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Linux OS
(Or)
Open Source Operating System
Getting Start with Linux OS
What is Linux?
Linux OS [m True 32-bit Operating System jzpfw,f/ Linux udk 1991
ckESpfavmufwGif 32-bit architecture jzifh a&;om;cJhMuygonf/ Linux onf Unix OS ESifh
qifwl aomfvnf; em;vnf xm;&rnfrSm Linux onf Unix r[kwfay/ Unix ESifh
qifwlaomfvnf; (POSIX) Portable Operating System Interface on Unix jzpfonf/
Unix udk 1960 ckESpfwGif pwifa&;om;cJhMuNyD; ¤if;umvwGif C programming Language
ay:vmojzifh C Language jzifh Unix OS udk AT&T bell lab company ua&;om;cJhMuonf/
,cifu Unix onf open source OS wpfck jzpfaomfvJ aemufydkif;wGif AT&T rS rlydkifcGifh
jyefvnf&&SdNyD; Close OS jzpfoGm;cJhonf/ Unix onf Close OS wpfck jzpfoGm;&kHrQru
Dedicated hardware ay:wGifom run vdkY&onf/ Oyrm ajymqdk&rnf qdkvsif HP twGuf
a&;om;xm;aom Unix udk IBM ay:wGif run vdkY r&Edkifay/
Linux OS onf Internet twGuf optimize toifh jzpfNyD;om; OS wpfck
jzpfonfhtwGuf TCP/IP taMumif;udk tenf;tusOf; em;vnfxm;rS omvsif Linux udk
avhvm&mwGif vG,fulvsifjrefrnf jzpfonf/ Linux onf multiuser, multitasking and
multiprocessing jzpfonfhtjyif SMP (symmetrical multiprocessing) support
jzpfonfhtwGuf Memory management ygvkyfEkdifonf/ 1992 ckESpfwGif Linux version 1.0
udk xkyfvkyfEdkifcJhonf/ Open source ESifh Close Source wdkY\ jcm;em;csufrSm kernel udk
zGifhxm;ay;jcif;ESifh ydwfxm;ay;jcif; jzpfonf/ Linux kernel onf open kernel
jzpfonfhtwGuf aMumifh pdwfBudKufjyKjyif okH;pGJEkdifonf/

The Linux Structure


Operating System
2

Kernel k nfrSm OS \ core jzpfonf/ Shel onf command line


qdo
interpreter [k ajymEdkifouJhodkY program wpfck[kívnf; jrifEdkifonf/ Shell
qdkaom OS \ user interface udk OS \ kernel udk jyKjyifajymif;vJ a&;om;jcif;jzifh
trsdK;rsdK;aom Linux OS rsm;ay:xGufcJh&onf/ ¤if;wdkYudk Distros (Commercial Linux
Distribution) [kac:NyD; ¤if;wdkYteuf xif&Sm;vlodrsm;aom Linux OS rsm;rSm
atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf/
ƒ Red Hat
ƒ SuSE
ƒ Caldera Open Linux
ƒ Corel Linux
ƒ Debian
ƒ Mandrake
ƒ Slack ware
ƒ Turbo Linux and many more

Why Linux?
Linux udk tb,faMumifh okH;pGJoifhoenf;qdkaomf Linux onf Open Source
jzpfonf/ Stable usaom OS wpfck jzpf&kHrQru Standalone odkYr[kwf Network
ESpfckpvkH;twGuf aumif;rGefaom OS wpfck jzpfonf/ C, C++, Pascal, Cobol, Fortran,
Delphi, Kylix ponfh programming language rsm;pGmtwGuf free jzpfaom library rsm;
utilities rsm;udk support vkyfay;EkdifonfhtwGuf Programming uRrf;usifolrsm;twGuf
txl;yif aumif;rGefonf/ system programming twGuf kernel udk pdwfMudKuf jyKjyif
okH;pGJEkdifonf/ tjcm; platform rsm;ay:wGifvnf; 100% portability jzpfaom OS
wpfckjzpfonf/ Linux OS udk Budge PCs ESifh Budget Servers rsm;wGif okH;&eftxl;
oifhavsmfonf/ Computer Science ESifh ywfoufí avhvmvdkolrsm;twGuf vnf;aumif;
Internet admin, system admin jyKvkyfvdk olrsm;twGuf Linux udk txl;
oifhavQmfayonf/
Windows OS wGif GUI (Graphical User Interface) rygvsif t"dyÜg,fr&Sdaomfvnf;?
Linux wGif GUI udk rygvsif&Ekdifonfh layer wGifom xm;&Sdonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf
Linux onf CLI (command line interface ) ESifh function trsdK;rdsK;udk vG,fulpGm
okH;pGJEkdifaomaMumifh jzpfonf/
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Preparing for Linux


Operating System wpfckudk install vkyfrnfqdkygu ta&;BuD;qkH;rSm File System
jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh real life wGif tokH;rsm;aeaom media rsm;? OS rsm;\ file system rsm;
taMumif;udk tenf;i,f od&Sdxm;&ef vdktyfayonf/ CD Rom onf ISO 9660 file
system jzpfonf/ Windows OS rsm;onf FAT,FAT 32, NTFS ponfh file system rsm;udk
tokH;jyKonf/ JFS, UFS ponfwdkYonfvJ oufqdkif&m OS tvdkuf tokH;jyKaom logical file
system rsm; jzpfonf/ Hard Disk wpfckonf logical file system wpfckudk initiate
vkyfay;rS omvsif OS wpfckwifEkdifrnf jzpfonf/
Linux OS onf EXT2, EXT3 file system rsm;udk tokH;jyKonf/ EXT3 wGif
Generalizing file system yg0ifvmonf/ Hard Disk wpfck\ physical file system wGif
Primary Partation 4 ckxufydk NyD;cJGvdkYr&ay/ xdkYaMumifh 4 ckxufydk cGJcsifygu Extended
partition wpfck cGJNyD; logical partition rsm; cGJ&rnf jzpfonf/ Linux OS twGuf Boot
vkyfay;Ekdifaom Primary Partation wpfckawmh cGJxm;&efvdktyfonf/
tu,fí rdrd\ pufwGif wpfckxufydkaom OS rsm; wifxm;vdkygu OS loader ac:
Boot loader udk rnfhonfh OS \ loader jzifh wufrnf udk a&G;cs,fwwf&rnf/ xdkYaMumifh
Linux OS rS yg0ifvmaom OS loader udk tokH;jyKrnf qdkygu ¤if; loader tm; MBR wGif
xm;ay;&rnf/ MBR wGif OS loader odkYr[kwf Boot Loader udk wpfckxufydkí
xm;vdkYr&ay/

Introduction to Linux Features


Linux File System
Linux File system qdk&mwGif Linux u tokH;jyKaom File system rSm Ext2, Ext3
jzpfaMumif; od&SdNyD; jzpfonf/ odkYaomf ,ckajymvdkaom File system qdkonfrSm file system
[k qdkaomvJ OS tokH;jyKaom file system udk qdkvdkjcif; r[kwfay/ Windows OS rsm;wGif
File rsm;xnfhoGif;xm;onfh file tpkta0;udk directory odkYr[kwf folder [k ac:onf/
Linux wGif ¤if; folder rsm;? directory rsm;udk file system [k ac:onf/
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Hardware Device in Linux


Linux OS onf case sensitive jzpfaom OS wpfck jzpfonfhtwGuf
trSm;cHvdkYr&ay/ Linux wGif " / " udk root [kac:onf/ device rsm;? Driver rsm;? file
system rsm; tm;vkH;onf ¤if; root atmufwGifom &SdMuonf/ xdkYaMumifh
IDE 1st hard drive udk /dev/hda
IDE 1st hard drive \ partition 1 udk /dev/hda1
IDE 1st hard drive \ partition 2 udk /dev/hda2
IDE 2nd hard drive udk /dev/hdb
IDE 2nd hard drive \ partition 1 udk /dev/hdb1
IDE 2nd hard drive \ partition 2 udk /dev/hdb2 [lí em;vnf assign vkyfxm;
onf/ owdjyK&eftcsufrSm rdrd HDD wGif Extended partition &Sdaevsif ¤if; extended
partition udk Linux OS rS /dev/hda4 tjzpf point vkyfay;xm;onf/
Floppy disk drive rsm;udk Linux wGif atmufygtwdkif; od&Sdem;vnf assign
vkyfonf/
1st floppy disk drive udk /dev/fd0
2nd floppy disk drive udk /dev/fd1
CD Rom drive twGuf /dev/cdrom udk Linux OS rS point vkyfay;onf/
Input device rsm;udk od&SdNyD;onfhaemuf output device rsm;udk rnfodkY assign
vkyfxm;onfudk em;vnfxm;&rnf/
COM1 port udk /dev/ttyS0
COM2 port udk /dev/ttyS1
LPT1 udk /dev/lpt0
LPT2 udk /dev/lpt1 tjzpf assign vkyfay;onf/
" / " onf root file system jzpfNyD; windows \ command prompt c: ESifh
twlwlyif jzpfonf/ dev onf device \ twdkaumufjzpfonf/
root ESifh ywfoufNyD; Linux \ administrator user taMumif;udk ajymrnfqdkygu
windows wGifokH;aom system management vkyfEkdifonfh administrator user udk Linux
wGif root user odkYr[kwf root [k ac:jyefygonf/ Linux wGif root user ESifh non-root user
[lí a,bl,tm;jzifh ESpfydkif; cGJjcm;xm;Ekdifonf/ odkYaomf multi system jzpfonfhtwGuf
individual account awGrsm;pGm&SdEkdifonf/ omreftvkyfrsm;ESifh operate vkyfrnf qdkygu
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tjcm; individual user account rsm;ESifh operate vkyfEkdifNyD; twwfEdkifqkH; root account
jzifh operate rvkyfrdap&ef *&kjyK&rnf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf Linux onf Open source
jzpfNyD; kernel onfvJ open jzpfaeaomaMumifh root user account jzifh operate
vkyfaecsdefwGif system files rsm;tm; edit vkyfrnf qdkygu rnfonfh wanning rS ay;rnf
r[kwfay/ xdkodkYoabm&SdaomaMumifh root account jzifh operate vkyfjcif;udk wwfEkdiforQ
owdjyK&rnf/

Basics Understanding Linux File System


Windows wGif oufqdkif&m directory rsm; yg&SdouJhodkY Linux OS wGifvnf;
oufqkdifonfh File system rsm; yg&Sdonf/ xdkYaMumifh Linux \ fsh (File System
Hierarchy) udk avhvmrnfqdkvsif atmufygtwdkif; tajccHMuaom file system wdkYudk
jrifawGUedkifrnf jzpfonf/
/ root file system
/boot (boot process twGufta&;BuD;aom files rsm; yg&Sdonfh file
system)
/etc (system configuration files rsm;yg&Sdonfh file system)
/dev (device tm;vkH;\ files rsm;yg&Sdonfh file system)
/bin (run Edkifonfh binary file rsm; tm;vkH;yg0ifaom file system?
*.exe,*.com)
/sbin (system \ special binary files rsm;yg0ifaom file system)
/tmp (temporary file jzpfNyD; Windows \ temp folder ESifh
twlwljzpfonf/)
/opt (Windows \ program files folder ESifh twlwlyif jzpfonf/)
/home (user account rsm;\ files rsm; odrf;qnf;&m ae&m jzpfonf?
documents and setting ESifh qifwl onf/ /home/Williom,
/home/Jhon)
/usr (omref user account ESifh oufqdkifonfh binary file rsm; yg&Sdonf/
manual files rsm;? documentations rsm;)
/var (variable nature &Sdaom ykHrSefr&Sdonfh files rsm; yg&Sdonfh file system
jzpfonf/ Oyrm print spool file, Email account file)
/proc (Process &JU twdkaumufjzpfonf/)
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Installing Linux
Windows OS tokH;jyKaeMu user rsm;taeESifh Linux OS udk install vkyf&mwGif
installation method rsm;ESifh &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifzkdY vdktyfygonf/ ¤if; installation methods
rsm;rSm-
• CD Rom rS boot vkyfNyD; install vkyfjcif;?
• WEB ay:rS install vkyfjcif;?
• NFS(network file system)
jzifh install vkyfjcif;?
NFS qdkonfrSm windows OS &Sd work group rsm;ESifh wlnDaom service jzpfonf/

Installation methods rsm;tjyif installation type rsm;udkvnf;


em;vnfxm;&ayrnf/ Type a&G;cs,f&mwGif client ESifh server [lí ESpfrsdK;&Sdonf/ client
taeESifh install vkyfrnfqdkygu vdktyfaom files rsm;udkom a&G;cs,fNyD; install
vkyfEdkifygonf/ odkYaomf server qdkygu files system rsm; pkHvifzdkY ta&;BuD;onf/
tcsdKYaom Linux version rsm;wGif laptop computer rsm;twGuf oD;oefY installation type
yg&Sdwwfonf/ xdkodkYr[kwfyJ custom qdkaom type rsdK;vJ &Sdwwfonf/

Installing Linux OS
rsm; install vkyf&mwGif personalize user rsm;twGuf ta&;rBuD;aomfvnf;
OS
server twGuf OS install vkyf&mwGif planning onf tvGefta&;ygaom tcef;u@ rS
yg0ifonf/ xdkYaMumifh I/O(Input/Output devices), Programs ESifh Partation wdkYonf
tvGefta&;BuD;onf/
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Partation wGif Linux \ minimum requirementrSm root twGuf partition wpfck


oD;oefY&Sd&rnf/ physical memory udk management vkyf&ef swap partition wpfck
&Sd&rnf/ ¤if; swap partition onf rdrdpuf\ RAM memory yrmP\ ESpfq jzpf&rnf/
boot partition twGuf primary partition wpfck &Sd&rnf jzpfNyD; ¤if; partition onf hard
disk \ cylinder 1024 twGif;wGif &Sd&rnf jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh Linux \ boot partition
udk OD;pGm 100MB xm;NyD; cGJ&rnf/
server rsm;twGufrl partition rsm;udk tokH;jyKrnfh server tvdkuf /home, /var,
/usr tp&Sdonfhtwdkif; cGJjcm;xm;&rnf jzpfonf/ tjcm;*&kjyK&ef tcsufrSm swap udk
partition cGJjcm;&mwGif IDE drive wpfcktwGuf swap wpfck&Sd&rnf jzpfonfhtwGuf
tu,fí rdrdpufwGif Hard drive ESpfck &Sdygu swap ESpfckcGJ&rnf/ Hard drive okH;ck &Sdygu
swap okH;ck cGJxm;&rnf jzpfonf/
Linux OS udk install jyKvkyfonfh install methods rsm;teuf CD Rom rS install
jyKvkyfonfh method rSm tokH;rsm;aomaMumifh atmufwGif CD Rom rS install jyKvkyfykH
tqifhqifhudk azmfjyxm;ygonf/

Booting with Linux Installer package


Bootable Linux OS Installer CD udk CD drive
twGif;odkYxnf;NyD; pufudk restart
ay;um CD rS Boot vkyfrnf qdkygu Linux \ Installation mode a&G;cs,faom screen
ay:vmrnf jzpfonf/ Installation mode wGif Graphic mode ESifh text mode tjyif
maintainence mode [lí a&G;cs,f&ef okH;ckyg&Sdonf/ Linux tm; pwifavhvmolrsm;
taeESifh Graphical mode udkom a&G;cs,foifhonf/ xdkYaMumifh graphic mode udk enter
EdkyfNyD; a&G;cs,fvdkufygu next step odkYa&muf&SdoGm;onfudk atmufygtwdkif;
jrifawGUEkdifygonf/
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¤if;tqifhwGif Install vkyf&ef CD media udk awGU&SdaMumif;ESifh ¤if; CD tm; aumif;?


raumif; ppfaq;Munfh&eftwGuf ar;jcif;jzpfonf/ tu,fí ppfaq;rI rjyKvkyfcsifygu skip
udk a&G;cs,f&ygrnf/ xdkodkYa&G;cs,fvdkufaomtcgwGif RED Hat Linux Installation \
Welcome screen udk Graphic mode jzihfawGUjrif&rnf jzpfonf/

Nextudk ESdyfvdkufaomtcgwGif Linux OS tm; install jyKvkyfaepOfwGif tokH;jyKrnfh


language setting a&Gcs,faom dialog box ay:vmrnfjzpfonf/

Next button udk EdkyfvdkufaomtcgwGif rdrdvuf&SdtokH;jyKaeaom keyboard


trsdk;tpm;a&G;cs,fonfh dialog box ufk atmufygtwdkif; jrifawGU&rnf jzpfonf/
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aemufwpfqifhwGif vuf&SdtokH;jyKaeaom rdrdpufrS mouse trsdK;tpm; a&G;cs,fonfh


dialog box rSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfNyD; next button udk Edkyfum Installation Type
a&G;cs,fonfh tqifhodkY oGm;&ygrnf/

Installation type a&G;cs,f&mwGif Personal, Workstation, server ESifh custom


[lí&SdNyD; rdrdtokH;jyKrnfh field t& installation type udka&G;cs,f&rnf jzpfonf/
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aemuftqifhwGif partition tydkif;a&mufNyD jzpfNyD; ¤if;wGif auto partition cGJjcif;ESifh


manual cGJjcif; ESpfrsdK;udk a&G;cs,fcdkif;rnf jzpfonf/ tu,fí auto udka&G;cs,fygu
vG,fulaomfvnf; rdrdpufwGif wpfckxufydkaom OS &Sdaeygu ¤if;OS udk
xdcdkufysufpD;aprnf jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh manual udkom a&G;cs,fNyD; next udk click &ygrnf/
xdktcgwGif rdrdwdkYpuf&Sd partition onf Linux File system twGuf readable
jzpfaom partition r[kwfonfhtwGufaMumifh Linux File system rS readable jzpfatmif
Hard Disk tm; initialize vkyfrnf jzpfaMumif;ESifh ¤if; drive &Sd data rsm;
ysufpD;aysmufqkH;rnf jzpfaMumif; owday;aom dialog bos ay:vmrnf jzpfNyD; YES udkom
click &ygrnf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf manual partition udk a&G;cs,fxm;aomaMumifh next
step wGif rdrdwdkYpdwfBudKuf partition udk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzmEdkifrnf jzpfonf/
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xdktcg rdrdwGif&Sdaom Hard disk yrmPESifh ¤if;\ tcsuftvufrsm;tm;


azmfjyxm;aom screen wpfck ay:vmrnf jzpfonf/

¤if;wGif New tm; click í partition topfwpfckudk zefwD;&ygrnf/ yxrOD;qkH;


zefwD;aom partition rSm Linux operating System twGuf ta&;ygaom boot partition
tydkif;jzpfNyD; xdk boot partition tydkif;onf primary jzpf&eftvGefta&;BuD;onf/ xdkYtjyif
boot partition tydkif;onf Hard disk \ cylinder size wGif 1024 xufrausmfvGefap&yg/
1024 xufausmfvGefvsif boot rwufaom error rsm; &&SdEdkifrnfjzpfaomaMumifh
¤if;partition udk hard disk \ cylinder 1024 rausmfaom xdyfqkH;tydkif; \ 100 MB
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wGifxm;&Sd&ygrnf/ Boot partition


udk zefwD;&mwGif mount point drop down list wGif
/boot udka&G;cs,fNyD; filesystem type rSm Ext3 xm;&Sd&ygrnf/ Size(MB) udk 100 xm;í
Force to be primary partition udk check vkyfum OK udk click &ygrnf/
ykHwGifjyxm;onfhtwdkif; jzpfygonf/

xyfrHí New udkEdkyfum swap twGuf partition udk owfrSwfay;&ygrnf/

*&kjyK&eftcsufrSm swap partition \ size onf rdrdpuf\ RAM yrmPxuf ESpfq


ydkrsm;&rnf jzpfonf/
aemufqkH; usefaom root partition udk cGJjcrf;&mwGif mount point \ drop down
list wGif "/" udk a&G;cs,fxm;&SdNyD; Fill to maximum all0owabl size udk check
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vkyfay;rnfqdkygu usef&Sdaeaom Hard Disk tpdwftydkif;rsm;udk "/" rS ,lvdkuf&efjzpfNyD;


root partition wpfck wnfaqmufay;rnf jzpfonf/

xdkodkY r&Sdrjzpf minimum vdt k yfaom partition okH;ckudk cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm


owfrSwfay;NyD;aemuf tu,fí /usr, /home, /var tp&Sdaom partition rsm;udkvnf; rdrdwdkY
tokH;jyKrnfh taetxm;ay:rlwnfum cGJvdku cGJEkdifonf/ t"duvdktyfaom partition
okH;ckudk cGJjcrf;NyD;aemuf atmufygtwdkif; jrifawGU&rnf jzpfonf/
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partition cGJjcm;NyD;onfhaemuf? aemufwpfqifhwGif boot loader configuration


tqifhudk jrifawGU&ygrnf/ tu,fí rdrdpufwGif tjcm; OS rsm;&Sdao;onfqdkygu ¤if;
configuration screen rS add udk click NyD; OS trsdK;tpm;udka&G;cs,f&ygrnf/ odkYrSom puf
boot up vkyfaomtcgwGif OS selector menu ay:rS wqifh tjcm; OS rsm;odkY vG,fulpGm
ajymif;a&ThEkdifrnf jzpfygonf/
tu,fí Boot loader password udktokH;jyKrnf qdkygu pufpwifaom tcsdefwGif
OS selector menue wGif password awmif;rnf jzpfonf/ xdYkjyif boot loader udk
xm;onfh ae&monfvJ ta&;BuD;aMumif;udk MBR tydkif;wGif txufu &Sif;jycJhNyD; jzpfonf/
xdkYaemuf next udk click NyD; Network Configuration tydkif;odkY a&muf&Sdrnfjzpfonf/
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Network Configuration tydkif;wGif manually option udk check í rdrdpufESifh


default Domain name udk &dkufoGif;&ygrnf/ xdkYaemuf Edit udk click aomtcg
atmufygtwdkif; NIC twGuf IP configuration dialog box wpfck ay:vmrnfjzpfonf/
xdkodkYay:vmaom tcgwGif Configure using DHCP udk uncheck ay;í IP address ESifh
NetMask wdkYudk rdrdwdkY tokH;NyKrnfh Network address ESifh subnetmask udk
&dkufoGif;&ygrnf/

OK udk click
NyD;aemuf Miscellaneous Setting wGif Gateway, Primary DNS Esifh
Secondary DNS wdkYdudk &dkufoGif;&ygrnf/ Primary DNS ae&mwGif rdrdpuf\ IP address
udkom&dkufoGif;&rnf jzpfonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf Linux onf multiuser, multitasking
jzpfaomaMumifh jzpfonf/
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xdkodkY&dkufoGif;NyD;aomtcgwGif Security ESifh oufqkdifaom Firewall setting


tqifhodkYa&muf&Sdvmygonf/ rdrdonf Linux udk pwifavhvmol wpfa,mufjzpfygu
¤if;tqifhwGif Firewall setting tm; tokH;rjyKbJ xm;onfrSm toifhawmfqkH; jzpfygonf/
xdkYaMumifh No Firewall udk select vkyfNyD; Next udk click vdkuf&ygrnf/
xdkYaemuf additional language support setting ESifh Time Zone setting rsm;wGif
rdrd ESpfouf&m a&G;cs,fí installation step udk qufvuf vkyfaqmif&ygrnf/ language
support setting onf Linux OS tm; rdrdtokH;jyKvdkonfh language jzifh tokH;jyKEdkif&ef
jzpfonf/ Time Zone onf system \ time jzpfNyD; Linux OS onf rdrdxm;&Sdaom time
zone twdkif; operate vkyfrnf jzpfí server type installation wGif ta&;ygonf/
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aemufwpfqifhonf security twGuf ta&;ygaom step jzpfNyD; root password


owfrSwfjcif; jzpfonf/ root [kqdk&mwGif root user account ESifh root file system wdkY
ESpfrsdK;pvkH; twGuf jzpfonf/ root account udk login vkyfNyD;rSomvsif system
administration jyKvkyfEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ ¤if; step wGif password udkESpfBudrf &dkufEdkyf
&rnfjzpfonf/ odkYrSom root password accepted jzpfrnf/
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aemufwqifhonf Authentication Configuration jzpfNyD; ¤if;tqifhwGif Enable


MDS password ESifh Enable shadow password [lonfh option ESpfckudk default tm;jzifh
a&G;cs,fxm;onfudk awGUEdkifonf/ Enable MDS password qdkonfrSm rdrdwdkY
qufvuftokH;jyKrnfh password length udk &SpfvkH;xufydkNyD; character 256 vkH;
txday;Edkif&eftwGuf ¤if; option udk enable vkyfay;&rnf jzpfonf/ Shadow password
udk enable vkyfjcif;tm;jzifh password file udk shadow file wpfck taejzifh encrypt vkyfNyD;
odrf;qnf;aomaMumifh security twGuf pdwfcsaumif;rGefonf/
19

package group selection wGif install vkyfvdkaom package rsm;tm;


a&G;cs,fay;&ygrnf/ ¤if;wdkYwGif Desktop rsm;? Application rsm;? server rsm;? developer
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Command Synopsis Description


adduser adduser dsoneil | This command will automatically add a
new user
to the system
|The Bash script can be found in /usr/sbin if
it needs to be changes
alias alias help=man | The alias command allows you to
substitute a new name for a command
alias long=ls -al | An alias can also contain command line
options
| Unless the alias definition is included in
your .login file it is only temporary
apropos apropos keyword | Display command names based on
keyword search
at at 1:23 lp /home/index.html | The at command runs a list of commands
at a specified time (e.g. print @ 1:23)
at 1:50 echo ‘‘lp Job Done’’ | This uses the echo command to send a
message at 1:50 saying a print job is done
at ---l | Lists all scheduled jobs; an alias for the
atq command
at -d 5555 | This will cancel job number 5555; an alias
for the atrm command
batch Example: | Temporarily blank
cat cat /etc/filename | Prints specified file to the screen
cat file.a > file.b | Moves file.a to file.b
cat -n file.a | This will show the contents of the
file with line numbers (-b number only no
blank lines)
cat /proc/scsi/scsi | This will list all the SCSI processes
running on your system
cd cd /home/dsoneil | Changes directories to the specified one
cd ~username | This will move you to the users specified
home directory
chattr chattr +i /etc/passwd | makes the named file immutable.
Attributes are not shown by ls; use lsattr
chfn chfn dsoneil | This will allow you to change finger
22

information on that user


| As an example it will allow you to change
dsoneil to Darcy S. O’Neil
chmod chmod 666 filename | This command will give a file Read - Write
permission for everyone
chmod 777 filename | This command gives Read - Write –
Execute permission to everyone
chmod a=rwx file | This gives Read - Write - Execute
permission to all users
chown chown dso /home/html | This command will change the owner of
the specified directory to dso
chown dso /home/file.a | This command will change the owner of
the specified file to dso
clear clear | This will clear your screen
cmp cmp -s file.a file.b | Compares 2 files of any type. The -s option
will return nothing in the files arethe same
cp cp file.a file.b | This will create a duplicate of file.a under a
new file name, file.b
cpio ls /home | cpio -o > /root | This will copy the files of /home to the
directory /root
cpio -it < /root > bk.indx | This will extract all of the files to /root and
creates an index file called bk.indx
cpkgtool |Graphical front end to installpkg,
removepkg, makepkg that uses ncurses.
cron crontab -e | Edit your personnel crontab file
| The main crontab files can be found in the
/etc directory
date date | Will outout the present date to the screen
date --date=‘‘2001-3-15‘‘ | This will set date to 2001-Mar-15
date --date=‘‘2001-3-15 11:59 AM’’ | This will set the date as well as time
dmesg dmesg |Prints out the bootup messages so you can
locate errors
df df -hT | Displays the total size, used and available
space on all mounted file systems
du du -k /home/html | Provides a summary of the disk space
usage, in kb, within the specified path
du -k /home/html/file.a | Provides a summary of disk spaced used
by a particular file
e2fsck e2fsck /dev/fd0 | To "scandisk" a floppy (run while the
floppy is unmounted)
e2fsck /dev/hda1 | Also can be used to scan for disk errors on
hard drive partitions
fc fc -l | Lists your recent commands (Beware that
fc is dangerous w/o -l because it will run
commands)
fdformat fdformat /dev/fd0 | low level format of a floppy device in drive
fd0
fdformat /dev/fd0H1440 |This will fromat a “Double Sided High
Density”disk
23

file file file.a | This command will try to determine what


type of file file.a is. (exec, text, etc.)
file -z file.a.tar | Looks inside a compressed file to
determine it’s type.
file -L file.a Follows symbolic links to be followed to
determine file type
find find /path -name passwd | Locates the specified string (passwd),
starting in the specified directory (/path)
| All filenames or directories containing the
string will be printed to the screen
finger finger | This will list all users currently logged into
the UNIX system
free free -t ---o | Provides a snapshot of the system
memory usage
fsck fsck /had | file system check and repair
git | This is a file system viewer (Use F10 to
exit)
grep cat /etc/passwd | grep dso | This searches for and limits the
command output to the pattern specified
| In this case all instances of dso from the
/etc/passwd file are printed
grep -i ‘‘Sample’’ /home/dsoneil | The -i option makes the search indifferent
to case (e.g. sample or SAMPLE)
groupadd groupadd sudos | Create a new group called sudos on the
system
groups groups | Shows which groups you are in
gzip gzip file.a | This will zip file.a and give it the extension
file.a.gz
gzip -d file.a.gz | This will unzip the file file.a.gz
tar -zxvf file.a.tar.qz | The z flag allow you to decompress the tar
file on the fly
history history | grep sneak | To retrive your recent commands with
"sneak" somewhere in them. 6/00
history -d 1061 | To delete history entry 1061, which may
be a password in cleartext.
hostname | Get or set hostname. Typically, the host
name is stored in the file /etc/HOSTNAME.
Ifconfig ifconfig eth0 | This will display the status of the currently
defined interface (.e.g Ethernet Card 0)
ifconfig eth0 up | This flag causes the iterface to be
activated (To deactivate an interface use
down)
ifconfig eth1 192.168.0.2 up | Makes eth1 active with IP address
192.168.0.2
insmod | used (by root) to install modular device
drivers
installpkg installpkg -r packagename.tgz | This will install a Slackware
package with the name you specify (-r
option)
24

removepkg removepkg -copy packagename | This will remove the named package but
make a copy in the /tmp directory
rpm2targz rpm2targz filename.rpm | This will convert an RPM file to a
Slackware .tgz package
upgradepkg upgradepkg packagename.tgz | This will upgrade a Slackware package
and remove any old or no used files
ipchains ipchains [-A -s -d -j] [Input / Output] | This command is used to ACCEPT or
DENY access to your system
ipchains -A input -s 24.1.50.25 -j DENY | This will block the IP address
24.1.50.25 from accessing your system
ipchains -A output -d 24.1.50.2 -j DENY | This command will DENY your
system from accesing this IP address
| [-A append] [-s source] [-d destination] [-j
join]
jobs jobs | This will list all jobs presently running on
your system
kernelcfg | GUI to add/remove kernel modules (as
root in X terminal).
kill kill 2587 | Kills the process specified by the Process
ID Number (2587)
kill -9 2587 | The -9 flag forces the process to die
last last -300 | Prints to the screen the username,
location, log-in and log-off times of the last
last -5 username | -x logins to the system. The username will
select the last x time that person has
| used the system. The last command is not
traceable.
lastlog lastlog | Displays a list of the login attempts / times
of all users on the system (security check)
less less /html/index.html | Less displays information a screen at a
time, you can also page back and forth
lilo lilo ---v | To write or correct boot config to disk. Use
this comand after modifying /etc/lilo.conf
| Do this before rebooting (to avoid "LIL-" on
startup) if it's been a while
lilo -b /dev/fd0 | This command will make a boot disk
ln ln -s /usr/dso ./home/html | Creates a “symbolic” link from the first
directory or file to the second. A user
changing
| into ./home/html will actually be directed to
the /usr/dso directory.
locate locate wordperfect | The locate command will locate the file
specified aand output a directory path (see
“updatedb”)
lpr lpr /home/html/index.html | This command will print the file index.html
to the printer
lprm lprm 12 | This command will cancel pint job 12 in
the printer queue
lpq lpq | This will show the contents of the print
25

queue
ls ls -al | Lists all information on all files (-a) in the
current directory in single line
| format (-l). Includes permissions, owners,
modification time, file size and name
ls ---F | Marks (directories with a trailing / ) - (
executables with an *) (symbolic links w/ @)
ls /proc/sys/net/ipv4 | This will ist all IP4 (masquerading) entries
in the system processes directories
lspci lspci | Lists your PCI devices
lsof lsof |grep :<port number> | This will show you what program has that
port open.
lsmod | used (by root) to show kernel modules
currently loaded
make make mrproper | Cleans up junk accidentally left behind by
the development team
make menuconfig | This will ask you a series of questions
about your system and drive requirements
make dep | This will use dependencies
make clean | The clean command will clean up any
unnecessary files left lying around
make bzImage | This will begin the process of compiling
your new kernel
make lnx | This specified that the source will be
compiled under a Linux system
make install | After the make command this will install
the compiled binaries to their directories
make modules | This will compile all the necessary
modules
make modules_install | This will install modules into the
/lib/modules directory
man man vi | Prints the manual page on the specific
topic (vi) to the screen. To scroll down
| the page use the Space Bar, to scroll up
use the letter b, to exit press the q key.
md5sum md5sum filename.tgz | To ensure a copy between
machines went perfectly
mkdir mkdir pascal | This will create new directory (pascal) in
the present directory
mkfs mkfs -t msdos -c -v /dos-drive | Formats a partition and builds a new
filesystem on it
mkfs -t xfs -c -v /home | -t specifies filesystem type, -v produces
verbose output, -c checks for bad blocks
more more /home/html/index.htm | Paginates the specified file so it can be
read line by line (using Enter key) or
| screen by screen using the Space Bar.
Use b key to move back and q to quit.
mount mount -t msdos /dev/hda5 /dos | Mounts the msdos partition on the Hard
Drive (hda5) to the directory /dos
26

mount -t iso9660/dev/sr0 /cd | Mounts the CD-ROM under the directory


/cd
mount -t msdos /dev/fd0 /mnt | Mounts the floppy drive with an msdos file
system to /mnt
mount -a /etc/fstab | Attempts to mount all file systems located
in the /etc/fstab file
mv mv ./home/file ./dso/file | Moves the specified file to another
directory
netstat netstat -tap | grep LISTEN |This will give us a list of all currently
running TCP servers that are LISTENing on
a port
netstat -t -u ---a | This will list all UDP and TCP ports that
are open
nice nice -5 sort one.a > two.b | This command adjusts the priority of a
process before it starts
| The higher the number the lower the
priority. All process start at 10
nmap nmap localhost | This will port scan the ‘localhost’ server to
determine open ports
nmap -sT -sU -p 1-65535 localhost | This will thoroughly check all ports on
the system (both UDP and TCP)
nohup | This command allows a process to
continue after you log out
passwd passwd | Launches the password program so the
user can change their password
ps ps | Lists all current running processes, their
corresponding pids, and their status
ps -ef | grep dsoneil | This will find all of the processes for user
dsoneil
pstree pstree ---p | Provides a list of running processes in a
tree structure
pwd pwd | Prints the current working directory
quota quota | Lists the user’s quotas for both ada
(/home/ada/a#/username) and amelia
| (/var/spool/mail/username), indicating the
number of blocks used and the users quota.
renice renice -5 6641 | Adjusts the priority of the running process
6641 (The 5 lowers the priority to use less
resources)
rm rm file.a | Removes the specified file in your current
directory
rm -i file.a | Removes specified file but prompts for
confirmation before deleting
rm -r /home/dso | Removes the specified directory and all
files in that directory
rmdir rmdir pascal | Removes the empty directory specified, if
not empty you will receive an error
rmdir -r pascal | Removes the directory and all files in that
directory (if supported)
27

route route -n | Displays the Linux Kernel IP routing table


route add -net 192.168.0.0 eth0 | This will tell other systems what network
to route your system on
route add default gw 192.168.0.5 eth0 | This will tell the your system where
the Internet gateway is located
| This information can be added to you
/etc/rc.d/rc.local system files (Slackware)
rpm rpm -i file.2.0-i386.rpm | This will unpack an RPM file. This is the
most basic method of installation
rpm -U file.2.0-i386.rpm | This will install an upgrade to a previous
RPM package.
rpm -i ---force file.rpm | The –force option will force the package to
re-install
rpm -e file.2.0-i386.rpm | This will remove and RPM package. (You
do not need to use the complete name)
rpm -i ---nodeps file.rpm | This command uses the “no
dependencies” flag.
rpm ---qa | This will give a screen print out of all
packages installed (q is query)
rpm -qa | grep gtk | This will print out all of the rpm packages
will gtk in the file name
rpm -qi file.2.0-i386.rpm | This will provide information on the
package you are about to install
rpm ---rebuild file.2.0.rpm | This will rebuild a package if it has been
corrupted by another installation process
su su username | This will allow you to access the
Superuser privileges. Type exit to revert
back to normal
shutdown shutdown -t 10.00 | This will notify all logged in users
that the system will shut down at 10:00 AM
shutdown -r -t 20.00 | This will reboot the system at 8:00 PM
shutdown -t +10 good day | This will shutdown the system in 10
minutes with the message “good day” sent
shutdown ---f | The -f flag will cause Linux to do a fast
reboot
sort sort myfile | To sort files. (Options -r Reverse normal
order, -n Sort in numeric order
tar tar -cf /usr/dso.tar /home | This command copies the directory /home
to the file /user/dso.tar
tar cvf /backup.tar /dso | This will create a tar archive of everything
in the directory /dso
tar -xvf file.a.tar | This command will extract the tar archive
tar -tvf file.a.tar | more | This will allow you to check whether the
tar archive starts with a directory
tar -zxvf file.a.tgz | This command will unzip and extract the
file in one step as opposed to using gzip
top M for memory usage information | This program shows a lot of stuff that
goes on with your system. In the
P for CPU information | program, you can type: q to quit
28

touch touch file.a | Creates an empty file in the current


directory with the name file
umask umask -S u=rw,g=,o= | Specify the permission for files when files
are created for owner(u),group(g), and
others(o)
umask 022 | you can use 022 for read only file
permission for others and 077 for read and
write permission
uname uname -a | This will print to the screen the Linux
Kernel in use on your system
updatedb updatedb | This will update the “locate” database
uptime uptime -a 192.168.0.100 | Shows system uptime and includes a list of
users who have been idle for more than one
hour
userdel userdel -r dsoneil | This will delete the user dsoneil from the
system, the -r option will delete the users
/home
w w | Lists all users currently logged into the
UNIX system. Provides information such
| as username, login time, idle time, and
current action
whatis whatis cat | Provides a one-line summary of the
command
which which -a filename | This will search through all directories in
your current path and find all files named
filename
who who | Lists currently logged on users username,
port, and when they logged in
whoami whoami | Tells the user who they are acting as;
usually their own username.
Other Useful Commands
Ctrl-Alt-F1: installation dialog
Ctrl-Alt-F2: shell prompt
Ctrl-Alt-F3: install log
Ctrl-Alt-F4: system related messages
Ctrl-Alt-F5: other messages
Ctrl-Alt-F7: X graphical display

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¤if; login name wGif root user taeESifh 0ifa&mufrnf qdkygu root [k&dkufEdkyfNyD;
enter Edkyfygu root password awmif;rnfjzpfonf/ root password &dkufoGif;NyD; enter
Edkyfygu root user taeESifh login 0ifNyD;atmufygtwdkif; jrifawGU&rnf jzpfonf/ password
udk jrifawGU&rnf r[kwfay/
34

root taeESifh login


0ifNyD;aomtcgwGif owdjyK&eftcsufrSm # sign jzpfonf/ #
onf root authority &aom user rsm;wGifom jrifawGUEdkifrnf jzpfNyD; tjcm; root authority
r&aom user rsm;wGif # sign tpm; $ sign udk awGjrifEdkifonf/ qufvufNyD; rdrdonf
rnfoljzpfonf? rnfonfh account jzifh 0ifa&mufvkyfudkif aeonfudk odvdkygu
t&dk;&Sif;qkH;jzpfonfh command rSm whoami jzpfonf/ xdkYaemuf root r[kwfaom omref
user account wpfckudk jhon [laomtrnfjzifh create vkyfMunfhrnfjzpfonf/ user
account zefwD;onfh command rSm useradd jzpfonf/ zefwD;vdkufaom user account
jhon twGuf password ay;aom tcgwGif passwd jhon [k &dkufEdkyfvdkufygu changing
password for user jhon [k ay:vmrnf jzpfonf/ xdktcg rdrd&dkufoGif;vdkaom password
udk &dkufoGif;&ygrnf password onf wdkvGef;aeygu odkYr[kwf vG,fulaeygu BAD
password jzpfaMumif; ajymrnf jzpfaomfvnf; password conformation wGif
&dkufoGif;cJhaom password udk aemufwpfBudrf &dkufoGif; &rnf jzpfonf/ xkdtcg user
acoount jhon twGuf password rSm successfully change jzpfoGm;aMumif; azmfjyrnf
jzpfonf/

zefwD;xm;aom user account jhon udk delete vkyfrnfqdkygu command rSm


userdel jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumif; userdel jhon udk &dkufEdkyfygu jhon qdkaom user
account ysufoGm;rnf jzpfonf/ xdkYaemuf clear udk &dkufEdkyfygu screen &Sif;oGm;rnf
jzpfonf/ tu,fí rnfonfh user account rSrqdk logout vkyfvdkygu Ctrl+d odkYr[kwf
exit udk&dkufEdkyfygu logout jzpfoGm;rnf jzpfNyD; login screen odkY jyefvnfa&muf&Sd oGm;rnf
jzpfonf/
tu,fí file wpfckudk zefwD;vdkygu command rSm touch jzpfonf/ syntax rSm
atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf/
35

touch filename

test qdkaom file wpfckudk wnfaqmufvdkufjcif;jzpfonf/ ¤if; file udk temp


directory atmufxJodkY xnfhvdkvsif

cp test /tmp

jzpfonf/ cp qdkonfrSm copy \ twdkaumuf jzpfNyD; temp directory atmufodkY


a&mufra&muf odvdkvsif

ls -al /tmp/test

[k &dkufEdkyfvdkufygu awGU&rnf jzpfonf/ test file udk jyefzsufvdkygu command rSm-

rm test

jzpfNyD; file tm; zsufrnfqdkonfh conformation udk ar;rnf jzpfonf y udk


&dkufEdkyfvdkufygu ysufoGm;rnf jzpfonf/ ls -al command jzifh jyefMunfhygu
ysufoGm;onfudk awGUjrif&rnf jzpfonf/
Linux onf login 0ifvsif0ifcsif; '/' ac: root directory xJodkYa&mufaeayvdrfhrnf/
tjcm; directory xJodkY oGm;csifygu DOS rSmuJhodkY cd (change directory) jzpfonf/ temp
directory odkYoGm;vdkvsif cd /tmp [k&dkufEdkyf&rnf/ rdrda&muf&Sdaeaom directory udk
odvdkvsif pwd (print working directory) qdkaom command udk &dkufEdkyfygu
vuf&Sda&mufaeaom directory udk azmfjyrnf jzpfonf/
aemufwzef test qdkaom file wpfck zefwD;NyD; ¤if; file tm; test 1 [k emrnf
ajymif;vdkygu mv qdkaom command jzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif ¤if; file tm; permission
ajymif;rnfqdkygu chmod qdkaom command udk okH;&rnf jzpfonf/ atmufwGif
emrnfajymif;ykHESifh permission ajymif;vJykHwdkYudk azmfjyxm;ygonf/
36

file rsm;tm; listvkyfMunfhaomtcgwGif tpdrf;a&mifrSm binary file jzpfNyD;


tjzLa&mifrSm ASCII file jzpfonf/

System Administration
Linux wGif system udk configuration file rsm;jzifh xdrf;csKyfonf/ xdk
configuration file rsm;onf omref ASCII file rsm;omjzpfonfhtwGuf ¤if; file rsm;udk edit
vkyf&ef editor rsm;jzifh configure vkyf&onf/ Edit vkyfaom editor rsm;pGm&Sdonfhteuf
1990 ckESpf linux pwifay:aygufonfhtcsdefrS pwifí ,aeYwdkiftokH;jyKvsuf&Sdaom editor
rSm vi editor jzpfonf/ aemufwpfrsdK;rSm mcedit ESifh tjcm; third party editor
rsm;vJ&Sdonf/ vi onf tjcm; editor rsm;ESifh ,SOfvsif ydkrdkaumif;rGefonfrSm script
vkyf&mwGif process awGudk sentence rsm;jzifh edit vkyfEdkifonfhtwGufjzpfNyD; vi onf linux
ray:cif ay:cJhzl;aom edlin qdkonfh line editor ESifh qifwlonf/ vi \ command
rsm;onf vG,fulonfhtwGuf linux &Sdvsif vi &Sd&rnf jzpfNyD; vi &SdaeorQ Linux &Sdaernf
jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh Linux tokH;jyKolrsm; taeESifh vi udk tuRrf;w0if&Sd&ef vdktyfonf/
vi editor udk pwifrnf qdkygu command rSm t&dk;&Sif;qkH; jzpfNyD; vi [k
&dkufEdkyf&kHjzifh vi editor odkY 0ifa&mufoGm;rnf jzpfonf/ tu,fí temp qdkaom file
wpfckudk vi jzifh create vkyfrnfqdkygu vi temp [k&dkufEdkyf&ygrnf/ vi editor wGif pwif
edit vkyf&ef 'i' Edkyfvdkufrnfqdkygu inseart [k screen \ atmufqkH;wGif
ay:vmrnfjzpfonf/ xdkYaemufrdrd vdk&mudk edit vkyfEdkifrnf jzpfonf/
37

vi editor wGif insert rvkyfyJ vi editor udk command ay;vdkygu Esc cvkwfudk
&dkufEdkyfNyD; command ay;Edkifygonf/ owdjyK&efrSm Esc udk &dkufNyD; ':' sign udk
&dkufay;&onf/ odkYrSom command ay;Edkifrnf jzpfonf/ vi editor tm; edit vkyfNyD;vsif
save vkyf&ef command rSm Ecs EdkyfNyD; ':' sign Edkyf&ygrnf/ NyD;vsif 'w' jzpfonf/ write
[k t"dyÜg,f&onf/ vi editor rS save vkyfNyD; xGufvdkygu wq jzpfNyD; tu,fí bmwpfckrQ
edit rvkyfyJ xGufvdkvsif !q jzpfonf/
zefwD;xm;aom temp file wGif line tcsdKU&dkufEdkyfNyD; txufazmfjyyg command
rsm;twdkif; save NyD; vi editor rS xGufMunfhyg/ xdkYaemuf vi temp qdkaom command
jzifh temp file udk jyefzGifhMunfhEdkifygonf/ xdkYtjyif edit rvkyfyJ Munfh&kHrQom Munfhvdkvsif
cat command udk okH;Edkifonf/ cat filename jzpfonf/ temp file udk Munfhrnfqdkygu
cat temp jzpfonf/ cat taMumif;udk odvdkygu cat --help udk&dkufEdkyfNyD;
tao;pdwfod&SdEdkifrnf jzpfonf/
zefwD;xm;aom temp zdkiftm; vi editor jzifhjyefvnf edit vkyfrnf qdkygu vi temp
[k &dkufEdkyfNyD; edit vkyfEdkifonf/ ¤if; file twGif;rS lne wpfcktm; copy vkyfvdkygu copy
vkyfvdkaom line wGif coursor xm;NyD; Esc udkEdkyfNyD;vsif yy udkEdkyfNyD; copy ul;&ygrnf/
xdkYaemuf paste csvdkaom ae&mwGif coursor xm;NyD; pp udkEdkyfrnfqdkygu copy
ul;NyDjzpfygvdrfhrnf/ wpfaMumifr[kwfyJ 5 aMumif; copy yGm;vdku 5p jzpfonf/ 3 aMumif;
jzpfu 3p jzpfNyD; zsufvdku dd udkEdkyfNyD; zsuf&rnf jzpfonf/
38

Esc udkEkdyfNyD; j, k,l, h udk EdSyfygu coursor udk tay:atmuf ab;b,fnm


oGm;wmjzpfonf/ vi editor twGif rdrd&Smvdkaom pmvkH;udk &Sm&eftwGuf command rSm Esc
udk EdkyfNyD; / ESifh &SmcsifwJh pmvkH;udk (/ice) &dkuf&rnf jzpfonf/ vi editor jzifh
configuration file rsm;udk edit vkyfjcif; taMumif; od&SdNyD;onfhaemuf atmufygtwdkif;
vufawGUprf;oyfMunfhEdkifygonf/ cd /etc udk&dkufEdkyfí etc directory atmufodkY0ifNyD; ¤if;
directory xJ&Sd passwd tm; vi passwd command jzifh edit vkyfMunfhygrnf/ vi editor
odkYa&muf&SdaomtcgwGif jhon user account ab;&Sd 501 ESifh 502 wdkYonf user ID
rsm;jzpfMuonf/ ¤if; ID rsm;ae&mwGif 0 wefzdk;rsm; tpm;oGif;NyD; wq jzifh write vkyfNyD; quit
vkyfrnfqdkygu jhon onf root \ authority &aom user account jzpfoGm;ayvdrfhrnf/

tu,fí rdrdpufxJwGif root authority &aom user account b,fESpfck&Sdaeonfudk


od&Sdvdkygu grep jzifh atmufygtwdkif; MunfhEdkifonf/
cat passwd | grep 0:0 | wc -l
xdktcg ta&twGuf rnfrQ&SdaeaMumif; atmufwGifazmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif; print
vkyfjyrnfjzpfonf/
39

tu,fí omref user account jzifh tvkyfvkyfaepOftwGif; root account taejzifh


authorized vkyf&rnfhtydkif;rsm;wGif su – udk tokH;jyKNyD; root user account taejzifh
tvkyfvkyfEdkifonf/ odkYaomf root password udk&dkufoGif;ay;&rnf jzpfonf/ tu,fí '-'
sign rygvsif root account \ shell tppftrSefudk rokH;yJ vuf&SdtokH;jyKaeaom user \
shell udk tokH;jyKum root \ authority udk&,lrnf jzpfonf/

The signal of Linux


Linux wGif OS pwifjcif;? reboot vkyfjcif;? Graphical mode ESifh pwifjcif; odkYr[kwf
CLI mode jzifh login 0ifjcif; ponfwdkYudk xdrf;csKyfonfrSm signal rsm;jzifh xdrf;csKyfonf/
¤if; signal rsm;udk initaialization signal rsm;[kac:NyD; xdk signal rsm;udk inittab qdkaom
file jzifh xdrf;csKyfxm;onf/ inittab file onf /etc atmufwGif&Sdonf/ vi editor jzifh edit
vkyfonfhtcg atmufygtwdkif; jrifawGU&rnf jzpfygonf/

signal '0'onf shutdown


signal '1' onf Singleuser mode
signal '2' onf NFS(Network File Systam) rygaom Multiuser mode
signal '3' onf Full multiuser mode or CLI mode
signal '4' onf for reserve
signal '5' onf graphical mode with NFS and Multiuser
signal '6' onf restart the system jzpfonf/
ykHwGif id:3:initdefault: onf (3) jzpfonfhtwGuf Full multiuser mode
without GUI jzpfonfhtwGuf command Line mode jzifh login wufvmrnf jzpfonf/
tu,fí default value 3 ae&mwGif 5 tjzpfajymif;vJNyD; wq jzifh overwrite
vkyfrnfqdkygu GUI mode jzifh login wufvmrnf jzpfonf/
40

File system rsm;ae&m,lxm;ykHESifh ywfoufNyD; Linux wGif fstab qdkaom


command jzifh File system table udkMunhfEdkifonf/ xdkYenf;wl PCI device rsm;udk list
vkyfMunfhvdkygu lspci command jzpfonf/ module rsm;udk list vkyfMunfhonfh
command rSm lsmod jzpfonf/ modules.conf file onf hardware rsm;\ module
rsm;taMumif;ESifh ¤if;wdkYudk drive vkyaf om file jzpfonf/ ¤if; file onf /etc atmufwGif
&Sdonf/ cat /etc/modules.conf udk&dkufEdkyfí modules rsm;udkMunfh&IEdkifonf/
xdkYtwl rdrdpuf&Sd Harddisk rsm;\ disk space udk odvdkvsif df command udk okH;&rnf/
du command onf file system rsm;tvdkuf ae&m,lxm;onfh yrmPrsm;udk azmfjyjcif;
jzpfonf/ du -hs /etc qdkvsif etc directory \ t&G,ftpm;udk azmfjyvdrfhrnf/
DOS wGif partition cGJvdkcsif fdisk command jzifhokH;EdkifouJhodkY Linux wGifvnf;
fdisk command udkokH;Edkifonf/ odkYaomf DOS \ fdisk xufxl;jcm;aom
tm;omcsufrSm DOS \ fdisk onf 16-bit FAT udkom manage vkyfEdkifNyD; Linux \
fdisk onf file system rsm;pGmudk manage vkyfay;Ekdifonf/ fdisk command
tm;tokH;jyKykHrSm-

fdisk -l /dev/hda

[k&dkufEdkyfygu rdrdMunfhvdkaom harddisk \ information udk odEdkifrnfjzpfonf/


tu,fí -l rygvsif harddisk udk management vkyfrnf[k command ay;jcif; jzpfonf/
-l rygyJ &dkufEdkyfNyD; fdisk ESifh ywfoufí help vdktyfygu m udk &dkufEdkyfMunfh&IEdkifonf/
rdrdpufwGif puf pwifzGifhvsif zGifhcsif; hardware device rsm;udk load vkyfEdkif?
rvkyfEkdifudk od&Sdvdkygu kernel rS wdkuf&dkufxkwfay;aom message rsm;udk jyefvnf
zwf&Ijcif; jzifh od&SdEdkifrnf jzpfonf/ kernel rSxkwfay;aom message udk zwf&ef
command rSm dmesg jzpfNyD; more cH&dkufrSom wpfvdkif;csif;pD awGUjrifEkdifrnf/ xdkYaMumifh
command line rSm-

dmesg | more

rdrdpufwGif tokH;jyKaeaom RAM yrmP rnfrQ free jzpfaeonfudk odvdkygu


command rSm free om jzpfonf/
41

Searching in Linux
Linux wGif rdrd&Smvdkaom files rsm;? directory rsm;udk tvG,fwul &SmEdkif&eftwGuf
search command rsm;&Sdonf/ owdjyK&efrSm searching rvkyfrD updatedb qdkaom
command jzifh database rsm;udk OD;pGm update jzpfae&ef vkyfxm;oifhygonf/ Linux
twGif;&Sd search command rsm;rSm-

locate filename
find / filename

find command onf rnfonfh directory xJwGif tvkyfvkyfaeonfjzpfap


&Smvdkaom file udk &SmEdkifonfh command jzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif binary file rsm;udk &Smvdku

which filename

ae&mudk odvdkygu whereis filename jzifh&SmEdkifonf/


whereis -b filename (binary files rsm;udkom azmfjyrnf)
whereis -m filename (manual page files rsm;udkom azmfjyrnf)
whereis -s filename (sources files rsm;udkomazmfjyrnf)
rdrdpuftwGif user rnfrQ0ifa&mufvkyfudkifonfudk od&Sdvdkyguvnf; w odkYr[kwf
who command jzifhodEkdifrnf/ xdkY tjyif finger command jzifhvnf; od&SdEdkifonf/
odkYaomf finger service onf user plan udkyg azmfjyavh&Sdojzifh tcsdKUonf ¤if; service udk
off xm;avh&Sdonf/
hostname qdkaom command onf name to IP, IP to Name ajymif;vJay;aom
command jzpfonf/ uname command onf hardware ESifh software information rsm;udk
print vkyfjyonf/
42

Process Management
Windows OS ay:&Sd task manager uJhodkY rdrdpufwGif process rnfrQ run
aeonfudk od&SdEdkifonfh command rSm ps jzpfNyD;
ps -ax | more
qdkygu atmufygtwdkif; awGUjrifEkdifrnf jzpfonf/

process wGif [---] ygaom process rsm;onf kernel \ process rsm;jzpfNyD; [---]
rygvsif user process jzpfonf/ a&ShwGif yg&Sdaom *Pef;rsm;onf process ID rsm;
jzpfMuNyD; ¤if; ID rsm;jzifhom process management udk jyKvkyf&onf/ process udk stop
vkyfjcif;tm; Linux wGif; process udk kill onf[k ac:onf/ command rSm-

kill -9 1576

txufyg command wGif 1576 qdkonfrSm process ID jzpfNyD; -9 qdkonfrSm kill


vkyf&mwGif strongest tjzpfqkH; signal jzpfonf/
Windows \ task manager uJhodkY process rsm;ESifh CPU, RAM ponfwdkY\ status
udkod&SdEdkif&ef command rSm top jzpfonf/ atmufygtwdkif; awGUjrifEdkifygonf/ top
process manager twGif; tokH;jyKaom command rsm;udk odvdkygu h udk &dkufESdyfNyD;
odEkdifygonf/ process udk kill vdkvsif PID qdkaom process ID eHygwftvdkuf kill
vkyfEkdifonf/ xGufvdku q udkESdyfNyD; xGuf&rnf/
43

Package Management or Software Installation on Linux

Windows platform wGif install vkyfjcif;udk Linux wGif package [kac:onf/ Linux
wGif &Sdaom package type (3)rsdK;rSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf/
• RPM (RedHat Package Management)
# rpm
• Debian
# dpkg
• TAR (Tape Archive Format)
# abc.tar.gz (or) abc.tgz

RPM ESifh Debian wdkYonf Linux


twGuf oD;oefY specific jzpfonf/ TAR onf Unix
ESifh tjcm; linux rsm;wGif operate vkyfEkdifonf/ RPM type package udk control vkyfaom
command rSm rpm jzpfonf/ Debian udk dpkg jzifh manage vkyfonf/ TAR type onf
tape device wGif odrf;qnf;Edkif&eftxd jyKvkyfxm;aomaMumifh command \ aemufwGif
device udk file tjzpf ay;vsif file format jzifh odrf;qnf;rnf jzpfNyD; tape tjzpfay;cJhvsif
tape xJwGif record vkyfvdkY &onf/
multipile files rsm;tm; TAR jzifh package vkyf&mwGif files trsm;BuD;tm; file
wpfckwnf; tjzpf pkaygif;vkdufjcif;om jzpfNyD; compress rvkyfay/ xdkYaMumifh TAR file
wpfckxGufvmvsif Linux wGif &Sdaom zip utility jzpfonfh gzip jzifh compress
vkyfay;&onf/ xdkodkY gzip vkyfvdkufonfhtwGufaMumifh filename.tar file onf
44

filename.tar.gz odkYr[kwf filename.tgz file format jzpfoGm;NyD; file size


vnf;ao;i,foGm;rnf jzpfonf/
tar format awmfawmfrsm;rsm;wGif source code rsm;ygvmwwfNyD; rdrdpufay:wGif
jyefNyD; compile vkyf&onf/ odkYrSom execute vkyfEdkifonfh binary file xGufvmrnf
jzpfonf/ source code ygvmonf qdkaomfvJ binary vnf; ygvmwwfonf/ source code
xnfhay;&jcif;rSm pufwdkif;wGif operate vkyfEkdif&eftwGuf jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh tar format
wGif source code onf primary jzpfNyD; binary file onf secondry jzpfonf/
RPM onf binary file ygvmNyD;om; jzpfouJhodkY vdktyfygu compile vkyfEkdif&ef
source code vnf; ygvmonf/ odkUaomf RPM wGif binary file onf primary jzpfNyD;
source code onf secondary jzpfonf/
RPM onf command wpfaMumif;wnf;ESifh package aygif;rsm;pGmudk management
vkyfEdkifonfhtjyif WEB ay:rSvnf; install vkyfEkdifonf/ tar ESifh rpm wdkY\ command
rsm;teuf tcsdkKUudk atmufwGif azmfjyxm;ygonf/
files rsm;tm; csKHNyD; aygif;pnf; (package) vkyfvdkygu-
tar -cvzf filename /directory
c = create
v = verbose
z = gzip (zip
vkyfrnf[k ajymjcif; jzpfonf)
f = file format ESifh output xkwfrnf
txufyg command wGif tar onf tar jzifh package vkyfrnfh command jzpfNyD;
-cvzf onf option jzpfonf/ /directory onf package vkyfvdkaom file \
wnfae&mjzpfonf/
Package vkyfxm;aom file tm; jyefjznfxkwfrnf odkYr[kwf install vkyfrnf qdkygu-
tar -xvzf filename.tar.gz
x = extract
v = verbose
z = unzip
f = file format
txufyg command wGif filename onf tar format jzifh compress vkyfxm;aom
file jzpfonf/
Uninstall vkyfrnf qdkygu &dk;&Sif;aom command rSm rm jzpfNyD; syntax rSm-
45

rm -Rf filename
R = remove
f = do not confirm for remove

tu,fí gzip udk tokH;jyKNyD; compress / decompress vkyfvdkvsif gzip ESifh ¤if;\
switch option rsm;rSm-
gzip -f force overwrite output file and compress link
-1 (one)compress faster
-9 compress better
-t test compress
-d decompress
-l list

ESifh ywfoufNyD;
rpm install / Uninstall vkyfaom command rsm;rSm
atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf/
rpm -ivh filename install package
rpm -Uvh filename uninstall package
rpm -ivh --replacepkgs replace package alerady installed
pufxJwGif install vkyfxm;aom package rsm;udk odvdkvsif-
rpm -qa | more
rpm -qa | grep packagename
rpm -qpi filename (qpi = query package information)
rpm -qpl filename (qpl = query package list)
install vkyfNyD;om; packages rsm;udk uninstall
vkyfvdkvsif-
rpm -e filename (e = erase)
Files rsm;udk compress vkyf&mwGif aemufxyf command wpfrsdK;rSm zcat
command jzpfonf/
46

CD Rom mount vk y fj cif ;


Linux wGif CD Rom udk cd drive xJodkY xnfhoGif;NyD;ygu mount vkyfay;&onf/
odkYrSom cd tm;zwfEdkifrnf jzpfonf/ cd udk mount vkyf&efrSm-
mount /mnt/cdrom
cd /mnt/cdrom jzpfonf/ xdkYaemuf ls command jzifh cd rom tm; list
vkyfMunfhEkdifonf/ cd tm; unmount vkyfvdyk gu /dev directory xJodkY jyefoGm;NyD;
unmount cdrom [k &dkufEdkyfEdkifonf/ t&dk;&Sif;qkH;rSm /cdrom rSxGufNyD; eject [k
&dkufEdkyfvdkufygu cd tray xGufvmrnf jzpfonf/

Proxy/Cache Server on Linux

Linux ay:wGif server rsm;tvdkuf services ay;onfh taMumif;rsm;tm;


ravhvmrnf Linux wGif rdrdpufüwwfqifxm;aom NIC rsm;udk IP configuration
vkyfay;onfhtaMumif;udk od&Sdxm;&ayrnf/ IP configuration udk DOS ü ipconfig
command jzifh Munfh&IEdkifouJhodkY Linux wGif &Sa d om command rSm DOS ESifh qifwlonfh
ifconfig (interface configuration) jzifhvkyfaqmifEdkifonf/ ¤if; command \ syntax
rSm ifconfig jzpfaomfvnf; tu,fí rdrdpufwGif NIC wpfckxufydkNyD; wwfqifxm;ygu
NIC trnfESifhvnf; Munfh&IEdkifonf/ Oyrm- ifconfig eth0 jzpfonf/
ifconfig jzifh MunfhaomtcgwGif jrifawGU&aom NIC wdkY\ configuration rsm;udk
xdrf;odrf;xm;&Sdonfh zdkifrsm;rSm /etc/sysconfig/network/scripts/ atmufwGif &SdMuonf/ file
names rsm;rSm ifcfg-eth0, ifcfg-eth1 tp&Sdonfjzifh rdrdpufwGif &Sdaom NIC
ta&twGuftvdkuf &Sdrnfjzpfonf/
47

tu,fí ¤if; files rsm;r&Sdygu Ethernet udk rdrdudk,fwdkif zefwD;ay;&ayvdrfhrnf/


xdkYaMumifh ¤if; file rsm;\ default wGif rdrdwdkYtokH;jyKaom NIC \ IP address ESifh
Netmask wdkYudk vi editor jzifh jyifqifay;&ayrnf/ ¤if; files tm; Munfhrnfqdkvsif
atmufygtwdkif; awGUjrifEdkifrnf/

IPADDR wGif rdrdpuf\ IP address udk &dkufoGif;&rnf/ NETMASK, NETWORK, ESifh


BROADCAST ae&mrsm;wGif vnf; oufqdkif&m Address rsm;&dkufoGif;&ygrnf/ xdkYaMumifh IP
address udk configure rvkyf&ao;vsif ifcfg-eth0 udk edit vkyf&rnf/
Linux ay:wGif IP addressing taMumif; azmfjyNyD;onfhaemuf Linux wGif
ay;Edkifonfh DNS, DHCP, Proxy/Cache, E-Mail, IRC, Remote server tp&Sdaom Network
services rsm;taMumif;udk od&Sdxm;&rnf/ azmfjycJhaom service rsm;udk Linux ay:wGif
services taeESifh od&Sdem;vnfxm;onf/ ¤if; service rsm;tm; run aom service program
udk Daemon [kac:onf/ xdkYaMumifh WEB service onf http jzpfvsif service ay;aom
program rSm httpd jzpfonf/ ftp service twGuf ftpd, Mail service twGuf popd
ESifh IRC service twGuf ircd ponfjzifh jrifawGUEdkifonf/
rnfonfh service udkrqdk manage vkyfaom command rSm service jzpfonf/
Oyrm- network module udk manage vkyfvdkvsif-
service network start (network module tm; pwif&ef)
service network stop (network module tm; ydwfypf&ef)
service network restart (network module udk restart vkyf&ef)
48

service ay;jcif;ESifh ywfoufNyD; service tvdkuf tokH;jyKí service ay;aom port


rsm;udk od&Sdae&rnf/ Oyrm telnet onf port 33 ESifh ssh onf port 22 jzpfonf/ ssh
qdkonfrSm secure shell jzpfonf/ ssh twGuf command rSm sshd jzpfonf/ sshd onf
linux server rsm;twGuf aumif;rGefaom remote server software jzpfonf/ ssh udk
tokH;jyKrnfqdkygu atmufygtwdkif; tqifhvdkufvkyfaqmif&rnf/
yxrOD;pGm sshd service udk pwif&ygrnf/
service sshd start
xdkYaemuf rdrdpufwGif sshd service tvkyfwu,f vkyf^rvkyf odvdkvsif netstat
command jzifh Munfh&IEdkifonf/
netstat | grep 22 (service port of ssh)
xdkYaemuf rdrdpufESifh Network group wlaom tjcm;pufwpfvkH;wGif putty software jzifh
Linux sshd on xm;aom pufudk remote administration vkyfEkdifonf/ putty \ user
interface udk atmufwGifazmfjyxm;ygonf/

Host Name (or IP address) ae&mwGif sshd service on xm;aom Linux puf\
address udk&dkufoGif;&ygrnf/ Port wGif 22 jzpfNyD; Protocol wGif SSH jzpfygrnf/ Open udk
click aomtcgwGif warning message ay:vmrnfjzpfNyD; yes udk click vsif ssh on
xm;aom Linux puf\ login screen udk jrifawGUEdkifrnf jzpfonf/
wzef ssh on xm;aom linux pufwGif rdrd system twGif user rnfrQ
0ifa&mufokH;pGJaeaMumif; odvkdvsif w qdkaom command udkEdkyfNyD; Munfhygu putty
software okH;NyD; remote admin vkyfaeaom pufudk jrifawGUEkdifrnf jzpfonf/
49

WEB Service on Linux

Linux wGif tokH;jyKaom WEB service ay;onfh software rsm;pGm&Sdonfhteuf


apache WEB server onf Enterprise level txd vG,fulacsmarGUpGm tokH;jyKEkdifaom
aMumifh apache \ nature ESifh configuration udk azmfjyxm;ygonf/

Apache WEB server


Apache onf open source server wpfckjzpfNyD; server \ factory default setting
jzifhyif oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom WEB site rsm;udk service ay;Edkifonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf
apache onf multi sit connection jzpfNyD; pdwfBudKuf configure vkyfEdkifaomaMumifh
jzpfonf/ apache \ configuration ESifh ywfoufNyD; tajccH WEB server wpfck
omreftvkyfvkyfEdkifaom configuration setting rsm;udk tqifhvdkuf atmufwGif azmfjyxm;
ygonf/
Linux wGif WEB service udk httpd(http deamon) jzifh udk,fpm;jyKonf/ xdkYaMumifh
httpd service udk service httpd start qkdaom command jzifh http service On
&ygrnf/ xdkYaemuf apache WEB server \ configuration udk /etc/httpd/conf
atmufwGif &Sdaom httpd.conf file udk vi editor jzifh edit vkyf&ygrnf/ vi jzifh editor
vkyfaomtcg atmufygtwdkif; jrifawGUEdkifrnf jzpfyg section (1) \ server root
configure wGif ServerRoot "/etc/httpd" jzpfaMumif; onf ta&;BuD;onf/ apache
\ configuration wGif # sign ygvsif command r[kwfyJ description(remark) jzpfNyD;
rygvsif command jzpfonf/
ServerAdmin wGif rdr\ d e-Mail address udk &dkufoGif;Edkifonf/ Listing wGif 80 udk
awGUjrifEdkifrnf jzpfNyD; ¤if;rSm rdrd http service ay;aom port jzpfonf/ tu,fí xdk port
udk rdrdpdwfBudKuf port jyifxm;vdku jyifEkdifonf/ ServerName wGif new.host.name:80 udk
awGUjrifEdkifrnf jzpfNyD; xdk line \atmufwGif ServerName rdrd IP address ESifh service
ay;rnfh port udk a&ShqkH;ü # sign rygyJ &dkufoGif;&rnf/

tu,fí DNS service &SdaecJhygu ¤if;ae&mwGif rdrdwdkY puf emrnf odkYr[kwf site
name udk &dkufoGif;Edkifonf/ rdrd\ Web Server jcif;tm; netstat –an | grep 80 jzifh
Munfhygu Port 80 tvkyfvkyfaeygu Server Run aeNyDjzpfonf/
50

xdkYaemuf atmufodkY qufvuf Munfhygu DocumentRoot udk awGUEkdifrnf jzpfonf/


Document root qdkonfrSm WEB site rsm;xm;aom directory jzpfonf/ Default
DocumentRoot rSm /var/www/html jzpfNyD; WEB site rsm;udk ¤if; directory atmufodkY
xm;ay;&rnf jzpfonf/ qufvufNyD; Directory tydkif;odkY a&mufvsif Directory \
configure udk DocumentRoot ESifh wlnDatmifxm;&rnf/ xdkYaMumifh rdrdpufonf WEB
server vkyfrnf[k &nf&G,fcJhygvsif /var udk partition owfowfcGJjcm;NyD; disk space
rsm;rsm;xm;ay;&rnf/ xdkYaemuf DirectoryIndex tydkif;wGif WEB site \ yxrOD;qkH; home
page \ name ESifh wnfae&mudk azmfjy&dkufoGif;rnf qdkvsif WEB server wpfck
atmifjrifpGm configura vkyfNyD; jzpfonf/
rSefuefaom configuration NyD;ygu httpd services udk restart vkyfay;&ygrnf/
odkYrSom configuration vkyfxm;aom effect onf oufa&mufrI &Sdrnfjzpfonf/ rdrd pufwGif
WEB server run aeonfudk Munhfvdkygu tjcm;pufrS web browser wGif proxy setting
tm; WEB server \ IP Esifh port udk setting csay;NyD; URL address ae&mü WEB server
address ESifh port udk&dkufoGif;ygu apache \ Welcome screen udk jrifawGUEdkifrnf
jzpfonf/
WEB service tm; puf pwifzGifhonfESifh tvdktavsmuf start vkyf&eftwGuf
setting csxm;ay;Edkifonf/ command rSm-
ntsysv
jzpfNyD; atmufygtwdkif; jrifawGU&rnf jzpfonf/ ¤if;wGif httpd udk check vkyfNyD; OK
udk Edkyfygu OS boot vkyfonfESifh WEB server run NyD;om;jzpfoGm;ayvdrfhrnf/
51

Setting up Gateway on Linux


Linux OS wGif Gateway setting
udk GUI mode rS jyKvkyfvsifvG,fulaomfvnf;
CLI mode wGif setting jyKvkyfjcif;onf ydkrkdpdwfcs&Ny;D wdusaom setting wpfckudk
jzpfay:aponf/ Gateway setting rjyKvkyfrnf route -n qdkaom command jzifh route
vkyfaeaom tajctaeudk Munfh&Irnfqdkygu Gateway setting rvkyf&ao;ojzifh Kernel
IP routing table udk atmufygtwdkif; awGUjrifEdkifrnf jzpfonf/

Gateway udk setting jyKvkyfvdkygu /etc/sysconfig/ atmufwGif&Sdaom


network qdkonfh file wGif Edit vkyfEkdifonf/
vi /etc/sysconfig/network
txufygtwdkif; command udk &dkufoGif;NyD; gateway IP udk &dkufoGif;&ygrnf/
&dkufoGif;&mwGif syntax rSm-
GATEWAY=192.168.0.254
ponfjzihf rdrd Gateway IP udk&dkufoGif;&rnf/
52

Gateway udk owfrSwfay;NyD;aemuf hosts file udk setting csay;&rnf jzpfonf/ hosts file
udk&Sm&efrSm ¤if; file onf /etc directory atmufwGifwdkuf&dkuf&Sdygonf/
vi /etc/hosts
xdktcgatmufygtwdkif; jrifawGU&rnf jzpfonf/ 127.0.0.1 onf local loop back
jzpfonfudk aumif;pGmod&Sdxm;&rnf/

xdkYaemuf e*dk&SdNyD;om; default setting udk atmufygtwdkif; rdrd\ IP address ay:rlwnfNyD;


jyif&ygrnf/

xdkodkY hosts file


udk edit vkyfNyD;vsif nameserver udk setting jyKvkyf&ygrnf/ name
server setting jyKvkyfykHrSm /etc/resolv.conf file udk edit vkyfay;&ygrnf/
nameserver wGif rdrdpuf\ DNS udk xnfhoGif;&ygrnf/ Oyrm- bagan rS
connection &,lxm;onfqdkygu namerserver wGif
nameserver 203.81.71.69
[k&dkufoGif;&rnf jzpfonf/ xdkYaemuf nslookup command jzifh rdrd ESpfouf&m WEB site
wpfckcktm; Munfhrnf qdkygu IP address azmfjyrnf jzpfonf/
Oyrm- nslookup www.bagan.net.mm
txufygtwdkif; Gateway setting jyKvkyfjcif;? hosts file udk edit vkyfjcif;ESifh
resolve.conf file jzifh DNS owfrSwfay;jcif;rsm; NyD;ygu rdrdpufonf Internet odkY csdwfquf
tokHjyKEkdifNyDjzpfonf/ Internet odkYcsdwfqufNyD;ygu rdrdwdkY LAN twGif; proxy servise
ay;onfh proxy server wpfck jyKvkyfum Internet udk sharing jyKvkyfEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ proxy
server wGif Linux \ squid II onf powerful jzpfaom proxy service ay;Edkifonf/
53

Squid II

squid onf ¤if;\ proxy setting udk edit vkyf&mü CLI mode jzifh jyKvkyf&onf/
xdkYaMumifh squid \ setting udkjyKjyif&ef file rSm /etc/squid twGif;&Sd squid.conf file
jzpfonf/ ¤if; squid.conf file udk vi editor jzifh Munfhvdkufrnf qdkygu pmaMumif;a&
3225 vdkif; &Sdaom squid \ configuration file udk awGUjrif&rnf jzpfonf/ squid \
configuration udk atmufygtwdkif; tqifhvdkufjyKvkyfoGm;&rnf/
yxrOD;pGm Network Option wGif proxy service ay;rnfh port udk edit
vkyfay;&rnf/ configuration file \ default rSm 3128 jzpfonfudk awGUjrif&rnf/ port
3128 onf ,cifu tokH;jyKaom proxy port jzpfonf/ odkYaomf ,aeYacwfwGif
international tokH;jyKaeaom proxy port rSm 80 jzpfonf/
xdkYaMumifh # http_port 3128 qdkaomae&mwGif # sign udk zsufNyD; port udk on
&ygrnf/ port number ajymif;vdkvsif 3128 ae&mü rdrdxm;vdkaom port number udk
&dkufoGif;&ygrnf/ Oyrm 80 xm;rnfqdkygu command line status rSm atmufygtwdkif;
jzpfaeygvdrfrh nf/
http_port 80
port number udk jyifNyD;vsif cache peer udk setting vkyf&ygrnf/ cache peer
qdkonfrSm rdrdtxufrS proxy server udk ajymjcif; jzpfonf/ tu,fí bagan net rS
connection udk &,lxm;onfqdkygu cache peer wGif bagan rS proxy server address udk
54

&dkufoGif;&rnf jzpfonf/ cache peer setting \ default rSm none jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh
none udk zsufNyD; atmufygtwdkif; &dkufoGif;&rnf/ &dkufoGif;rnfh line number onf 309
jzpfonfudk nmbuf atmufa'gifhwGif awGUEdkifrnf/
cache_peer 192.168.1.254 parent 8080 0 default no-query
txufyg command line udk &Sif;&rnf qdkvsif cache_peer onf cache_peer
command jzpfonf/ 192.168.1.254 qdkonfrSm parient proxy \ IP address
jzpfonf/ parient qdkonfrSm parient jzpfaMumif; aMumfjimjcif; jzpfonf/ 8080 rSm
parient proxy \ service ay;aeaom port jzpfonf/ aemufxyf 0 rSm neighbours
rsm;tm; query ay;jcif;r&Sd[k t"dygÜ,f&onf/ default qdkonfrSm connection tm;vkH;
default okH;rnf[k ajymjcif; jzpfonf/ no-query qdkonfrSm query rvkyfbl; [k
t"dyÜg,f&onf/ tu,fí parient proxy wGif rdrdonf user account wpfck &,lxm;NyD;
login vkyfrS access ay;onfh parient proxy jzpfaeygu no-query aemufwGif login
name ESifh password udk &dkufoGif;ay;&ayrnf/
Proxy server onf High Volume Traffic udk access vkyf&aomaMumifh IO system
aumif;&rnf jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh server tokH;jyKaom cache memory yrmPrsm;&ef
vdktyfonf/ Squid wGifvnf; cache memory udk setting vkyfay;&onf/ Option Which
Effect the Cache Size qdkaom acgif;pOfatmufwGif line number 468 ü default setting
8 MB udk awGUEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ # sign udk zsufNyD; cache memory udk on ygrnf/ NyD;vsif
rdrdxm;vdkaom cache size udk &dkufoGif;&ygrnf/
xdkYaemuf line number 501 &Sd maximum_object_size 4096 KB udk # sign
zsufNyD; default setting twdkif; on ay;&ygrnf/ xdkYaemuf Logfile Pathnames and Cache
Directory acgif;pOf atmuf&Sd cache directory udk setting vkyfay;&rnf/ Default setting
jzpfonfh line number 666 wGif&Sdaom cache_dir ufs /var/spool/squid 100
16 256 qdkaom command line udk # sign zsufí on ay;&rnf/ azmfjyyg command \
t"dyÜg,fwGif 100 onf directory \ size udk ajymjcif;jzpfonf/ 16 qdkonfrSm ¤if;
directory wGif directory 16 ck&Sdrnf[k ajymjcif;jzpfonf/ 256 onf sub directory 256
ckxm;&Sdrnf[k ajymjcif;jzpfonf/
xdkYaemuf line number 673 &Sd cache_access_log ? line number 681 &Sd
cache_log ESifh line number 691 &Sd cache_store_log wdkYudk toD;oD; on ay;&rnf/
¤if; log rsm;onf rdrd server tm; access vkyfonfh connection rsm;udk log taeESifh
55

odrf;qnf;azmfjy&ef jzpfNyD; server run aecsdefwGifvnf; monitor vkyfEdkifrnf jzpfonf/


xdkYaemuf line number 733 wGif&Sdaom emulate_httpd_log off qdkaom command
line udk # sing zsufNyD; on ay;&kHrQru default setting jzpfonfh off udk on
[kajymif;vJay;NyD; command udk on &ygrnf/
qufvufNyD; line number 1678 wGif acl setting udk awGUjrifEdkifrnf jzpfonf/ acl
qdkonfrSm access control list jzpfNyD; standart jzpfaom denine vkyfay;Edkifonfh tool
jzpfonf/ ¤if;\ command rSm acl jzpfonf/ command line t"dyÜg,ftm;
em;vnfxm;&efvdktyfygonf/
acl all src 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0
acl qdkonfrSm acl command jzpfonf/ all qdkonfrSm aclname jzpfonf/ src
onf source jzpfNyD; 0 rsm;onf IP address jzpfonf/ txufyg command line t&
rnfonfh source address rSrqdk vma&muf access vkyfEdkifaMumif; ajymxm;jcif; jzpfonf/
Line number 1739 wGif And Finally deny all other access to this proxy ae&mü
local host rS vGJí usefwmtm;vkH;udk deny vkyfxm;onfudk atmufygtwdkif; jrifawGUEkdif
rnfjzpfonf/

xdkYaMumifh default twdkif; xm;&Sdygu rnfonfh connection udkrQ vufcHawmhrnf


r[kwfay/ tu,fí allow all command csnf;oufouf ay;vdkufrnf qdkyguvnf;
connection tm;vkH;udk vufcHaeayvdrfhrnf/ xdkYaMumifh atmufygtwdkif; command wpfck
&dkufoGif;ay;&rnf/

xdkodkYjyKvkyfNyD;ygu line number 2457 ESifh 2466 wdkYwGif&Sdaom never_direct


allow all command line rsm;udk a&ShrS # sign rsm;zsufNyD; on ay;&ygrnf/
56

txufyg configuration step rsm;tvdkufjyKvkyfNyD;ygu omref proxy service


ay;Edkifaom tajctaeodkYa&muf&SdoGm;NyD jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh vi editor rS wq command
jzifh write vkyfNyD; xGufvdkufygrnf/ NyD;vsif squid proxy run &eftwGuf squid -z
command jzifh cache file wnfaqmufay;&ygrnf/
cache file wnfaqmufNyD;ygu squid proxy run &ef tqifoifjh zpfNyD jzpfygonf/
service squid start qdkaom command jzifh squid server udk pwifEdkifNyD
jzpfygonf/ ,cktcsdefwGif netstat command jzifh Munfhrnfqdkvsif squid server
twGuf server ay;aeaom port onf listen vkyfaernfjzpfonf/ tjcm;pufwpfvkH;&Sd WEB
Browser wGif proxy setting ü squid server IP address &dkufoGif;vdkufNyD;
prf;oyfMunfhEdkifygonf/
squid server tm; 0ifa&muf access vkyfaeaom connection rsm;tm; monitor
vkyfvdkygu atmufyg command jzifh MunfEkdifonf/
tail -f /var/squid/log/access. log
txufyg command jzifh Munfh&Irnfqdkygu rdrd server twGif;odkY
0ifa&mufcsdwfqufaeaom client rsm;\ rnfonfhtcsdefrS rnfonfhtcsdeftxd 0ifa&muf
connection jyKvkyfoGm;onfudk od&SdEdkifrnf jzpfonf/

Super Server in Linux


Host wpfckrS client rsm;xHodkY ay;aeaom service trsdK;rsdK; &SdMuNyD; service
rsm;tvdkuf port toD;oD;wGif listing vkyfaeMuonf/ tu,fí hoste wpfcktaeESifh
service rsm;pGmay;xm;onfhtwGuf rdrdtm; connection jyKvkyfaeaom client
ta&twGufrsm;jym;vmonfESifh trQ service ay;aeaom port rsm;tm; listing
vkyf&onfrSmvJ rsm;jym;vmonf/ xdkYaMumifh server \ performance usqif;vmrnf
57

jzpfonf/ xdkodkY performance rusqif;ap&ef Host ESifh client tm; wdkuf&dkuf csdwfqufcGifh
csufcsif;ray;yJ super server Mum;cHNyD;rS om super server \ request jzifh
wdkuf&dkufcsdwfqufapjcif;tm; jyKvkyfjcif;jzifh host performance udk wufaponf/ super
server \vkyfaqmifcsufonf host \ performance wufaponfrSefaomvnf; security
udk usqif;aponfudk owdjyK&rnf/
Linux wGif super server Mum;cHrIudk od&Sdvdkvsif /etc/xinetd.d directory
xJwGif od&SdEdkifonf/ inetd qdkonfrSm inet daemon jzpfonf/ ,cif RedHat version
rsm;wGif inetd onf directory taeESifh rwnf&SdyJ inetd.conf file wpfcktaejzifh
wnf&Sdonf/ service wpfcktwGuf pmaMumif;a& wpfckjzifh configure vkyfaqmifay;onf/
inetd.d directory tjzpfajymif;vJvmaomtcgwGif service wpfcktm; file wpfcktjzpf
udk,fpm;jyKvkyfaqmifay;vmcJhonf/
Telenet service in Linux
telenet service qdkonfrSm remote admin wpfrsdK;jzpfonf/ telenet \ service
ay;aom port rSm standard tm;jzifh 23 jzpfonf/ telnet service tm; Linux wGif
ay;csifygu /etc/xinetd.d directory twGif;&Sd telnet file tm; vi editor jzifh edit
vkyfay;&rnf/ atmufwGif jyxm;onfhtwdkif; disable=no ay;NyD; wq jzifh save um vi
editor rSjyefxGufrnfqdkygu telnet service ay;NyD; jzpfrnf/ xdkYaemuf service xinetd
restart command jzifh services rsm;tm; restart vkyfay;&ygrnf/ netstat -al
| grep 23 jzifhMunfhvsif port 23 wGif listing vkyfaernfudk awGU&SdEdkifonf/

xdkYaemuf tjcm;puf wpfvkH;rS putty soft ware jzifh telnet service jzifh login
vkyfrnf[k option ay;NyD; remote admin jyKvkyfrnfqdkygu root user account jzifhr[kwfyJ
omref user account jzifh login vkyfEdkifrnf jzpfonf/
58

FTP service on Linux


fip service onf rwlnDaom OS toD;oD;\ uGJjym;jcm;em;aom File system
rsm;twGuf wlnDaom format jzpfatmif ajymif;vJvkyfudkifay;NyD; sharing vkyfEdkifaom
service jzpfonf/
Linux wGif ftp service udk /etc/vsftpd atmufwGif&Sdaom vsftpd.conf file
wGif vi editor jzifh edit vkyfNyD; ftp service udk configure vkyfEkdifonf/ ftp service wGif
odoifhaomtcsufrSm encoding tydkif;jzpfonf/ encoding wGif omref tm;jzifh binary
encoding ESifh ASSCII encoding [lí ESpfrsdK;&Sdonf/ ykHrSef text rsm;udk translate
vkyfrnfqdkvsif ASSCII ESifh jyKvkyfNyD; binary file rsm;udk binary encoding jzifh encode
vkyfonf/ tjcm;rodaom format rsm;udk binary ESifh jyKvkyfjcif;onf omvGefaumif;rGefí
pdwfcs&aom vkyfaqmifcsufjzpfonf/ odkYaomf ,aeYacwfwGif ftp service twGuf format
encoding tm; auto mode ay;NyD; vkyfaqmifEdkfionfh client software rsm;ay:aygufvmNyD
jzpfonf/ owdjyK&rnfrSm Linux rS Linux odYkjzpfap Linux rS Unix odkYjzpfap Unix rS Unix
odkY jzpfap? Unix rS Linux odkYjzpfap binary mode jzifhom encode vkyfonf/
ftp server rsm;odkY login 0ifa&muf&mwGif internet ay:ü anonymous ftp server
rsm; &SdouJhodkY user name, password ay;NyD; login ay;&onfh ftp server rsm;&Sdonf/ tcsdKU
ftp server rsm;wGifrl username ftp ESifh password ftp ay;NyD; 0ifa&muf&onfh server
rsm;vnf;&Sdonf/ odkYaomf login trsdK;tpm;tvdkuf permission uGJjym;rnfjzpfonf/ ftp \
service ay;aom standard port rSm 21 jzpfonf/ Linux ay:wGif ftp server ay;&eftwGuf
tqifhvdkufrSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfygonf/
a&S;OD;pGm rpm -qa | grep ftp qdkaom command jzifh ftp service udk install
pwifygrnf/ xdktcgatmufygtwdkif; service (3)rsdK; install vkyfygrnf/

xkdYaemuf vi vsftpd command jzifh vsftpd file tm; edit vkyf&ygrnf/ vi


editor wGif anonymoys login rsm;tm; allow ay;Edkif&ef twGuf enable wGif YES
59

ay;Edkifonf/ xdkYaemuf localel user rsm;twGuf permission setting rsm;


vdkovdkjyKjyifEkdifonf/ xdkYtjyif xferlog setting wGifvnf; connection log setting rsm;udk
jyKjyifMunhf&IEkdifonf/ baner wGif rdrda&;xdk;vdkaom welcome messag rsm; rdrd\ admin
e-mail address rsm;udk jyKjyifxnfhoGif;Edkiof nf/ xdkodkY rdrdpdwfwdkif;us setting jyKvkyfNyD;ygu
wq jzifh save NyD; configure jyKvkyfEdkifygonf/ xdkYaemuf tjcm;pufwpfvkH;xHrS ftp client ftp
jzifh prf;oyfMunfhrnf qdkygu ftp server &SifoefaeaMumif; od&SdEkdifrnf jzpfonf/ xdkYaemuf
cute ftp uJhodkYaom ftp client software rsm;jzifh rdrd ftp site tm; anonymous user
taeESifh vnf;aumif;? known user taeESifh vnf;aumif; login 0ifa&mufNyD; user
account tvdkufuGmjcm;rIudk od&SdEdkifygonf/
service rsm;tvdkuf service ay;&mwGif service qdkaom command udk tokH;jyKí
service udk start, stop, restart ponfjzifh jyKvkyfonf/ tu,fí service command
tvkyfrvkyfvsif /etc/rc.d/init.d atmufodkYoGm;NyD; rdrd ay;vdkaom service udk run
Ekdifonf/

Windows ES i f h Linux csd w f q uf j cif ;


Windows ESifh Linux csdwfquf&ef platform rwlnDaomaMumifh wpfckESifh wpfck
awGUjrifEdkif&efyif cufcJvGefvSayonf/ xdkYaMumifh xdk OS ESpfcktMum; standard protocol
jzifh csdwfqufEdkifrSomvsif windows ESifh Linux wpfckESifh wpfckjrifawGUum
csdwfquftokH;jyKEkdifMuayrnf/
Windows wGif workgroup odkYr[kwf domain atmuf&Sd client rsm; taeESifh
vkyfaqmifMuonf/ tu,fí Linux computer wpfvkH;onf windows \ workgroup
em;vnfatmif jyKvkyfEdkifygu Windows ESifh Linux tjyeftvSef em;vnfoGm;NyD; files rsm;?
printer rsm;udk share vkyfEkdifrnfjzpfonf/ xdkuJhodkYjyKvkyfEkdif&eftwGuf Linux \ SAMBA
onf NetBIOS, NetBieu ponfh SMB(server message block) protocol rsm;udk emulate
vkyfay;Edkifonf/
/etc/samba/smb.conf file udk vi editor jzifh editor vkyfay;&ygrnf/
workgroup wGif rdrd\ work group udk &dkufoGif;&ygrnf/ xdkYaemuf rdrd samba server
description udk ESpfouf&m&dkufoGif;&rnf/ usef&Sdaom configuratuion rsm;udk description
Munfh&INyD; jyifqifEdkifonf/ xdkYaemuf wq jzifh vi editor rS xGufNyD; /etc/inetd.d/
atmufwGif &Sdaom swat file udk vi /etc/inetd.d/swat command udk okH;NyD; vi
60

editor jzifh edit


vkyf&ygrnf/ editor wGif default port rSm 901 jzpfonf/ only_from
windows OS zufrS IP &dkufoGif;&rnf/ disable udk no xm;ay;&rnf/ xdkYaemuf wq jzifh
xGuf&ygrnf/ NyD;vsif service xinetd restart command jzifh service rsm;tm;
restart vkyfay;&ygrnf/ xdkYaemuf Windows ay:wGif&Sdaom Internet Explorer jzifh Linux
puf\ IP address ESifh swat service ay;aom port 901 udk http://LinuxIP:port
jzifhac:Munfhrnfqdkygu samba \ WEB admin page wufvmygrnf/ xdkodkY samba
server \ Homw Page wufvmvsif workgroup name, netbios name, server string
ponfwdkYudk ESpfouf&m xm;Edkifonf/ Security Option wGif security tm; SHARE
a&G;cs,fay;&rnf/ odkYrSom share jyKvkyfEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ xdk page wGif share ay;jcif;?
NetBIOS name ay;jcif;rsm; tjyif tjcm; administration rsm;udk jyKvkyfEdkifygonf/
xdkYaemuf service smb restart command jzifh restart vkyyf grnf/ NyD;vsif windows
rS run command wGif Linux PC \ IP address tm;&dkufoGif;vsif vnf;aumif; My
Network place rS oGm;Munfhvsifvnf;aumif; Linux PC udk awGUjrifEdkifrnf jzpfonf/
aemufwzef Windows rS share files rsm;tm; Linux wGif ac:,ltokH;jyK&eftwGuf
Linux wGif atmufygtwdkif; jyKvkyf&ayrnf/
smbclient -L 192.168.0.5 [k&dkufoGif;ygu 192.168.0.5 \ share file rsm;
yGifhvmrnf/ xdkYtjyif Work group rsm;tm;vnf; azmfjyxm;ayvdrfhrnf/ tu,fí share
files rsm;tm; ul;,lvdkygu odkYr[kwf Munfh&Ivdkygu rdrdul;vdkaom directory udk mount
vkyfay;&onf/
yxrOD;pGm /mnt atmufwGif directory wpfckudk atmufyg command jzifh
wnfaqmuf&ygrnf/
mkdir smbfs

xdkodkY wnfaqmufNyD;ygu rdrdMunfhvdkaom share files rsm;udk atmufygtwdkif;


Munfh&IEdkifonf/
mount -t smbfs //192.168.0.5/sharefolder /mnt/smbfs

xdktcgwGif password
awmif;ayvdrfhrnf/ windows OS password udk&dkufoGif;
NyD;ygu share folder twGif;&Sd share files rsm;tm; jrifawGUEkdifayonf/ tu,fí
ul;,lvdkvsif rdrdwnfaqmufxm;aom directory udk chmod jzifh write permission
ay;xm;&ef vdktyfonf/
61

NAT(Network Address Translation) in LINUX

Internet odkYcsdwfquf&mwGif csdwfqufenf; (3)rsdK;&Sdonf/ ¤if;wdkYrSm-


Direct csdwfqufjcif;
Proxy server jzihfcsdqufjcif;
NAT jzifhcsdwfqufjcif;

Router 203.81.76.X
or
Gateway

Internet LAN

Direct Connection

Internet odkYwdkuf&dkufcsdwfquf&mwGif rdrd\ LAN wGif&Sdaom IP address rsm;onf


Internet wGif Fully Qualified jzpfaom address rsm;jzpfMuonf/ odkYjzpfí LAN onf
Internet \ wpfpdwfwpfa;o jzpfaeonfhtjyif security raumif;ay/ rdrd LAN twGif;&Sd
pufwdkif;tm; Internet rS wdkuf&dkufod&Sdem;vnfaernf jzpfonf/
62

192.168.X.X
GateWay

Internet Fully LAN


Qualified
Address

Proxy Connection

Proxy server jzifh Mum;cHcsdwfquf&mwGif Internet odkYxGuf&mü Internet wGif fully


qualified jzpfaom address wpfckwnf;jzifhom connection &SdNyD; rdrd LAN wGif Internet rS
rodaom address wpfckjzifh jyef0ifrnf jzpfonf/ LAN twGif;&Sd pufrsm;tm;vkH;onf
Internet odkYxGuf&mwGif Proxy wpfckwnf;udkom Mum;cHqufoG,faomaMumifh security
aumif;rGefonf/

GateWay 192.168.X.X
with NAT
Service

Internet Fully LAN


Qualified
Address

Security

With NAT connection

NAT jzifh csdwfqufjcif;onf Internet sharing jyKvkyfEdkifonfhtjyif security


aumif;rGefNyD; fully qualified jzpfaom address wpfckom vdktyfrnfjzpfonf/ Linux wGif
Masqurading jyKvkyfjcif;[kac:onf/
NAT udk computer server rsm;rokH;yJ dedicated NAT box rsm;tokH;jyKívnf;
vkyfaqmifEkdifonf/ ¤if; Box rsm;onf WEB base configuration rsm;jzifh configure
vkyfEkdifonf/
NAT udk Windows OS wGif ICS (internes Connection Sharing) [lí built in
yg&Sdaomfvnf; ICS service on vdkufygu rdrd LAN \ IP address onf 192.168.0.X
63

jzpfoGm;onf/ odkYjzpfaomaMumifh LAN \ address t& rdrd LAN twGif puftvkH;a& 253
vkH;om tokH;jyKEdkifawmhrnf jzpfonf/ Linux wGif iptable ESifh squid service
ESpfckaygif;pyfNyD; NAT service udk on Ekdifonf/ Windows wGifuJhodkY tuefYtowfr&Sday/
Windows wGif ISA service rwufrcsif; firewall service rwufay;/ ISA server run
rSomvsif cover vkyfay;onf/ Linux wGif boot vkyfonfESifh cover vkyfay;onf/ xdkYtjyif
tm;omcsufwpfckrSm virus rsm;\ wdkufcdkufrIudk vkH;0xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;&ef rvdktyfay/
Linux wGif Firewall, NAT twGuf tokH;jyKaom command rSm iptables
jzpfonf/ Linux version 2.0 wGif ipfwadm jzpfNyD; version 2.2 wGif ipchain, version
2.4 rS pwifí iptables tjzpfpwifcJhonf/ iptables wGif kernel space ESifh user space
[lí ESpfrsdK;&Sdonf/ kernel space onf netfilter model jzpfNyD; user space onf iptables
jzpfonf/ iptables onf Good Guys IN Bad Guys OUT qdkaom firewall \ function
udkyg &&Sdonf/ network connection wpfckwnf; odkYr[kwf wpfckxufygaom connection
rsm;jzpfonfh multi home sustem wGifyg tokH;jyKEkdifonf/ host wpfcktwGufomru
network wpfckESifhwpfcktMum; Gateway rsm;wGifyg tokH;jyKEkdifonf/ iptables
tvkyfpwifvkyf&eftwGuf IP routing function udk on ay;&rnf/ IP routing function udk
atmufygtwdkif; On ay;Edkifonf/
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

¤if; file wGif pmaMumif;a& (7) ü net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0 tm; 1


tjzpfajymif;vJay;vsif IP routing On NyD; jzpfonf/ xdkodkYjyKvkyfNyD;aemuf user space
iptables wGif firewall rules rsm;udk xnfhoGif;&ayrnf/ iptables wGif Input change,
Output change, ESihf Forward change [lí (3)rsdK;&Sdonf/
64

txufazmfjyygykHtwdkif; server twGif;odkY incoming 0ifa&mufvmvsif routing


decision rS host twGufvmonfh input [kwf? r[kwf ppfaq;onf/ host twGufvmonfh
input qdkygu outgoing state odkY wdkuf&dkufydkYaqmifay;onf/ host twGuf r[kwfyJ DMZ
(DeMilitarized Zone) aemufzuf&Sd rdrd LAN twGif;rS computer rsm;twGufqdkvsif Local
twGif; process vkyfay;NyD; outgoing state odkY a&muf&SdoGm;onf/
DMZ (demilitarized Zone) qdkonfrSm rdrd Internel LAN ESifh Externel Network
tMum;wGif xyfrHjznfhpGufxm;aom wwd,ajrmuf Network tydkif;jzpfonf/ DMZ udk
tcsdKUae&mrsm;wGif Perimeter Network odkYr[kwf Three-home Perimeter Network
[líac:onf/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh WEB server rsm;? Mail server rsm;onf DMZ twGif;ü
xm;&Sdavh&SdMuonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaom DMZ onf Inetenet odkYaemufqkH;xGufaom
interface ESifh Secure vkyfxm;aom LAN tMum;wGif additational firewall filter wpfck
tjzpfwnf&SdaomaMumifh jzpfonf/
65

Routing decision wGif PRErouting ESifh POSTRouting [líESpfrsdK;&SdNyD; source


address udk ajymif;vsif SNAT jzpfNyD; POSTrouting jzpfonf/ PAT (port address
translation) onf distination address udk ajymif;vJay;í DNAT jzpfonf/ PRErouting
[kowfrSwfEkdifonf/
prot routing PAT \ oabmw&m;rSm Oyrm- DMZ (DeMilitarized Zone) twGif;&Sd
iptables service &Sdaom Gateway wpfckwGif WEB service run rxm;aomfvnf; Internet
rS client request onf WEB service ay;aom port udk request vmvkyfonfqdkygu DMZ
zone aemufbuf&Sd secure jzpfaeaom? Internet rS wdkuf&dkufrodaom WEB service run
aeonfh WEB server odkY forwading vkyfay;jcif;rsdK;jzpfonf/
66

iptables ESifhywfoufí aommand rSm iptables omjzpfaomfvnf; ¤if;


command \ switch rsm;onf ta&;BuD;onf/ t"du tm;jzifh -A qdkvsif add jzpfonf/
-I qdkygu insert jzpfNyD;? -D onf delete jzpfaMumif;OD;pGm od&Sdxm;&ayrnf/ xdkYaemuf -P
onf policy jzpfaMumif;ESifh -t onf type jzpfaMumif; tajccHrQod&Sdxm;&rnf/
iptables \ command rSm&Snfvsm;aomaMumifh command line tqifhtvdkuf udk
em;vnfod&Sd&eftwGuf atmufwGif tqifhvdkuf azmfjyxm;ygonf/
iptables -A INPUT -p icmp j -DROP

txufygt& iptables onf command jzpfonf/ -A onf command line


option jzpfonf add vkyfrnfjzpfaMumif; command ay;jcif;jzpfonf/ INPUT onf chain
jzpfNyD; 0ifvmrnfh request \ status jzpfonf/ -p onf command line parameter
jzpfonf/ protocol udk service vkyfrnfjzpfaMumif; aMujimonfh oabmjzpfonf/ -p
NyD;ygu protocol emrnfomvdkuf&rnf jzpfonfhtwGuf icmp (internet control message
protocol) udk xnfhoGif;jcif; jzpfonf/ j onf operation parameter jzpfNyD; jump
operation jyKvkyfrnf[k ajymjcif;jzpfonf/ jump wGif ALLOW, DROP ESifh REJECT [lí
(3)rsdK;&Sdonf/ REJECT onf request tm; vufrcHbJ client xHodkY error message ydkYrnf
jzpfonf/ DROP rSm request tm; vpfvsLvsKvdkufjcif;jzpfNyD; request vmaom client xHodYk
rnfonfh error message rQydkYrnf r[kwfay/
txufyg command line rSm icmp protocol jzifh request vmygu jzwfoef;cGifh
ray;awmhyJ request udk vspfvsLvsKvdkufrnf jzpfonf xdkYaMumifh secure LAN twGif;&Sd
pufrsm;ESifh iptables service &Sdaom puftm; ping command jzifh &SmMunfhvsif awGUEdkifrnf
r[kwfawmhay/ tu,fí atmufygtwdkif; &dkufoGif;ygu vmorQ request wdkif;udk DROP
vkyfjypfrnf jzpfonf/

iptables -P INPUT DROP

command wGif -P onf policy jzpfonf/


Linux wGif NIC rsm;tm; eth0, eth1 ponfjzihf em;vnfaMumif; od&SdcJhNyD;jzpfonf/
tu,fí rdrdpufwGif Ethernet card ESpfck&SdNyD; eth0 onf LAN odkY0ifonfh interface jzpfNyD;
eth1 onf Internet odkY xGufaom Interface jzpfonfqdkygvsif eth1 tm; NAT service 0n
&ef command rSm-
67

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth1 j MASQURADE

txufyg command wGif -t onf service type jzpfNyD; nat onf NAT service
jzpfonf/ -A onf add odkYr[kwf append jzpfNyD; POSTrouting twGuf jzpfaMumif;
aMujimjcif; jzpfonf/ -o onf eth1 \ output jzpfaMumif;ESifh ¤if; output tm;
masquerade vkyfrnfjzpfaMumif; owfrSwfay;vdkufjcif; jzpfonf/ MASQURADE qdkonfrSm
twkta,mif? rsufESmzkH;pGyfvdkufjcif; [k qdkEdkifonf/ wenf;tm;jzifh source address rsm;udk
ajymif;vJay;vdkufonfh function udk Ethernet 1 (eth1) \ output tjzpfajymif;vJ
xkwfay;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf/
rdrd wGif&Sdaom WEB server twGufqdkvsif ¤if; WEB server twGuf secure jzpfNyD;
aumif;rGefpGm WEB service ay;Edkif&eftwGuf command rsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf/
iptables -P INPUT DROP

¤if; command jzifh 0ifvmorQ request wdkif;udk ydwfypfvdkufygrnf/ xdkYaemuf atmufyg


command jzifh WEB service ay;aom port wpfckwnf;udk vufcHNyD; zGifhay;ygrnf/
iptables -A INPUT -P tcp --dport 80 j ACCEPT

command tm; avhvmMunfhrnf qdkygu incoming 0ifvmaom distination IP ESifh port


80 jzpfygu accept vkyfrnfh policy jzpfaMumif; odEdkifonf/ txufyg command rsm; onf
rdrdwGif &Sdaom WEB server twGuf jzpfNyD; tu,fí rdrd LAN twGif;rS pufrsm;tm;
a&G;cs,fowfrSwfNyD; authorized ay;csifvsif atmufygtwdkif; &dkufoGif;&rnf jzpfonf/

iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.1.50 -p tcp --dport j ACCEPT

¤if; command jzifh 192.168.1.50 qdkaom IP tm; accept ay;jcif;jzpfonf/ -s onf


source jzpfonf/ -p onf protocol jzpfNyD; protocol rSm tcp jzpfonf/ txufygtwdkif;
command rsm;? policy rsm; owfrSwfay;NyD;aemuf ¤if;wdkYudk jyefzsufvdkygu atmufygtwdkif;
jyKvkyfEdkifonf/

iptables -nL

txyfygtwdkif; &dkufoGif;vdkufygu ay;cJhaom policy rsm; Input ESifh Output


owfrSwfcsufrsm;udk awGU&rnfjzpfonf/
68

iptable -nL INPUT

qdkygu Input policy


rsm;om list vkyfjyrnf jzpfonf/ list vkyfjy&mwGif policy rsm;udk
process wpfckpD line tvdkuf azmfjyaeayvdrfhrnf/ xdkodkY azmfjy&mwGif yxrvdkif;onf
policy number (1) jzpfonf/ 'kwd, qdkvsif (2) jzpfNyD;? wwd, qdkvsif (3) ponfjzifh
&Sdaeayvdrfhrnf/ tu,fí 'kwd,ajrmuf policy udk zsufvdkygu atmufygtwdkif;
&dkufoGif;&ygrnf/

iptables -D INPUT 2

-D onf delete
jzpfNyD; Input policy rS 'kwd,ajrmufudk zsufrnf [k ajymjcif;jzpfonf/
Port routing ESifh ywfoufNyD; WEB server odkY PRErouting vkyf&ef command rSm
atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf/
iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -s 0/0 -d 203.81.71.65 -p
tcp dport 80 -j DNAT --to 192.168.1.2

txufyg command wGif -t onf service type NyD; -A rSm Append jzpfonf/ append
trdsK;tpm;rSm Prerouting jzpfNyD; -s rSm source jzpfonf/ 0/0 qdkonfrSm rnfonfh
source address rS rqdk[k qdkvdkjcif; jzpfonf/ -d onf distination jzpfNyD; ¤if;\
aemufwGif destination address vdkufonf/ -p onf proto type jzpfNyD; tcp jzpfaMumif;
aMujimonf/ dport rSm distination \ port number udk qdkvdkonf/ aemufwGif disnation
port ygonf/ DNAT trsdK;tpm;jzpfaMumif; ESifh --to jzifh 192.168.1.2 odkY forward
vkyfay;jcif;jzpfonf/

Kernel Compilation
Linux onf open source jzpfaomaMumifh Linux \ kernel udk pdwfBudKufjyKjyif
a&;om; Ekdifonf/ xdkodkYa&;om;jcif;udk kernel compilation vkyfjcif;[k ac:onf/ kernel udk
rdrdpdwfBudKuf jyKjyifNyD;ygu rebuilt jyefvkyfay;&onf/ wenf;tm;jzifh compilation
jyefvkyfay;&onf/ xdkodkYjyKvkyf&eftwGuf /usr/src/ atmufwGif kernel version tvdkuf
directory &Sdonf/ ¤if; directory atmufodkY oGm;NyD; make command jzifh compilation
vkyfEkdifonf/ make command wGif atmufygtwdkif; configuration vkyfonfh type
rsm;&Sdonf/
69

• make config
• make menuconfig
• make xconfig
• make oldconfig
config onf yes or no command rsm;tvdkuf command ay;NyD; compilation
vkyf&onf/ menuconfig onf menu rsm;a&G;cs,fNyD; rebuilt vkyf&onf/ xconfig rSm
GUI mode jzifh compilation vkyfjcif;jzpfonf/ aemufydkif;wGif gconfig [kvnf;
awGUjrifvm&onf/ oldconfig onf factory default odkY tvdktavsmuf compile
vkyfay;jcif;jzpfonf/ atmufwGif make menuconfig command jzifh compile
vkyf&eftwGuf tqifoifhjzpfaeaom custom configuration screen udk azmfjyxm;ygonf/

kernel tm; rdrdvdktyfovdk jyKjyifNyD;ygu compile vkyfaomtcgwGif device rsm;


support rsm;udk built-in taeESifh xm;NyD; compile vkyfygu kernel \ s\t&G,fyrmPonf
tvGefBuD;rm;ayvdrfhrnf/ xdkYaMumifh device rsm;tvdkuf module cGJxm;NyD; compile
vkyfoifhonf/ kernel configuration tm; save vkyfNyD;ygu make dep command tm;
run &rnf [k system rS ajymygvdrfhrnf/ dep qdkonfrSm dependence jzpfonf/ make
dep tm; atmufygtwdkif; make vkyfEkdifonf/
70

make dep bzImage

xdkodkY &dkufoGif;ygu compile vkyfaeayvdrfhrnf/ tcsdeftenf;i,f Mumjrifhrnfjzpfygonf/


NyD;aemuf make modules install command jzifh modules rsm;udk install vkyfyg/
Linux wGif boot loader ESpfrsdK;yg&Sdonf/ Lilo ESifh grup jzpfonf/ tu,fí
topfzefwD;vdkufaom kernel image twGuf boot loader tm; od&Sdem;vnfap&ef
vdktyfygu boot loader configuration wGif oGm;a&mufjyKjyif&rnf/ atmufwGif Lilo \
configuration udk azmfjyxm;NyD; ¤if; configuration file onf /etc/ atmufwGif &Sdonf/

txufazmfjyyg ykHtwdkif; initrd onfvnf;aumif;? image onf /boot/vmlinuz-


2.4.20-8 [kwfr[kwfudk odem;vnfxm;oifhygonf/

Source Code Compilation


Linux\ source code wGif rpm, dpkg, tar, tgz ponfwdkYrS wqifh compilation
vkyfonfudk od&SdNyD; jzpfonf/ installation vkyf&mwGif windows rSmuJhodkY rnfonfh directory
atmufwGif install vkyfrnf udk nGTefjyEdkifonf/ odkYaomf standard tm;jzifh /opt
atmufwGif install vkyfonf/ tar format jzifh vmaom package wpfckudk jznfxkwfvdkygu
atmufygtwdkif; command &dkufoGif;&ygrnf/
tar -xvzf abc.tar.gz
71

xdkodkY&dkufoGif;vdkufygu /opt atmufwGif /abc/*.* taeESifh a&muf&SdoGm;rnf jzpfonf/


qufvufNyD; standard procedure tm; azmfjyygrnf/ source package wpfck &&Sdvmygu
yxrOD;pGm environment udk configure vkyfay;&ygrnf/ 'kwd,taeESifh compile vkyfjcif;
wenf;tm;jzifh make vkyfjcif; jzpfonf/ wwd,tqifhonf install vkyjf cif; jzpfonf/
pwkw¦taeESifh configuration jyKvkyfay;&rnf jzpfonf/ configure jyKvkyf&jcif;rSm package
rsm;onf machine independent jzifhvmMuonfjzpfaomaMumifh compiler trsdK;rsdK;? library
file trsdK;rsdK; jzifhwnfaqmufxm;Mujcif; jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh configure vkyf&jcif; jzpfonf/
Linux wGif ykHrSeftm;jzifh package wpfckpDwGif configure qdkaom file
wpfckyg&Sdwwfonf/ ¤if; file onf binary file(exe) jzpfonf/ ¤if; file tm; configure,
config, Config, Configure paom emrnfrsm; jzifhawGUEkdifrnf jzpfonf/ configure
vkyfaom command rSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf/

./ configure

./ onf ,ckvuf&Sd tvkyfvkyfaeaom directory atmufwGif configure vkyfrnf [k


ajymjcif; jzpfonf/ Configure vkyfNyD;ygu Makefile qdkaom file xJwGif variable rsm;udk
rSwfom;xm;rnf jzpfonf/ tu,fí Configure script rygvmvsif makefile udk
xnfhay;xm;rnf jzpfonf/ configure vkyf&jcif;rSm makefile xGufvmap&efjzpfonf/
Makefile xGufvmNyD qdkygu source file rsm;udk /abc/src/ atmufwGif awGYEdkifrnf
jzpfonf/ xdkYaemuf make command jzifh .o files rsm;xGufvmatmif jyKvkyf&ygrnf/
aemufwqifh onf install vkyfonfh tqifhjzpfaomaMumifh make install qdkaom
command jzifh install vkyfyg/ install vkyfNyD;ygu /usr/local/bin/ atmufodkY
a&muf&SdoGm;onfudk awGU&rnf/ tcsdKUonf /usr/local/etc/ atmufwGifvnf;
a&muf&SdoGm;wwfonf/
WEB base administration (webmin)
Linux wGif command line jzifhjyKvkyf&aom configuration rsm;udk GUI mode jzifh
configure vkyfEkdifonfh tjyif Linux beginner rsm;twGuf WEB base administration
jzpfaom webmin software onf vG,ful&Sif;vif;onfh WEB base configure program
wpfckjzpfonf/ webmin tm; install vkyfNyD;onfESifh wjydKifeuf webmin onf port 10000
(default) jzifh run onf/ xdkYaMumifh Internet explorer rS ¤if; webmin tm; zGifhí
configure vkyfEkdifonf/
72

E-Mail on Linux

Linux ay:wGif E-mail server wpfck jyKvkyf&mwGif a&S;OD;pGm Linux \ E-mail


aMumif;udk em;vnfxm;oifhayonf/ Linux wGif Mailreceive vkyf&mwGif iMAP odkYr[kwf
POP udk tokH;jyKNyD; Mail rsm;udk send vkyf&mwGif SMTP udk tokH;jyKonf/ E-Mail wdkif;wGif
mail wpfck vdk&modkY a&muf&SdvufcHEdkif&eftwGuf process wGif (3)qifh&Sdonf/
tvG,ftm;jzifh agent (3)OD;[kac:Muonf/ ¤if;wdkYrSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfMuonf/

MTA (Mail Transfer Agent)


Mail rsm; vdk&modkYa&mufatmif vTJajymif; owfrSwfay;onfh agent jzpfonf/ SMTP
uJhodkYaom service rsm;udk qdkvdkonf/

MDA (Mail Delivery Agent)


Mail rsm;udk vdk&modkYa&mufatmif ydkYaqmifay;onf/ user rsm;\ Mail box
rsm;xJodkY 0ifa&mufvmatmif jyKvkyfay;aom agent jzpfonf/ POP, iMAP
rsm;onf Mail Delivery agent rsm;jzpfonf/

MUA (Mail User Agent)


mail user agent qdkonfrSm user rsm;\ mail box twGif;wGif a&muf&Sdaeaom
mail rsm;tm; mail server rsm;xHrS download qGJ,laom mail client rsm;udk
qdkvdkonf/ OutLook Express uJhodkYaom software rsm;onf mail client software
rsm;jzpfMuonf/
txufazmfjyyg Mail agents rsm;wGif MTA onf tcsdKUtcsdefrsm;wGif MDA uJhodkY
vkyfaqmifay; wwfonf/ Mail transfer agent tcsif;csif; awGUqkHcsdwfqufrdNyD; mail rsm;
tvJtvS,f vkyfouJhodkYjzpfonf/ teD;pyfqkH; Oyrmay;&vsif pmydkYorm;ESpfOD; vrf;c&D;wGif
qkHrdMujcif; ESifh qifwlonf/
Linux wGif &Sdaom send mail onf complex jzpfNyD; prowerful jzpfaom software
jzpfaomaMumifh administration vkyf&mwGifvnf; cufcJonf/ send mail onf MTA ESifh
MDA ESpfrsdK;pvkH; pGrf;aqmifEdkifaomfvnf; configure vkyf&mwGif cufcJaom aMumifh
aemufydkif;wGif QMail ay:vmcJhonf/ send mail udk configure vkyf&mwGif
/etc/sendmail/ atmufwGif multipile configuration files rsm;awGUEdkifrnf jzpfonf/
xdk configuration files rsm;? uGJjym;ae&jcif;rSm domain name uGJNyD; user name wlvsif?
73

domain name uGJNyD; username rsm;yg uGJjym;jcm;em;vsif rnfodkYvkyfaqmif&rnf qdkaom


configuration rsm; yg0ifaomaMumifh jzpfonf/
Oyrm- a@abc.com
a@def.com
a@xyz.com
a onf user wpfckwnf; jzpfNyD; domain name (3)ckjzifh account (3)ck &Sdonfh user
jzpfonf/ xdktcgrsdK;wGif rnfonfh ae&mrS yifjzpfaom 0ifvmaom mail rsm;onf a \
mail box wpfckwnf;udk omydkY&ef configure vkyfxm;Edkifonf/
Oyrm- a@abc.com
b@abc.com
c@abc.com
[k domain name wpfckwnf; wlnDaomfvnf; user (3)OD; jzpfaevsif rnfodkY
vkyfaqmif&rnf qdkaom function rsm;twGuf configure vkyfay;Edkifonf/ E-Mail service
jyKvkyf&eftwGuf DNS configuration OD;pGmvkyf&rnf jzpfonf/ tu,fírdrdwGif DNS
configuration rjyKvkyf&ao;ygu odkYr[kwf DNS service tqifoifh rjzpfcJhygvsif
atmufygtwdkif; Host file wGifoGm;a&mufNyD; Edit vkyfay;&ygrnf/ odkYrSomvsif rdrdwGif
Domain Name wpfck ydkifqdkif&&Sdrnfjzpfonf/
vi /etc/hosts
xdk file wGif rdrdpuf IP address &dkufoGif;um rdrday;vdkaom domain name udk
&dkufoGif;&ygrnf/ xdkodkYjyKvkyfNyD;ygu wq command jzifhxGufNyD; send mail twGuf
configure vkyf&ygrnf/
vi /etc/mail/sendmail.cf
xdkodkY &dkufoGif;ygu vi Editor wGif send mail configuration file
ay:vmrnf jzpfonf/
xdkYaemuf atmufygtwdkif; &dkufoGif;vdkufygu SMTP daemon option udk
&SmawGUEdkifrnfjzpfonf/
/127.0.0.1
xdkpmaMumif;onf pmaMumif;a& 264 vdkif;ajrmufwGif rsm;aomtm;jzifhwnf&Sdaernf
jzpfonf/ xdkpmaMumif;tm; yy jzifh copy ul;,lNyD; p jzifh past vkyf&ygrnf/ NyD;aemuf copy
ul;xm;aom pmaMumif;\ 127.0.0.1 ae&mwGif rdrdpuf IP address udk &dkufoGif;&ygrnf/
wq jzifh save NyD;vsif service sendmail restart command jzifh sendmail service
74

udk pwif&ygrnf/ netstat -an | grep 25 jzifhMunfhrnf qdkygu sendmail


tvkyfvkyfaeaMumif; awGUEkdifrnf jzpfonf/
txufygtwdkif; Mail transfer agent twGuf configure vkyfNyD;ygu MDA twGuf
configure vkyf&OD;rnfjzpfonf/ vi /etc/xinetd.d/ipop3 command jzifh ipop3 file
udk configure vkyf&ygrnf/ vi editor wGif disable=no rS yes ajymif;vJay;ygu ipop3
service on oGm;rnfjzpfonf/ xdkYaemuf service xinetd restart command jzifh
service tm;vkH;udk restart vkyf&ygrnf/ NyD;aemuf netstat -an | grep 110
command jzifh Munfhrnf qdkygu MDA service onf port 110 wGif service ay;aeonfudk
awGUEdkifayvdrfhrnf/ xdkYaemuf MUA jzpfonfh mail client software jzifh mail tydkY^tzrf;
aqmif&GufEdkifNyD jzpfonf/

Linux support File System (NFS)


Linux wGif supportvkyfay;aom file system rSm NFS jzpfonf/ SUN rS
xkwfvkyfNyD; exportable jzpfaom file system jzpfonf/ exportable qdkonfrSm file system
tm; network ay:odkY export vkyfvkdufaomtcgwGif network ay:wGif xdk file onf
virtually available jzpfvmjcif;udk qdkvdkonf/ wenf;tm;jzifh ajym&aomf NFS qdkonfrSm
file share ay;jcif;jzpfonf/ NFS system pwif&eftwGuf atmufygtqifhrsm;twdkif;
aqmif&Guf&rnf jzpfonf/
vi /etc/exports
xdkodkY&dkufEdkyfaom tcgwGif pmwpfaMumif;rQr&Sdaom exports file udkawGUEdkifrnf jzpfonf/ vi
editor wGif rdrd share ay;vdkaom directory udk ae&mtwdtusay;&rnf/ xdkYtjyif
rdrday;vdkaom IP address udk &dkufoGif;&rnf/

Oyrm- /usr/local 192.168.0.200 (ro)


/home 192.168.0.30 (rwx)
xdkodkYay;vdkufygu share ay;NyD; jzpfayvdrfhrnf/ xdkYtjyif network group wpfckvkH;tm;
share ay;vdkygu atmufygtwdkif; &dkufoGif;&rnf/
/usr/local 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0 (ro)
(ro), (rw) ponfwdkYonf permission rsm;jzpfaMumif; od&SdEdkifonf/ xdkodkY share
ay;xm;aom share rsm;udk tokH;jyKvdkvsif smb oifcef;pmwGif windows rS share tm;
tokH;jyKonfhtwdkif; share tokH;jyKEdkifonf/
75

X Windows System
X windows system qdkonfrSm Unix tm; GUI support ay;Edkif&eftwGuf
wDxGifcJhjcif;jzpfNyD; truely client, server architecher jzifh tvkyfvkyfonf/ layer
wpfcktaeESifh yg&SdwmjzpfNyD; X version 11 release 5 wGif X free 86 project ESifhtwl
Linux twGuf support vkyfay;cJhonf/ layer wpfcktaeESifh wnf&SdaomaMumifh X windows
twGuf components rsm;yg&Sdonf/ ¤if;wdkYrSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf-
X server (or) display server
windows manager
Desktop Environment
X-client