Part 1

Choose 1 essay topic from each of the sections below. Each essay must be between 2 and 3 paragraphs long. No introduction or conclusion necessary. A Christmas Carol 1. The Ghost of Christmas past’s lessons to Scrooge deal with family and with loss. Compare these lessons with the ones taught by the Ghost of Christmas Present. 2. The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come shows Scrooge events that transpired after his death. Why is Scrooge so afraid of him? Why are his visions more frightening to him than the visions given my Marley? Frankenstein 1. Frankenstein blames his creation of the monster on a relentless pursuit of knowledge. Is he correct, or does the blame lay elsewhere? Does the book present knowledge as evil? 2. The concepts of nature vs. nurture are explored throughout the book. Based on what you have read, does the author believe in nature or nurture? What events in the story lead you to think this? Does the movie version have the same belief? What events lead you to think so? Fahrenheit 451 1. Analyze Montag’s marriage. What kind of marriage is it, and what details does the author give you that demonstrates this? Why do you believe that it is the way that it is? 2. One of the major themes in this book is the power of television to subdue a population. Compare how the government uses television in this book with the way it is used in 1984. What are the similarities and differences in each government’s approach? Why do you think those similarities and differences exist? 3. In the final scenes of the book, Montag is chased by a mechanical dog through the city. The event is televised for the entertainment of the viewing audience. The trope of a televised spectacle of unusual violence has been used many times in literature (such as in The Hunger Games, and The Running Man). Compare these scenes from Fahrenheit with another movie or book that has used the same trope. How did each story use the scene? Why do you think that type of scene is popular with dystopian fiction? 1984 1. Explain the political structure of INSOC. Detail the various ministries of government, what their responsibilities are, and where they fit in the overall structure of The Party. 2. Explain the purpose of Doublethink and Doubletalk. How do the two principles work together? How do they fit in with the development of Newspeak?

Part 2
Read each article and answer the questions below. Choose the BEST answer for each question.

Article 1
It was eleven o'clock that night when Mr. Pontellier returned from his night out. He was in an excellent humor, in high spirits, and very talkative. His entrance awoke his wife, who was in bed and fast asleep when he came in. He talked to her while he undressed, telling her anecdotes and bits of news and gossip that he had gathered during the day. She was overcome with sleep, and answered him with little half utterances. He thought it very discouraging that his wife, who was the sole object of his existence, evinced so little interest in things which concerned him and valued so little his conversation. Mr. Pontellier had forgotten the bonbons and peanuts that he had promised the boys. Notwithstanding, he loved them very much and went into the adjoining room where they slept to take a look at them and make sure that they were resting comfortably. The result of his investigation was far from satisfactory. He turned and shifted the youngsters about in bed. One of them began to kick and talk about a basket full of crabs. Mr. Pontellier returned to his wife with the information that Raoul had a high fever and needed looking after. Then he lit his cigar and went and sat near the open door to smoke it. Mrs. Pontellier was quite sure Raoul had no fever. He had gone to bed perfectly well, she said, and nothing had ailed him all day. Mr. Pontellier was too well acquainted with fever symptoms to be mistaken. He assured her the child was burning with fever at that moment in the next room. He reproached his wife with her inattention, her habitual neglect of the children. If it was not a mother's place to look after children, whose on earth was it? He himself had his hands full with his brokerage business. He could not be in two places at once; making a living for his family on the street, and staying home to see that no harm befell them. He talked in a monotonous, insistent way. Mrs. Pontellier sprang out of bed and went into the next room. She soon came back and sat on the edge of the bed, leaning her head down on the pillow. She said nothing, and refused to answer her husband when he questioned her. When his cigar was smoked out he went to bed, and in half a minute was fast asleep. Mrs. Pontellier was by that time thoroughly awake. She began to cry a little, and wiped her eyes on the sleeve of her nightgown. She went out on the porch, where she sat down in the wicker chair and began to rock gently to and fro. It was then past midnight. The cottages were all dark. There was no sound abroad except the hooting of an old owl and the everlasting voice of the sea, that broke like a mournful lullaby upon the night. The tears came so fast to Mrs. Pontellier's eyes that the damp sleeve of her nightgown no longer served to dry them. She went on crying there, not caring any longer to dry her face, her eyes, her arms. She could not have told why she was crying. Such experiences as the foregoing were not uncommon in her married life. They seemed never before to have weighed much against the abundance of her husband's kindness and a uniform devotion which had come to be tacit and self-understood. An indescribable oppression, which seemed to generate in some unfamiliar part of her consciousness, filled her whole being with a vague anguish. It was like a shadow, like a mist passing across her soul's summer day. It was strange and unfamiliar; it was a mood. She did not sit there inwardly upbraiding her husband, lamenting at

Fate, which had directed her footsteps to the path which they had taken. She was just having a good cry all to herself. The mosquitoes succeeded in dispelling a mood which might have held her there in the darkness half a night longer. The following morning Mr. Pontellier was up in good time to take the carriage which was to convey him to the steamer at the wharf. He was returning to the city to his business, and they would not see him again at the Island till the coming Saturday. He had regained his composure, which seemed to have been somewhat impaired the night before. He was eager to be gone, as he looked forward to a lively week in the financial center. The narrator would most likely describe Mr. Pontellier's conduct during the evening as A. Typically generous B. Justifiably impatient C. Passionate and irrational D.Patronizing and self-centered E. Concerned and gentle In context, the description in lines 58-59 of Mr. Pontellier's way of speaking suggests the narrator's belief that his complaints are A. Stumbling and confused B. Familiar and not as urgent as he claims C. Angry and sarcastic D. Too complex to make sense to anyone but himself E. Both rational and thought-provoking In lines 69-113, Mrs. Pontellier's reactions to her husband's behavior on returning home suggest that A. She accepts unquestioningly her role of caring for the children B. This is one of the first times she has acknowledged her unhappiness C. Her marriage is not what is making her so depressed D. She is angry about something that happened before her husband went out E. She is not as worldly as her husband is The passage shows Mr. Pontellier as happiest when he A. Is attending to his children B. Sits outside and smokes a cigar C. Makes up with his wife after an argument D. Has been away from home or is about to leave home E. Has showered his children with gifts of candy

Article 2
Surrounded by the ancient city of Rome, Vatican City is an independent nation on the west bank of the Tiber River. This tiny country—about one-sixth of a square mile in all—is also home to a disproportionately large number of sites with great historical, artistic, and which have religious significance. The Vatican Museums house a great many valuable paintings, sculptures, pieces of jewelry, and tapestries, as well as the world’s most extensive collections of ancient manuscripts. Scholars often probe the museums’ archives of early written works for insights into lives led long ago. Accordingly, St. Peter’s Basilica, the largest cathedral in the Northern Hemisphere, is re markable. Built upon second-century foundations, St. Peter’s features a dome designed by the artist and architect Michelangelo. Intricate mosaics—enormous “paintings” fashioned from millions of tiny cut stones of various colors—lining each

of the basilica’s several smaller domes. The marble floor, with its intricate designs, covers the cathedral’s catacombs, where popes are buried. Sculptures by Michelangelo and Bernini, including Michelangelo’s poignant Pietà, contributes to the basilica’s beauty. However, to many, the most spectacular part of Vatican City is the Sistine Chapel. This vast chapel displays what many consider some of the most important works of Renaissance art: Michelangelo’s awe -inspiring frescoes. These frescoes—paintings made on freshly-spread, still-moist plaster—capture the attention of viewers with a complex array of religious images. One of his most famous frescoes, The Last Judgment, is painted on the west wall. A series of interrelated frescoes covers the vaulted ceiling. Despite its small size, Vatican City offers its many visitors a chance to see a wide range of historical and artistic wonders. It is easy to understand why the city has become one of the most frequently visited places in the world. 1. If the writer were to delete the words tiny and disproportionately from the last sentence of the first paragraph, the sentence would primarily lose: A. Elements of the setting of the essay. B. A contrast emphasizing the unusual number of sites. C. Details that stress how important the sites are. D. A comparison between Vatican City and Rome.

2. Given that all of the choices are true, which one best supports the sentence’s claim about Vatican City’s status as an independent nation? A. with an interesting past. B. with its own government, banking system, postal service, and army. C. that has to import most of its supplies, even such necessities as food and water.

3. After the second sentence in the third paragraph, the writer is considering adding the following true statement: “In addition to being an architect and artist, Michelangelo wrote poetry, including more than 300 sonnets.” Should the writer make this addition here? A. Yes, because it provides further details about Michelangelo, who designed the dome at St. Peter’s. B. Yes, because it reinforces the paragraph’s implication tha t Michelangelo was extremely talented. C. No, because it distracts attention from the paragraph’s focus, which is on the architecture and visual art of St. Peter’s. D. No, because it adds more information about Michelangelo, who made only small contributions to Vatican City’s art and architecture. 4. If the writer were to delete the quotation marks around the word paintings in the third sentence of the third paragraph, the sentence would primarily lose a feature that suggests: A. that mosaics are not paintings in the usual sense of the word. large and complicated the mosaics in St. Peter’s actually are. C. how carefully mosaics are put together. D.that the mosaics in St. Peter’s are not typical of mosaics in general.

5. Which of the following alternatives would NOT be acceptable for “despite” in the first sentence of the fourth paragraph? A. Yet, B. Therefore, C. Still, D. Nonetheless,

Article 3
Whether it’s bright and jaunty or haunting and melancholic, the music of the Andes highlands has a mellow sound unique in the musical world. The instrument responsible for this sound is the antara, or Andean panpipe, known for the hollow-sounding, breathy notes it creates. The antara has its origins in the Incan civilization, once the richest and most powerful empire in South America. The antara consists of a connected row of hollow, vertical pipes of varying lengths. The pipes, which can vary numerously from three to fifteen, are fashioned from clay that is rolled around a mold. Each pipe is individually rolled to create the proper pitch before being bound to the other pipes. The antara dates back to the ninth century. Evidence about how musicians played the instrument have come from painted images on Incan ceramic pottery. Musicians are depicted playing a six-pipe antara by holding the lower ends of the two longer pipes with the right hand while placing the left hand near the remaining tops of the four pipes. The antara was also sometimes held in one hand while the other hand beat a cylindrical drum. Due to the limited number of notes that can be played on an antara, early musicians’ most likely worked in groups, coordinating the timing and pitch of their instruments to extend the range of sounds produced. Other pottery images show two antara players facing each other while dancing. Each player holds a set of pipes so that both sets are connected by a string, suggesting that those two antaras should be played together. Even to this day, descendants of the Incas, the Quechua people of Peru and Bolivia, prefer to play matched antaras bound together. Unfortunately, the music of the Incas can probably never be exactly re-creating. Yet one can hear in the music of their descendants, beautiful variations on a musical sound that has survived for many centuries. 1. If the writer were to delete the phrase “coordinating the timing and pitch of their instruments” from the first sentence of the fourth paragraph, the sentence would primarily lose: A. a description of how musicians overcame the limitations of the antara. B. an indication that music was an important element in Incan life. C. the idea that the antara was a key feature of Incan music. D. nothing of significance, because the phrase is redundant.

2. For the sake of the logic and coherence of this paragraph, the fourth sentence of paragraph 4 should be placed: A. Where it is now. B. Before Sentence 1. C. After Sentence 1. D. After Sentence 2.

3. If the writer were to change the pronoun one to we in the last sentence of paragraph 5, this closing sentence would: A. Indicate that the writer is a descendant of the Incas.

B. Suggest that the essay’s audience are all musicians. C. Take on a somewhat more personal tone. D. Become more clearly a call to action. 4. The first sentence of the fifth paragraph needs to be rewritten. It should read: A. Unfortunately, the music of the Incas can probably never be re-created exactly B. Unfortunately, the music of the Incas can probably never be exact re-created C. Unfortunately, the music of the Incas can probably never be re-created exact D. The sentence is fine as it is. 5. The second sentence of the fifth paragraph should be rewritten. It should read: A. The sentence is fine as it is. B. hear, in the music of their descendants C. hear in the music of their descendants; D. hear in the music of their descendants

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