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Air Particulate Sampling

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OBJECTIVES 1. To provide hands on experience and enhance the understanding on the principle of filter based ambient air sampling system using gravimetric sampling method. 2. To determine Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) Particulate !atter P!1" and Particulate !atter P!2.#.

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INTRODUCTION

The !ini$ol% portable air sampler can be configured to collect either Particulate !atter (P!2.#) Particulate !atter (P!1") or Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samples & but only one type at a time. The !ini$ol's pump dra(s air at # liters)minute through a particle si*e separator (impactor) and then through a +,mm filter. The 1" micron or 2.# micron particle separation is achieved by impaction or a TSP sample can be collected by removing the impactor(s). The particulate sample is caught on the filter (hich must be (eighed pre& and post&exposure (ith a microbalance accurate to one microgram. Sampling results are reported in micrograms)cubic meter. The !ini$ol% comes e-uipped (ith lo( flo( and lo( battery shut&offs and operates from a rechargeable lead&acid battery. The battery can po(er the sampler for 2+ hours of continuous sampling before the battery pac. must be exchanged for a freshly charged one. The !ini$ol% also features a ,&day programmable timer an elapsed time totali*er and rugged P$/ construction. A ne( corrected indicated flo( rate must be established for each sampling pro0ect. This calibration ensures that the sampler has an ambient flo( rate of # liters per minute and that there is consistent performance of the inertial si*e separator. The calibration accounts for the differing air temperatures and atmospheric pressures due to elevation and seasonal changes.

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METHODOLOGY Assemble air sampler in proper (or.ing order. 1eigh +, mm filter and load the filter in the 2ilter Assembly. Prepare the sampler as follo(s4 i. TSP&TSP sampler does not re-uire an impactor to be placed in the filter holder assembly. ii. P!1"& 5rease and clean the impactor6s target dis.. Place a P!1" impactor in the filter holder assembly. iii. P!2.#& 5rease and clean the impactor6s target dis.. Place a P!2.# impactor in the filter holder assembly and a P!1" impactor in a multiple impactor adapter mounted on the filter holder assembly tube.

+. #. 8. ,. :. <. 1".

Transport the sampler to the field site and place the sampler on a firm level surface. 7oosen the inlet tube compression nut and extend the inlet tube to the maximum height and re&tighten the nut. Attach the assembly to the top of the sampler inlet tube. 9ecord ambient temperature and ambient pressure. ;pen the sampler case. Press the ;=)A>T;);22 button to start the pump. Set the timer for + hours. To set the timer (1) set the real&time cloc. to establish the correct time frame in (hich the cycles are to run (2) enter the on)off times at (hich the programmed cycles are to begin and end and (3) set the timer to ?Auto@ mode. (1) Setting the real&time cloc.4 i. Aay Set4 Bold do(n the /7;/C button and press the 1DDC button until the correct day appears at the top of the display. ii. Time Set (Bour)4 Bold do(n the /7;/C button and press the B;>9 button until the display indicates the correct hour. Eou may have to cycle through the hours t(ice to obtain the proper A! or P! (on the left side of the displays). Seconds (ill automatically reset to *ero. iii. Time Set (!inutes)4 Bold do(n the /7;/C button and press the !F= button until the display indicates the correct minutes. Seconds (ill automatically reset to *ero. (2) Setting the on)off times4 i. Press the P9;5 button once. 1;= (ill appear near the lo(er left corner of the display indicating that the Po(er&on time for the first cycle is ready to be programmed.

ii. Press the B;>9 and !F= buttons to enter the po(er&on time for the first cycle. iii. Press the 1DDC button to select the desired day. The days appear along the top of the display. iv. After you have entered the po(er&on time and date for the first cycle press the P9;5 button. 1;22 no( appears on the display to indicate that the po(er&off for the first cycle is ready to be programmed. 9epeat steps (ii) and (iii) to enter desired po(er&off time. v. Press the P9;5 button to step through the times you entered to ma.e sure they are correct. (3) Setting A>T; mode4 Turn the sampler ;22. Then press the ;=)A>T;);22 button until the bar is above the A>T; legend. 11. >sing the 2lo( 9ate Ad0ustment control set the flo( meter set point (F SP) (ithin specifications for the pro0ect temperature and pressure conditions. Ta.e the reading of the flo( meter from the center of the ball. 9ecord the flo( meter reading. 12. 13. 13. 1+. /lose the sampler case. 7eave the air sampler overnight. Press the ;=)A>T;);22 button to stop the pump. 9etrieve and (eigh the exposed filter. 9ecord ambient temperature ambient pressure and flo( meter readings. /alculate particulate matter concentration for each pollutant (see Appendix).

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RESULTS ! DISCUSSIONS

"#$$%t&'t(
Particulate !atter (P!2.#) Particulate !atter (P!1") Total Suspended Particulate (TSP)

"M&)t* +,-m3

Eour discussions may include the follo(ing -uestions4 1. Dxplain and compare your results (ith !alaysia /anada and >SA Ambient Air Guality 5uidelines (see Appendix). 2. Hriefly explain the sources of air pollutants. 3. Dxplain the common e-uipments used in industry for reducing air pollutants. +. Hriefly explain the impacts of air pollution on the human health. ..0 RE/ERENCES

;peration !anual of !inivol Tactical Air Sampler (9ev. 1.2) Air !etrics.

!alaysia Dnvironmental Guality 9eport. 2"":. Aepartment of Dnvironment !inistry of =atural 9esources and Dnvironment !alaysia. 0""ENDI1

Pollutant

Averaging time

5uidelines Ig)cm3

!alaysia Ambient Air Guality 5uidelines Particulate !atter (P!1") Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) /anada Particulate !atter (P!2.#) 2+h >nited States of America Particulate !atter (P!1") Particulate !atter (P!2.#) 2+h 2+h 1#" 3# 3" 2+h 2+h 1#" 28"

/$#2 meter Set "#i't3 Pact Tstd #." P T act std = mvol bvol

I SP

"&rti)%$&te M&tter )#')e'tr&ti#'3


PM act = M PM Vact

V#$%me &t &)t%&$ &m4ie't )#'5iti#'(3


Vact = 8" min) hr Qact t hr 1""" l ) m3

0ir 6$#2 r&te &t &m4ie't )#'5iti#'(3


Qact = (mvol Qind + bvol )
to determine $act.

Pstd Tact , calculate Gact initial and final conditions and use the average Gact Pact Tstd

1hereJ

FSP K 2lo( meter set point liters)minute PstdKStandard atmospheric pressure ,8"mmBg TstdKStandard temperature 2<:CL PactKActual ambient pressure mmBg TactKActual ambient temperature CL bvolK".113, mvolK1."2,, GactKActual flo( rate liters)min GindK9otameter indicated flo( rate liters)min $actKAir volume at actual ambient conditions m3 thrKSampling period hrs P!actKParticulate matter concentration Ig)m3 !P!K!ass of particulate matter collected on filter Ig