A2Z Dotnet --- Gain & Share Dotnet Knowledge

.NET Framework An integral Windows component that supports building and running the next generation of applications and XML Web services. It provides a highly productive, standards-based, multilanguage environment for integrating existing investments with next generation applications and services, as well as the agility to solve the challenges of deployment and operation of Internet-scale applications. The .NET Framework consists of three main parts: the common language runtime, a hierarchical set of unified class libraries, and a componentized version of ASP called ASP.NET. .NET Framework class library A CLS-compliant library of classes, interfaces, and value types that are included in the Microsoft .NET Framework SDK. This library provides access to system functionality and is designed to be the foundation on which .NET Framework applications, components, and controls are built. .NET Framework data provider A component of ADO.NET that provides access to data from a relational data source. A .NET Framework data provider contains classes to connect to a data source, execute commands at the data source, and return query results from the data source, including the ability to execute commands within transactions. A .NET Framework data provider also contains classes to populate a DataSet with results from a data source and propagate changes in a DataSet back to the data source. Common Language Runtime (CLR): The engine at the core of managed code execution. The runtime supplies managed code with services such as cross-language integration, code access security, object lifetime management, and debugging and profiling support. Common Language Specification (CLS) : A subset of language features supported by the common language runtime, including features common to several object-oriented programming languages. CLS-compliant components and tools are guaranteed to interoperate with other CLS-compliant components and tools. CLS-compliant Code that publicly exposes only language features that are in the Common Language Specification. CLS compliance can apply to classes, interfaces, components, and tools. COM interop

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A service that enables .NET Framework objects to communicate with COM objects. Common Type System (CTS) : The specification that determines how the common language runtime defines, uses, and manages types. Remoting : The process of communication between different operating system processes, regardless of whether they are on the same computer. The .NET remoting system is an architecture designed to simplify communication between objects living in different application domains, whether on the same computer or not, and between different contexts, whether in the same application domain or not. Reflection : The process of obtaining information about assemblies and the types defined within them, and creating, invoking, and accessing type instances at run time. Assembly : A collection of one or more files that are versioned and deployed as a unit. An assembly is the primary building block of a .NET Framework application. All managed types and resources are contained within an assembly and are marked either as accessible only within the assembly or as accessible from code in other assemblies. Assemblies also play a key role in security. The code access security system uses information about the assembly to determine the set of permissions that code in the assembly is granted. Private assembly : An assembly that is available only to clients in the same directory structure as the assembly. Shared assembly : An assembly that can be referenced by more than one application. An assembly must be explicitly built to be shared by giving it a cryptographically strong name. Assembly cache : A code cache used for side-by-side storage of assemblies. There are two parts to the cache: the global assembly cache contains assemblies that are explicitly installed to be shared among many applications on the computer; the download cache stores code downloaded from Internet or

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A2Z Dotnet --- Gain & Share Dotnet Knowledge
intranet sites, isolated to the application that caused the download so that code downloaded on behalf of one application or page does not impact other applications. Global Assembly Cache (GAC) : A machine-wide code cache that stores assemblies specifically installed to be shared by many applications on the computer. Applications deployed in the global assembly cache must have a strong name. Assembly manifest : An integral part of every assembly that renders the assembly self-describing. The assembly manifest contains the assembly's metadata. The manifest establishes the assembly identity, specifies the files that make up the assembly implementation, specifies the types and resources that make up the assembly, itemizes the compile-time dependencies on other assemblies, and specifies the set of permissions required for the assembly to run properly. This information is used at run time to resolve references, enforce version binding policy, and validate the integrity of loaded assemblies. The self-describing nature of assemblies also helps makes zero-impact install and XCOPY deployment feasible. Metadata : Information that describes every element managed by the common language runtime: an assembly, loadable file, type, method, and so on. This can include information required for debugging and garbage collection, as well as security attributes, marshaling data, extended class and member definitions, version binding, and other information required by the runtime. Boxing : The conversion of a value type instance to an object, which implies that the instance will carry full type information at run time and will be allocated in the heap. The Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) instruction set's box instruction converts a value type to an object by making a copy of the value type and embedding it in a newly allocated object. Unboxing : The conversion of an object instance to a value type. Delegate : A reference type that is the managed version of a C++ function pointer. Delegates can reference both instance and static (in Visual Basic, Shared) methods, whereas function pointers can reference only static (in Visual Basic, Shared) methods.

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Reference type : A data type that is represented by a reference (similar to a pointer) to the type's actual value. If a reference type is assigned to a variable, that variable references (or "points to") the original value. No copy is made. Reference types comprise classes, interfaces, delegates, and boxed value types. Value type : A data type that is represented by the type's actual value. If a value type is assigned to a variable, that variable is given a fresh copy of the value. (This is in contrast to a reference type, where assignment does not create a copy.) Value types are usually created on a method's stack frame, rather than in the garbage-collected heap. A value type can be boxed, which is a process that creates a corresponding reference type. Data binding : The association of a data source with a server control. Encapsulation : The ability of an object to hide its internal data and methods, making only the intended parts of the object programmatically accessible. enum (enumeration) : A special form of value type that inherits from System.Enum and supplies alternate names for the values of an underlying primitive type. An enumeration type has a name, an underlying type, and a set of fields. The underlying type must be one of the built-in signed or unsigned integer types (such as Byte, Int32, or UInt64). The fields are static literal fields, each of which represents a constant. The language you are using assigns a specific value of the underlying type to each field. Extensible Markup Language (XML) : A subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that is optimized for delivery over the Web. XML provides a uniform method for describing and exchanging structured data that is independent of applications or vendors. Garbage collection (GC) : The process of transitively tracing through all pointers to actively used objects in order to locate all objects that can be referenced, and then arranging to reuse any heap memory that was not found during this trace. The common language runtime garbage collector also compacts the memory that is in use to reduce the working space needed for the heap.

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A2Z Dotnet --- Gain & Share Dotnet Knowledge

Heap : A portion of memory reserved for a program to use for the temporary storage of data structures whose existence or size cannot be determined until the program is running. Interface : A reference type that defines a contract. Other types implement an interface to guarantee that they support certain operations. The interface specifies the members that must be supplied by classes or other interfaces that implement it. Like classes, interfaces can contain methods, properties, indexers, and events as members. JIT compilation : The compilation that converts Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) into machine code at the point when the code is required at run time. Managed code : Code that is executed by the common language runtime environment rather than directly by the operating system. Managed code applications gain common language runtime services such as automatic garbage collection, runtime type checking and security support, and so on. These services help provide uniform platform- and language-independent behavior of managed-code applications. Managed data : Objects whose lifetimes are managed by the common language runtime. The runtime automatically handles object layout and manages references to these objects, releasing them when they are no longer being used. Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) : A language used as the output of a number of compilers and as the input to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. The common language runtime includes a JIT compiler for converting MSIL to native code. Namespace : A logical naming scheme for grouping related types. The .NET Framework uses a hierarchical naming scheme for grouping types into logical categories of related functionality, such as the ASP.NET technology or remoting functionality. Design tools can use namespaces to make it easier for developers to browse and reference types in their code. A single assembly can contain

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A2Z Dotnet --- Gain & Share Dotnet Knowledge
types whose hierarchical names have different namespace roots, and a logical namespace root can span multiple assemblies. In the .NET Framework, a namespace is a logical design-time naming convenience, whereas an assembly establishes the name scope for types at run time. Native code : Code that has been compiled to processor-specific machine code. Portable Executable (PE) file : The file format used for executable programs and for files to be linked together to form executable programs. Runtime Callable Wrapper (RCW) : A .NET Framework object that acts as a proxy for a reference-counted COM object. Serialization : The process of converting an object's state information into a form that can be stored or transported. During serialization, an object writes its current state to temporary or persistent storage. Later, the object can be recreated by reading, or deserializing, the object's state from storage. Signature : The list of types involved in the definition of a method, field, property, or local variable. For a method, the signature includes its name, number of parameters and their types, the type it returns (if any), and its calling convention (default or vararg). The signature for a property is similar to that of a method. The signature for fields and local variables is simply their type (for example, array [0..5] of int). SOAP : A simple, XML-based protocol for exchanging structured and type information on the Web. The protocol contains no application or transport semantics, which makes it highly modular and extensible. Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) : A platform-independent framework functioning like a directory (similar to a telephone book) that provides a way to locate and register Web services on the Internet. The UDDI specification calls for three elements: white pages, which provide business contact information; yellow pages, which organize Web services into categories (for example, credit card authorization services); and

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green pages, which provide detailed technical information about individual services. The UDDI also contains an operational registry, which is available today.

Created by Satya Puvvada

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