You are on page 1of 44

processes Healiransfer in agitation 333

HeatTransfer in Aeitated Vessels
9.1 lntoduction Agitated vesselswith an extemaljacket or an internal coil are increasingly employed in biotechrology and otherprocess applications. jackets The most commol type of consjsts of an outer cylinde. that sunounds pafi ofthe vessel. The heating or coolingmediumcirculates in jacket the annularpace betweenthe and vesselwalls. Altematively, condensation ofvapor (e.g.,steam or a propdetary heattansfer mediun) may serve lbi heatingand vaporization of liquid (e.g., arefragrant) may serve for cooling.The heatis transferedthough the wall of the vessel. Circulation bafflescanbeusedin theannular space to increase the velocityofthe liquid flowingthrough thejacket,thusenhancing the heat tlansf'er coefficient. An altemative is to introduce the fluid via a series of jacket. nozzlesspaced down the ln this case, the momentum of the jets issuingfrom the nozzles develops a swirlingmotionin thejacketliquid. The spacing between thejacket and vessel wall depends on the size of the vessel, however, it ranges from 50mmfor smallvessels to 300 mm for largervessels. Figure9-1 showsdifferent configurations ofjacketed vessels. The pitch of the coils and the areacoveredcan be selected to prcvide the heat transferarearequired.Standard pipe sizesfrom 60 mm to 120 mm outsidediameter areaare often used.Half-DiDe construction jacler produce can a ccpable of wiLhstanding a highii pressure Lhan jacket design.The rate of heat transferto o. from an conventional agitated liquid massin a vessel depends on the physical propedies ofthe liquid (e.g.,density,viscosity,and specifrc heat)and of the heatingor coolingmedium, the vessel geometry, and the degreeof agitation. The type and size ofthe agitatorand its location alsoinfluence the rate.An agitator is selected on the basisof materiai properties andthe processing required.The heat transferforms part of a process operation such as suspended.

334Chemical Ensineeins Pbcesses


n<1 r-\l

$l ,$L
S?ilally b!filed jack t (a)



Agit!rioDtrozle (d)

Figure 9-1.Typesol jacketconstruction.

or dissolvirg solids,dispersing a gas in a liquid, emulsilyinginrmiscible liquids, or regulatirrgchemical reactions. When processing is controlledby heat transfervariables,a log mean temperaturedifferelce (ATLMTD) aIId heat fiansfer surface area will predominateover the agitation variables.Provided it is sufficient to give a homogeneous processfluid tempentue, increasedagitationcan only reduce the inside film resistance,which is one of a number of resistances that determinesthe overall heat tmtsfer coefficient.

pmcesses Heat transfer in agiiation 335

Stiraed tank reactors in which an exothermic reaction is performed may involve the removal of substantialanounts of heat fiom the reactingmixture. Refluxing of a boiling solventis a common method; the heat of vaporization of the solvent is removed by the reflux condenser, and the condensed solvelt is returnedto the teactor Othei methodsinclude cooling thc walls of the reactor by meansof a jacket with a cooling medium, inserting a cooling coil, or using an external heat exchangerwith a pump around system: ln many appli, cations using jacketed vessels, successivebatches of matedal ate heated (or cooled) to a given iernperatute, and therefore the heat transtbrinvolves an unsleadystateprocess.Proper care is essentialio terms of charging, agitatiol, and adequatecooling of the reactantsto prevent the generatedL'ieat from subsequentlyleading to a runaway reactl()n. Design Equation Considera vesselcontainingan agitatedliquid. Heat transferoccurs mainly through forced convection in the liquid, conduction througtl the vessel waLI, and forced convection jn the jacket media. The heat flow may be based on the basic film theoty equation and can be expressed by Drivins - force Kare = Resistance





In an idealized situation, the vessel and its jacket each operate continuouslyundet isothermal conditions.RearrangingEquation 9l becomes:

Q = UAAr

(9 2)

11 a realistic continuoussituatio!, where the vesselcontentsare at constanl temperature,but with dift'erentjacket inlet and oudet temperatures,Equation 9 2 is expressed as:

Engineering Prccesses 336Chemical

Q = UA-AT11ap

(q l)

whereATLMTD is the log nean tenpenture differencebetweenthe bulk temperature of the vessel contents, t, andthe temperature in thejacket, T. ATLMTD is exprcssed as

tn[(t,-r,)/(t, - .Tr\/l l
wltete rl t2 T1 T2

t' -r,)- t' -r,)


n the re..el t l u i , l r e m p e r a l J ri e leaving flrrid lemperilrure in rhe \e.sel e r h ej r c k e l in entering I l r r i dr e m p e r a t u r leaving fluid temperaturcin the jackel

The overall heat transfer coefliciellt U is deterrninedtrom a selies of resistancesto the transfer of heat, namely





where lli = coefticient on processside of heat transfer area, i.e., inside sudace ofjacketed vesselor outsidesuface of internal coil,

= lbuling l c c l o r i.! ' i d e \ e . s e l . m"C/w = Xru wall thickness of vesselor coil, mur k = thernal conductivity, Wm"C FF. jacket, m2"C/w - _ l = fouling factor, inside hj = coelficienl on inside sufface ol jaclei. w/m"C

When the heat transferis throughinternalcoils or tubularbat'fles, may the difference between the inner and outerheattransfersurfaces be significant.
Inside Film (hi) Coefficients Wlren applying the following equationsfor calculating film coefficients in jacketed vessels,the physical property data should be accurate.This is especially importatrt tbr thermal condllctivity k, as its value can have a major impact on the calculated film coefficient and vary widely.

processes Heat lransier in agilation 337

The inside iilm heat transfer coefficient (hi) can be calculatedfrom the following Nusselt number corelatron:

",'=..tu"!.(*)',(+ #)
.Nh(!L)" Nu = c.Nfr"
For agitatedvesseis,


where(Dr/H, WDA) represents vadousgeometric corection factors. For a geonetricallysimilar system, Equation9-6 becomes:

(e 7)

where hi = DA DT = N =


heat transfercoefhcientto vesselwall or coil, w/mz'C agitatordiameter, m tank diameter, m agitatol speed(rev/sec) p = density,kg/mj ki = thermalconductivity, Wm"C CP = specificheat capacity, J/kg"C = viscosiryat bulk fluid remperarure, [(N.s)/m]l[kg/(m.sec)l p_ = viscosityar the wall temperatlue, [(N.s)/m'zl fkg/(m.sec)] The valuesof constant C aid the exponents a, b, and c depend on the type of agitator,whether baffles are used and their type, and whetherthe transfer is via the vesselwall or to coi1s.Baffles are normally usedil most applications, and the valuesof a, b and c in the literature arc 213,ll3, ard 0.14 respectively. Tables 9 14 and 9-15 give typical cofielations for variousagitatortypes. Fouling Factors aDd Wall Resistances Experience and.iudgment as to fouling severity are required to estimate foulingfactors(FFi,FFj) to dere.mine the overallheatlransfer

338Chemical Ensineerins Prc@sses

coefticient.Thesewill vary with time and dependon the frequency and efficiency of vesselcleaning.Wall tesistances can be significant and shouldbe calculated from accurate thermalconductivitydata. Outside Coeffrcients(h.) JacketedVessels Annular lacket with Spbal Bafflitg In heat ffansferapplications, this jacket is consideted a helical coil if certainfactorsare Ltsed for calculating outsidefilm coefficjents. The equivalentheat hansferdiameter,De, fot a rectangulat cross-section is equal to 4 w (w being the width of the annularspace). Velocities are calculatedfron the actual cross-section of the flow area,pw (p being the pitch of the spiral balfle), and the effectivemassflowrate W' throughthe passage. The effectivemassflowrateis approximately 60Voof the total massflowrate of the jacket.

w'- 0.6 w


At a gjven Reynolds number, heat transfer coeft'iciellts of coils, particularly with turbulent flow, are higher Lhanthose of long, sbaight pipes, due to flicfion. This also applies to flow through an amnlar jacket with spiral baffling. At NR" > 10,000 the SiedeFTate equation for stiaight pipe, 1 + 3.5(D"/D.) can be used to caiculate the outside film coefficient.

$=oozz(N^")o',.'".f'"(f) {,.,,(+)}
where D" = D. = hi = 14 = A" =


equivalentdiameierfor heat transfer,lnm (fl) Meanor centerline diameter of interl1al coil helix, mm (ft) heat transfercoefficienton inside surfaceof jacket viscosityat bulk fluid remperarure, [(N.s)/m'?]Lkg/(m.sec)l viscosityat the wall temperature, l(N.s)/m'zllkg/(m.sec)l

r., _ p'v'D.


proesses339 Heattansferin agitation



-i E G --zzzzzz G -D'n'n



n? 9: ;x




340ChemilEngineerirg Prccesses

i,siiiiS il;*iiiii



r-=J= .F::iiK =









Z j

=, n do

! : o x






E6 ,i ==:

processes Heattnsler in agiialion 341


iE ;iE i : I rff ; ! iiirifi iiiii:i :;;:;;: i;::i ;:;5; Ei 2i;Etltl


i;i:iaif;;;;i; ;ri::E;; ;;ii;


342Chemi@lEnsinee ns Processes

,; i ,i;?t3i!';i::: i? ;;ft;i

E: +i?iia; i i : ai;!;EtZ=,;i

i*iiilzriEii ;Ii:i;;iii; ?i I
: z






: e


proesses343 Heailransfer in agitation


? :.:i5:*: s:::e:!i:i i iiv:;iF"


ii:;t::i;?i : i: :,:;?: ::i!

:; i:;,!. iE; ; i ;i

ii+E ii l.s';;+E i: i-i'



;; ;;;i:!a;i ; 3i iE!:
z c,' d FP z

9: 97


6n t1

3,14 Chemical Engineering Pro@sses

,i -{






i !

E H7 qI-e




3 .;
iiv :

SE :!,: *q al^ E eE ril dtt ^*l 19

-d ot - l a rj n E


:b ::E 3:..:.!


E :O


Y 5 r: E i E fs 'nrl
E 5


n ^.a@d

":-"1 !11
2l "2 :' :


dr z





i" r.iE;'-

: , -!E


E E;iE-*: d rr rrr rr E
-roo<z : o E E ":a y ? 1

z iiE,::6

E:E:i= z rl
;, j

r'1 .^



. E3 >7

proesses345 Heattransferin aqitahon

N ,*,= : L I k Ar NR. < 2,100 h n ^,,,..t ro.,[!o "i'=r.86(NR")"'(r")""tf lo'o ,l ru_ r


where L is the length of the coil or jacket passage, mm (ft). Annular lacket with No Baffles In the case of steam condensation, a film heat ffansfer coefficient h i s u . e d .I n l h e c a s e o f l i q u i dc i r c u i a l i o n v.e l o c i l i ew s i l l b e v e r yl o w becauseof the large cross-sectional area. Ouloide heil Lransfer coefficienl" for unbaffledleckets underlaminar flow conditions can be calculatedfrom,

hjD. ,.,.,.., ro.a)iN ro r . r r l D e l ou ' fo 1 o ' o r . u r t r \ R e Jl , r * t IuJ \u,./

,ll*l D:,






where Q1 = inside diameter of the jacket = outside diameter of the jacket Q.


The Grashof number No. is expressed by *- _ Djp':gpAro

where g = accelerationdue to gravity p = fluid density

346Chemical Ergineering Proesses

F = coelTicientof vdlumetdc expansioll Ato = t1r" 6i1"r"n"" betweenthe tenperature at the wall and that in the bulk fluid = viscosity at bulk fluid temperaturc f$ Evidently, from the low value ol the exponent in Equation 9-12, the contribution fron natural convection and,hence, its practicalsignilicance is snall. The following equation can be used to predict heat tansfer coeflicients flom coils to tank walls in agitated tanks.



^l pNni I"'/ copl'"1lo )"0


where C is a constanl.Table 9-3 gives valuesof C for various agitator types and sudace ul. Hcat Transfcr Area Suface area for heatirg or cooling agilated vesselscan be provided by either exte.nal jacketing or intemal coils (or tubular baffles). Jacketing is usually preferred becauseof:

Table9-3 Constant(C) for various impellers Agitator

Turbine Turbine Paddle Paddle Propeller

Coil Coil

0.62 1.50 0.36 0.87 0.46 0.54 0.83

Saurce:Chope!,N. P ahd Hi.ks,7: G., Handbook of Chemical Engineerins Calcul ions, McGtu|| HiU Book C0., t981.

eatt.ansferin agila on processes 347

Clieaperconstructio[ materialsbecause the jacket is not in contact wittr process fluid. Less tendency to foul. Easier cleaning and maintenance. Fewer problems in circulating catalysts and viscous lluids. Larger heat-fansfer surface, unless significant reactor volume js taken up by the coils. . Helical jackets may allow thinner walls to be used for pressue vessels. . No rcstriction is plaoed on agitator type, whereas if a coil is in\lalled il festriclt sg i t a l o rd i m e n s i o n , . Coils should be consideredonly ifjacketing alone does not provide a sufficient heat transfer area, ifjacket pressureexceeds150 psig, or if highlemperature vacuum processilg is required.The coil ofl'ersthe advantage of a higher overall film coefiicient because of thinner walls with the latter condifons, but the wall resistance may not be significant compared to that on the process side (e.g., with a viscous liquid). Example 9-1 Determine the heat transfer coefficient from a coil immersed in an agitated vessel with a diameter of 3.048 nl. The agitator is a paddle measuring 1.01 m in diaaeter al1drevolving at 200 rev/nin. The fluid propefiies are:

p - densiry= '120kglmj = 4.13cP = 4.13x l0 r (Pa . s) g! = viscosity Cp = specificheat= 2.9 krkg . K k = thermaiconductivity= 0.17 WmK (p/Ur)ora= 1.0. Assume Solution
Frcm Table 9 3, for a paddle type agitator, C = 0.87. The heat ftaosfer coefficient from Equation 9,8 becomes

rf hg,=o.rzl oro;.1'r1cnu uu 1' |'o k, \Br\kJ(r'"J

(e-r l)

Engineering Processes 348Chemical

N = numberof revolutionper secis 200/60= 3.3333rev/sec. is: number, NRe= pND2A/!r The Reynolds

0l)" I kg . rev. m'") l ^, _ (720)(3.3313Y1 "Ren t -, sec 4.l3xl0-r | I .

\ m. sec / = 592,794 The Pmndtl number,Np. = Cpltk Ls



(z.qxloj)(+.t:vto') r 1
0.17 = '70.45

re .::".lL.K)
m'sec I )

[ kg'K

is: The heat hansfercoefficient

n,=o.r (ffi

('t 2,'ts4)2t3 o.4s)tF ) Oe

h" = 1,414 W/m'?r resultsfrom the MIXIR software. Table9-4 showsthe computer

Scale-Upvith IIeat Transfer The scale-upcriterion of constantheat ftansfercoefficient is suitable problemof the reactorinvolvesthe removalof whenthe predominant of the heat transfercoefficientis govemedby heat.The magnitude by: the intensity of stiritrg within the rcactor, and is represented

h?.r=c[ eND;1"'[.*.1"'[ l, l'' k \ p J \ k , \u*/


that depends on the agitatordesignand h is where C is a constant the requiredinsidefilm heat transfercoefficient.

Heatkansfer processes in agitation 349

Table 9-4 Heat transler coefticient to fluids in a vessel using mechanical agitated coils or lacket


3.) PA.S: Pa,B:



To scaleup a rcactor from Vl to Vz with geometricallysimilar systems having simiiar bulk average (i.e., the physical temperatures propefties of the fluids are identical),Equation9-l4 becomes



(lro1, )out -lnptl

( 9r -s )

o, t ror,_1N, 1out1no,fto
hrDrr \Nr J
\ 0 .u'_

tDAl ,/


lNz I


hrD' f Do, 1"0

hp" lD^.l

(9 t7)

whereDr2lDrl = Da2lDo,. Equation9- 17 becomes

'o ut ( Do, 1' hrDo, f *r')o _ -


hp^. l.%i


Ar equsJheat trirn\[ercoefficienls. hl - hr

350ChemielEngineenng Proesses

l*, lout - [oo, l''o



(9-r 9)

o. xa=[que1"*
Nr \ Do' -/


Assumingthat the ecluation is in the turbulentrangd,the Power numbers will be equal.The ratio of the powerper unit volume(P/V) for largeand small scales can be expressed by

(P/v), (P/v),

oNlD5^,/Dr,, Nl D?" pN? D5A1/DL ui oi,


Substituting of Equation9-20 into Equation9-21 gives

( P l v ) ,_ ( D ^ , ) ' f o o , l'oo, )o -tD^ J u'

-lD*l (P/vI l%./

.)-' "


The power per unit volumethus increases slightly.For equalheat transfer coefficients on smallandlargescales, the largertank will use an imDellerat a lower sDeed.

*n"* lL=|.!-,|' N,,fur)'" _IV, N, J

v, \ Drr J


(9 2J)

Havillg achieved the same heat transfer coefficient o[ the larger scale, lhe heat removal facilities must be increasedbecausethe heat

processes Heattransfer in agitaljon 351

generationis propo.tioral to V2lVt, but the sudace area of the vessel has increasedby (V2lV1)2/3. This can be done by addjng coils in the reactor.Larger areascan be addedby using an externalheat exchanger and a pump aroundsystem.In somecases, it may be possibleto lower the coolant temperatureand thereby increase the rate of heat flow tluough the existing surface.Howevet this is usuallyfixed by stability which require that the coolant temperaturebe within considerations, a few degreesof the reaction temperature. Liquid - Solid Agitation In certain cases, the primary process objective is to keep solid particlesin suspension. Areas of applicationinvolve catalyticreactions, crystallization,precipitation,ion exchange, and adsorption. Axial llow and pitched-bladeturbines are best suited in providing the essential The suspended flow pattemsin a tank to keepthe solids in suspension. solid is chardcterized by two paraneters: . Particle density,pr. . Particle sizer the mean diameter, dp or the pa cle size distribution. Variouscorrelationsare providedfor calculatingthe minimum speed Zwietering of the agitator Nrii to keep a given solid in suspension. developed the lollowing equation: L2l

pfl" DR"

o'pl' gont(p"-p,-)u d8' wro "

(9 24)

where Do = impeller diameter,ln Dr - tank diameter,m ws = weight ratio of solid to liquid in percentage PL = liquid density PL = liquid viscosity Y and o dependon the characteristics of the stifer !'or agitator types of propellers, turbines with flat blades and paddles,Y and (I are 1.5 and l.4,.espectively. The criterion for Equatior 9-24 is the absence of ary inmobile solid on the bottom of the tank.

Processes 352ChemilEngineerin9

Weisman and Eff'erding [3] in constrast, related the degree of agitation to the height Hs occupjed by the solid snspension,which is expressedas:

'l prs)'* Hs-[E(n,-r)pAl %f = 0.2] rni 0.r {e2s, f

Dr \ ln rgprvu5 D1/ |
where E = distance fiom reactionbottomto agitatiotrsystem = Hs height occupiedby the solid suspension (1 to 3) nr = ounber of stirring components V volurneto be stirred es = volumetdcfiaction of solid pM = detrsityof the suspension sedimenrarf io u, = panjcle ar le Equation9 25 was established for turbineagitators with flat blades andZDA = 0.5. The criteriafor Equation 9-25 relateto a specifictype The distributionof the solid as a functionof the height of suspension. the unifolmity in the liquid is not uniform in every case.Therefore, can only be approximated by obtaininga circulationraaeQ as high as po$sible.Nienow [4] found that H,E = 7 rn tanks for which H/Dr = 1.0. Recently, Corpsteinet al. l5l found that high efficiencyimpellers provide the samelevels of solids suspension at reducedcapital and "jrrst term operatingcosts.They introduoed the suspended" for the mostcomnonly encountered level of liquid solid agitation. This occu$ when none of the solid particlesremainsstationary or the bottom of the vesselfor longer than l-2 sec.They developed a corelation of just suspended conditionsas: the speedrequiredto achieve

" '''= -i[T)*]* nr'(+)[+)

a reference scale(0.29 m) impeller diameter, m tank djanetet m


where k = applicable coefficient, k = 15.0 for a pitched-bladeturbinel k = 23.0 for a high-efTiciencyimpeller

Heallransier pro@sses in agiiation 383

f(X) = s611,1, loading factol.,f(X), is a non-linear functio, for up to 5olosolids loading n = scale-up exponent = just-suspended speed, sl \, ul = terminal settling velocity for a particle, m/sec Pi = dcnsity of liquid Ps= density of solids X = solids loading (solids nass/slurry mass)

The requiredpower can be determined by: P = Np p,rN3Di whereN = impellerrotationspeed, sr Np = impeller Powernumber P = Impellerpower draw,W p.r = densityof slurry,kg/m3
Computatio[ fluid nixing and computational fluid dynanic techniques have increasingly been used to elucidate solids distribution in agitated vessels [6].



Heating or cooling ol process fluids i11a batch-operatedvessel is com]non in the chemical processindustries.The process is unsteady statein nature because the heat flow and/or the temperatmevary with time at a fixed point. The time required for the heat transfer cal1be modified, by increasing the agitation of the batch fluid, the rate of circulation ol the heat rransfermedium in a jacket and/or coil, or the heat transferarea.Bondy and Lippa [7] and Dream l8l have compiled a colleclion ot' corelations of heat transler coefficients in agjtated vessels.Batch proce$ses are sometimesdisadvantageous because: . . . . Use of headng or cooljng medium is intermittent. The liquid being p.ocessedis llot readily available. The requiaements for treating time require holdup. Cleaning or .egenerationis an integtal pad of the total operat_ ing period.

354chemil Engineeing Pbcesses

The variables in batch heating or cooling prccesses are surface requirement, time, and temperature.Heating a batch may be by extemal means (e.g., a jacket or coil) or by withdrawing and recirculating process liquid through an extemal heat exchanger.In either case, assumptionsare made to facilitate calcu]ation, namely, . The overall heat transt'ercoefficient U is constantfor the process and over the entirc sudace. . Liquid flowrates are at steady state. . Specific heats are constantfor the process. . The heating or cooling medium has a constantinlet temperature. . Agitation gives a uniform batch fluid temperature. . There is no phase change. . Heat losses are negligible. The following discussesvarious heating or cooling prccess conditions in a batch vessel and the processingtime relationsl'lips. BATCI{ HEATING: INTERNAL COIL, ISOTHERMAL HEATING MEDIUM When an ag?tated batch containing M of fluid with specific heat c and initial temperature t is heated using an isothermal condensing heating medium Tt, the batch temperaturet2 at any tim(- e can be derived by the differential heat balance. For an unsteady state operation as shown in Figure 9 2, the total number of heat transferred is q', and per unit tine 0 is:

III do _0 :d ae _ 'd
d,n' di M c_ : :

TV = uAAl Transfer rate


Accumulation in the batch where At=Tr -i EquatingIII and IV gives


processes Heallransfer in agitation 355

Ht exchangerwirbn t[e baich

Figure 9-2. Agitatedbatch vesssl.

Mc:=UAAI d0 RearralgingEquation9-30 gives dr UA ,^ At MC Integrationof Equation9-31 between the limits gives i dt =U Au ilo r| T , - t M c l



(9 32)

Integrationof Equation9-32 tom tt to t2 while the batch processing time passes from 0 to 0 yields:

uA.0 hf r,-r, -t, l=

\Tr J Mc

356ChemielEngineedng Prccesses


where A = c= M = Tr = tl = t2 = U = 0 =

heal Lranslersurface area specific heat of batch liquid weight of batch liquid heating medium temperature initial batch temperature final batch tempraturc overall heat transfer coefficient time

Example 9-2 A tank containing 22,679.5kg mate'ial with a specific hear of 2.1 kJikg . K is to be heatedfrom 293K to 398 K. The tank contains a heating coil \rith a heat transfer suface of 9.29 n2, and.ihe overall heat tansfer coefficienr from the coil to the tank contents of 850 W/m2 . K. Calculate the time requircd to heat the tanl( contentswith steamcondensingat 433 K. Solution Select and apply the app.opdate heat ttansfer fomula. When heating a batch with an internal coil with an isothermal heating medium, the lbllowing equation applies:

-,, hf r, l_ ue., Mc

(e t3)

+::-:q:l_ ,nf / \ 433 3e8

(22,67e.sx2.1) (tOr) fm'r

(e.2q) t85o) _.eJ w .-'.r<e.rl



processes Heallransfer in aqitation 357

^ = 1r.386\(22.6'/e.5)(2.1x10,) . -



= 2.32ht Computersoftwarc(BATCH) was developed to determine the time requiredfor heatingor coolingprocess fluids in a batchsystem. Table 9-5 gives the conputer resultsof Example9-2. BATCII REACTOR HEATING AND COOLING TEMPER{TURE PREDICTION
Start up of a jacketed batch reactor rcqules control of the heat-up and cool-down rates. This involves determining and settingthe jacket heat transtbrfluid tempelatules. An altemativeis to make a trial heat-up and incoryorate the results into a tinle depetdent heat transfet equation:


^ . / r,-r, ' l .) l - lt'u") lnl

\Tr -tr, \uAJ

(9-3 i.)

Equatjon9-33 can also be usedto calculatethe heat,uptime lor non-isorhermal jacketing),providedthat the heating(e.9.,by hot-water js not difference between the outlet and iqlet jacket temperatures greaterthatr lOEaof the differencebetweenthe batch and averase water temperature [9].

Table9-5 Batch heating:internalcoil isothermalheating


9.290 2.100 22679.500 293.OOn 398.000 I50. 000 2.323



Enqineering Prce$es 35SChemr@l

Assumingthat M, c, U, and A are constants,where .. UA Mc


Equation9-33 becomes
/. \ ', 0=hl l-L:lL l.

\Tr-trl K


RearrangitrgEquation 9-35 gives the jacket temperatuleas a functionof time as:

f t1 - t2e^"


dudrg a trial heat-up,K can Thos, by taking a seriesof readirlgs be detemi[ed. The heat-upand cool-downtimes for varyingjacket temperaturescan then be predicted. Example9-3 Assume that in Example 9-2, the ovela cycle time for a batch reactionis 8 hrs. The cycle tirne will include 2 hrs for heat-upand 3 hrs for cool-down. The batch will be heatedfrom 20'C to the of 60"C, thetrcooledto 35'C. Usilg a hot-water rcactiontempemture jacket temperature of 80"C, it took 15 mir to heatthe batch from 20"C requircdfor heat-upand the jacket temperatures and 30'C. Calculate cool-down. Solution From Equation9-34,



(8soxe.2e) I

, l ks.Kl
kg J l

(22, ooo) lsec. mrK 61 e.5)(2.r)(r,

K = 0.00017 sec I

processes Heattransfer in agitation 359

The jacket temperature required for a 2 hr heat-upcan be obtained from Equation9 36 as:
. _r 1 , ^K0 ^Ko


f 0.000r7-Lx2x3.600secl sec / 20 * 60e\

, _

!,*) "(o.ooorr

The jacket temperature requled for a 3 lu cool-down is:

. -r ' . _Ke ^K0

fo.ooorrlx:*.ooos*) soc / 60 - 35e\


f o.ooorz-L':,:,ooo*"1 sec /

= 30.3"C9 SATCH COOLING: INTERNAL COIL ISOTHERMAL COOLING MEDIT]M Consider the samearangenetrtas beforecontaining M of liquid with specificheal c and initial temperatu.e Tt cooledby an isothermalvaporizing mediumof tenpemture tl. If T is the batchtemperature at anv time 8. dlen

d9'=-M" dr = uat de de

(9'37 )

360Chemical Engineering Processes

wheie At=T Then tr




g l8 into Equalion q-Jq andrearrangS u b s r i t u l i nE gq u a t i o n ing gives:

? or ?u,q. .^
i, T-tr ' oM c


Integration from Tl to T2 while the time passes from 0 to e gives


. I T-, - t , - I UA ^ l=-.H
\T, -t, / M"

o, 6=M" 6[ r'-q I uA \rr-tr,

wherc A = heat transfersudacearea c = specificheat of batch liquid M = weight of batch liquid Tt = initial batch temperature Tz = final batch tempemture tt = cooling medium temperature U = ovemll heatingtratrsfercoefficient 0 = time BATCH HEATING: NON-ISOTHERMAL HEATING \,IEDIUM

(9-4r )

The non-isother-mal heating mediun has a constantflowrate Wh, spec.ific heat Ch, and inlet tempeEtureTt, but a variableoutlet tempelature.For an unsteady slate opefation:

proes*s 361 Heattransfer h agitaiion


I[IIIIv - M " + - w \ c h ( T . - T . )= u A A r r M r D + de de The log meantempemture difference At,_rrois:







tnl I lTz-t./
EquatingIlI and Mn Equation9-43 and rearranging gives:



w"c"(T, - Tr) _ T, _T,


. fr,-t'l r4'l

Irz -tJ

Equation9-44 becomes:

,,(r,-, )_ ue -rJ
-e n-n




Rearranging Equatjon9 46 gives


where K, =swhcr


EquatingII andIII in Equation9-42 andsubstituting Equalion9-47 into Equation9-42 gives:

362Chemi@l Engineering Proesses


'i a' ?w,c-lr,-r).^
iT,-, i Mc I K, J
Integrating Equation9 50 gives

(e 49)

o-4g and inlegraltng Rearranging Equatton from ll to t2 r hile the processingtime passesfrom 0 to e gives:



-r). /r, -t, tt'r, ' l) = l rwc, ' le "ll

\E-rr' \ Mc i\ K, ./

o,e-r K, )r M")r,[t,-,,) -l
\Kr ,\whch, ITr-r2, where A = heat transfer surface area c = specificheat of batchliquid Cr,= heatingmediumspecificheat M = weight of barchliquid Tl = heatingnedium tempemture tl = initial batch tempemtue tz = final batch temperature U - overall heat transfercoefficienl Wh = heatingmediumflowrate 0 = time


BATCE COOLING: NON-ISOTHERMAL COOLING MEDIUM When cooling a batch with internal coil and a non-isothelmal cooling medium,the following equationcan be applied.

pro@s*s 363 Heattranstur in agitation

*de =-*"*


-w c"(r)-r') = UAArl6p


!l where K2 = ew'c'

ano lnt

. . fr,-t,) ' t = rw^c"r/r.-t)^

\T, trJ \ Mc /\ K, ./

t" ),"ft,-',) o.r=[ ", ]f -1./\ w"c.

lK, J \r,-rp,
where A = c = C" = M = Tr = Tz = tl = U = W" = 0 = heat transtbr surface area speciiic heat of batch Iiquid coolant specific heat weight of batch liquid initial batch temperaturc final batch temperature in;tial coolant temperature overall heat fansfer coefficient coolant flowrate time


Example 9-4 For the tank describedin Example9 2, calculatethe time reqLrired to cool the balch from 398 K to 313 K if cooling water is availa -ble at a temperatureof 303 K with a tlowrate of 4535.9 kg/hr. Solution Selectand apply the appropriate heat transferformula. When cooling a batch wjth internal coil and a non-isothermalcooling medium, the following equatioo can be applied.

ol --*.11 wcc.(12-tr)UAATLMTD d0 de


364ChemilEngineering Processes

where K2 = eulw c.

. . ( r,-t,)I = lrw^c-t(r.-r)' "ll lH

\Tr-rr, K" =eu^/-,\ Mc /\ K, ./


l,rro;1"..1:.o001 I f 'a{'0, 1rq...,s.";tq. tl I I =ei(^-._.._>

lsec.m'K I&.


I ks.K I
lorJ I

= 4.58

hr 3,600 r""

-l). /r, -t, )l = l/ w^c, ' ' l lrfK, ' lnl lH

\T2-trJ \ Mc /\ K, J

- 303 r1 ,-lie8 I [;

l3r3-lOJ/ L ( 2 2 . 6 7 e . s ) ( 24 . t.)s l t8 |
K _ .J _ . I K-e l \ - t x u{_ >u Lhr ks.K kg kJ I ^tKs ".
f, ,, . , .. 1

0 = 7.34hr Tabie9-6 gives the computer rcsultsfrom the software(BAICH) for batch cooling, tron isothermal cooling medium. BATCH HEATING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER, ISOTHERMAL HEATING MEDIUM Figure 9-3 illustrates the arrangement in which the fluid in the tank is heated by an external heat exchanget.The heating l]1ediumis isothermalithereforeany type of exchanger with steamin the shell

HeattEnsfer in agitationproesses 365

Table 9-6 Balch cooling: non-isothermal cooling inedium


9.290 2,100 4-420 22679.500 303,000 394.000 313.O00 950.000 4535.900 7.34

Figure 9-3. Balchheating llrrough an exlernal heat exchanger, isolhermal healing medium.

in the magdtude of At can or tubes can be used (i.e., no advantage be obseryedby using a multi pass design, such as a 2:4 type). The variable temperature from the exchanger t' will defer from the vadable tank temperaturet. Ar energy balance around rhc tank and the heat exchangergives:

366ChemielEnsineenns Prcesses

III + dr rur.* d0 Heat accumulation in the batch = whch(r' t) Heatentering thebatchby recirculation UAAILMTD (9-54, Tmnsferrate in the extemal exchanger r

The log nean tempelaturedifference ATLMTD is:

a!I t!,tl-D

-'I ul t'-

\TL t'J

9 - 5 4g i v e s : ll andlll in Equa(ion Equating WhCh(t' - t) = UA atlyp That is:



w " C " ( t ' - r )= U A

-tf mlr'-t,j


re 57t

Rearranging Equation 9-57gives UA . lT,-r I 'ol1'-''j=



Equation9-58 can be expressed as:

f, -t = ewt'cn(f, -t')


Heattransferin agilaiionprocesses 367

where K3 =ewhch T1-t- K3(Tr- t') Therefore,


-t) -l.t ,,=t,'lK,J

EquxtingI anJ TTin Equatjonq-54 gives


Mc4=W.C.ft'-r) de


SubstitutingEquation 9 6l into Equation 9-62 and rearanging yields

whch do

Mc .dt _ Ir_[t-,)l _,
L'\Kr,J -t)(r, -t)

_ (K.

RearrangingEquation 9-63 and integrating from tl to t2 while the time passesfrom 0 to 0 gives:

'i q

= [sd)f %cn lio, K3 Mc /Jo

\ /\

(e 64)

r, -r, )_ [r,-r)1 wnc|whichvields rof 1. " -rr./ Kj I v" \r, \ Jt

368Chemical Ensineeng Prc@sses

w6i l'"tt'-',J "' "=[r-r J[

where A = c = Ch = M = Tr = tl = t2 = U = Wh = 0 = heat transfer surface area specific heat of batch liquid heating medium specific heat weight of batch liquid heatingmediumlemperature initial batch temperature final batch temperature overall heat ffansfer coefficient heating medium flowmte time

^ / r, )/ uc )- 1r,-t,)


BATCH COOLING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER, ISOTHERMAL COOLING MEDIUM When cooling a balch with an extemal heat exchanger and an isothermal cooling medium.lhe equerion is:

--:L lJ-5 or l1nllr lL I "' e=l "-(xo-r.J[w.c"]"'lt.

I v


^,^ \


- r



where Ko = A = c = C" = M = Tr = T? = tt = U = w. = e =

suw.c. heat transfer surface alea specific heat of batch liquid coolant specific heat weight of batch liquid initial batch temperature final batch temperature initial coolant temperature overall heat transfercoefficient coolant llowrare time

processes369 Healtransfr in aqitation

BATCH COOLING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER (COUNTER-CURRENTFLOW), NON.ISOTIIERMAL COOLING MEDIUM Whencooling a batchwitLran external heatexchanger and a nonjsothermal coolingmedium,the following equation can be usedl

. /r, ,,) rx.-rt/ Inl -llorU

w,w-c )^


^ /r<.wc"-w.")/ M rr-r, \ - ). " ll l..J llnl;:-\

exPlUA(lnvbc - lAVcCJl heat tmnsfer surface area specific heat of batch liquid coolant specific heat weight of batch liquid initial balch temperature final batch temperature i n i t ' a lc o o l c n t lenlperature overall heat t.ansfer coefficient batch flolvrate coolant flowrate tine

| w.w,c. JlK,_t./ \,: .,u


where K5 = A = c = C" = M = Tl = Tr = r, U = Wb = W. = 0 =

Example 9-5

Calculate the time required to cool the batch describedin Exampie 9 4 if an cxternal heat exchangerwith a heat transler surfaceol 200 ft2 (18.58 nr2) is available. The batch material is circulated through the exchangerat the rate of 11,339.8kg/br. The overall heat transfer coefficient in the heat exchanger1134 Wm2K. Solution Select and apply the appropriateheat transfer formula. When cooling a batch with an extemal heat exchanger and a non,isotherlnal cooliig medium, the following equation can be used:

370ChemilEngineering Processes

K'-r )1. wow"c") e , hfl-'- , , , I I / \ M

\T, /\K,w"C"-woc./


.,=*o{uo(uf ;-)}
= e x'D[0. <

r.l+ ooo rr.]. tl tr.000

(4.sls.ex4.2),1 \ (r.3jq.8x2.r)



fsec.K = 0.4509

ke.K I , hr 3.6oosec kg hr lO'J I


tt-t' \Tt tr


wbw"c" 0 K5w"c"-wb


. (:ss-:o:) /0.+sos-r ) I
\313-303/ \ 2 2 , 6 7 9 .)5

(1 l, 33e.8X4,53s.eX4.2)

- 01,33e.8)(2.1) (0.4s0ex4,535.ex4.2) )'

0:6.55hr Table 9-7 shows the computer results using an external heat exchangerinvolving a non-isothermalcooling medium. BATCH HEATING: EXTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGER AND NON-ISOTHERMAL IIEATING MEDIUM When heating a batch rcactor with an external heat exchangerand non-isothemal heating, the lbllowing equation applies:

processes He.l kansfer in agitaiior 371

taDte 9-l

Batch heating/cooling of fluids exlernal heat exchanger: (counter-current tlow) non-isothermal cooling medium
T.EAT TRANSFERSURFACEAREA, n^2: SPECIFIC ltllAT OF LIoUID, k,t/kg.r<: COO',ING TiIEDIUM SP1ICIFIC IjEAT, KryKg.K: WEIGIIf oF BATCH LIQOID, kg.: COOI,ING. }'EDIUM TEMPERATURE, 1(: INITIAI- BATCH TEMPERATSRE,K: FINAI, BATCH TEMPERATURE. 1{: OVERALL SEAT TRANSFERCOEFFICIENT. fi/n^2.k: BATCII FLOti RATE, kglhr.: COOLINGMEDIUI,I Floti RAIE, kqlhr.: TIME, hT,: 18.540 4 -200 2,100 22679.500 303,000 394.000 313.000 1 1 34 , O 0 0 1 1 33 9 . a 00 4 5 35 . 9 0 0 6.55

. fr,-r,) r <^-rr/' w.w.c, l" tB

\T, rrJ I M /\KoWhCh-WbcJ

or u=t

^ / ra )(r^w^c-.w..).1r,-r,) - " " 3ttntll

l K o - l J l . w " w h c, ) \r, -r, ./
expluA(l/Wbc - l/Whch)'l heat ttansfer surface area specitlc heat of batch liquid heating medium specific heat weighaof batch liquid heating medium temperature initial batch tenrperalure final batch tenpemture overall heal transfer coefficienl batch flowrate heaiing medium flowrate time


where Ku = A = c = Ch = M = Tr = tt = t2 U = Wu = Wh = 0 =

Table 9-8 surnmarize the rules-of-thumb involvingmixing, agitation, al1d reactors, respectively []0]. The following considerations are essential during mixing of fluids in a reactor l ll: 1. Wheneverreactionrates are of the samemagnitudeas, or laster than, the mixing rate in a stirfed rcactor, mixing will have a

372Chemical EnsireeingPro@sses

Table 9-8 Rules-of-thumb: mixing and agitation

L Mild agitdtionis obrainedby circulalingrhe liquid wirh rn impelier ar superficialvelocitiesof0.l 0.2 ft/sec.and inlenseagitatior a! 0.7-1.0 ft/sec. 2. IDtensities of agitarioD wilh ilnpeller in b:rffledunks afe measured by power tupnl.hp/1.000 gal. and impelleflip speeds: Operation Blending Hoffogencous rcaclion Reactionlvith heat transfer Liquidiiqui.l nrixlures Liquid-gasn1ixrufes Sluffies

gal hp/1,000 0.2 0.5 0.5 r.5 i.5-5.0 5 5.0l0 10

Tip sped (ftlrnin) 7.5 l0 l0-15 15 2t) 15 20

Propoftions of a sliffed tank relative !o the diameter D: liquid level = D: turbine inrpellef diameter = D/3i impelier level above bortoff = D/3; jmpeller blade with = D/15: tbur veftical bafflcs rvith widih = D/10.

1. Propellers afe a maxinunr of l8 iD.: turblne impellers ro 9 ft. 5 . Gas bubbles sparged ri Lhc botlom of the vessel will result in mild agiration a!
a s pcrficial gas velocity of 1 f/min aDd seveLagitation nl 4 ftllrlin.

6 . SuspensioDof soljds with a seltliDg velocity of 0.03 fthcc is accomplished

sith eilher turbiDe of pfopeller lnpellers, but when the sertling velociry is above 0.15 frsec iitense rgitation with a propeller is needed.

7. Power to drive a mixture of a gas nnd a ljquid caDbe 25qa 50t/. less than rhe power10 dfive the liquidilone. 8. In line blendersarc adequalc when a l-2 sec contactline is suiiicicnt. with powerinputsof 0.1 0.2 bp/gal.
Sauree: ttLrlat, S. M., CheDical Pfocess Equitdenr Selecrion and Design, aane\anh! hr Clertnlrl Lngitle?bi!, l9il8. Scrjes

serious impact on results- Poor inixing is a primary source of vadability in ploducts made ir batch reactors.The results for a reactionrun in a pooriy mixed CFSTR may deviatestfol]gly from those expected. There is lo single "correct" agitator type. Different agitator designsmay perlbm equally well, or equally,for a given application.Although some detailed design calculationscan be performed, workable designsare otien developedby trial and error. 3 . Many reactioDs involve shear-sensitive materials,which severely limit the maximum mixing rate and make impeller and reactor design important. Mixing becomesthe limiting factol..

processes Heattransfer in agiiation 373

Table 9-9 Mixing equipment specifications

Mixer data sheet





DsignStlndrrds andInspction

Mltrials of consrlciion





R.ptn.tuc.d tlith ternissiul of PROCEDE.

374ChemilEngineering Pro@sses

Table 9 - 1 0 Reaclor vessel specifications

Vesseldata sheet




Reprcduc..l rrith perrkistbh of PROCEDE.

proesses3T5 in aqjtation Healtransier


may be adoptedin the designof a mixing The lbllowing procedure vesselfor a given process. and of the liquid and physicalrequircments, 1. Study the properties choosethe type of impeller. 2.. Select size ratios preferably the same as the standardvalues (Table on smal1-scale studies. or based 9-2) to avoidexperimentation DA for the largei systemto accom3 . Selectimpeller diameter modatethe systembeing mixed. This leavesthe impeller speed variable. N as the only independent or commonlyusedrules. 4 . Choose N based on scaleup studies 5 . Calculate the power P, mixing time 0, gtc.Accounttbr mechanical a motor. ard the like when selecting Iosses values. 6 . ChangeN and P to slandard designs requiringlower power exists. 7 . Itemteand seeif alternative 8 . Perform nlechalical designs(e-g.,to obtain shaft diameter, supports,bearingdesigns,etc.). specitication sheet, which can Table9-10 showsa mixing equipment geneial Generally, the specification sheet helplul as a checklist. be should not be completelyrelied on for a mixirg problem, unlessthe problem is known or data are knovrn th4t can be given to the manufacturer(e.9., blendilg, dispe$ing, or dissolvingcrystals).For udque problems,laboratory data should be cal.riedout undel the guidaDce or other qualjfied authority, of technicaladvicelrom the manufacturr up dala are taken and evaluated.It is in order that adequatescale essentiallhat both a description and dimensiols are given tbr the requestthe matufacturerto recommend vesselto be used.Otherwise, to the service. Table9 11 providesa rcactorvessel the type best suited specificationclatasheet.

Proesses 376Chemical Engineeting

l. Chopey,N. P., Handbookof ChetuicalEngineeringCalcul.ations, pp. 7-28, Mccmw-Hjll Book Company,1984. T. N., "Suspendiigof solid particlesin liquid by 2. Zwtetering, agitators,"Chem.Eng. Sci., Vol. 8, pp. 244-253, 1958. J. and Efferding, L. E., AICLEI, 6 (3), 419, 1960. 3. Wei$man, 4. Nienow, A. \'1., Chem.Eng. Sci., 23, pp. 1453-1459,1968. J.,'The high efficiency R. R., Myers, K. J., ard Fasano, 5. Corystein, road to liquid-solid agitation,"Clrcm.Eng., Oct. 1994. A., Fasano, J., andLeung,D. E., "Pinpointmixing prcblens 6. Bakker, with lasers and simulation soflwale," Chetu.Eng., pp. 94-100, lgg4. January vessels," Crem. 7. Bondy,R and Lippa, S., "Heat transterin agitated Eng.,pp.62-:71,1983. 8. Dream, R. F., "Heat fansfer in agitatedvessels," Chem. Eng., pp. 90-96, Jan. 1999. 9. McEwan, J., "How to predict batch leactor heatingand cooling," Eng.,p. 179,May 1989. Chem. Equipment Selection and Design, 10. Walas,M.5., ChemicalProcess 1988ButterworthsSeriesin ChemicalEngiDeering, "Inportant concepts in under ll. Falconer,J. L. and Huvard, G. S., gmduatekinetics and reactordesigncou$es," Chenicdl Engineering pp. 140-141, Vol. 33, No. 2, Spring1999. EdLlcatiorx,