DILEMMAS

in Civil Rights

Curriculum Rationale Paper
T-527 – Developing Curriculum With New Technologies

Jeremy Price Curriculum developed in partnership with Jody Reilly 16 December 2002

Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

Introduction
Mr. Collins, my European History teacher in high school, taught by the quote attributed to George Santayana, “Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” A poor Irish boy from the Bronx thrust into the role of helicopter gunman during the Vietnam War, Mr. Collins hung the quote prominently on the wall of his classroom and referred to it often in his lectures, hoping that his students would remember the tragic mistakes humankind has made in order to prevent those same mistakes from happening again. John Dewey, perhaps the most influential educational thinker of the 20th century, expressed the notion that education has a social function, and not just an academic function. “A being connected with other beings,” writes Dewey (1961: 12), “ cannot perform his own activities without taking the activities of others into account.” In other words, an individual operates within a social milieu or socially aware environment. Dewey further recognized that an individual does not operate merely in reaction to those around him or her – the individual similarly has the power to effect change – nor is the individual’s environment limited by spatial or temporal proximity: “The things with which a man varies are his genuine environment” (1961: 11). The role of education in the pursuit of these greater social goals then is to transport members of all races, ethnicities, and social classes across boundaries closer to one another, increasing contact with each other, broadening their horizons, and expanding each other’s spheres of influence or “environment” (Dewey 1961: 86). With all due respect to Messrs. Collins and Santayana, simply to remember may not be enough to prime for social and civic change. Remembering is in essence a passive process. Understanding, on the other hand, “…is the ability to think and act flexibly with what one knows” (emphasis added; Perkins 1998: 40). Grappling and engaging with the ideas, thinkers, heroes,

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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

and events of history, and actively connecting the past with the present, is an effective way of learning from history. Through understanding then, and not simply remembering, can students help build a better world and to bring about a sense that history is nothing if not situated firmly in the present.

The Generative Topic and Targets of Difficulty
This curriculum, “Dilemmas in Civil Rights,” one section within a larger thematic unit on social movements in United States history1 for eighth-grade students, engages students in the study of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s and follows the Teaching for Understanding framework (Wiske 1998). As part of a larger unit, students are afforded the opportunity to analyze the various social movements within their historical and social contexts, and to compare and contrast the successes and failures of each movement. The Civil Rights Movement in United States history can be an interesting subject of inquiry for students drawing them in to a deeper and more thorough study, in other words, making this topic generative. Wiske (1998: 64-5) points to four characteristics of a generative topic:  Central to a domain or discipline: The Civil Rights Movement, as a historical topic, is exemplary of and central to many important concepts, such as justice, power, racism, conflict, protest, fairness, compromise, and change.  Accessible and interesting to students: The topics listed above are often of great interest to adolescent children as they developmentally strive to establish their own identities within a larger social framework. In addition, the 1960’s is an era often glamorized as a time of great change for the United States in the media through television shows and movies.
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Other topics include the women’s suffrage movement and the labor movement. -2-

Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

 Interesting to the teacher: There are teachers who lived through the Civil Rights era, forging a personal connection to the topic. Some teachers also enter the teaching profession for altruistic purposes, in order to effect positive social change, making the topic of the Civil Rights Movement very important and interesting.  Connectable: The Civil Rights Movement, in addition to being connectable to concepts listed above in the first characteristic, can also be connected to contemporary political events and social movements. This allows for building a breadth and depth of inquiry in history and modern times. While there are many aspects of the Dilemmas in Civil Rights curriculum that are generative, increasing intrinsic motivation, there aspects of the curriculum that may be challenging, difficult, and troublesome to the 8th-grade learner. These “targets of difficulty” include:  Thinking critically about the actions of national heroes: Through the early education years, heroes of the Civil Rights era, such as Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr., and President John F. Kennedy, are often elevated on a pedestal. Getting students to think critically about the motivations for and ramifications of the actions of these key players involves breaking down ingrained preconceptions.  Building a personal connection to history: Connecting what has happened in the past, specifically the events of the Civil Rights era, to the present day, and how the Civil Rights Movement impacts the personal lives of students, are often difficult challenges for students, and nearly impossible to convey in a traditional didactic classroom setting. Allowing for exploration, reflection, and scaffolded inquiry are various ways of addressing this target of difficulty.

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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

 Critically reading texts: Students of this age (8th grade) are just starting to be responsible for critically analyzing and assessing the values of written texts. In addition, in the “Information Age,” an era of widespread publication capabilities with few social mechanisms in place to check for accuracy, it is easy to fall prey to the Pierre Salinger Syndrome2 and to believe whatever information is presented. The challenge becomes to move students to analyze both historical primary sources and digital documents with a critical eye.

Understanding Goals
“When a sailor departs port and loses sight of land, he must have some method of determining his direction. Early captains relied on nature to provide the answers.” – Mariners’ Museum (1997) If the use of curriculum is considered a learning journey, the understanding goals can be considered the cognitive destination. According to Wiske, these goals “state explicitly what students are expected to come to understand” (Wiske 1998: 66). Understanding goals are important markers allowing teachers to bridge performances of understanding with assessments, and connecting these same performances with increasingly important state and national standards and curriculum frameworks. This is not to say, however, that there is a direct line between the current understandings of the class and the understanding goals. When flying on a commercial jet from one city to another, it is fair to say that one is “off course” 80% of the time on direct flights – the flight crew continuously adjusts according to a variety of natural and man-made factors to arrive at the scheduled destination (Porter 1999: 6). In a classroom setting, every student brings his or her own background, experiences, and opinions to the learning table. This can cause the
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Pierre Salinger was a press secretary of President Clinton and a former journalist. Salinger became the namesake of the syndrome describing the widespread tendency to believe anything published on the Internet after he “relayed a bogus report that he read on the Internet, stating that TWA flight 800, which crashed on July 17, 1996, had been the victim of friendly fire” (Webopedia 2002). -4-

Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

conversation to cross into unexpected territory. Being mindful of understanding goals allows the teacher to reach out to these conversations and bring the conversations into the fold of the overarching aims of the curriculum. In the same vein, John Seely Brown (2000) argues in favor of a “Learning Ecology” – a constantly evolving interdependent collaboration of diverse learners building upon the ideas of one another in order to create knowledge. Pedagogy in a learning ecology becomes a matter of “husbandry” – cultivating the conversation for knowledge building purposes (Brown 2000: 19). Towards these ends, the understanding goals of the “Dilemmas in Civil Rights” are structured in a two-part fashion:  Statements of expectations, which explicitly state what the students should come to understand at the end of the unit. These statements are phrased similarly to standards and frameworks to allow easy mapping, and are worded in a form familiar to most teachers.  Questions for inquiry, which allow for in-depth, focused explorations of topics without a predefined destination. These questions provide the tools for teachers to cultivate and focus the discussion along thematic lines, but the outcome is not known except to say that students have explored these questions in depth. While well-worded understanding goals structured as statements and implemented by skilled teachers lead to deep and complex understandings of topics – this notion, in fact, is integrated into the definition of “understanding goals” (Wiske 1998: 68) – providing questions gives teachers a choice. The teachers can decide which structure of understanding goals works best according to their personal style and the particular needs of the learners. Both paths can lead to a viable learning ecology

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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

The understanding goals of the Dilemmas in Civil Rights curriculum are as follows: Statements of Expectations
Students will understand how the U.S. government allows for and empowers social protest. Students will understand the different contexts of the dilemmas within the Civil Rights movement. Students will understand the dilemmas in the Civil Rights Movement. Students will understand the relevance of the Civil Rights Movement to issues that arise today.

Questions for Inquiry
How do citizens in a representative democracy make their voices heard? How do the Constitution and the Bill of Rights support citizens and empower social protest? How does social action/protest make our democracy stronger? How do the social, political, moral, legal, and cultural contexts affect the dilemmas inherent in the Civil Rights Movement? What are the roles of the dilemmas within the Civil Rights Movement? How does exploring these dilemmas enhance our understandings of the Civil Rights Movement? In what ways do the achievements of the Civil Rights leaders resonate today?

Performances of Understanding and Ongoing Assessments
The Teaching for Understanding framework is based on a system of performances and “…emphasizes understanding as the ability and inclination to use what one knows by operating in the world” (Wiske 1998: 72). This notion ties in well with the idea that the study of history in general, and the study of the Civil Rights Movement specifically, can help bring students to affect positive change in the world around them. The performances presented in the “Dilemmas in Civil Rights” are geared to allow students to grapple with the ideas, concepts, events, and contexts of the dilemmas inherent within the Civil Rights Movement in order to construct their own views and understandings. This will lead, hopefully, to changes in decision-making habits and in action when dealing with others. To these ends, several modes of understanding are engaged and encouraged. Jonassen (2000: 26), drawing upon the Integrated Thinking Model (see figure on right) posited by the Iowa Department of Education, describes a model of understanding in which the skills necessary to remember and
Critical Thinking Content/Basic Thinking

Complex Thinking Process Creative Thinking

Integrated Thinking Model (adapted from Jonassen 2000: 26).

recall basic and accepted subject domain knowledge (Content/Basic Thinking), the skills

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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

necessary to evaluate, analyze, and connect new knowledge in meaningful ways (Critical Thinking), and the skills necessary to generate new knowledge and understandings (Creative Thinking) are intertwined and interdependent, forming a model of “Complex Thinking Processes” (Jonassen 2000: 25-28). The performances of understanding inherent within “Dilemmas In Civil Rights” are designed to provide a balance between the three different modes of thinking, affording teachers the opportunity to craft an environment of complex thinking in their classrooms. In addition to being structured around the complex thinking model outlined above, the performances of understanding are likewise structured on the four dimensions of understanding framework posited by Mansilla and Gardner (1998). Similar to the above model, these dimensions of understanding are all equally important, intertwined, and interdependent. The dimensions of understanding are as follows (from Mansilla & Gardner 1998: 173-8):  Knowledge: addresses the ability of students to transcend innate perspectives and their ability to move between examples and generalizations;  Methods: addresses the ability of students to sustain a sense of skepticism as they learn new information, and their ability to build validating mechanisms;  Purposes: addresses the ability of students the contexts and consequences of the construction and uses of new knowledge;  Forms: addresses the ways that understanding is performed through various symbol systems (writing, multimedia, movement, etc.) in order to express what has been learned and constructed. Inherent within the dimensions of understanding are four levels of understanding (naïve, novice, apprentice, and master) (Mansilla & Gardner 1998: 172). As students move through

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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

higher levels, they demonstrate a greater, or deeper, understanding of the issues through the four dimensions. The role of curriculum, then, becomes to provide a framework for students and teachers to engage in this journey. The performances of understanding presented in “Dilemmas in Civil Rights” are designed to allow these manners of explorations. The assessments of, or rather the feedback for, the performances of understanding for this curriculum are nearly impossible to disentangle from the performances themselves. Therefore, they are included in this section rather than reserving a separate section for their delineation. By definition, assessments within the Teaching for Understanding framework should be ongoing, contextualized, meaningful, and aligned closely with the understanding goals illustrated at the outset, allowing students to adjust their course (using the commercial jet flight metaphor from the Understanding Goals section above) and guiding them to a level deeper understanding (Wiske 1998: 77). In the “Dilemmas in Civil Rights” curriculum, in order to work toward these goals, the assessment strategies employed by the teacher are clearly delineated and made public from the beginning of the unit by encouraging teachers to share the understanding goals with students, as well as the various assessment tools, such as rubrics (an example of a rubric can be found in Appendix 2). For one of the culminating performances, the expository essay, students are encouraged to assess and provide feedback on the work of their peers. The understanding performances are listed below. Explanations bridging the performances with the Complex Thinking and Understanding Domain models, as well as with the assessment strategies, can be found in Appendix 1.  Process Journal: An on-going chronicling of the understanding journey taken by the students, encouraging students to reflect on the process (Ritchhart, Wiske, Buchovesky, & Hetland 1998: 143).

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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

 Brainstorming: A messing-about-type activity (Wiske 1998: 74) designed to elicit the innate knowledge held by the students.  Timeline construction: A messing-about and guided inquiry activity (Wiske 1998: 74) hybrid allowing students to explore the events and conditions that led up to the Civil Rights Movement.  Dilemma Explorer: Utilizing the Dilemma Explorer online collaborative tool (Price 2002), students engage in a guided inquiry activity exploring the dilemmas surrounding the different forms of protest employed by Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X.  Peer Conference: A culminating performance (Wiske 1998: 75) structured similar to a “science fair” or academic conference poster session environment. At this “history fair,” students are encouraged to utilize various modes of representation to present their inquiry through and stances stemming from the Dilemma Explorer process.  Analytical paper: Another culminating performance in which students demonstrate their understandings through a five-paragraph expository essay in which they “… make choices and defend choices…” (Jonassen 2000: 289) regarding the different styles of protest.

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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

New Technologies
A variety of new technologies are employed in the implementation of the “Dilemmas in Civil Rights” curriculum. All were carefully selected according to Jonassen’s criteria for Mindtools (2000: 18-19). In addition, the technologies were selected to be transformative, rather than efficiency-promoting, so that social construction of knowledge would be supported (McCormick & Scrimshaw 2001). It should also be noted that, procedurally, the technologies, with the exception of the Dilemma Explorer system, were added late in the curriculum design process, so that the selection of technologies was kept in-line with the understanding goals and was tied closely to the performances of understanding, not the other way around. The one exception, the Dilemma Explorer, is an example of how a technology system can become transformed when developed concurrently with a curriculum, and, similarly, how a curriculum can in turn become transformed by a technology (Price 2002). The following new technologies were selected for inclusion in the “Dilemmas in Civil Rights” curriculum:  Tom Snyder Production’s TimeLiner (http://www.tomsnyder.com/): This software allows students to create timelines by inserting events, as well as incorporating various multimedia sources (photos, video, sound). While utilizing this easy-to-learn software, students must decide on the important events and contexts for inclusion in their timeline.  Dilemma Explorer online collaborative inquiry tool (for more information, see the Initial Report, available at http://learnweb.harvard.edu/ent/design_studio/design_studio.cfm?design_id=6672): This free collaborative tool scaffolds the dilemma inquiry process for students, so that
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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

they develop questions, consider various points of view, and incorporate multiple sources in order to craft their own stance on the dilemma. Students and teachers have the ability to leave “Sticky Notes” for each other, containing feedback on the process and suggestions for further inquiry.  Don Johnston’s DraftBuilder (http://www.donjohnston.com/catalog/draftbuilderd.htm): This tool scaffolds the note-taking process so that students can collect information from various sources as discrete ideas and then drag-and-drop these ideas into a larger, connected written document.  Presentation tools, such as PowerPoint, graphics programs, and video editors: While not necessarily fitting the MindTools model nor transformative according to a strict reading of the sources (Jonassen 2000; McCormick & Scrimshaw 2001), these are important technologies that allow students to demonstrate their inquiry through the dilemmas of the Civil Rights Movement.

Concluding Thoughts
The process of designing this curriculum in conjunction with my teacher-partner and fellow classmate, Jody Reilly, has been a wonderful personal learning experience. As someone who identifies with a more theoretical bent, it was very informative to work so closely with a teacher with concrete classroom experience and a real interest in the power and events inherent in the domain of history. It is hoped that this curriculum will help students break down the walls of inequality constructed by prejudice through a deep exploration and the shared construction of understandings of, and helping to forge personal connections with, the Civil Rights Movement.
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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

It is further hoped that this proactive use of the methods and knowledge domains of a historical era in order to bring about positive change does Mr. Collins, perhaps the most influential teacher of my learning career, proud knowing that his mission lives on in the minds of his students.

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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

Appendix 1: Mapping the Performances of Understanding
Performances Process Journal Complex Thinking Model Basic/Content Critical Creative
Addressed indirectly through student reflection. Students are encouraged to analyze and reflect on their understandings. Students are encouraged to synthesize and elaborate on their understandings.

Knowledge
Students are encouraged to chart their path from intuitive beliefs to deeper understandings.

Domains of Understanding Model Methods Purposes
Students are encouraged to write questions regarding source materials, and how they might address those questions, as well as reflections on how they might use the discovered information and their judgment of the information. Through a collaborative effort, students are encouraged to construct new understandings and to validate each other’s understandings. Students are encouraged to reflect on how their understanding journey may be useful to the history as a discipline of study.

Forms
Journal entries should be clearly written demonstrating their understanding journeys.

Assessments
Assessed on a weekly basis by the teacher and evaluated based on effort and growth, not “correct answers.”

Brainstorming

Students are encouraged to become aware of their own beliefs when referenced against “accepted knowledge.”

Students are encouraged to identify what they regard as important in terms of their innate knowledge, and compare that with the knowledge of their peers.

Students are encouraged build a shared understanding of the Civil Rights Movement.

Through a collaborative effort, students’ intuitive beliefs may be transformed.

Students are encouraged to predict how their collaborative understanding construction can impact and be impacted by accepted understandings, and to take ownership of their collaborative efforts. Students are encouraged to take ownership of this process and to recognize that these contexts and events have led to great social change in the United States.

Students must function within a group collaborative process and must defend their own positions as well as reconcile them with the positions of others.

No formal evaluation, but the teacher plays the important role of facilitator, keeping the conversation on track, and bringing a wider breadth of experience to the process.

Timeline

Students are encouraged to identify the events and contexts that culminated in the Civil Rights Movement based on accepted understandings.

Students must evaluate information and connect pieces of information with each other and to the foundation of the Civil Rights Movement.

Students are encouraged to synthesize information so that they can recognize the patterns that led to the Civil Rights Movement.

A timeline is a type of concept web demonstrating an understanding of temporally connected events and contexts.

As a collaborative activity, students must work together to build a shared understanding and to validate existing knowledge for inclusion in their timeline.

Students are encouraged to make use of a timeline, which is an effective symbolic representation of temporally connected events and contexts.

Timelines will be presented to the class and then publicly displayed in the classroom. Students will be evaluated on their recognition of key events and actions, and on the quality and use of their research.

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Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

Performances Process Journal

Complex Thinking Model Basic/Content Critical Creative
Addressed indirectly through student reflection. Students are encouraged to analyze and reflect on their understandings. Students are encouraged to synthesize and elaborate on their understandings.

Knowledge
Students are encouraged to chart their path from intuitive beliefs to deeper understandings.

Domains of Understanding Model Methods Purposes
Students are encouraged to write questions regarding source materials, and how they might address those questions, as well as reflections on how they might use the discovered information and their judgment of the information. Throughout the process, students are encouraged to construct a stances on the dilemmas, and to question and validate sources of information. Students are encouraged to reflect on how their understanding journey may be useful to the history as a discipline of study.

Forms
Journal entries should be clearly written demonstrating their understanding journeys.

Assessments
Assessed on a weekly basis by the teacher and evaluated based on effort and growth, not “correct answers.”

Dilemma Explorer

Students are encouraged to identify the core problems and issues within the dilemmas of the Civil Rights Movement and develop a stance.

Students must evaluate, analyze, and connect various sources of information to questions and points of view and to their stance.

Students are encouraged to synthesize source information, and then to construct a stance on the initial dilemma.

Through the process of using the Dilemma Explorer system, students construct a concept web, which can visually be displayed. In addition, they have the ability to chart how their initial stance changes through their understanding journey.

Students are encouraged to become aware of implications their inquiry holds, as well as to construct a personal stance on the dilemma and to consider the possible implications and outcomes of their stance. See above.

Students must be able to organize historical information, events, and contexts, as well as deliver an oral report based on their inquiry.

Students will be assessed on the connections they draw between events, contexts, and points of view, as well as their articulation of the issues orally in class and the presentation of their ideas in a clear and thoughtful manner. Students will be assessed on the strength by which they demonstrate their argument through various media. Do the pieces presented in their “poster” tell a story or form a cohesive argument? Are the various stages of inquiry clear and explicit? Is their position convincing and easily understood? Students will pair up for peer evaluations of

Peer Conference3

See above.

See above.

See above.

See above.

See above.

In addition to organization, students are encouraged to present their inquiry into the dilemma utilizing any medium they feel best represents and demonstrates their inquiry. Options include visual diagrams and photos, music, video, etc.

Analytical Paper3
3

See above.

See above.

See above.

See above.

See above.

See above.

Utilizing a fiveparagraph expository

The Peer Conference and the Analytical Paper are both culminating performances based on the guided inquiry of the process in which students utilize the Dilemma Explorer online collaborative system. Therefore, most of the connections with the Complex Thinking model and the Dimensions of Understanding are similar or the same. - 14 -

Jeremy Price

Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

Performances Process Journal

Complex Thinking Model Basic/Content Critical Creative
Addressed indirectly through student reflection. Students are encouraged to analyze and reflect on their understandings. Students are encouraged to synthesize and elaborate on their understandings.

Knowledge
Students are encouraged to chart their path from intuitive beliefs to deeper understandings.

Domains of Understanding Model Methods Purposes
Students are encouraged to write questions regarding source materials, and how they might address those questions, as well as reflections on how they might use the discovered information and their judgment of the information. Students are encouraged to reflect on how their understanding journey may be useful to the history as a discipline of study.

Forms
Journal entries should be clearly written demonstrating their understanding journeys.

Assessments
Assessed on a weekly basis by the teacher and evaluated based on effort and growth, not “correct answers.”

essay format (introduction, body, conclusion), students are expected to clearly demonstrate their inquiry and the stances to which they arrived.

essays. In addition, students will be assessed on their use of the five-paragraph format, the clarity of their writing, and the strength of their argument. An outline is part of the process.

Appendix 2: Sample Rubric
Far Below the Standard Below the Standard Meets the Standard Exceeds the Standard

0
x3

1
  The writing partially addressed the topic. The paper did not include a thesis statement.

2
 

3
The writing demonstrated a basic development of ideas. The paper included a basic thesis statement.

4
 

5
The writing demonstrated consistent development of ideas. The paper included a clear thesis statement, and the topic sentences in the main body paragraphs generally relate to the thesis. The paper did include several primary and/or secondary sources. The sources generally supported or were related to the argument.  The writing demonstrated clear understanding of the format of a 5paragraph essay. The introduction paragraph contained the thesis statement. The concluding paragraph included a restatement of the thesis. The changes in the final draft reflect careful revision and proofreading. Some comments and suggestions were used to revise content as well as grammar.

6
 

7
The writing demonstrated thorough development of ideas. The paper included a strong thesis statement, and all the topic sentences in the body paragraphs supported the thesis. The paper included several appropriate secondary and/or primary sources. The use of sources strongly supported the argument. The writing demonstrated excellent organization. The format of the 5-paragraph essay was followed exactly.

Clear Argument

x3

Use of Sources Planning and Organization

The paper did not include primary or secondary sources.

 

The paper did not include many primary or secondary sources. The sources did not always effectively support the argument. The writing demonstrated basic organization. The paper contains 5 paragraphs. The Introduction paragraph contained the thesis statement.

 

  

x3

 

The writing showed partial organization. The paper is separated into paragraphs.

  

 

x1

Use of Revision

A rough draft of the essay was not turned in.

Revisions were limited to spelling and sentence structure.

 

 

The final draft reflected excellent revision. Most/All comments and suggestions were used to revise content as well as grammar.

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Dilemmas in Civil Rights Rationale

16 December 2002

x1

Sentence Structure and Vocabulary

 

Writing sometimes contained incomplete sentences. Writing did not show sentence variety.

  

Writing contained very few, if any, incomplete sentences. Writing contained some sentence variety. Writing used some vocabulary from the unit.

  

Writing included vocabulary from the unit. Writing used transitional words and phrases. Writing used sentence variety.

  

Writing demonstrated thoughtful use of content vocabulary. Writing showed skillful use of transitional words and phrases. Writing was clear and concise.

x1

Mechanics Bibliography

x2

Writing contained enough mechanical errors that it was difficult to understand the content. No Bibliography included

Writing contained some mechanical errors but reader could understand content. Format of Bibliography was incorrect. Bibliography did not include all sources used.

Writing contained few mechanical errors.

Writing contained no mechanical errors.

 

 

Bibliography contained minor format errors. Bibliography included all sources used.

Bibliography had no errors and included all sources in alphabetical order.

Total= 98 points

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Bibliography
Brown, J. S. 2000. Growing Up Digital: How the Web Changes Work, Education, and the Ways People Learn. Change. March/April 2000, pp. 11-20. Dewey, J. 1961. Democracy And Education. New York: Macmillan. Jonassen, D. H. 2000. Computers as Mindtools for Schools: Engaging Critical Thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. Mansilla, V. B., & Gardner, H. 1998. What Are the Qualities of Understanding? In Wiske, M. S. (ed.). Teaching for Understanding: Linking Research with Practice (pp. 161-197). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Mariners’ Museum. 1997. Early Navigation Methods. <http://www.mariner.org/age/earlynav.html>. Retrieved 13 December 2002. McCormick, R., & Scrimshaw, P. 2001. Information and Communications Technology, Knowledge and Pedagogy. Education, Communication, and Information. Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 37-57. Perkins, D. 1998. What Is Understanding? In Wiske, M. S. (ed.). Teaching for Understanding: Linking Research with Practice (pp. 39-58). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Porter, Bernajean. 1999. Grappling with Accountability: Resource Tools for Organizing and Assessing Technology for Student Results. Sedalia, CO: Education Technology Planners. Price, J. 2002. Dilemma Explorer: Initial Report. (Class Assignment for Harvard Graduate School of Education course T-540 Cognition and the Art of Instruction taught by David Perkins.) Available from the Dilemmas in Civil Rights design Web site <http://learnweb.harvard.edu/ent/design_studio/design_studio.cfm?design_id=6672>. Ritchhart, R., Wiske, M. S., Buchovecky, E., & Hetland, L. How Does Teaching for Understanding Look in Practice? In Wiske, M. S. (ed.). Teaching for Understanding: Linking Research with Practice (pp. 122-158). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Webopedia. 2002. Pierre Salinger Syndrome. <http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/Pierre_Salinger_Syndrome.html>. Retrieved 13 December 2002. Wiske, M. S. 1998. What Is Teaching for Understanding? In Wiske, M. S. (ed.). Teaching for Understanding: Linking Research with Practice (pp. 61-86). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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