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WIND TURBINE SAFETY

While few would contend that turbines are a major threat to public safety (most deaths and injuries are suffered by those transporting, erecting and maintaining turbines), the wind industry is marked by both a reluctance to admit to accidents and a tendency to cover up the failings of the technology.1 In 2011 RenewableUK admitted that there had been over 1,500 reported accidents/incidents in the UK in the previous five years, some of which resulted in deaths and serious injuries. There is no requirement for accidents which do not cause death or injury to be reported. A Minister recently confirmed that, Neither DECC, nor the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), collect specific data for wind turbine accidents. 2 Most accidents are not noticed unless damage is spotted by the public and the press report it. Examples of industry cover-ups abound. The wind industry always tries to play down the frequency of turbine accidents: for example, in Cornwall in 2006, Part of a wind turbine blade weighing more than half a ton snapped off and crashed into a field during high winds. Operators Cumbria Windfarms said the site has been running since April 1993 and nothing like this had happened there before. It had, as several locals pointed out: in 1993, a month after the turbine park opened, they had had a similar accident. Then we had a spokesperson for Scottish Power quoted as saying of a blade accident at Whitelee, This is a highly unusual situation. I've not heard of this kind of incident happening in 30 years. 3 This may fool some of the public, but, as is evident from this page, blade failures are fairly common and there were several instances just in the North East and Borders when only a handful of turbines were operating in the area. The Danes are rather more honest. The Technical Approval Authority at the Ris National Laboratory revealed in 2008 that they had recorded the collapse of 15 turbines in the previous three years.4 A Dutch company whose core business is blade repair admits that, Rotor blade lightning damage is a common problem..

SEND US YOUR BURNOUTS, WE ACCEPT TRADE-INS (Generator Manufacturer's Slogan)

Turbine fires are nearly as common as blade accidents, which is no great surprise when you consider that turbines have a combination of large volumes of lubricants, highly stressed bearings and electrical generating sets - brought together at the top of a very high lightning conductor. Modern turbines are too high for fire fighters to use ladder equipment. Unless firefighting helicopters are available, turbines are normally left to burn out, burning off large quantities of oil, plastics and other noxious materials in the process.

Road and Rail

The Highways Agency recognises the risks but fails entirely to recommend a separation distance which would protect road or rail users from a turbine accident: Consideration of the risks associated with structural failure and icing identifies the clear need to incorporate a safety margin in the offset between the trunk road boundary and the siting of a wind turbine. Therefore, it is appropriate to achieve a set-back from the nearest highway boundary equal in distance to their height + 10% for micro and small turbines. Commercial turbines should be set back a distance equal to their height + 50 metres. (Network Services, Spatial Planning Advice Note: SP 12/09, Planning applications for wind turbines sited near to trunk roads, 13). As is evident from accident reports on this page and academic studies of blade throw, large turbines can throw very large blades, or pieces thereof, weighing many tonnes, for hundreds of metres.
Noise

The industry routinely proposes building 100-140m turbines within 500m of housing although they are well aware of the noise problems with large turbines.

A STANDARD PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE

As a standard precautionary measure, all Infinis staff vacate wind farms when wind speeds exceed 55 mph and therefore no one was present on site at the time of the incident, (Press release from Infinis regarding the Ardrossen wind farm fire, 8 December 2011). That must be a comfort to neighbouring members of the public.

TWO FACES OF THE WIND INDUSTRY:


THE SPIN: Fancy a fun-filled family day out at your local wind farm this Bank Holiday Weekend?

This August Bank Holiday (27/28 August), on the last weekend before schools go back, families across the UK will be able to visit a working wind farm and touch a turbine as part of the first ever, simultaneous nationwide opening of wind farms and all for FREE. (BWEA Press release).
INDUSTRY WARNINGS:

Turbine operating manuals and site noticeboards tell a different story:

Vestas, Mechanical Operating and Maintenance Manual, V90 3.0 MW (29.06.2007).

Crystal Rig warning sign. 2008 Don Brownlow Photography. THE DTI REACTS

The BWEAs irresponsibility in encouraging thousands of children to touch electricity generators, and Powergens [now E.ON UK] equally notorious Hug a turbine TV advertising campaign, eventually caused such an outcry that the wind industrys friends at the DTI were forced to issue a warning: We would not normally advise any member of the public to make contact with installations being used for the supply of electricity, said a DTI spokesman. Though the risks to the public from wind turbines are minimal they are large industrial structures and it is sensible to take precautions. (Warning: don't hug a wind turbine, The Times, 28 May, 2006). Apparently PR trumps common sense. Wind power station operators continue to ignore safety advice from their own industry and the government: There was a range of childrens craft activities which included making wind chimes, wind socks and there was the opportunity to leave your hand print on one of the turbines [our emphasis]. (Duns nursery benefits from Black Hill wind farm cash, Berwickshire News, 9 June 2010. Article refers to wind industry open day event). Can you imagine the outcry there would be in parliament and the press if children were invited to leave handprints on electrical transformers?

WUTHERING HEIGHTS - THE DANGERS OF WIND POWER

Spiegel Online, August 20, 2007. Wind turbines continue to multiply the world over. But as they grow bigger and bigger, the number of dangerous accidents is climbing. How safe is wind energy? After the industry's recent boom years, wind power providers and experts are now concerned. The facilities may not be as reliable and durable as producers claim. Indeed, with thousands of mishaps, breakdowns and accidents having been reported in recent years, the difficulties seem to be mounting. Gearboxes hiding inside the casings perched on top of the towering masts have short shelf lives, often crapping out before even five years is up. In some cases, fractures form along the rotors, or even in the foundation, after only limited operation. Short circuits or overheated propellers have been known to cause fires. All this despite manufacturers' promises that the turbines would last at least 20 years. Gearboxes have already had to be replaced in large numbers, the German Insurance Association is now complaining. In addition to generators and gearboxes, rotor blades also often display defects, a report on the technical shortcomings of wind turbines claims. The insurance companies are complaining of problems ranging from those caused by improper storage to dangerous cracks and fractures. [...] Wind power expert Martin Stckl knows the problems all too well. The Bavarian travels some 80,000 kilometers (49,710 miles) across Germany every year, but he is only rarely able to help the wind farmers. It is not just the rotors that, due to enormous worldwide demand, take forever to deliver, but simple replacement parts are likewise nowhere to be found. You often have to wait 18 months for a new rotor mount, which means the turbine stands still for that long, says Stckl. Sales Top, Service Flop is the headline on a recent cover story which appeared in the industry journal Erneuerbare Energien. The story reports the disastrous results of a questionnaire passed out to members of the German WindEnergy Association asking them to rank manufacturers. Only Enercon, based in Germany, managed a ranking of good. The company produces wind turbines without gearboxes, eliminating one of the weakest links in the chain. Even among insurers, who raced into the new market in the 1990s, wind power is now considered a risky sector. Industry giant Allianz was faced with around a thousand damage claims in 2006 alone. Jan Pohl, who works for Allianz in Munich, has calculated that on average an operator has to expect damage to his facility every four years, not including malfunctions and uninsured breakdowns. Many insurance companies have learned their lessons and are now writing maintenance requirements -- requiring wind farmers to replace vulnerable components such as gearboxes

every five years -- directly into their contracts. But a gearbox replacement can cost up to 10 percent of the original construction price tag, enough to cut deep into anticipated profits. Indeed, many investors may be in for a nasty surprise. Between 3,000 and 4,000 older facilities are currently due for new insurance policies, says Holger Martsfeld, head of technical insurance at Germany's leading wind turbine insurer Gothaer. We know that many of these facilities have flaws.
Flaws And Dangers

And the technical hitches are not without their dangers. For example:

In December of last year, fragments of a broken rotor blade landed on a road shortly before rush hour traffic near the city of Trier. Two wind turbines caught fire near Osnabrck and in the Havelland region in January. The firefighters could only watch: Their ladders were not tall enough to reach the burning casings. The same month, a 70-meter (230-foot) tall wind turbine folded in half in SchleswigHolstein -- right next to a highway. The rotor blades of a wind turbine in Brandenburg ripped off at a height of 100 meters (328 feet). Fragments of the rotors stuck into a grain field near a road.

At the Allianz Technology Center (AZT) in Munich, the bits and pieces from wind turbine meltdowns are closely examined. The force that comes to bear on the rotors is much greater than originally expected, says AZT evaluator Erwin Bauer. Wind speed is simply not consistent enough, he points out. There are gusts and direction changes all the time, he says. But instead of working to create more efficient technology, many manufacturers have simply elected to build even larger rotor blades, Bauer adds. Large machines may have great capacity, but the strains they are subject to are even harder to control, he says. Even the technically basic concrete foundations are suffering from those strains. Vibrations and load changes cause fractures, water seeps into the cracks, and the rebar begins to rust. Repairs are difficult. You can't look inside concrete, says Marc Gutermann, a professor for experimental statics in Bremen. It's no use just closing the cracks from above. The engineering expert suspects construction errors are to blame. The facilities keep getting bigger, he says, but the diameter of the masts has to remain the same because otherwise they would be too big to transport on the roadways.
Not Sufficiently Resilient

Still the wind power business is focusing on replacing smaller facilities with ever larger ones. With all the best sites already taken, boosting size is one of the few ways left to boost output. On land at least. So far, there are no offshore wind parks in German waters, a situation that Minister Gabriel hopes to change. He wants offshore wind farms to produce a total of 25,000 megawatts by 2030. Perhaps by then, the lessons learned on land will ward off disaster at sea. Many constructors of such offshore facilities in other countries have run into difficulties. Danish company and

world market leader Vestas, for example, had to remove the turbines from an entire wind park along Denmark's western coast in 2004 because the turbines were not sufficiently resilient to withstand the local sea and weather conditions. Similar problems were encountered off the British coast in 2005. German wind turbine giant Enercon, for its part, considers the risks associated with offshore wind power generation too great, Enercon spokesman Andreas Dser says. While the growth potential is tempting, he says, the company does not want to lose its good standing on the high seas.

HORSES SPOOKED BY SMALL WIND TURBINE AT SHOW


The wind industry loudly disputes that turbines frighten horses. This view has been very publically disproved by incidents involving horses being scared by wind turbines, most recently at the Pembrokeshire County Show:
County Show riders express turbine concerns

Western Telegraph, 25 August, 2012. SEVERAL incidents involving horses being scared by wind turbines on display in the Pembrokeshire County Show ground have led organisers to re-think their tradestand layout for next year. Concerns were voiced by owners and riders after their horses reacted to the spinning of a small turbine on a stand near the shows collecting ring. Among them was Dave Scourfield, whose own equestrian establishment is set to be in the shadow of Pembrokeshires largest turbine on land near Ludchurch. His wife, Isobel, was riding through the walkway on her way to the ring when her horse was spooked by the turbine. She was thrown off, and he went galloping off into the lorry park, where he fell and cut his leg, said Mr Scourfield. This really proves the point that turbines and horses just dont mix. This accident could have been avoided if the show organisers had used a bit of common sense and not put the turbine so very close to the horse area. Sarah Whitfield of Penskyber Livery Yard, Letterston, was working a childs pony in the collecting ring when it span around, frightened by the turbines movement. I managed to stay on, but if a little child had been riding the pony, there could have been a nasty accident, she said. One of her four-year-old hunters also reared up and bucked when he caught sight of the turbine, she added. [...]

SPINNING TO DESTRUCTION

Photograph: Raoul Dixon/North News & Pictures

Wind power may be one of the cleaner, greener energy sources available, but turbine and blade failures point to dangers that were not anticipated, says Michael Connellan The Guardian, 4 September 2008 David Campbell and his family were asleep in their farmhouse in Northern Ireland when the 16-foot blade from the wind turbine crashed through the roof of his home one windy night in January last year. It was like a bomb hitting the roof, he told the Belfast Telegraph. It shattered the tiles and the blade disintegrated itself. Campbell was not the only person to see the direct effects of a turbine failure. Just over a year later, in February, a 200ft Vestas wind turbine near the Danish city of rhus disintegrated spectacularly in high winds when a blade came loose and smashed into the central tower, causing the whole structure to collapse. The incident was captured on video camera and footage has been viewed thousands of times on YouTube. Just two days later a turbine close to the town of Sidinge, in Denmark, sent a blade flying more than 300ft before it hit the ground. Keld Boye, a farmer whose land is near the structure, told Danish television: I drive my tractor and my wife rides horses out there. Just think if we'd been out there when it happened.

After Denmarks climate minister demanded an investigation, authorities found the blade loss was caused by a lack of maintenance: regular checks on bolts in the turbine had been neglected. The Danish government announced mandatory service checks for every one of the 5,000 wind turbines in the country.
Cracking up

Turbines in Britain - there are 2,000, almost all of which are onshore - arent immune from failure. A 200ft turbine at a wind farm in Kintyre collapsed last November in a 50mph wind. Following that, 26 wind turbines across Scotland were shut down as a precautionary measure while the broken structure was examined. Then the following month in Cumbria, a 100ft steel turbine crashed to the ground. Six months later, in June, as concerns over the incidents last year were receding, a blade cracked away from a 190ft turbine on a Sheffield University research park. Police evacuated the area while engineers allowed the 30ft blade to fall to the ground. The turbine was made by WES, a Dutch company. Earlier that month, the British government had published its renewable energy strategy - with plans to build around 4,000 new onshore wind turbines. [...]
60% OF TURBINES MAY BE BEHIND IN CRITICAL MAINTENANCE

Windtech International, Monday, 04 August 2008. Frontier Pro Services of Banning, California conducted an informal survey of approximately 75 wind farm operators in the United States. Designed to assess the specific operation and maintenance service needs of wind energy operators, the survey reveals potentially serious threats to wind farms owing largely to the industry-wide shortage of qualified turbine technicians. Many wind farm operations and maintenance teams are so resource constrained that they are barely able to keep up with the unscheduled maintenance repairs their wind turbines require to generate electricity. Even regular, scheduled preventative-maintenance like oil changes and gearbox lubrication (services that are often still under warranty) are falling behind as manufacturers face similar resource struggles related to the shortage of qualified technicians. Gearbox failures account for the largest amount of downtime, maintenance, and lose of power production. These costly failures can total 15-20% of the price of the turbine itself, making wind turbine and gearbox maintenance a high priority. If oil is not properly monitored and replaced as needed, bearing and gear wear will lead to more serious and costly damage to the drive train. When a US$ 1,500 bearing fails unnoticed, it can lead to production loss and revenue loss including an unscheduled replacement of a US$ 100,000 dollar gearbox and a unscheduled crane cost of up to US$ 70,000 to access the failed components.

ANOTHER TURBINE MYTH SHATTERED

The wind industry claim that it is only scare-mongering NIMBYs who say that ice throw from wind turbines can endanger the public.

Wind turbine's deadly ice shower

PeterboroughToday.co.uk, 2 December 2008 Residents were left fearing for their safety after shards of melting ice fell on homes and gardens from the blades of a giant wind turbine. For about four hours people in King's Dyke, Whittlesey, had to take cover as huge lumps some two feet long showered them from the 80 metre high tower on Saturday morning. Resident Peter Randall, whose son's house lies a stone's throw away from the turbine, said: "Somebody is going to get killed. There was huge lumps of ice shooting off and landing everywhere. No one wants to leave the house because they are frightened and worried about the ice falling. My son's partner is pregnant and she is now worried sick about her unborn baby. Freezing overnight temperatures had caused the ice to form and after frantic calls to Trurobased firm Cornwall Light and Power, which owns the turbine, the 2 million machine was eventually turned off. [...] (See BBC News video).

ICE THROW - SOME RESEARCH

A model of ice throw trajectories from wind turbines, Sumita Biswas, Peter Taylor & Jim Salmon, Article first published online: 17 Nov. 2011. Wind Energy, Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 889901, October 2012. - A model of the trajectories of ice fragments thrown from a rotating wind turbine blade is used to estimate the ground impact locations that could occur under different scenarios. Wind speed, ejection position on the blade and turbine rotation rate all play a role in determining the impact point, as well as mass, density and drag coefficient of the ice fragment. ... Although this may be a relatively rare event, we provide an example where a 1kg plate-like fragment could travel up to 350m from the base of the turbine. Ice Shedding and Ice Throw Risk and Mitigation, GE Energy, 2006. (PDF download). , rotating turbine blades may propel ice fragments some distance from the turbine up to several hundred meters if conditions are right.Falling ice may cause damage to structures and vehicles, and injury to site personnel and the general public, unless adequate measures are put in place for protection. Wind turbine ice throw studies in the Swiss Alps Stefan Kunz, Alain Heimo, Gabriela Russi, Markus Russi & Michael Tiefgraber. (PDF download), 2006. (Small turbines with heated blades, ice-throw to 94m).

LOCAL PROBLEMS
FARM TURBINE DAMAGED IN HIGH WINDS

Don Brownlow Photography A blade has failed on a 71m farm turbine at Low Horton, near Blyth.

Local people noticed on 18 April, 2013, that the twin-bladed, French Vergnet turbine had suffered serious blade damage. The whole structure was subsequently lowered for repairs.

WINGATES TRANSPORT PROBLEMS

Following on from the major problems caused by an overturned turbine transporter travelling to the Green Rigg site, local people were surprised that the transport of only six turbines to the Wingates site should again cause problems. They experienced delays and diversions when first a mobile crane skidded off the road, followed at a later date by a transporter vehicle getting stuck trying to negotiate a bend and hill.

MAJOR ROAD BLOCKED FOR 5 DAYS BY TURBINE TRANSPORTER CRASH

Questions have continued to be raised about safety, regulation and costs to the community of turbine transport since the A696 was closed for a week when a giant transporter carrying part of a wind turbine tower crashed off the road at Raylees, near Elsdon. The transporter was part of a convoy carrying turbine parts from Blyth to Green Rigg, near Ridsdale, where Wind Prospect are building 18 Vestas V80 turbines for French-owned EDF Energy. The transport route had been designated as the A68, but was changed by the delegated decision of a Northumberland County Council planning officer after a transporter had grounded on the southern section of the A68. The Chinese-made tower section is 45m long (147ft) and weighs 56 tonnes. It was eventually recovered on 31 May and returned, this time with a substantial police escort, to Blyth for inspection and repair. Local people continue to query the suitability of this route and why the crashed transporter apparently did not have a proper police escort. Meanwhile, businesses in Otterburn were left severely our of pocket, losing thousands of pounds from loss of trade. ------------------------Operation to move wind turbine from A696 at Otterburn, BBC News Video, 30 May, 2012. Otterburn traders to seek compensation from wind farm group, The Journal, 31 May, 2012. Otterburn A696 ditch wind turbine is finally moved, The Journal, 1 June, 2012. I wont pay my rates till losses are recouped, The Journal, 4 June, 2012.

COLDINGHAM TURBINE COLLAPSED

Don Brownlow Photography.

A 30m turbine near Coldingham was deliberately collapsed by its constructors, Maden Design and Build, after going out of control on Wednesday, 7 December, 2011. Lothian and Borders Police said the turbine suffered brake system failure and had been freewheeling in 50mph winds. Nearby houses had been evacuated and the A1107 shut. The turbine had only been operational for a short time. Simon Maden, MD of Maden Design and Build, said that they had only recently been alerted to the fact that Hannevind, the Swedish manufacturers of the turbine, had gone out of business.
Update

According to a letter from Maden Design to an SBC officer regarding an application for a replacement turbine, the client, has suffered a total loss as a result of the manufacturer ceasing trading (letter to SBC Officer, 6 March 2012). ------------------------Coldingham wind gusts see houses evacuated, BBC News, 8 December, 2011. Brake failure to blame for collapsing of wind turbine, Berwickshire News, 15 December, 2011.

TAXPAYER COULD PICK UP BILL FOR BROKEN TURBINES

Northumberland Gazette, 12 January, 2012.

in April 2005, less than a year after the turbines were commissioned, a 100m turbine at the Crystal Rig in the Lammermuir Hills experienced a catastrophic blade failure. The 38.8m (127 ft) blade, weighing over 7 tons, broke up at high speed in a gale, throwing debris for a considerable distance.

NISSAN TURBINE FIRE

Nissan turbine fire 23 December, 2005. ( Northern Echo.)

A HUGE wind turbine [actually only 51m] went up in smoke in a massive blaze seen for miles across Wearside. The 200ft structure at the Nissan factory, part of a 2.3million wind farm built in August, burst into flames just after 12.30pm yesterday. The fire was so fierce all three 75-ft long fibreglass blades eventually dropped off and thick black smoke could be seen for miles around. Almost 200 people dialled 999 to alert emergency crews as flames engulfed the turbine. Police closed both the A1231 and the A19 for an hour-and-a-quarter amid worries that parts of the metal tower could fall on to the busy roads. (Read the full story: Northern Echo, 23 December, 2005)

BLYTH TURBINES NOT WORKING FOR NEARLY THREE YEARS

The two Blyth offshore turbines, after an early blade failure and cable fault, were out of service from April 2006 until January 2009 due to damage to a power cable on the seabed.

(Armour plan to save wind farm, The Journal, 5 July 2007).

WANSBECK HOSPITAL TURBINE FAILS

A Freedom of Information request by Windbyte in 2009 regarding output figures revealed that the landmark Wansbeck Hospital wind turbine at Ashington, Northumberland, had not been working since 2007. The small (33m) Vestas turbine in the hospital car park, which was commissioned in 1992, was shut down after a blade began to come apart. This is a fairly common problem, even with newer 125m-plus wind turbines. A statement from Northumbria Health Care Trust said that: We have commissioned an external report which will look into the feasability of repairing and re-commissioning the turbine or, if not practical, the alternative uses which the turbine may be put. The trust could not reveal how much the turbine cost, as it was included in the hospitals original capital costs. The turbine has averaged 14.3% of its headline capacity of 0.1MW since it was commissioned. The British Wind Energy Association has long claimed that, Over the course of a year, it [a modern wind turbine] will typically generate about 30% of the theoretical maximum output.. (Wansbeck General wind turbine produces no power for two years, The Journal, 5 November 2009).

Update:

Northumbria Health Care Trust have announced that the turbine cant be economically repaired and will be removed.

KIRKHEATON TURBINES AT A STANDSTILL FOR NEARLY TWO YEARS

Two of the three 66.5m turbines at Kirkheaton, which were put up less than 10 years ago, have not operated since Autumn 2008 due to blade faults on two of the turbines. The turbines were supposed to be removed if they did not operate for six months or longer, but EDF, the French operating company, has been granted a second 12 month variation on the planning conditions by Northumberland County Council. (Faulty Northumberland wind turbines could be taken down, The Journal, 23 June 2009).

EXAMPLES OF OTHER UK ACCIDENTS


Wind turbine blades 17 metres long ripped off in high winds

Halifax Courier, 8 May, 2013. Walkers had a narrow escape as blades on a wind turbine ripped off in high winds across common moor land. The 17m turbine blades split and scattered across Ovenden Moor Wind Farm, Cold Edge Road, Wainstalls, Halifax. Walkers and local residents were stunned at what could have been a nasty accident and fear for further blade breakages. [...]

Wind blade wrecked by lightning strike

Cornish Guardian, 6 February, 2013

The blade of a wind turbine on the edge of Bodmin Moor was being replaced this week after being shattered by a lightning strike [5 weeks previously]. The turbine was one of two which provides power for the Cornish Natural Spring Water Company which produces five million bottles of water a year from an underground lake at Treboy Farm, St Clether, and sells all over the country. [...] It has also emerged that one of two 17m (55ft) 11kW Gaia turbines installed at Winsdon Farm, North Petherwin the family farm of Liberal Democrat Cornwall councillor Adam Paynter was badly damaged during the recent bad weather. [...]

INQUIRY AFTER SECOND WIND TURBINE TOPPLES IN WEST COUNTRY

Western Morning News, 1 February, 2013. Safety concerns have been raised over wind turbines and a fresh investigation has now been launched after a second tower was said to have been toppled during high winds in Cornwall. [...]

BLADES SNAP OFF BRUSSELTON WIND TURBINE

Northern Echo, 29 January, 2013 BLADES from an 18m high wind turbine have snapped off after a night of heavy rain and winds. The turbine in a field near Bishop Auckland was built last year after planning permission was granted in November, 2011. The 18m high turbine, which had a blade diameter of 16m, was in a field between Brusselton Lane and the A68 at Brusselton near West Auckland. [...]

A COMPLICATION HAS OCCURRED

Phil Ashmore, This is North Devon. 35-metre wind turbine collapses in Bradworthy

This is North Devon, 29 January, 2013. A 35-metre turbine has collapsed near Holsworthy leaving the tower lying on the ground. The turbine at East Ash Farm in Bradworthy was erected in 2010 by Dulas Ltd. Dulas has confirmed this morning that a complication has occurred with the turbine and the situation is currently being investigated. They did not want to comment further. The Endurance Wind Power E-3120 turbine, which was the first model of its kind to be erected in the country, has a five year warranty. [...] ------------------------Comment

Another Endurance E-3120 turbine suffered a catastrophic collapse at Wattlesborough, near Shrewsbury, Shropshire, on 19 January last year (2012). See below.

NORDEX UK FINED AFTER EARLSBURN WIND FARM DEATH

BBC News, 15 June 2012 A wind turbine manufacturer has been fined 26,000 after admitting health and safety failings at a site where a teenage worker fell 100ft to his death. Basilio Brazao, 19, from Brazil, died instantly when he fell down the shaft of a wind turbine at the Earlsburn wind farm near Fintry, Stirlingshire. [...]

DESIGN SNAG CAUSES WIND TURBINE SHUTDOWN

BBC News, 6 June 2012. The owners of a French-made wind turbine have been advised to keep people away from them after bits started falling off. The Northern Ireland Health and Safety Executive gave the warning and advised the 17 owners to lower the turbines the ground. The warning came after the blade assembly fell off several machines. [...]

WIND TURBINES AT HIGHLAND SCHOOLS SWITCHED OFF AMID SAFETY FEARS FOR KIDS

Highland News, 9 May, 2012. WIND turbines beside Highland schools - including Holm primary and Culloden Academy - are being switched off today amid safety fears about the possible threat to children. The switch off comes after a turbine collapsed forcing the closure of one Highland School and concerns were voiced about the lack of fencing around the turbines to protect the kids in event of a malfunction. [...]

The initial feedback from a review by the Building Research Establishment, has now prompted the councils move to shut off the turbines which are sited in, or near to Highland schools. [...]

SHROPSHIRE TURBINE COLLAPSES

It is reported that a 32.4m (112.2 ft) Endurance E-3120 turbine suffered a catastrophic collapse at Wattlesborough near Shrewsbury, Shropshire on 19 January, 2012. The controversial turbine had only recently been commissioned. ------------------------See: More trouble with wind turbines, Shropshire Star, 20 January, 2012.

ENGINEERS INVESTIGATE WELSH TURBINE FAILURE

It is reported that engineers are investigating the cause of the catastrophic failure of one of 103 Mitsubishi turbines at Penrhyddlan & Llidiartywaun (P&L) Wind Farm, near Llandinam, in December. * ------------------------* Shropshire Star, 13 January, 2012.

WIND TURBINES RIPPED APART BY GALE FORCE WINDS IN HUDDERSFIELD

Huddersfield Daily Examiner, 6 January, 2012. Huge turbine blades flew off three windmills as high winds lashed Huddersfield. There were problems at Hepworth and at two farms in Upper Cumberworth. But the Brighouse firm who made the damaged turbines has promised a full investigation. A fourth windmill, in Holmfirth, has also been damaged in the gales of the past few days. Concerned villagers in Hepworth warned: Someone could have been killed, after one of the blades was flung across a road. Ryan Gill, of Brighouse-based manufacturers Evoco, told the Examiner it is not yet clear why the turbine malfunctioned and investigations are under way.

Stuart McMahon

A turbine in a turbine park operated by Infinis near Ardrossan, North Ayrshire, caught fire and burnt out on 8 December, 2011. The turbines were not generating at the time due to gale force winds.
A STANDARD PRECAUTIONARY MEASURE As a standard precautionary measure, all Infinis staff vacate wind farms when wind speeds exceed 55 mph and therefore no one was present on site at the time of the incident, (Press release from Infinis).

One wonders why Infinis evacuate their staff but not the public.

ULTIMATE WIND POWER DESTROYS TURBINE AT SCAPEGOAT HILL

Huddersfield Daily Examiner, 1 December, 2011.

A wind turbine came crashing down as high winds and burst of torrential rain swept across Huddersfield. The turbine was one of two that had been put up on fields off Halifax Road at Scapegoat Hill earlier this year. [...]

ECO-FRIENDLY SCHOOL LEFT OUT OF POCKET AFTER UNPROVEN WIND TURBINE BREAKS The Telegraph, 5 October 2011. An eco-friendly school has been left 55,000 out of pocket after its wind turbine broke with governors admitting that it was based on completely unproven technology. The company that installed the turbine has gone bust leaving the school with a pile of scrap. The Gorran School in Cornwall revealed its 15 metre turbine in 2008 which was designed to provide it with free electricity - and sell any surplus power to the National Grid. The system was seen as a green blueprint for clean, sustainable energy for schools nationwide and received grants from various bodies including the EDF power firm. But soon after being installed the wind turbine became faulty and after a few months seized up - showering the school's playing field with debris. Since then the school has been locked in a battle with suppliers Proven Energy which has now gone into administration leaving the school with little hope of any money being returned - and a pile of scrap in their field.

[...]

NEW SPIN FOR A.M.R.C.s FAILED WIND TURBINE PROJECT The Sheffield Star, 6 October, 2011 Two wind turbines on South Yorkshires Advanced Manufacturing Park [!] are to be demolished after being mothballed for around two years, because the blades fell off one of them. [...]

TURBINE IN A FLAP AFTER SECOND SAFETY FAILURE Western Daily Press, 23 September, 2011. A council-owned wind turbine in Yeovil has been taken down for a second time amid concerns about its safety. The future of the turbine is now uncertain after the company which supplied it went in to administration. Technicians took down the turbine at Yeovil Innovation Centre in Copse Road after manufacturer Proven Energy warned of a defect. Three turbines of the same P35-2 type have suffered failures in high winds in recent months. [...] It is the second time the turbine has been dismantled. The propeller was removed for six months in November 2009 after problems developed on a turbine of the same design elsewhere in the UK. [...]

PROVEN TURBINES FAIL Proven Energy, the Scottish manufacturer of smaller turbines used by farmers, has been put into receivership following the discovery of acute technical problems with i ts flagship P35-2 turbine.

Owners of over 600 turbines have been told to shut them down due to the risk of catastrophic mechanical failure. ------------------------Wind turbine firm closes as blade hazard is found, Herald, Scotland, 17 September 2011.

SIX-FOOT BLADE FLIES OFF NEW LISTER TURBINE The Comet, 6 September, 2011. A blade from a wind turbine on the roof of the new Lister Hospital car park flew off in high winds last night (Monday) hitting a car. The six-foot blade, part of a turbine that only became fully operational last week, hit a staff members car, damaging its roof. [...]

FIRE AT WELSH TURBINE PARK Daily Post, North Wales, 27 October, 2010. Fire crews were called to a wind turbine blaze at Tir Mostyn/Foel Goch windfarm near Nantglyn, Denbighshire. The fire started in one of the 25 turbines at the site near Llyn Brenig. A fire crew from Denbigh were on standby at the site for around two hours.

WIND TURBINE ON PORTLAND BLOWN OVER BY GALES Dorset Echo, 16th July 2010. A WIND turbine at the Sailing academy has been blown down by the wind. The turbine in the academys car park was levelled in the early hours of yesterday as the Portland coastline was lashed by winds of up to 55 miles per hour. [...]

WIND FARM SHUT DOWN OVER SAFETY FEARS AFTER 150FT TURBINE BLADE FALLS OFF Daily Record, Mar 23 2010

Daily Record image. EUROPES largest wind farm ground to a halt after a 150ft blade snapped off one of the turbines. All 140 of the giant machines were immediately shut down at the 300million development near Glasgow until they could be inspected. Engineers at Whitelee wind farm, which is run by ScottishPower Renewables, were trying to work out why the blade came crashing down. [...] German company Siemens, who supplied the turbines, are also understood to be investigating. The 360ft turbines are so massive that engineers have been able to climb inside them to try to detect the problem. Over the weekend, the site at Eaglesham Moor, 13 miles from Glasgow city centre, was cordoned off to keep visitors away. Raymond Toms, 45, a teacher from East Kilbride, spotted the broken turbine as he cycled past on Sunday. He said: I was out for a bike ride and I saw one of the massive blades had broken clean off. It was quite unnerving really. You can walk right up to these things normally and touch them.

[...]

SCHOOL WIND TURBINE COLLAPSES AND CRUSHES CONTRACTORS VAN (NORFOLK) Daily Mail 2 December 2009. A wind turbine collapsed just yards away from stunned students as it was being set up on a school field yesterday. The playing field at Fakenham High School, Norfolk, was evacuated after the 40ft turbine fell, crushing the bonnet of a contractor's van. [...]

WIND BLADES FELL IN SCHOOL YARD (SCOTLAND) Raasay children sent home after 50ft turbine collapsed Press and Journal. 21 November, 2009. Children at an island primary were sent home after a newly-installed wind turbine next to their school collapsed, it emerged yesterday. Parents of youngsters at the 18-pupil Raasay Primary School were asked to collect their children following the incident on November 13. The 50ft turbine will remain out of commission until an investigation has been carried out. The 6KW machine was installed at the school earlier this month, but was soon the subject of complaints due to the noise it was making. The turbine then collapsed, landing in the schools playground, although no one was hurt. A Highland Council spokesman confirmed that a meeting was held between representatives from the authority and school staff yesterday. He said an independent appraisal of the turbine would now be carried out and that the blades would be removed within the next few days. [...]

TURBINE BLADE BREAKS TWICE IN 15 MONTHS The Telegraph, 10 Oct 2009. A blade on a wind turbine in Sheffield has broken in strong winds for the second time in 15 months. Manufacturers of the 190ft high turbine, one of three owned by Sheffield University, are now investigating the damage at the site close to the citys Parkway link road to the M1. [...]

BOLTS NOT UFOS!

Failed Conisholme turbine, Telegraph.co.uk Dale Vince of Ecotricity has been assiduous in spreading the silly story that the turbines which suffered catastrophic blade failure at his Conisholme power station might have been struck by a UFO or some other mysterious external agent: It was Mr Vince's willingness to consider paranormal explanations that drew attention to the UFO theories, and he told the Telegraph he was disappointed by the results [of the tests]. As most sensible people with any knowledge of the wind industry know, it is never UFOs, little green men or sabotage by low-flying NIMBYs on broomsticks which are responsible for the frequent failure of turbine blades. It is the more mundane story of poor design,

defective construction, material failure, lightning strike or poor maintenance (or permutate any combination). The usual consequences are loss or break up of blades, sometimes resulting in the catastrophic collapse of the entire structure as blades impact on the tower. Unsurprisingly, Enercon, the manufacturers of the Conisholme turbines, have now discovered that the bolts attaching a blade failed. This is of little comfort to people who live close to massive turbines with 40 to 50m long blades that weigh 8 to 12 tonnes (61.5m blades now being built weigh nearly 18 tonnes). Broken blades, or pieces thereof, have travelled hundreds of metres in previous blade failures. (See:UFO wind turbine broke due to mechanical failure not collision with flying object, The Telegraph, 10 Feb 2009. Are UFO's to blame for the chaos at Conisholme wind farm?, Louth Leader, 5 January 2009).

FARMHOUSE HORROR AS TURBINE BLADE SMASHES THROUGH ROOF Belfast Telegraph, 18 June 2008. A farmer has described the shocking moment a 16-foot wind turbine blade smashed through the roof of his home as his family slept inside. It was like a bomb hitting the roof of the house. It shattered the tiles and the blade disintegrated itself, David Campbell told the Belfast Telegraph. The turbine was one of a batch of 11 defective machines installed on farms in Northern Ireland with the help of European funding provided by the Department of Agriculture. [...]

WIND DOWN Lowestoft Journal, 28 March, 2008. Owners of the UK's tallest mainland wind turbine have admitted that it was unable to generate electricity for nearly five months after two lightning strikes.

LIGHTNING SHATTERS TURBINE Cumberland News & Star, 27 June 2006. The blade of a wind turbine disintegrated and fell 200ft after being struck by lightning near Workington. Police cordoned off the area after the incident amid fears that more debris could fall from the turbine at Oldside. A member of the public, who witnessed the spectacular lightning strike earlier this month, alerted police. Sgt Peter Garforth said: The blade was made of fibre glass. If anyone had been underneath it, they could have been sliced into pieces." [...]

OTHER COUNTRIES
Fourth blaze hits Siemens in Jutland (Denmark) Recharge News, 3 June 2013 Siemens Wind Power has been hit by yet another fire in Jutland, Denmark this time at its plant in Engesvang. Saturday afternoons blaze was the fourth at Siemens wind operations in Jutland this year. [...]

Some Siemens turbines to slow (Kansas, USA) Hutchinson News, 3 June, 2013 Siemens Energy officials ordered wind turbines using its B53 rotor blade - manufactured at its Fort Madison, Iowa, plant - to run at significantly reduced speeds while the company works to determine what caused two blades to fall from turbines at two wind farms in recent weeks. [...] The latest incident was on a turbine at Pattern Energys recently completed 94-turbine Ocotillo Wind Project in California, about 75 miles east of San Diego, which came online in December. The 10-ton blade on a Kansas-made SWT-2.3-108 wind turbine broke off May 16 near the blade root, where the blade attaches to the nacelle, and fell some 240 feet to the ground in the middle of the night. A blade on the same model of turbine broke off at MidAmerican Energys 200MW Eclipse wind farm in Iowa on April 5. [...]

Wind turbine reportedly struck by lightning (Minnesota, USA) Austin Daily Herald, 22 May, 2013

Austin Daily Herald Its quite clear to any observer that one wind turbine near Dexter doesnt look like its supposed to. Wind farm technicians and officials with EDF Renewable Energy believe one wind tower, just northeast of Dexter, was struck by lightning on April 24, which mangled one of the structures 37-meter, 14,000-pound blades. The blade is nearly bent in half but still attached to the structure, hundreds of feet in the air. [...]

Siemens Blade Crashes At Ocotillo Wind Farm (USA) North American Windpower, 16 May 2013. NAW has learned that a blade belonging to a Siemens SWT-2.3-108 wind turbine came crashing to the ground at the 265 MW Ocotillo Wind Farm in the early morning hours of May 16. No one was injured. A spokesperson from Pattern Energy, which owns and operates Ocotillo, corroborated the incident. Calls to Siemens were not returned at press time. Local resident Jim Pelley, who happened on the scene, says it appears the blade snapped at the base of the rotor. He says local wind conditions at the time of the accident were well

within what is considered customary for wind speeds in the area. Citing an online source, Pelley says the largest wind gust recorded that morning reached 29 mph. [...]

NORWEGIAN PROJECT HIT BY SCANWIND TURBINE WRITE-OFF Wind Power Monthly, 30 April 2013. NORWAY: NTE, a Norwegian small regional energy company, has revealed severe problems with all 13 ScanWind turbines installed at its Hundhammerfjellet R&D onshore project. A Norwegian source told WPM the issue is in connection with the yaw bearings. A notice released by the Oslo stock exchange on 22 April said all of the turbines have been taken out of service until the facts have been clarified. Any repairs will likely involve significant costs. As a result, the value of Hundhammerfjellet Research Park was written down by a further NOK 191 million (EUR 25 million) in 2012 and all ScanWind turbines are valued at zero, NTE reported. [...]

FIRE THAT DESTROYED $4 MILLION WIND TURBINE RAISES SERIOUS QUESTIONS OVER LACK OF REPORTING REQUIREMENTS (USA) Wind company fails to call fire department, lets blaze burn overnight East County Magazine, San Diego County, California. April 27, 2013 (San Diegos East County)Why is there no federal requirement for wind farm operators to report fires? That troubling fact came to light following a turbine malfunction that caused a fire, destroying a $4 million wind turbine at the Kibby Mountain facility in Maine. Opponents accuse Trans-Canada of a cover up, the Bangor Daily News reports. (Trans-Canada, builder of the project, is also the company seeking to construct the controversial Keystone Pipeline.) A sensor in the turbine detected the fire. But an employee did not arrive on scene until the next morning, after the fire had burned itself out. The fire department was never notified, nor was any state agency. Had the blaze not occurred in winter with snow on the ground, the fire could have spread to the adjacent forest, a Maine forestry official has stated.

ECM has asked Cal-Fire in an e-mail whether wind facility operators are required to report fires to fire officials. No response has been received. The turbines were made by Vestas. The companys turbines have previously been involved in fires elsewhere, including an April 2013 fire in Ontario, Canada, a March 30, 2012 fire in Germany a June 2012 fire in Spain, and a 2011 fire in Scotland in which a turbine ignited in high winds. The wind industry claims wind turbine fires are rare. But the facts suggest otherwise. Vestas is not the only manufacturer plagued with fires linked to equipment failures. Hundreds of fires have occurred, and likely more, since there is no reporting requirement in many locations. Two brush fires in California in July 2012 were caused by wind turbines. A wind turbine fire in Riverside caused a wildfire that burned 367 acres; nearby residents in a box canyon narrowly escaped disaster. Also last summer, a wind turbine sparked a grass fire in Tehachapi. The website Turbines on Fire observes that you only have to look at insurers reports to get a better understanding of accident rates and insurance claims made by wind energy developers to get a truer account of the health and safety aspect of turbines. According to the IMIA Insurance of Wind Turbines report, a report that was compiled based on 15 years of the Wind Energy industry in Danish markets; Mechanical faults (blade failure and other faults) accounted for 40% of claims, Lightning accounted for 20% of claims, Fire accounted for 7% of claims, Storm accounted for 4% of claims, Liability for 0.5% of claims, and Others (LOP, short circuit, etc.) accounted for 28.5% of claims. In December 2011 the Daily Telegraph reported that RenewableUK confirmed that there had been 1500 wind turbine accidents and incidents in the UK alone in the past 5 years. [...]

WIND TURBINE BLADE SNAPS OFF IN IOWA (USA) KBZK.com, Bozeman, Montana, 9 April, 2013. Something big is missing at the Eclipse Wind farm in Adair, Iowa - a gigantic wind turbine blade broke loose and crashed into a field. On Friday, a technician discovered one of the blades - which are almost the size of a football field - on the ground instead of in the air. Siemens Energy, the turbine manufacturer, is now leading a full investigation into the unusual incident. [...]

VESTAS V80 DESTROYED BY FIRE IN ONTARIO (Canada) Wind Power Monthly, 3 April 2013 CANADA: An investigation is under way at a 40MW project in Ontario after one of its Vestas V80 1.8MW turbines caught fire. The fire was at the Kingsbridge project, near Goderich, which was built in 2005. It is owned by utility Capital Power. Images of the incident show the nacelle was completely burnt out. In 2011, a 2MW V80 caught fire in high winds at the Ardrossan wind farm in Ayrshire, Scotland. The incident occurred as the northern half of the UK faced winds of up to 165 miles per hour. Last year Vestas was hit by a number of fires in its turbines. In April, the nacelle of a V112 3MW turbine caught fire in Germany, while in June a V90 in Spain suffered a similar fate. [...]

HUGE WIND TURBINE BLOWN DOWN NEAR ARDARA (Donegal, Eire)

Donegal News

Donegal News, 24 March 2013 A TECHNICAL examination is to resume this morning (Monday) after a huge 245-foot high [Vestas V52] wind turbine came crashing down during heavy winds near Ardara at the weekend. Dramatic pictures taken in the aftermath of Thursday evenings incident on the windfarm at Loughderryduff, near Mass, Portnoo show the main stem lying flat on the ground and debris spread over a wide area. The turbine, which has a lifespan of around 25 years, fell just four years after being erected in the eight-unit development. [...]

FRENCH TURBINE FIRE

2013 L'Union (EUVY, Marne, 17 March 2013). It is reported that one of seven large large industrial turbines near Fre-Champenoise burnt for 15 hours after what is thought to be an electrical fault set fire to the structure.

HUGE WIND FARM TURBINE SNAPS IN JAPAN Business Recorder, 15 March, 2013 TOKYO: A 38-tonne wind turbine crashed 50 metres (165 feet) to the ground in western Japan after the steel column supporting it snapped, officials have said. The massive Dutch-made turbine, which sat atop a Japanese-made steel column, was part of a wind farm in mountains near Kyoto, and it had been installed in 2001 with an expected life of at least 17 years. [...]

GAMESA DENIES BLADE RESPONSIBILITY (USA) REcharge News, 9 January, 2013. Spanish wind turbine maker Gamesa has denied any knowledge of or responsibility for a rotor blade that snapped off one of its 2MW G87 machines at the Allegheny Ridge wind farm in Pennsylvania over the weekend. ------------------------Previous blade accident

This is not the first accident at this facility: there was a turbine fire in 2012 and in 2007, shortly after the park opened, 7 turbine blades failed with pieces being thrown over 500 feet. The accident was blamed on manufacturing faults. See BAD GLUING BLAMED FOR MISHAPS AT WIND FARM, below. [...]

TURBINE DAMAGE RAISES CONCERNS FOR LIVINGSTON COUNTY WIND FARM (USA) The Times (Ottawa, Illinois), 4 December, 2012. In light of recent turbine damage in Vermillion and Champaign counties, Livingston County officials have raised concerns regarding the wind farm in their county. Last week, a blade broke from one of the 134 turbines in a recently built California Ridge Wind Farm in Vermillion and Champaign counties. The turbine is near Route 49 and Vermillion County Road 2700 North, a few miles southwest of Potomac and south of Armstrong.

[...] This was the second turbine blade to break at wind farms in East Central Illinois this year. In June, the blade of a turbine at the Settlers Trail Wind Farm near Sheldon in Iroquois County broke. [...] More than 10 percent of the blades had to be replaced within the first year of operation. The industries are aware of problems with the blades, noted Judy Campbell, a Livingston County Board member. It doesnt become significant when counties are negotiating with the companies until damage occurs. When you hear of damage like this, it raises issues for workers safety. Is it safe to farm under them? Campbell noted that each blade weighs 6,000 pounds. [...]

FATAL WIND FARM ACCIDENT IN GERMANY Vertikal.net, December 4, 2012. A fatal wind farm incident happened yesterday morning at 10am on a site in Mannhagen, northern Germany. The operator of the Felbermayr owned Liebherr crawler crane was killed when a blade dropped onto the cab during the installation of Vestas turbines. [...]

TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM HAWAIIAN STORAGE FACILITY: Kahuku wind farm fire spreads concerns over future projects Hawaii News Now, 4 August, 2012. The fire at the Kahuku wind farm is contained but environmental concerns within the community have spread including to the North Shore where First Wind is building another wind farm. There are eight turbines already up on Kawailoa Ridge about five miles from Haleiwa. Eventually there will be 30 and some residents are concerned what happened in Kahuku could happen here. Aerial shots over the Kahuku wind farm show the warehouse that was filled with 12,000 battery packs severely damaged and releasing toxic smoke and lead into the air. Authorities

say the nearest residences downwind were miles away and it's very unlikely to pose a health risk. First Wind is supposed to submit a cleanup plan to the state by the end of the day which will include samples of the air, soil and water. The State Department of Health will review the plan and decide if it's sufficient or if the state should do its own tests. This was the third fire related incident at the Kahuku wind farm since it opened in March 2011. The battery energy storage system was hailed as breakthrough technology but clearly there are flaws. [...]

CAL FIRE: WIND TURBINE GENERATOR CAUSED WILDLAND FIRE THAT CHARRED 367 ACRES (USA) East County Magazine, 31 July, 2012. July 31, 2012 (San Diegos East County) With County Supervisors poised to consider approval of Tule Wind and a wind ordinance that could open much of fire-prone East County to wind energy development, a wildland fire that started at a wind turbine facility in Riverside County last month provides fuel for opponents concerned about fire risks posed by industrialscale wind projects. The fire started with the windmill itself, Captain Greg Ewing with Cal Fire/Riverside Fire Department informed ECM today. Despite extensive area cleared around the base of each turbine, Ewing said, the blaze still spread into a wildland fire that swiftly engulfed 367 acres. If not for prompt reporting by a witness, it could have been far worse. [...]

BLADE SNAPS OFF WINDMILL (Austria) Austrian Independent, 20 June, 2012. An Austrian wind farm had to be closed after a blade snapped off one of the wind turbines, and fell over 100 metres to the ground. According to Austrian power the reason was a production fault and not because of a lightning strike as had previously been feared. [...]

FIRE IN VESTAS TURBINE (Spain) Windpower Monthly, 8 June, 2012. SPAIN: A second Vestas turbine in as many months has caught on fire, it has emerged. Only shortly after tackling a nacelle fire on one of its V112-3.0MW turbines in Germany in April, the Danish manufacturer has had to contend with another fire, this time on one of its V90-2MW machines in Spain.

France 3 BLADE SNAPS OFF REPOWER 2MW MOTORWAY TURBINE (France) Windpower Monthly, 24 May, 2012 FRANCE: A 46-metre blade has fallen off a Repower 2MW turbine at a project alongside the A10 motorway in France. [...] --------------------------Within 400m of motorway, see EPAW.

MASSIVE WIND TURBINE DAMAGED (USA) WANE.com, 25 Apr 2012. A wind turbine in Paulding County, Ohio has been badly damaged.

According to a spokesman with EDP Renewables, the [Vestas] turbine, which is located near Payne, had two of its blades sheared early Tuesday afternoon. [...]

NEW VESTAS MODEL ON FIRE (Germany) Vestas, 30 March, 2012 Vestas have issued a statement regarding a giant new Vestas V112 3.0MW turbine which caught fire today (30 March, 2012) at the Gross Eilstorf wind farm in Lower Saxony, Germany. The cause of the blaze, which is burning out under controlled conditions, hasnt been determined, the company said in a statement. With hub heights of 84, 94 or 119 metres no conventional fire equipment can be used. Vestas offer an optional extra of a Fire extinguishing system in nacelle. The V112 uses massive new 54.6m blades; a prototype V112 suffered a blade failure during testing in September, 2010 (see below).

Update: ONE DEAD, ONE MISSING AFTER CHINA TURBINE BLAZE Recharge News, 23 February, 2012. An engineer has died and another classed as missing after a wind turbine made by Chinas CSR caught fire in Inner Mongolia, according to local reports. [...]

HURRICANES SEEN AS THREAT TO WIND FARMS(USA) UPI, 13 February, 2012. Researchers say offshore wind farms planned for the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico face severe risks from hurricanes that could destroy half of them. [...]

Scientists at Carnegie Mellon University have modeled the risk hurricanes might pose to turbines at four proposed wind farm sites and found that nearly half of the planned turbines are likely to be destroyed over the 20-year life of the farms. [...]

ALLEGHENY WIND FARM FIRE (USA) Firefighters and equipment from 4 fire stations turned out when a 300 ft turbine caught fire at Allegheny Wind Farm on 7 February, 2012. All they could do was form a perimeter and monitor the area for fires caused by burning debris. The turbine eventually burnt out. ------------------------Blue Knob Firefighters respond to Wind mill fire, First Responder Broadcast Network, 7 february, 2012.

WIND TURBINE CATCHES ON FIRE (USA) WCAX News, 29 January, 2012. Authorities are investigating what caused a wind turbine to catch fire in Northern New York. It happened Saturday night in Altona. Officials say people driving by the windfarm noticed the fire in one of the 400 foot turbines. Noble Environmental, the owner of the windfarm, says no one was injured. The cause of the fire is not known. Two years ago a turbine at the same park came crashing down when the blades spun out-ofcontrol in high winds. An investigation in that case uncovered a wiring problem that prevented the turbine from safely shutting down. [...]

FRENCH TURBINE LOSES BLADE The French Delta FM radio station reports that one of an array of 3 turbines close to the A16 motorway between Boulogne and Le Touquet lost a blade and suffered damage to the remaining blades in stormy weather on 4 January, 2012.

Luckily, the damaged blade parts were not blown onto the motorway.

ALSTOM TURBINE CRASHES ON SPANISH HIGHWAY Windpower Monthly, 8 November, 2011. SPAIN: High winds and alleged lack of maintenance has have caused a 35-metre high Alstom turbine to fall onto the roadside of the N-340 highway in Tarifa, Spain's southernmost and windiest district. [...] As a wind hotspot, there are many such early experimental projects among hundreds of small turbines in Tarifa dating back to the early 1990s. Locals have long complained many machines are neglected as proper maintenance is not profitable.

SAFETY A BREEZE FOR WIND TURBINE (USA) The Star Beacon (Ashtabula, Ohio), 18 October, 2011. CONNEAUT The wind turbine struck by lightning this past summer sustained considerable damage but poses no safety threat to people, according to a message from the company that built the generator. [...] The lakefront turbine was constructed in early 2010, one of two machines erected by NexGen. The second is a larger turbine at Conneaut Middle School that has been plagued with problems since its arrival. [...] ------------------------READER COMMENT: So the 10 to 15 foot piece that blew off of the turbine in the last week and all the little pieces that have fallen since it got struck, have no threat to people. Hope I am not around it when the next 10 footer falls. (Concerned, October 18, 2011, 3:48pm).

ANOTHER WIND TURBINE SPARKS FIRE (USA) ReporterNews, 3 October, 2011. Energy officials say they are taking down a charred 260-foot wind turbine to determine the cause of a fire that began Sunday evening in a rural area west of U.S. 277 and County Road 618, the second turbine blaze to hit the area in the past six weeks. Sundays fire occurred less than a five-minute walk from the country home of state Rep. Susan King. In an interview with the Reporter-News, King said the fire lit up like the Paramount sign, and was akin to a Roman candle, with balls of fire flying out and onto the ground. [...]

GAMESA INVESTIGATES AFTER WIND TURBINE LOSES BLADE IN INDIA RECharge News, 8 September, 2011. Spanish wind turbine manufacturer Gamesa is investigating an incident that saw a rotor blade break-off from one of its machines in India. The blade became detached from the G5X-850 850kW turbine earlier this week. Reports suggest the stray component hit a transmission line. [...]

WIND TURBINE ERUPTS INTO FLAMES SOUTHWEST OF ABILENE (USA) KTXS News, 25 August, 2011. ABILENE, Texas -- Firefighters from at least three volunteer departments are on the scene of a burning wind turbine southwest of Abilene. ECCA Fire Chief Gary Young said the fire started in the wind turbine tower and then spread to grass around the tower. Young said firefighters are working in rough terrain trying to keep the fire from spreading to other towers in the area. [...]

GERMAN TURBINE COLLAPSE

There was a spectacular, unexplained turbine collapse at a wind park in Kirtorf, Eastern Hesse, Germany, on Sunday, 19 June 2011.

MAN KILLED BY TURBINE LORRY DRIVING ON WRONG SIDE OF ROAD. (Ireland) Inquest hears of Ballybeg, Buttevant truck crash horror, The Corkman, 26 May, 2011.

WIND TURBINE FAILURES PUT STATE ENERGY PROGRAM ON HOLD (USA) MyCentralJersey.com April, 2011. LACEY Hoping to save money by generating renewable energy from wind turbines instead of buying it from a power company, two Forked River farm owners had 120foot turbines erected on their properties in December. But by March 8, the turbines no longer were rotating. Three fiberglass blades ranging in weight from 265 to 290 pounds flew off the tower of the turbine at James Knoellers Christmas Tree Farm on Carriage Road on March 2. Knoellers 17-year-old granddaughter, Sarah, was working with horses near the tower when the blades flew off. One of them nearly hit her, Knoeller said. The weather was fine. There were mild winds. One of the blades was found 215 feet away. The most disappointing aspect of this project prior to the blades falling off was the electric production was only 25 percent of what I was told I was going to get by Skylands Renewable Energy. The catastrophic blade failure was the last straw, Knoeller added.

[...]

IBERDROLA HALTS WIND FARM AFTER SUZLON TURBINE BLADES FALL (USA) Bloomberg, 21 March, 2011 Iberdrola SA (IBE), the biggest producer of renewable energy, halted power production at a 150-megawatt wind farm in Rugby, North Dakota, after the blades of a Suzlon Energy Ltd. (SUEL) S88 generator fell from their mount. [...]

PILOT KILLED IN WIND TOWER CRASH (USA) Sacramento & Co., 20 January 2011. SACRAMENTO, CA - The agricultural pilot killed while seeding a field in the Delta likely never saw the steel tower that caused the fatal crash, according to a preliminary report from the National Transportation Safety Board. Stephen Allen, 58, of Courtland, struck an unmarked 198-foot tower Jan. 10 that had been erected on Webb Tract in 2009 to evaluate the possible placement of wind turbines, according to the NTSB. [...] Moore [National Agricultural Aviation Association executive director Andrew Moore] said at least 24 pilots have been killed by low towers in the past decade, although not all of the towers were METs [meteorological masts].

CANT FIGHT THE FIRE (Australia) Victor Harbor Times, South Australia, 4 November, 2010. CAPE JERVIS - Do you call the CFS in the event of a wind turbine fire? While it might seem like the right thing to do, according to group officer for the Southern Fleurieu CFS Mr Greg Crawford, there is little to nothing the CFS can do in this situation, as officers found out at the weekend. Last Saturday at 2.33 pm, the Southern Fleurieu CFS group was alerted to a fire at the Starfish Hill Wind Farm, near Cape Jervis, in which a turbine had caught alight. The fire caused $3,000,000 in damage. On arrival, CFS officers could do little but watch the blaze from half a kilometre away, as the situation was deemed too dangerous to approach. [...]

WAUBRA POLICY TO LET TURBINE FIRES BURN OUT (Australia) Local fire fighters could do little but watch the blaze from half a kilometre away as the situation was deemed too dangerous to approach ...WorkSafe officers ordered fire fighters a further 500 metres away as burning tips of the blades were flying off from the structure.

The Courier, 20 November, 2010. Waubra wind farm operator Acciona has confirmed a policy of allowing fires in turbines to burn out. Director of generation Brett Wickham said the height of turbine poles, about 80 metres, precluded safe fire fighting. [...]

DRUNKEN GERMAN TURBINE Norddeutscher Rundfunk story, 13 November 2010, on a drunken turbine at a turbine park at Hafentrn in Bsum, Schleswig Holstein. The whole structure was shown wobbling from side to side after losing a rotor blade. The video has now been removed from the NR website.

FRENCH TURBINES CATCH FIRE AFTER BRAKES FAIL

Photo: Vents libres sur nos collines. 23 September, 2010.

EPAW summary: Media commentators said the turbines braking system failed, the machines revved up and caught fire. One of them exploded, sending burning debris into the vegetation and starting fires. Thank God it had rained two days before, said a woman to the journalist, but had this occurred in August, it would have been a different matter. The radio commentator said a similar incident occurred 8 years ago at the same windfarm.

VESTAS WIND REPORTS PART OF BLADE BROKE OFF V112 WIND TURBINE PROTOTYPE (Denmark) Bloomberg, 9 September, 2010. A portion of the blade on the first prototype of the Vestas Wind Systems A/S V112 wind turbine broke off late yesterday in Denmark, Michael Holm, a spokesman for the company, said. A six- to seven-meter (20 to 23 feet) portion came off the blade at the turbine in Lem, western Denmark, Holm said today in a telephone interview from Randers, Denmark. Were looking into the root cause. We dont see this as a design error. [...]

LIGHTNING STRIKE BURNS DOWN WIND TURBINE (USA) Sioux City Journal (Iowa), 2 August, 2010. A lightning strike started a fire in a wind turbine Saturday morning, destroying the turbine and one of three new blades that had been laid out on the ground beneath it in order to be installed as replacements. Damages totaled $760,000, according to Peterson Fire Chief John Winterboer. The turbine was owned by Aes Wind Generation Inc., of Alta Iowa. Winterboer said the call came in at 7:30 a.m., but firefighters were on the scene until 3:30 p.m. because they had to wait for the turbine and its three blades to burn enough to fall the 210 feet to the ground before they could extinguish the smoky blaze. [...]

AN ILL WIND - BROKEN TURBINE BLADES BOTHER NEARBY RESIDENT (USA)

The Times (Ottawa, Illinois), 27 July 2010 Barbara Ellsworth was troubled, but not surprised Saturday morning when she spotted a broken blade on a wind tower near her home. We thought, Hah! We knew that would happen. Ellsworth and her husband Mike live three miles south of Marseilles on East 2450th Road, about 1,200 feet from a wind turbine and about 2,500 feet from one of the two towers damaged during the weekend, possibly by high winds. Chicago-based Invenergy Wind operates the string of towers that run through southeastern La Salle County. [...]

TURBINES BLADE DAMAGE UNUSUAL (USA) Daily Chronicle (DeKalb, Illinois), May 8, 2010.

Daily Chronicle SHABBONA TOWNSHIP Officials at NextEra Energy Resources aren't sure what caused one of the three blades on a wind turbine south of the village of Shabbona to fail Friday morning. The 131-foot-long blade hung from the top of the turbine Friday, apparently bent at the base and split along its length. [...]

PLANE CLIPS TOWER NEAR MACDONALD (Canada)

Daily Graphic [Manitoba, Canada], 1 July 2010. An aerial spray plane clipped the top of a tower at the edge of a field north of Macdonald on Monday. The plane was owned by Jonair and was preparing to spray a near-by field. Jonair owner John Bodie said no one was injured in the incident, but damage to the plane means that it will not be usable for the rest of the season. The 200-foot-high tower was put up to observe wind patterns for a potential wind farm. The tower had no markings, paint or lights on it, making it very difficult to see, said Bodie. [...]
Comment

Windaction.org (US) notes This is one of several recent incidents of small planes hitting unmarked anemometry masts at wind installations.

A DAMAGING BLOW (USA)

San Diego Union-Tribune, 13 January, 2010. Workers are inspecting and repairing 75 wind turbine blades at a wind farm some 60 miles east of San Diego after a storm a month ago caused catastrophic damage to some of them. [...]

The Fenner turbine collapse remains unexplained, even after a lengthy investigation. The operators are now reinforcing the foundations of the remaining 19 turbines.

ANOTHER GERMAN TURBINE FIRE

Windkraftanlage defekt Leuchtfeuer in 130 Meter Hhe [Wind turbine fault Fire at 130 meters] photo: dpa/DPA TWO WIND TURBINES SELF-DESTRUCT IN ONE WEEK (Denmark & Sweden) Copenhagen Post, November 3, 2009. Wind turbine blades rip loose near Esbjerg and southwestern Sweden, one landing on a hiking path. A malfunction on a Vestas wind turbine in the town of Falkenberg on Swedens southwest coast could have resulted in tragedy, as one of the structures large blades flew off and landed on a track used by hikers. Yesterdays incident follows a similar one this weekend near Esbjerg, where a defective axle caused all of the blades on a 40m high turbine to rip loose, one of them hitting a power transformer. Both wind turbines were produced in Denmark. And, although no one was injured in either incident, the accidents have brought the problem of faulty wind turbines into focus. The wind turbine industry in Sweden has now proposed setting up a commission to investigate the many incidents. [...]

STRIKE A LIGHT! MORE VESTAS SMOKERS. (France)

PONTAL Jeremy / Le Dauphin Libr / Privas Chabanet, near Privas, Ardeche (France) - A wind turbine destroyed by Fire [Une olienne dtruite par le feu - Le Dauphin Libr, 31 October 2009.]

FIRE AT FIRST NEW BRUNSWICK WIND FARM (Canada)

Tenaga angin menunjuk kepada pengumpulan energi yang berguna dari angin. Pada 2005, kapasitas generator tenaga-angin adalah 58.982 MW, hasil tersebut kurang dari 1% penggunaan listrik dunia. Meskipun masih berupa sumber energi listrik minor di kebanyakan negara, penghasilan tenaga angin lebih dari empat kali lipat antara 1999 dan 2005. Kebanyakan tenaga angin modern dihasilkan dalam bentuk listrik dengan mengubah rotasi dari pisau turbin menjadi arus listrik dengan menggunakan generator listrik. Pada kincir angin energi angin digunakan untuk memutar peralatan mekanik untuk melakukan kerja fisik, seperti menggiling grain atau memompa air. Tenaga angin digunakan dalam ladang angin skala besar untuk penghasilan listrik nasional dan juga dalam turbin individu kecil untuk menyediakan listrik di lokasi yang terisolir. Tenaga angin banyak jumlahnya, tidak habis-habis, tersebar luas, bersih, dan merendahkan efek rumah kaca. Ada ribuan turbin angin yang beroperasi, dengan kapasitas total 58.982 MW yang 69% berada di Eropa (2005). Dia merupakan cara alternatif penghasilan listrik yang paling tumbuh cepat dan menyediakan tambahan yang berharga bagi stasiun tenaga berskala besar yang berbeban besar. Penghasilan kapasitas listrik diproduksi-angin berlipat empat antara 1999 dan 2005. 90% dari instalasi tenaga angin berada di AS dan Eropa. Pada 2010, Asosiasi Tenaga Angin Dunia mengharapkan 120.000 MW akan terpasang di dunia. Jerman, Spanyol, Amerika Serikat, India dan Denmark telah membuat invesatasi terbesar dalam penghasilan listrik dari angin. Denmark terkenal dalam pemroduksian dan penggunaan turbin angin, dengan sebuah komitmen yang dibuat pada 1970-an untuk menghasilkan setengah dari tenaga negara tersebut dengan angin. Denmark menghasil lebih dari 20% listriknya dengan turbin angin, persentase terbesar dan ke-lima terbesar dari penghasilan tenaga angin. Denmark dan Jerman merupakan eksportir terbesar dari turbin besar. Penggunaan tenaga angin hanya 1% dari total produksi listrik dunia (2005). Jerman merupakan produsen terbesar tenaga angin dengan 32% dari total kapasitas dunia pada 2005; targetnya pada 2010, energi terbarui akan memenuhi 12,5% kebutuhan listrik Jerman. Jerman memiliki 16.000 turbin angin, kebanyakan terletak di utara negara tersebut termasuk tiga terbesar dunia, dibuat oleh perusahaan Enercon (4,5 MW), Multibrid (5 MW) dan Repower (5 MW). Provinsi Schleswig-Holstein Jerman menghasilkan 25% listriknya dari turbin angin.
Jakarta - General Electric Energy dan BPPT kerjasama pengembangan teknologi proyek pembangkit listrik tenaga angin di wilayah Indonesia Timur. Ini salah satu langkah pengembangan teknologi energi baru terbarukan. "Kami sudah ukur jumlah angin 4-5 tempat di Indonesia timur selama dua tahun ini. Kita harus ukur dengan cara yang benar sehingga saat nanti pembangkitnya jadi, lalu monumen yang tidak berputar," jelas Direktur Strategic GE Energy Indonesia, Gatot Prawiro dalam konferensi pers penandatanganan MoU antara GE dengan BPPT di Hotel Ritz Carlton, Jakarta, Selasa (29/9/2010). Gatot menjelaskan nota kesepahaman yang sudah ditandatangani antara GE dan BPPT ini berlaku selama tiga tahun. Melalui MoU ini, GE akan membantu BPPT dalam pengembangan teknologi energi baru terbarukan.

Pada tahap awal, GE akan membantu pengembangan energi angin yang dikembangkan Indonesia melalui proyek WHyPGen (Wind Hybrid Power Generation) yang kemudian dilanjutkan dengan serangkaian kegiatan energi terbarukan lainnya. Proyek ini didukung oleh United nations Developement Programme (UNDP). GE sendiri sudah melakukan studi pengukuran angin di Indonesia, mengumpulkan data terkait potensi tenaga angin di sejumlah wilayah di Indonesia untuk memastikan terwujudnya pengembangan proyek pembangkit listrik tenaga angin berkapasitas lebih dari dari 80 megawatt (MW). "Setelah angin, rencana berikutnya ke energi terbarukan lainnya seperti biomass, matahari, angin, panas bumi dan batubara bersih melalui coal gasification," jelasnya. Sementara itu, Kepala BBPT Marzan Iskandar menyatakan seiring dengan pertumbumbuhan ekonomi tersebut, kebutuhan energi di Indonesia juga turut meningkatkan sekitar 7% setiap tahun. Pemerintah pun sudah memerikan insentif pajak pada pengembangan proyek-proyek energi yang terbarukan ini guna membantu mengurangi ketergantungan negara dari bahan bakar yang berasal dari fosil. "Seperti arahan dari Presiden RI dalam Rapat Kerja Nasional di Tampak Siring, Bali, beberapa waktu lalu, salah satu arahan pembangan Indonesia adalah menciptakan ketahanan energi. Maka BPPT dan GE sepakat melakukan kerjasama dalam pengembangan energi terbarukan, energi bersih dan efesiensi energi di Indonesia," katanya. Menurut dia, kerjasama ini dilakukan dalam mendukung target pemerintah untuk meningkatkan kontribusi energi terbarukan menjadi 17% ada 2025 dibandingkan saat ini yang baru 3,4% dari keseluruhan penggunaan energi dalam negeri.

~ Potensi Angin di NTT Kupang Bisa Dimaksimalkan


Kumpulan Artikel - 103 - Energi Angin / Wind Turbine / Wind Mill

Maksimalkan Potensi Angin di NTT Kupang

T, Drs. Frans Lebu Raya memberikan cinderamata kepada Ketua Workshop Energi Angin, Dr. Pim Kieskamp dalam pembukaan Workshop Energi Angin di Hotel Kristal-Kupang, Senin (22/6/2009). Selasa, 23 Juni 2009 | 09:10 WITA KUPANG, POS KUPANG. Com -- Gubernur NTT, Drs. Frans Lebu Raya meminta kepada pengembang energi angin untuk memaksimalkan potensi energi angin yang terdapat di wilayah NTT. Upaya ini perlu dimaksimalkan guna mengatasi krisis energi. "Dari hasil penelitian, wilayah NTT memberi kontribusi energi angin terbesar. Untuk itu, mari kita sama-sama maksimalkan potensi ini guna menjawabi kebutuhan masyarakat kita terhadap energi," kata Lebu Raya dalam pembukaan Workshop Energi Angin di Hotel Kristal, Jalan Timor Raya, Kupang, Senin (22/6/2009). Workshop ini diselenggarakan atas kerja sama Departemen Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Masyarakat Energi Angin Indonesia (MEAI) dan Senter Novem (Belanda). Lebu Raya berterima kasih kepada Kedutaan Belanda atas kerja sama dan perhatiaannya terhadap masyarakat NTT. Ia berharap kerja sama tersebut dapat memberikan solusi yang lebih nyata untuk mengatasi kesulitan energi di NTT karena masih banyak masyarakat NTT, terutama yang berdomisili di pedesaan, belum menikmati energi yang memadai. Lebu Raya berharap workshop ini dapat melahirkan ide-ide positif dan strategis dalan rangka mengembangkan dan memaksimalkan potensi energi angin di NTT. "Dari ide-ide, selanjutnya kita perlu merumuskan langkah- langkah yang lebih konkrit supaya kemudian hari masyarakat dapat menikmati hasil pengembangan energi angin ini," katanya. Selain itu, kata Lebu Raya, kita mesti bekerja giat untuk meyakinkan masyarakat supaya mau mengalokasikan lahannya untuk pembangunan turbin energi angin. "Terkadang masalah sosial seperti ini muncul, karena banyak masyarakat yang belum mengerti potensi energi angin. Namun dengan tekad yang ada, kita mesti giat meyakinkan

masyarakat untuk dapat menerima pembangunan ini," kata Lebu Raya. Diharapkan, perencanaan pengembangan potensi energi angin dapat direalisasikan dalam waktu dekat. "Diperlukan optimisme yang tinggi guna mendorong kita lebih keras mewujudkan cita-cita ini," ujar Lebu Raya. Ia juga meminta masyarakat dan pelaku bisnis lokal untuk membantu dan mendukung rencana pengembangan energi angin di NTT. Ketua Workshop Energi Angin, Dr. Pim Kieskamp mengatakan, workshop ini bertujuan untuk bertukar pikiran dan pengetahuan antara Indonesia dan Belanda guna mendukung implementasi pengembangan proyek energi angin. Workshop ini juga bertujuan merumuskan langkah- langkah dan memberikan solusi-solusi untuk menjawab tantangan dalam merealisasikan proyek ini. "Selain itu, workshop ini bertujuan mengumpulkan pengambil keputusan-keputusan dari pihak pemerintah, PLN dan sektor keuangan, baik pada tingkat nasional maupun daerah untuk merealisasikan proyek energi angin dan menjadikannya sebagai pilot project antara Indonesia dan Belanda," terangnya. Pim mengatakan, pihaknya memilih NTT sebagai lokasi proyek energi angin karena memilki potensi angin yang baik. Bahkan, kata Pim, dari hasil penelitian, potensi angin di NTT, khususnya di TTS, jauh lebih baik dari potensi angin di Belanda. "So'E merupakan daerah yang potensial karena memiliki kecepatan angin berkisar 6-7 meter per detik. Setiap 1 km kisaran angin, bisa menghasilkan daya sebesar 5-6 mega watt. Potensi ini dapat memenuhi kebutuhan energi masyarakat," urai Pim. Di samping itu, Pim mengatakan, pihaknya akan mengikutsertakan pemerintah dan masyarakat lokal dalam proyek tesebut . POS KUPANG/MAYELUS DORI BASTIAN Gu

~ PLTB 11 Unit Dibangun Dalam 2 Tahun


Kumpulan Artikel - 103 - Energi Angin / Wind Turbine / Wind Mill

Membangun 11 PLTB Dalam 2 Tahun Meningkatnya kebutuhan listrik diluar Pulau Jawa, pemerintah akan membangun Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Bayu atau Angin (PLTB) sebanyak 6 unit pada tahun ini dan tahun 2008 sebanyak 5 unit ditahun 2008 melalui anggaran APBN.

Pembangunan 5 unit PLTB yang akan dibangun tahun depan dimana investasi setiap unitnya Rp 15 Milyar sehingga total dana yang dikeluarkan Rp 75 Milyar" kata Dirjen Listrik dan Pemanfaatan energi Departemen ESDM, J Purwono pada saat raker dengan Komisi VII di gedung DPR, Jakarta (17/9/2007) seperti yang dilansir oleh detik.com Kapasitas masing-masing pembangkit Listrik itu berkapasitas 200 KWH yang akan di bangun tiga di Maluku dan dua di Sulawesi Utara. Untuk tahun ini pemerintah menganggarkan Rp 24 milyar untuk membangun 6 unit PLTB yang dibangun di Sulawesi Utara dua dan emapt di bali. kapasitas dari masing-masing pembangkit 80 KWh. Pengelolalan dari PLTB ini setelah selesai oleh Pemda setempat dan hasilnya dijual ke PLN. Menurut Dirjen Listrik dan Pemanfaatan Energi harga listrik dengan menggunakan PLTB ini dua kali lebih mahal sekiar 4,5 $ sen per KWh. Selanjut Dirjen juga mengungkapkan pengusaha dari Amerika dan Jerman berminat untuk membangun PLTB di Indonesia. Sebenarnya telah tertarik bebrapa tahun lalu tapi dengan adanya krisis yang terjadi di Indonesia baru sekarang dimulai lagi. Pengusaha swasta sekarang ini telah mulai melalukan studi kelayakan untuk pembangunan PLTB. Daerah-erah yang mempunyai potensi besar adalah Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Sulawesi Utara, Sulawesi Selatan dan Maluku. Daerah-daerah ini mempunyai potensi angin yang bagun untuk dibangun pembangkit ini. Pembangunan PLTB membutuhkan investasi 1500 USD - 2000 USD per KWh. Pemerintah mengharpkan pada tahun 2008 swasta telah mulai membangun PLTB. detik/Adler

~ Rata Rata Kecepatan Angin Di Indonesia


Kumpulan Artikel - 103 - Energi Angin / Wind Turbine / Wind Mill

Rata-rata secara global kecepatan angin di darat adalah sekitar 30 - 40 km/jam. akan tetapi kecepatan rata2 angin di daratan sangat tergantung pada dimana kita mengukur kecepatan angin tersebut dan kapan kita melakukan pengukuran. sebagai contoh wilayah Indonesia bagian Timur seperti NTT, NTB, Sulsel dan pantai selatan Jawa mempunyai kecepatan angin rata-rata yang cukup tinggi yaitu 5 m/s, sementara di indonesia bagian barat cenderung lebih rendah dari nilai tersebut. Untuk pengukuran kecepatan angin yang lebih baik memang dilakukan pada ketinggian 10 m, dengan pertimbangan efek dari lapisan perbatas dan korelasi eddy sudah tidak mempengaruhi kecepatan angin lagi. tapi rata2 stasiun cuaca, terutama di Indonesia melakukan pengukuran pada 0,5 m hingga 2 m. Sebagian besar stasiun cuaca bahkan mengambil nilai tengahnya dengan menempatkan anemometer dalam sangkar cuaca yang berketinggian 1,2 m.
Indonesia terletak di garis katulistiwa maka kita dapat banyak angin di bagian selatan ( Sumatera bagian timur, Jawa bagian selatan, NTB, NTT, Merauke). bagian utara (Sulawesi Utara, Maluku Utara, Sorong, Raja Ampat, Biak). Saat ini di Indonesia sedang dibangun Listrik Tenaga Angin dengan model HAWT (horizontal axis wind turbine). Model HAWT sudah kalah bersaing dengan model VAWT (vertical axis wind turbine) dengan harga kW lebih murah di bading kW dari HAWT. Ada VAWT hanya perlu hembusan skala 2.5m/sec. Ada Model VAWT dengan kekuatan 10MW jauh diatas HAWT. Maglev VAWT kerjasama dengan Perusahan Cina untuk bangun 1 GW VAWT di Cina. Indonesia jangan gunakan technologi Wind Turbine yang sudah mulai ditinggalkan.

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Wind Energy Basics


In this section you can find current, easy to understand wind energy information. This includes: - frequently asked wind energy questions - the 'How a wind turbine works tool - Wind Energy Facts If you are new to offshore wind, you can watch the offshore wind energy animation.

Figure 1

An offshore wind turbine with a capacity of 2.5-3 MW can produce more than 6 million kWh in a year - enough to supply 1,500 average EU households with electricity (Source: EWEA). Click the image to see 'How a wind turbine works'.

From 2007 2010, jobs in wind energy grew by nearly 30% while EU unemployment rose by 9.6%. In 2010, 238,000 people were employed in wind energy. That number should

increase to 520,000 by 2020 - a 200% rise in ten years. See the Wind Energy Facts for more details

The wind energy sector contributed 32 billion to EU GDP in 2010. At 0.26%, it contributed more value to EU GDP than the entire European footwear industry, an increase of 33% since 2007 (Source: EWEA). Find out more in the EWEA report 'Green Growth'.

~ Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Bayu / Angin (PLTB)


Kumpulan Artikel - 103 - Energi Angin / Wind Turbine / Wind Mill

Sebenarnya kalau Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Angin di singkat harusnya kan PLTA. Tapi karena PLTA sudah identik dengan Air, maka si Angin harus ngalah. Dan singkatannya menjadi PLTB dengan B diambil dari kata Bayu. Dalam bahasa inggris pembangkit jenis ini dikenal dengan sebutan Wind Power.

Sama seperti PLTA, pembangkit ini sangat murah dan ramah lingkungan. Prinsip kerjanya juga sangat sederhana. Angin memutar turbin angin atau orang lebih mengenalnya dengan sebutan kincir angin. Karena turbin berputar, generator yang satu poros dengan turbin ikut berputar. Jadilah energi listrik. Pada PLTB yang sudah dikelola secara korporat, listrik langsung dialirkan melalui transmisi. Sedangkan pada PLTB rumahan, biasanya energi disimpan pada baterei.
Kincir Angin
~ HONEYWELL GEARLESS BLADE TIP POWER SYSTEM (BTPS)

Alpensteel adalah Authorized Distributor dari Honeywell Turbine USA. Kincir Angin terobosan paling mutakhir dan revolusioner yaitu Honeywell Gearless Blade Tip Power System (BTPS) yang sangat cocok diaplikasikan di rumah dan kantor.

Kincir Angin Honeywell adalah Gearless Turbine yang hanya berdiameter 1,83 meter dengan berat 77 kg dan mampu menghasilkan listrik 2000 kWh / tahun. Kincir Angin Honeywell menghasilkan listrik dari ujung blade bukan dari gear seperti pada kincir angin tradisional, sehingga secara drastis mampu mengurangi gaya resistansi sehingga produksi energi listrik yang dihasilkan jauh lebih besar walaupun pada kecepatan angin rendah. Kincir angin tradisional memerlukan kecepatan angin minimum 3,3 mps untuk dapat mulai menghasilkan listrik sedangkan kincir angin Honeywell mulai dapat menghasilkan listrik pada kecepatan angin 0,8 mps. Read more..

Kalau para mania tekno mendengar kata turbin angin, yang pertama kali terbayang di dalam benak para mania tekno pasti sebuah turbin angin yang memiliki tiga baling. Sekarang sudah saatnya gambaran itu diganti karena turbin ultra efisien masa depan rancangan Profesor Yuji Ohya dari Universitas Kyushu ini benar-benar berbeda. Ohya dan timnya baru-baru ini memperkenalkan Wind Lens, bangunan yang mirip sarang lebah yang meningkatkan tiga kali jumlah energi angin yang bisa dihasilkan oleh turbin lepas pantai. Wind Lens diperkenalkan bulan ini dalam Yokohama Renewable Energy International Exhibition 2010. Cara kerja turbin angin ini mirip dengan kaca pembesar yang memperkuat cahaya dari matahari kecuali dalam kasus ini, lensa ini memperkuat aliran angin. Desain Ohya tidak memiliki banyak bagian yang bergerak yang ada hanya sebuah bundaran besar yang memperbesar tenaga angin dan sebuah turbin yang diputar oleh angin yang ditangkap oleh bundaran itu. Setiap lensa yang berdiameter 112 meter ini mampu menghasilkan energi dua-tiga kali lipat lebih besar dari turbin angin biasa dan pada saat yang bersamaan juga mampu mengurangi polusi suara dan meningkatkan keamanan. Ohya tidak tahu jika apakah lensa ini akan diproduksi secara komersil, tapi turbin hasil rancangannya bisa memberikan alternatif yang lebih menarik secara estetika daripada turbin lepas pantai. Wind Smile, turbin angin yang dibuat oleh Wind-Smile Co., Ltd merupakan salah satu dari sekian banyak turbin angin yang berbasis Daerius. Teknologi sudunya telah dipatenkan di beberapa negara. Wind Smile menggunakan sudu dengan bentuk penampang huruf J, berbeda dengan

kebanyakan turbin angin yang memilih bentuk penampang seperti yang digunakan pada sayap pesawat. Dengan bentuknya yang demikian, arah angin bukan menjadi masalah baginya. Dari manapun arah angin bertiup, maka Wind Smile akan tetap berputar searah. Sudu-sudu tersebut bergerak dengan memanfaatkan sepenuhnya gaya angkat dan gaya tarik yang didapat dari angin ketika mengenainya. Menurut perusahaan pembuatnya, efisiensi WInd Smile berada di atas rata-rata turbin angin konvensional lainnya. Setiap tipe dari Wind Smile mempunyai cut-in yang berbeda-beda. Pada tipe paling kecil yang menghasilkan daya 200 Watt, turbin mulai bergerak pada kecepatan angin 1,5 meter per detik. Tingkat kebisingan yang dihasilkan selama bekerja juga rendah. Desain turbinnya mampu mengubah energi angin dengan kecepatan 15 meter hingga 30 meter per detik menjadi listrik tanpa harus mengalami kerusakan. Sebagai gambaran, pada angin kecepatan 15 meter per detik, manusia sangat sulit berjalan. Dengan kecepatan mencapai 30 meter per detik, sebagian besar turbin angin sudah mengalami kerusakan. Sementara kecepatan angin sebesar itu tidak berpengaruh pada Wind Smile, karena metode yang digunakan pada pesawat terbang juga diaplikasikan pada turbin ini. Bahkan kecepatan angin sebesar 60 meter per detik juga tidak menjadi masalah baginya. Selain itu masih ada beberapa kelebihan lainnya seperti beratnya yang ringan mempermudah pemasangan, bahannya yang bisa didaur ulang, dimensinya kecil sehingga tidak memerlukan area yang luas untuk, serta digunakannya sistem proteksi petir. Sumber : Planet Hijau

~ Kecepatan Angin Turun Sejak 1973


Kumpulan Artikel - 103 - Energi Angin / Wind Turbine / Wind Mill

Pemanasan Global Turunkan Potensi Energi Tenaga Angin

Kapanlagi.com - Pemanasan global telah menyebabkan menurunnya kecepatan angin sehingga mempengaruhi perkembangan energi alternatif bersumber dari tenaga angin.

"Kecepatan angin global rata-rata telah menurun sejak 1973, bahkan penurunan itu sudah sampai 10 persen," kata anggota baru Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (AIPI) bidang Ilmu Rekayasa Prof Dr Satryo Soemantri Brodjonegoro di Jakarta, Selasa. Penurunan kecepatan angin sebesar 10 persen akan menyebabkan penurunan energi yang dihasilkan sebesar 30 persen, ujarnya pada Pidato Inaugurasinya di depan para ilmuwan AIPI.

Menurut dia, penurunan kecepatan angin itu terjadi karena berkurangnya lapisan es di danau-danau di belahan bumi utara dan selatan, berhubung angin bertiup lebih cepat di permukaan es daripada di permukaan air

Selain itu karena pemanasan global saat ini membuat kutub lebih cepat memanas daripada bumi manapun, sehingga perbedaan suhu dan tekanan antara kutub dan khatulistiwa akan berkurang dan membuat kecepatan angin berkurang.

Indonesia, menurut dia, juga bukan negara yang memiliki kecepatan angin yang memadai untuk mengembangkan pembangkit listrik tenaga bayu (PLTB), walaupun ada angin yang datang tidak bersifat kontinu.

"Selain itu area yang memiliki kecepatan angin kencang biasanya jauh dari penduduk yang akan menggunakan listrik, sehingga ada kendala transmisi listrik," katanya.

Saat ini kontribusi energi angin di Amerika Serikat (AS) hanya satu persen dari kebutuhan listrik nasionalnya dan diperkirakan pada 2030 kontribusi itu mencapai 20 persen di mana 20 persen dibangun di lepas pantai.

"Rencana pembangunan PLTB lepas pantai akan mencapai 350 MW di AS dan 1.100 MW di Eropa dengan biaya investasi tiga juta dolar AS per MW," katanya. (ant/npy)

~ Rancangan Dan Desain Turbin Angin


Kumpulan Artikel - 103 - Energi Angin / Wind Turbine / Wind Mill

Teknologi Turbin Angin Blade

Desain Blade Blades dapat dibuat dari benda-benda sederhana seperti tong Rasio antara kecepatan angin dan kecepatan ujung pisau disebut tip speed ratio. Efisiensi tinggi 3-blade-turbin memiliki kecepatan rasio kecepatan ujung / angin dari 6 ke 7. Turbin angin modern dirancang untuk berputar pada berbagai kecepatan (sebuah konsekuensi dari desain generator mereka, lihat di atas). Penggunaan aluminium dan material komposit di pisau mereka telah memberikan kontribusi untuk inersia rotasi rendah, yang berarti bahwa turbin angin baru dapat mempercepat cepat jika angin menjemput, tip menjaga rasio kecepatan lebih hampir konstan. Operasi lebih dekat dengan rasio kecepatan ujung optimal mereka selama energik embusan angin memungkinkan turbin angin untuk meningkatkan menangkap energi dari embusan tiba-tiba yang khas di perkotaan.

Sebaliknya, gaya turbin angin tua dirancang dengan pisau baja berat, yang memiliki inersia yang lebih tinggi, dan diputar pada kecepatan diatur oleh frekuensi AC dari tiang listrik. Kelembaman tinggi buffer perubahan kecepatan rotasi dan dengan demikian membuat output daya yang lebih stabil.

Kecepatan dan torsi di mana turbin angin berputar harus dikontrol karena beberapa alasan: * Untuk mengoptimalkan efisiensi aerodinamika rotor di angin cahaya. * Untuk menjaga agar generator dalam batas kecepatan dan torsi. * Untuk menjaga rotor dan hub mereka dalam batas-batas kekuatan sentripetal. Gaya sentripetal dari meningkat rotor berputar dengan kuadrat kecepatan rotasi, yang membuat struktur ini sensitif terhadap overspeed. * Untuk menjaga rotor dan menara dalam batas-batas kekuatan mereka. Karena kekuatan angin meningkat sebagai pangkat tiga dari kecepatan angin, turbin harus dibangun untuk bertahan beban angin jauh lebih tinggi (seperti hembusan angin) dari orang-orang dari mana mereka praktis dapat menghasilkan listrik. Karena pisau menghasilkan lebih gaya melawan arah angin (dan dengan demikian meletakkan stres jauh lebih besar pada menara) ketika mereka memproduksi torsi, turbin angin kebanyakan cara mengurangi torsi di angin kencang. * Untuk mengaktifkan pemeliharaan; karena sangat berbahaya untuk orang yang bekerja pada turbin angin ketika sedang aktif, kadang-kadang diperlukan untuk membawa turbin berhenti penuh. * Untuk mengurangi kebisingan; Sebagai aturan praktis, suara dari turbin angin meningkat dengan kekuatan kelima kecepatan angin (relatif dilihat dari ujung bergerak dari bilah). Dalam kebisingan lingkungan-sensitif, ujungnya kecepatan bisa terbatas pada sekitar 60 m / s (200 ft / s). Menghitung baling-baling pada sistem turbin angin Blade

NASA Mod-0 penelitian turbin angin di Glenn Research Center stasiun Plum Brook di Ohio menguji konfigurasi rotor satu-berbilah

Penentuan jumlah blades melibatkan pertimbangan efisiensi aerodinamika desain, komponen biaya, keandalan sistem, dan estetika. Kebisingan emisi dipengaruhi oleh lokasi pisau melawan angin atau menara menurut jurusan angin dan kecepatan rotor. Mengingat bahwa emisi kebisingan dari tepi pisau tambahan dan tips bervariasi dengan kekuatan 5 kecepatan pisau, sebuah peningkatan kecil di ujung kecepatan dapat membuat perbedaan besar. Turbin angin yang dikembangkan selama 50 tahun terakhir telah hampir universal digunakan dua atau tiga pisau. Meningkatkan efisiensi aerodinamis dengan jumlah blades tetapi dengan kembali berkurang. Peningkatan jumlah pisau dari satu hingga dua menghasilkan peningkatan enam persen efisiensi aerodinamis, sedangkan peningkatan jumlah pisau dua sampai tiga menghasilkan hanya tiga persen tambahan dalam efisiensi. Selanjutnya meningkatkan hasil hitungan minimal pisau perbaikan dalam efisiensi aerodinamika dan terlalu banyak pengorbanan di kekakuan pisau sebagai pisau menjadi lebih tipis.

Komponen biaya yang dipengaruhi oleh jumlah pisau adalah untuk bahan dan pembuatan turbin rotor dan drive train. Secara umum, semakin sedikit jumlah pisau, semakin rendah biaya material dan manufaktur akan. Selain itu, semakin sedikit jumlah pisau, semakin tinggi kecepatan rotasi dapat. Hal ini karena persyaratan kekakuan pisau untuk menghindari gangguan dengan batas menara bagaimana tipis pisau dapat dibuat, tetapi hanya untuk mesin melawan angin; defleksi bilah dalam hasil mesin menurut jurusan angin di menara clearance meningkat. Kurang pisau dengan kecepatan rotasi yang lebih tinggi mengurangi torsi puncak di drive train, sehingga gearbox lebih rendah dan biaya generator. Diameter 98 meter, NASA berbilah dua / DOE Mod-5B turbin angin adalah turbin angin terbesar di dunia yang beroperasi di awal 1990-an Keandalan sistem dipengaruhi oleh jumlah pisau terutama melalui pembebanan dinamis dari rotor ke dalam kereta drive dan sistem menara. Sementara menyelaraskan turbin angin perubahan arah angin (yawing), pisau masing-masing mengalami beban siklik pada akhir akarnya tergantung pada posisi pisau. Hal ini berlaku dari satu, dua, tiga pisau atau lebih. Namun, beban siklik ketika digabungkan bersama-sama di kereta poros drive yang simetris seimbang untuk tiga pisau, menghasilkan operasi yang lebih halus selama yaw turbin. Turbin dengan satu atau dua bilah dapat menggunakan hub terhuyung berputar untuk juga hampir menghilangkan beban siklik ke dalam poros drive dan sistem selama yawing. Akhirnya, estetika dapat dianggap sebagai faktor dalam bahwa beberapa orang menemukan bahwa rotor tiga berbilah adalah lebih menyenangkan untuk melihat dari satu atau duaberbilah rotor. Bahan-bahan untuk membuat turbin angin Blade desain baru generasi turbin angin yang mendorong pembangkit listrik dari rentang megawatt tunggal untuk ke atas dari 10 megawatt. Kecenderungan umum dari desain kapasitas yang lebih besar lebih besar dan lebih besar bilah turbin angin. Meliputi area yang lebih luas secara

efektif meningkatkan rasio kecepatan ujung-turbin dengan kecepatan angin tertentu, sehingga meningkatkan kemampuan ekstraksi energi dari sebuah sistem turbin. pisau turbin angin produksi Lancar dibuat lebih besar 80 meter dengan diameter prototip dalam kisaran 100 sampai 120 meter. Pada tahun 2001, sekitar 50 juta kilogram laminasi fiberglass digunakan dalam bilah turbin angin [4] bahan baru dan metode manufaktur memberikan kesempatan untuk meningkatkan efisiensi turbin angin dengan memungkinkan untuk lebih besar, pisau lebih kuat.. Salah satu tujuan paling penting ketika merancang sistem pisau yang lebih besar adalah untuk menjaga berat badan pisau di bawah kontrol. Sejak skala pisau massa sebagai kubus radius turbin, pembebanan gravitasi menjadi faktor desain membatasi untuk sistem dengan pisau yang lebih besar. metode manufaktur Lancar pisau dalam kisaran 4-50 meter fiberglass terbukti melibatkan berbagai teknik fabrikasi komposit. Manufaktur seperti Nordex dan GE angin menggunakan proses infus untuk pembuatan pisau. produsen lain menggunakan variasi pada teknik ini, beberapa termasuk karbon dan kayu dengan fiberglass dalam matriks epoksi. Pilihan juga termasuk fiberglass prepreg dan dibantu vakum-cetakan resin transfer. Pada dasarnya setiap pilihan tersebut adalah variasi pada tema yang sama: sebuah gelas-komposit polimer diperkuat serat dibangun melalui berbagai cara yang berbeda dengan kompleksitas. Mungkin masalah terbesar dengan lebih sederhana, cetakan terbuka, sistem basah adalah emisi yang terkait dengan atsiri organik dilepaskan ke atmosfir. Preimpregnated bahan dan teknik resin infus menghindari rilis volatiles dengan mengandung semua gas reaksi. Namun, prosesproses yang terkandung memiliki tantangan sendiri, yaitu produksi laminasi tebal yang diperlukan untuk komponen struktural menjadi lebih sulit. Sebagai permeabilitas resin membentuk sebelumnya menentukan ketebalan laminasi maksimum, pendarahan diperlukan untuk menghilangkan rongga dan menjamin distribusi resin yang tepat. Sebuah solusi yang unik. Untuk distribusi resin adalah penggunaan fiberglass sebagian preimpregnated. Selama evakuasi, kain kering menyediakan jalur untuk aliran udara dan, setelah panas dan tekanan diterapkan, resin dapat mengalir ke daerah kering yang dihasilkan dalam struktur laminate diresapi secara menyeluruh. Epoxy komposit berbasis kepentingan terbesar bagi produsen turbin angin karena mereka memberikan kombinasi tombol dari lingkungan, produksi, dan biaya kelebihan dari sistem resin lainnya. Epoxies juga meningkatkan pisau turbin angin pembuatan komposit dengan memungkinkan untuk menyembuhkan siklus yang lebih pendek, daya tahan meningkat, dan peningkatan permukaan akhir. operasi Prepreg lebih meningkatkan operasi biaya-efektif dengan mengurangi siklus pengolahan, dan oleh karena itu waktu manufaktur, lebih dari sistem lay-up basah. Sebagai pisau turbin yang mendekati 60 meter dan lebih besar, teknik infus menjadi lebih umum sebagai pengalihan cetakan resin tradisional waktu injeksi terlalu panjang dibandingkan dengan resin waktu set-up, sehingga membatasi ketebalan laminasi. Injeksi kekuatan resin melalui tebal lapis tumpukan, sehingga menyetorkan resin di mana dalam struktur laminasi sebelum gelatin terjadi. epoxy resin khusus telah dikembangkan untuk menyesuaikan daya tahan dan viskositas untuk kinerja tune resin dalam aplikasi injeksi.

Karbon SPAR dukung beban diperkuat serat-baru-baru ini telah diidentifikasi sebagai sarana biaya-efektif untuk mengurangi berat badan dan meningkatkan kekakuan. Penggunaan serat karbon dalam 60 bilah turbin meter diperkirakan menghasilkan pengurangan 38% massa total pisau dan penurunan 14% biaya dibandingkan dengan desain fiberglass 100%. Penggunaan serat karbon memiliki manfaat tambahan mengurangi ketebalan laminasi fiberglass bagian, lebih lanjut mengatasi masalah yang terkait dengan resin pembasahan bagian lay-up tebal. aplikasi turbin angin serat karbon juga dapat mengambil manfaat dari kecenderungan umum menggunakan peningkatan dan penurunan biaya bahan serat karbon. pisau kecil dapat dibuat dari logam ringan seperti aluminium. Kayu dan layar kanvas pada awalnya digunakan pada kincir angin lebih awal karena harga yang rendah, ketersediaan, dan kemudahan manufaktur. Bahan-bahan, Namun, sering memerlukan perawatan selama hidup mereka. Juga, kayu dan kanvas memiliki drag yang relatif tinggi (efisiensi aerodinamik rendah) dibandingkan dengan kekuatan yang mereka ambil. Karena alasan-alasan mereka telah sebagian besar digantikan oleh Airfoils padat.