,fYuyif rjrif&apatmif zkH;uG,fay;
xm;ygonf? ausmfcGoGm;I tifwmeufoHk;Edkifonfh qmurfAif;&Sif;pepfwGif TtrnfrazmfbJ qufoG,f
onfhudpPtwGuf tav;xm;jcif; r&Sdyg? olwdk@u toHk;jyKaeol. pGrf;aqmifEdkifcGifhxuf/ wm;qD;ydwfqdk@r_
rsm;udk ausmfvGefI tifwmeufrS owif;rsm;&,ljcif;/ ay;ydk@jcif; jyKEdkifatmif aqmif&Gufay;jcif;r#om
jzpfygonf? uef@owfxm;onfrsm;udk ausmcf I
G oGm;Edik af p±Hrk #om jzpfygonf? Tod@k ausmcf o
G mG ;Edik af p&ef
aqmif&Guf&mwGif vHkjcHKpGmqufoG,fEdkifonfh enf;pepfvdktyf+yD;/ &Hzef&Hcg v#Kd@0SufzHk;uG,fxm;r_&Sdaomf
vnf; trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fa&;enf;pepfuJhodk@ vHk;0yHkazsmufEdkifjcif; r&Sdyg?
trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfh enf;pepfrsm;udk wcgw&H ausmfcGoGm;onfh qmurfAif;&Sif;pepfrsm;
twGuv
f nf; toH;k jyKavh &S=d uygonf? Tpepf. tm;aumif;csuw
f ckrmS tvG,w
f ul csw
d q
f ufEikd o
f nfh
toifh&Sd+yD;om; uGef&ufrsm; (network) &Sdae=u+yD;/ qifqmwnf;jzwfxm;r_udk ausmfjzwfoGm;&ef
twGuv
f nf; toH;k jyKEikd =f uygonf? tm;omcsurf mS rdr.
d Oy"d±yk f (identity) udk rjrif&apjcif;jzpfygonf?
T trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfh enf;pepfrsm;udk ausmfcGoGm;&ef qmurfAif;&Sif; pepftwGuf
oHk;onfhtcg tcsKd@uGefjyLwmrsm;Y cGifhjyKcsufr&bJ tjcm;aemufxyf aqmhzf0J,m;rsm; xnfhoGif;cGifh
rjyKwwf=uaoma=umifh tcuftcJ&SdEdkifygonf? vltrsm;oHk; uGefjyLwmrsm;rS aeI tifwmeuf wufol
rsm;/ pm=unfhwdkufrsm;/ tifwmeufuzD;rsm;rS oHk;olrsm;taejzifh Tpepfjzifh ausmfcGI qmurfAif;&Sif;
pepfozG,f oHk;&ef rjzpfEdkifyg? xdkr#ru Tenf;ynmoHk;jcif;tm;jzifh tifwmeuf qufoG,fr_vnf;
aES;auG;apEdkifygonf?
EdkifiHwck odk@r[kwf tdkiftuf
pfyD (ISP) wckrS tifwm
euf wm;qD ; pD p pf x m;r_ u d k
ausmf & ef t wG u f q d k v #if
oufqikd &f m tm%mydik rf sm;u
Todk@ trnfrazmfbJ quf
oG,o
f nfeh nf;pepfukd }uKd ;pm;
ol r sm;twG u f tqif h v d k u f
ydwq
f @kd r_vnf; =uKH &Edik yf gonf?
tu,fI Tpepfudk toHk;jyK
olu wae&mwnf; (wnf+ird f
aeaom ae&mXmewck ) rS
toHk;jyKaeygu qifqmwnf;
jzwf pDppfonfh aqmhzf0J,m;
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u tvG,w
f ul axmufvrS ;f od&o
dS mG ;Edik +f y;D / qufvufqufo,
G &f ef jiif;qdEk ikd yf gonf? vltrsm;pktwGuf
vlodrsm;aom trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fonfh enf;pepfrsm;qdkv#if/ ydwfqdk@cH&ap&ef tcGifhtvrf; ydkrsm;
ygonf? tu,fI Todk@ toHk;jyK&ef rdwfaqGtcsif;csif; toHk;jyKaeaom Ek'f (Peer node) odk@r[kwf
vltrsm; od&Sdxm;=uaom Ek'frsm; (publicly known node) rSaeI toHk;jyKrnfqdkygu ydwfqdk@
xm;=uaom tm%mydkifrsm;u oGm;a&mufqufoG,fcGifhudk ydwfqdk@xm;Edkifygonf? qifqmwnf;jzwf
pDppfae=uaom tm%mydkifrsm;u olwdk@udk,fydkif Ek'fudk toHk;jyKaeaomfvnf;/ Tae&modk@ tjcm;quf
oG,fvmr_rsm;udkvnf; pDppfapmifh=unfh ae=uvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf? tcsKd@aom wif;usyfpGm csKyfcs,fxm;
onfh EdkifiHrsm;wGif/ vlodrsm;aom pepfrsm;udkvnf; apmifh=unfhae=u+yD;/ Tpepfrsm;udk toHk;jyKolrsm;udk
vnf; owdjyKI apmifh=unfhae=urnf jzpfygonf? 3
tm;aumif;csurf sm;
vHkjcHKa&;twGufa&m/ trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fEdkifr_twGufyg aqmif&Gufay;ygonf?
vkyfief; y±dkwdkaum (protocols) trsm;pkudk vHkjcHKpGm aqmif&GufEdkifap+yD;/ 0ufbf=unfh±Hk (web
traffic) oufoufxuf aqmif&GufEdkifpGrf; &Sdygonf?
enf;ynmydik ;f ulnrD a_ y;Edik af om TpepftoH;k jyKaeolrsm; todu
k t
f 0ef;rsm;ESihf TpepftwGuf zG@H òz;ap&ef
0dkif;0ef;a&;qGJ ae=uolrsm; &Sdygonf?
tm;enf;csurf sm;
Tpepfonf ausmfcGoGm;&ef qmurfAif;&Sif;pepftwGuf &nf&G,fI jyKvkyfxm;jcif; r[kwfyg? vltrsm;u
Tpepfudk od&Sdxm;=uaoma=umifh ydwfqdk@qifqmjzwfawmufxm;+yD;vnf; jzpfaeEdkifygonf?
vltrsm;oH;k uGejf yLwmrsm; (Oyrm- pm=unfw
h u
kd rf sm;/ tifwmeufuzD;rsm;) rSaeI Tpepfukd toH;k jyKI
r&yg? ta=umif;rSm vdktyfonfh aqmhzf0J,m;udk xnfhoGif;I r&aoma=umifh jzpfonf?

For more on potential attacks on circumvention systems, see Bennett
Haselton’s article
(“List of possible weaknesses in systems to circumvent Internet censorship”)
at http://peacefire.org/circumventor/list-of-possible-weaknesses.html
and a reply by Paul Baranowski at:
www.peekbooty.org/pbhtml/downloads/ResponseToLopwistcic.pdf
3

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(Tor) pepfqdkonfrSm ajrmufazmufonfhozG,f qufay;Edkifonfh pepf (virtual
tunnel) jzpf+yD;/ vlrsm;/ tzGJ@rsm;udk ‚wdk@. tifwmeufudk vHkjcHKpdwfcspGm/ trnf
razmfbJ oHk;Edkifap&ef twGuf taxmuftuljyKygonf? TpepftwGif; rlvu
wnf;u yg&Sdaeaom yk*~dKvfa&;vHk jcHKa&;qdkif&m vkyfief;rsm; (built-in privacy
features) jzifh aqmhz0f ,
J m; a&;Ekid o
f rl sm;u rdrb
d mom topfaom qufo,
G af &;
pepfukd a&;,lEikd yf gonf? (Tor) pepfonf tjcm; toH;k csrr_ sm;twGuv
f nf; tajccH
azmifa';&Sif;ozG,f aqmif&Gufay;aoma=umifh/ tzGJ@rsm;/ woD;yk*~v vlyk*~dKvfrsm;u
vltrsm;oHk; uGef&uf (public networks) rsm;rSwqifh rdrdudk,fa&; tcsuf
tvufrsm;udk vlodrcH&apbJ owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk jzef@jzL; ay;Edkifygonf?
http://tor.eff.org
(JAP) pepfonf tifwmeufay:wGif rdrdtrnfudk rodapbJ oGm;a&mufvnfywf
Edkifapygonf? 0ufbf qmAmodk@ wdkuf±dkufqufoG,fjcif;rsKd; r[kwfbJ/ vrf;a=umif;
v$Jajymif;/ auG@aumufoGm;+yD; =um;cHuGefjyLwm rsm;rSwqifh pm0Sufpepf (encryption) jzifo
h mG ;+y;D / &&Sad pygonf? T=um;cH jzwfomG ;aom uGejf yLwmrsm;udk a&maxG;
apolrsm; (mixes) [k ac:ygonf?
http://anon.inf.tu-dresden.de/index_en.html
z&D;euf (freenet) qdkonfrSm tcrJhay;oHk;aom aqmhzf0J,m;jzpf+yD;/ qifqm
jzwfawmufr_udk pdk;&drfa=umifh=uae&ef r&SdbJ tifwmeufay:rS owif;tcsuf
tvufrsm; &,l&ef toHk;jyKEdkifygonf? Tpepfonf A[dkcsufrwckwnf;rS xdef;csKyf
xm;aom pepfr[kwb
f /J cGjJ zef@xm;+y;D toH;k jyKorl sm;rSm trnfrazmfbJ toH;k jyKEikd =f u
ygonf?
http://freenet.souurceforge.net

Tpepfrsm;udk toHk;jyKjcif;onf enf;ynmu|rf;usifr_ vdktyfygonf?
Todk@ trnfrazmfbJ qufoG,fEdkifonfh enf;ynmrsm;onf tifwmeufrsm;udk ausmfcGwufI
toH;k jyK&ef/ trnfrazmfbJ toH;k jyK&ef vdt
k yfaeolrsm;twGuf txl;oifah vsmaf om enf;ynmjzpfygonf?
Tpepfrsm;u 0ufbf=unfh&Hkoufouf (web traffic) xuf aqmif&Gufay;Edkif=uaomfvnf;/ jyify
vltrsm;oHk;ae=uaom uGefjyLwmrsm;rS vkyfudkifaqmif&GufEdkifjcif; r&Sd=uyg?

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qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m

ed*Hk;
Todk@ tifwmeufrsm;udk ausmfcGoGm;&ef qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;ynmrsm;udk toHk;jyKolrsm;taejzifh
tav;teuf csifhcsdefpOf;pm;&ef vdktyf+yD;/ rdrd. vdktyfcsuf tao;pdwf/ &&SdEdkifonfh t&if;tjrpf
(resources) rsm;ESifh aemufqHk; toHk;jyKrnfhol. vHkjcHKa&;qdkif&m pdk;&drfylyefzG,f tcsufrsm;udk
xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;&rnf jzpfygonf? toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf Tenf;ynmrsm;ESifh ywfoufI a&G;cs,fp&m
trsm;tjym; &Sdaeygonf? odk@aomfvnf; Tenf;pepfrsm;udk wnf+idrfpGm/ xda&mufpGm tifwmeuf
wm;qD;jzwfawmufxm;r_rsm;udk ausmfv$m;Edkif&efrSm ta=umif;tcsuf rsm;pGmtay: rlwnfaeygonf?
toHk;jyKol. enf;ynmu|rf;usifr_/ jzpfvmEdkifaom tEW&m,frsm;/ qifqmwnf;jzwf xm;onfh EdkifiHjyify
wGif ulnED ikd rf nfh rdwaf qG&-dS r&Sd ponfjzift
h ay: xnfo
h iG ;f pOf;pm;=u &rnf jzpfygonf? tpd;k &rsm;uvnf;
Todk@tifwmeuf ausmfcGI qufoG,f=uonfh enf;ynmrsm;udk ydwfqdk@Edkifonfh pGrf;&nf &Sdaumif; &Sd
ygvdrfhrnf?
tifwmeufrsm;udk ausmcf o
G mG ;Edik o
f nfh qmurfAif;&Si;f pepf xda&mufpmG ESihf wnf+ird pf mG toH;k jyKEikd &f efrmS
,H=k unfrE_ iS hf oufqikd o
f vdk toH;k jyKEikd o
f nfh pGr;f aqmif&nfEiS v
hf nf; oufqikd yf gonf? qmurfAif;&Si;f pepf
rsm;u tajctaewckatmufY &Sdaeonfh toHk;jyKolrsm;twGuf &SmazG&&SdEdkifap&rnf jzpf+yD;/ aemufqHk;
toH;k jyKrnfo
h rl sm;. vdt
k yfcsut
f & pGr;f aqmifxm;ay;jcif;rsK;d jzpf&ygvrd rhf nf? Tpepfrsm;onf vHðk crH &_ &dS ef
vdktyfouJhodk@/ vdktyfovdk jyKjyifajymif;vJjcif; (configure) vkyfEdkif&ygvdrfhrnf? xdk@tjyif v#Kd@0Sufr_
trnfrayguf=um;apr_ &Sd&efvnf; vdktyfygonf? qmurfAif;&Sif;pepf axmufyHhay;xm;olESihf aemufqHk;
toHk;jyKaeolt=um; ,Hk=unfr_ &Sdaeap&efvnf; vdktyfygonf? ‚wdk@t=um;&Sd Oya'ydkif;qdkif&mt&/
EdkifiHa&;t& tcif;tusif;rsm;udkvnf; em;vnfxm;ygu ydkaumif;ygonf? xdk@tjyif pwiftoHk;rjyKrD
uwnf;u qmurfAif;&Sif;enf;ynm. tuef@towfrsm;udkvnf; od&Sdxm;oihfygonf?

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qifqmjzwfawmufrIrsm;udk ausmfvTm;&ef enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m

emwf ADvefEl; (Nart Villeneuve) onf uae'gEdkifiH/ wdk&Gefwdk wuUodkvf/ ref@cf (Munk)
EdkifiHwumavhvma&; Xme&Sd ynm&yfXmeaygif;pk "gwfcGJprf;oyfcef;/ EdkifiHom;rsm;. vufbf
(Citizen lab) rS enf;ynmydkif;qdkif&m u|rf;usifolwOD;vnf; jzpfygonf? ynm&SifwOD;jzpfovdk/
aqmhzf0J,m; a&;aeol ynm&Sifvnf; jzpfonf? urBmw0Srf; tifwmeufrsm;
pDppfjzwfawmufjcif;ESifh apmifh=unfhaejcif;rsm;udk avhvmokawoejyKaeonfh (OpenNet
Initiative) wGif vuf&Sd wm0efxrf;aqmifaeolvnf; jzpfygonf? olu vuf&Sd
toHk;jyKae=uaom qmurfAif;&Sif; enf;pepfrsm;udk oHk;oyfavhvmaeolvnf; jzpf+yD;/
‚aqmhzf0J,m; enf;ynmrsKd;udk a&;om;zGH@òz;ap&ef aqmif&Gufaeolvnf; jzpfygonf?
ol.pdwf0ifpm;onfh bmom&yfrsm;wGif tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdk@ wnf;jzwfr_tjyif/
(hacktivism) ac: tifwmeuf xdk;azmuf0ifa&muf u|rf;usifolrsm;. v_yf&Sm;r_/ qdkifbm
t=urf;zuf vkyfief;rsm;ESifh tifwmeufvHkjcHKa&;qdkif&m udpPrsm;udkvnf; avhvmaeygonf?
ewf ADvefEl; (Nart Villeneuve) onf wdk&GefwdkwuUodkvf/ +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh yÉdyuQrsm;
avhvma&;XmerS r=umao;rDu bGJ@&&SdcJholvnf; jzpfygonf?
aus;Zl;wifrSwfwrf;
Michelle Levesque, Derek Bambauer and Bennett Haselton

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oifhtD;ar;vfu yk*¾dKvfa&;t& vHkNcHKrI&SdaMumif; aocsmapjcif;

oifhtD;ar;vfu yk*¾dKvfa&;t&
vHkNcHKrI&SdaMumif; aocsmapjcif;
vl'dkApfuf yD&ufwf (Ludovic Pierrat)
,cktcg tpdk;&trsm;wGif tDvufx&Gefepfenf;jzifh ydk@vmonfh owif;rsm;/ pmrsm;udk apmifh=unfhaxmuf
vSrf;Edkifonfh enf;emrsm; &Sdae=uonf? zdESdyfaomEdkifiHrsm;wGif TudpPtwGuf aqmif±Guf=urnfh
“qdkifbmykvdyfrsm;” xm;&SdI EdkifiHa&;t& twdkuftcHa&;om;rnfholrsm;udk &SmazG/ zrf;qD;jcif; jyK=u
ygonf? tcsKd@aomol trsm;tjym;rSm tD;ar;vfydk@jcif;/ pmwckudk xyfrHjzef@a0jcif; (forwarding)
twGuf axmifoGif;tusOf;cscHcJh=u&ygonf? armvf'dkufzfpf EdkifiH&SdvlwOD;rSm tjynfjynfqdkif&m vGwf+idrf;
csrf;omcGifhtzGJ@}uD; (Amnesty International) odk@ tD;ar;vfqufoG,fr_jzifh (2002) ckESpfwGif
axmif'%f (15) ESpf csrSwfcH&ygonf? (2003) ckESpf azaz:0g&DvwGifvnf; qD&D;,m;EdkifiHrS tifwmeuf
toHk;jyK olwOD;onf tD;ar;vfowif;pmwapmifudk jzef@a0ay;ydk@r_ESifh axmifcscHxm;&ygonf?
,ckatmufwGif azmfjyrnfhenf;rsm;onf oif. tD;ar;vfu yk*~dKvfa&;t& vHkjcHKpGm ay;ydk@Edkif&eftwGuf
taxmuftul jyKEdkifvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf?
oif. tD;ar;vfudk vufcHzGifhay;xm;onfh tifwmeuf 0efaqmifr_ ukr`%Drsm; (Internet Service
Providers— ISP) (Oyrm attdkt,fvfjzpfap/ 0efem'l; jzpfap/ tcrJh tD;ar;vfyifjzpfap)/
odk@r[kwf tjcm;ukr`%Drsm;jzpfap/ olwdk@u oif. yk*~vduvHkjcHKa&;udk wm0ef,lrnfr[kwf=uyg? oif.
pm/ odk@r[kwf tD;ar;vfjzwfoef;oGm;rnfh uGef&ufrsm;u tvG,fwulyif =um;jzwfzrf;,lI zwf±_Edkif
=uygonf? tm%mydkifrsm;u EdkifiHtwGif;&Sd tD;ar;vfrsm;/ tifwmeufoHk;olrsm; tay: axmufvSrf;
vdk=uaom EdkifiHrsm;wGif ‚ (ISP) rsm;udk jzwfoGm;aom tD;ar;vfrsm;udk zwf&_avh &Sd=uygonf?
&[l;/ a[mhwfar;vfwdk@uJhodk@aom 0ufbfar;vfrsm;wGifrl ydkI vHkjcHKr_ &Sdygonf? ta=umif;rSm ‚wdk@u
a'ocH (ISP) qmAmudk toHk;rjyK=uaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? 0ufbfar;vfudk toHk;jyK&eftwGuf
oifu tifwmeuftwGif; a&mufap&ef vrf;xGif&+yD;/ =um;jzwfzwf&_vdkygu 0ufbfay:&SdaepOf umv
twGif;om zwfEdkifygonf? odk@twGufa=umifh axmufvSrf;&ef ydkI cufcJygonf? odk@aomfvnf; TvHkðcHr_
rsKd;rSm Ed_if;,SOfcsuft& tenf;i,fom omvGefr_&Sdygonf? u|rf;usifol qdkifbmykvdyfrsm;/ [ufum
(hackers) ac: uGefjyLwmazmufxGif;0dZ…mrsm;u oif. 0ufbfar;vfrsm;udk cdk;,lzwf±_Edkif=uygonf?
pm0Sufjcif; (encryption) (uk'frsm;jzifh umuG,fay;xm;jcif;) onfom oif. tD;-ar;vfrsm;u
yk*~vduoufouf/ vHkjcHKr_&Sdap&ef tmrcHay;Edkifonfh pepfjzpfygonf? (2) rsKd; &Sdygonf?

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oifhtD;ar;vfu yk*¾dKvfa&;t& vHkNcHKrI&SdaMumif; aocsmapjcif;

yHkpH±dk;±dk; (usrf;±dk;) pm0Sufpepf (Classic Encryption)
tef;ESifh rdkufu,fu tjyeftvSef v#Kd@0Sufowif;rsm;/ pmrsm; zvS,fae=uygonf? olwdk@u pm0Sufpepf
oHk;&ef oabmwlnD=u+yD;/ pmjyefazmf&efttwGuf uk'frsm;/ aomhrsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? Tpepfudk oHk;I
pmay;ydk@zvS,f=uygonf?
Tpepf. tm;enf;csufrSm tjcm;wwd,vlwOD;u tef;ESifh rdkufu,fwdk@ aomhudkzvS,faepOf ‚aomh
csufudk &xm;ygu zwf&_&ef jzpfEdkifouJhodk@/ tef;ESifh rdkufu,fxHodk@vnf; pmtwkrsm; a&;om;ay;ydk@
Edkifygao;onf? odk@twGufa=umifh tef;ESifh rdkufu,fwdk@ aomhzvS,faepOfwGif rnfolr# rod&Sdap&ef
vdktyfygonf? Oyrm vlcsif;awG@qHkI ay;Edkifygonf?
zufrnDaom pm0Sufpepf (Asymmetric Encryption)
Tjy\emtwGuf taumif;qHk;enf;rSm zufrnDaom pm0Sufpepf “asymmetric encryption”
udk oHk;jcif; jzpfonf? TudpPtwGuf aomh 2 ck vdktyfygonf? wckrSm pm0Suf&efaomhjzpf+yD;/ tjcm;wckrSm
pmazmf&efaomh jzpfygonf? pm0Suf&rnfhaomh (encryption key—public key) tao;pdwf
tcsuftvufrsm;udk tifwmeufay:rSwqifh pdk;&drfp&mrvdkbJ zvS,fEdkifonf? ta=umif;rSm Taomhjzifh
pmazmf&ef rjzpfEikd af oma=umifh jzpfonf? pmazmfaomh (decryption key) rSm v#K@d 0Suaf omh (secret
key) jzpf+yD; vHk;0 ray;ydk@&yg?
TzufrnDaom pm0SufpepfY tef;wGif olrudk,fydkif aomhwpHk &Sdygonf? (olrudk,fydkifodrf;xm;&rnfh
(secret key) ESifh olrsm;odk@ ay;Edkifonfh (public key) jzpfonf?) tef;u rdkufu,fxHodk@
aomhudkay;ygonf? xdkolu TaomhudkoHk; pm0SufI olrxH jyefydk@rnf jzpfonf? rdkufu,fuvnf;
ol. aomhukd tef;xH jyefI yd@k xm;ygonf? olruvnf; Taomhukd oH;k I vH;k 0vHjk cKH pmG jyef=um;qufo,
G f
Edkif=uygonf?
odk@aomfvnf; trsm;oHk;aomh (public key) udk tifwmeufay:wGif txl; tumtuG,fr&Sd
zvS,f=uaomtcg ‚aomh. vHkjcHKpdwfcs&r_udk ydkif&SifESifh jyefppfaq;onfu taumif;qHk;jzpfygonf?
aomhwdkif;wGif (fingerprint) [k ac:onfh vufaAG&m &Sdygonf? ‚vufaAG&mqdkonfrSm pum;vHk;
twdkav;rsm; jzpf+yD;/ vludk,fwdkifaomfvnf;aumif;/ zkef;ay:rSaomfvnf;aumif; qufoG,fI ppfaq;
Edkifonf?
Todk@ twnfjyKcsufr&aom aomhonf pdwfcs&aom aomhr[kwfyg? tjcm;wwd,vlwOD;rS zefwD;I
0ifay;onfvnf; jzpfEdkifygonf? Todk@ r±dk;om;aomt=uHjzifh 0ifa&mufvmygu rdrdwdk@pm0Sufae
or#vnf; tcsD;ESD;jzpf&awmhrnf jzpfonf? TzufrnDaom pm0Sufpepf (asymmetric encryption) wckvHk;onf v#Kd@0Sufxm;&rnfh rdrdaomhudk vHk;0odrf;qnf; xm;Edkifr_ESifh tjcm;ol. ay;vmaom
aomh (public key) tay:wGif ,Hk=unf&r_tay: rlwnfaeygonf?

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oifhtD;ar;vfu yk*¾dKvfa&;t& vHkNcHKrI&SdaMumif; aocsmapjcif;

vGwfvyfpGmoHk;Edkifaom yD*sDyDpepf (OpenPGP—Open Pretty Good Privacy) onf
pHowfrw
S x
f m;onfo
h zG,f aumif;rGeo
f nfh pm0Supf epfwrsK;d jzpfygonf? vlo;kH rsm;aom tjcm;pepfwckrmS
(GnuPG—GNU Privacy Guard) jzpf+yD;/ aomhtpHkudk zefwD;Edkifjcif;ESifh pma&;om;quf
oG,fr_udk vHkjcHKpGm aqmif&GufEdkif=uygonf? ‚udk oef;'g;b'f (Thunderbird)/ atmufvGwfcf
(Outlook) ponfh ar;vfydk@onfh y±dk*&rfrsm;ESifhvnf; yl;wGJ toHk;jyKEdkif=uygonf? tjcm; 0ufbf
ar;vfrsm;/ csufcsif; pmydk@pepfrsm; (instant messaging) jzifhvnf; wGJI toHk;jyKEdkifygonf?
*sDtef,l yD*sD (GnuPG) udk (www.gnupg.org) ae&mwGif a'gif;vkyf vkyf,lEdkifygonf?
0if;'dk;pf pepftwGuf txl;Am;&Sif;udk (www.winpt.org) ae&mwGif a'gif;vkyf vkyf,lEdkifygonf?

vl'dkApfuf yD&ufwf (Ludovic Pierrat) onf “0” "Wa" ukr`%Dudk aqmif±Gufaeonfh
uGefjyLwm tif*sifeD,mwOD; jzpfygonf? owif;enf;ynmt=uHay;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh xkwfvkyfa&;
aqmif±Gufaeonfh ukr`%Dwck jzpfygonf?

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e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJY 107

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tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;

tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;
*sLvD,H ydef (Julien Pain)

urBmay:&Sd tm%m&SifEdkifiH trsm;pku ‚wdk@.EdkifiHom;rsm; tifwmeuftGefvdkif;ay:wGif zwfvdkor#/
vk y f u d k i f a qmif ± G u f vd k o r#ud k xd e f ; csKyf & ef }uKd ; yrf ; avh & S d = uygonf ? ol w d k @ u “jiif ; y,f z G , f ”
“Objectionable” [k ,lqonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk ydwq
f @kd &ef ydI
k ydI
k u|r;f usif vkyaf qmifvm
Edkif=uygonf? txl;ojzifh Tenf;ynmrsm;udk tar&duef ukr`%Drsm;rS 0,f,lcJh=ujcif; jzpfygonf?
w±kwfEdkifiHu TudpPrsKd;wGif txl;ydwfqdk@Edkif+yD;/ urBmhcsHyD,H[kyif qdk&ygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf; r=um
ao;rDESpfrsm;u ydkrdk+yKdifqdkifr_ jyif;xefvmonfhtwGufa=umifh ,cktcg pdk;&drfylyefvmae&+yD jzpfygonf?
atmufazmfjyyg Edik if rH sm;pm&if;rsm;rSm rjynfph ykH g? rsm;pGm xnfo
h iG ;f azmfjy&ef vdt
k yfvrd Ohf ;D rnf jzpfygonf?
odk@aomfvnf; TEdkifiHrsm;u ‚wdk@udk,fydkifenf;em pepfrsm;jzifh tm;}udK;rmefwuf aqmif±Gufae=uyg
onf? ‚wdk@. &nfrSef;csufrSm tifwmeufudk ydwfqdk@xm;Edkifa&; +ydKifyGJY xdyfpD;u tom&aeapa&;yif
jzpfygonf?
urBmhcsHyD,H w±kwfEdkifiH
w±kwfEdkifiHu tifwmeufr&SdbJESifh ‚wdk@rvkyfaqmifEdkif[k yxrOD;qHk;oabmaygufvmcJhonfh zdESdyfol
tm%m&Sif EdkifiHwck jzpfygonf? odk@twGufa=umifhvnf; tifwmeufudk cGifhay;cJh+yD;/ xdef;csKyfr_atmufY
xm;&SdapcJhygonf? TEdkifiHonf ‚wdk@. tpdk;&udk a0zefqef@usifaeonfh t&mudpPrsm;tm;vHk;udk
ydwfqdk@wm;qD;xm;Edkifonfh wckwnf;aom EdkifiHjzpfygonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif tifwmeufudkvnf;
us,jf yef@ap&ef aqmif±u
G af ecJyh gonf? Tudpt
P wGuf v#K@d 0Sucf surf mS &if;ES;D jrK‡ yEf rHS /_ enf;ynmESihf oHwref
a&;udk aygif;pyfI toHk;csaejcif;om jzpfygonf?
ab*sif;tpdk;&u a':vmoef; q,fESifhcsDoHk;I tifwmeufudk wnf;jzwf&ef/ qifqmvkyf&ef pufypPnf;
ud&d,mrsm; 0,f,laecJhygonf? txl;tqifhjrifhonfh enf;ynm pufypPnf;rsm;udkvnf; 0,f,lwyfqif
xm;cJhygonf? ‚wdk@oHk;aeaom pepfu vlqdk;pm&if;[k owfrSwfcH&onfh 0ufbfqdkuf/ tifwmeuf
pmrsufESmrsm;udk tcsdefESifhtr# tvdktav#muf jznfhqD; (update) vkyfay;aeonfh pepfjzpfygonf?
“tzsuftarSmifh” [k owfrSwfcHxm;&onfh ae&mrsm; &Sdygonf? tjyma&mif npfnrf;yHkrsm;[k qdk&mY
t"dy`g,fus,fjyef@pGm zGifhxm;+yD;/ EdkifiHa&; a0zefcsufrsm;/ wdbufta&;ESifh wdkif0rfvGwfvyfa&;udk
axmufcHonfh ponfh tifwmeuf pmrsufESmrsm; jzpfygonf? TpmrsufESmrsm;udk EdkifiH&Sd tifwmeuf
ausm&dk; “backbones” [k ac:onfhae&mrS ydwfxm;ygonf? (qufoG,fxm;onfh yifrae&m
(major connection node) [k qdk&ygvdrfhrnf?) qifqmydwfqdk@r_rSm Tr#ESifh &yfwef@raeyg?
tm%m&Sit
f pd;k &u 0d0g'uGjJ ym;zG,/f rouFmzG,f t"duusonfh pmvH;k rsm; (“dubious” keyword)
ygonf h qd k u f r sm;ud k v nf ; tvd k t av#muf yd w f q d k @ xm;ygao;onf ? Oyrm- wD , ef t if r if
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tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;

(Tianamen) (taygif;) tpkvdkuftðyHvdkuf owfjzwfr_ (massacre) ponfh udpPrsKd; &SmazGvmyg
uvnf; wm;qD;xm;ygao;onf?
tm%m&Siftpdk;&u tGefvdkif;aqG;aEG;r_rsm;udkvnf; qifqmwnf;jzwfr_ jyKae+yD;/ csufcsif; &yfqdkif;ypfEdkif
ygonf? aemufq;kH ay: tqifjh rifeh nf;ynmrsm;ESihf qdik b
f mykvyd rf sm;u owW&d pdS mG tGev
f ikd ;f twGi;f aqG;aEG;
ae=uolrsm;udk apmihf=unfhae=uygonf? xdkolrsm; ta&twGufrSm aomif;*%ef;ausmfI &Sdrnfjzpf+yD;
‚wd@k udk Edik if aH &;t& twdu
k t
f cGjyKae=uolrsm;[kvnf; owfrw
S x
f m;=uygonf? (vGecf ahJ om ESpt
f enf;
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tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;

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tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;

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tifwmeuf qifqmydwfqdkUrI urÇmYcsHyD,Hrsm;

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t}uD;tuJjzpfygonf?

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yHkESdyfrSwfwrf;

REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERS

(e,fpnf;rjcm; owif;axmufrsm;tzGJ@)
(qufoG,f&ef vdyfpm)

International Secretariat
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Tél.: 33 1 4483-8484
Fax: 33 1 4523-1151
Website : www.rsf.org
(t,f'Dwm) Editor: Sylvie Devilette / devilette@rsf.org
(qufoG,fa&;) Communication: Anne Martinez-Saiz / communication@rsf.org
(*&yfzpf'ZD ikd ;f ESihf tjcm;o±kyaf zmfyrkH sm;) Graphic design and extra illustrations:
ndc@nuitdechine.com

Nuit de Chine

ISBN: 2-915536-36-8 (rl&if;pmtky)f
(rlydkifcGifh) Copyright: Reporters Without Borders 2005
(rl&if;pmtkyf yHkESdyfjcif;) Printed August 2005, France.
(jrefrmbmomjyef yHEk ydS rf w
S w
f rf;)
bmomjyef- Aung Thu Nyane
pmrsuEf mS tjyiftqif- Kyaw Win / http://mrbalance.blogspot.com
Printed November 2007, Thailand.
Fonts: English- Tw Cen MT, Times New Roman & Arial
Burmese- Wwin_AM_Burmese, Metrix & Pinny
Size & Pages: 14.5 cm x 21.0 cm & 114 pages.
(National Endowment for Democracy . axmufyHhulnDrljzifh xkwfa0onf?)

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