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# C-1

## Center of Gravity Limitations

C-2
Example
777-200 Center of
Gravity Limits
(Ref. AFM or WBM)
Example
777-200 Center of
Gravity Limits
(Ref. AFM or WBM)
How does Boeing
determine C.G.
limits such as
these for any given
airplane model?
C-3
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
C-4
WT
L
Moment = WT
*
L
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
m.a.c.
D
a
t
u
m
(+)
(-)
D
a
t
u
m

f
o
r

B
.
A
.
lemac
C-5
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
WT
L
D
a
t
u
m
(+)
(-)
Moment
2
= WT
*
2L
WT
2L
m.a.c.
W
e
i
g
h
t

(
~

1
0
0
0

l
b
)
Moment (in-lb)
D
a
t
u
m
Moment
1
= WT
*
L
a
r
m

=

L
a
r
m

=

2
L
Moment
3
= WT
*
(-2L)
WT
-2L
a
r
m

=

-
2
L
C-6
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
W
e
i
g
h
t

(
~

1
0
0
0

l
b
)
Moment (in-lb)
D
a
t
u
m
c.g. (%mac)
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40%
45%
50%
C-7
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
W
e
i
g
h
t

(
1
0
0
0

k
g
)
Moment (kg-in)
D
a
t
u
m
c.g. (%mac)
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40%
45%
50%
W
e
i
g
h
t

(
1
0
0
0

k
g
)
Center of Gravity ~ %MAC
Convert from weight
versus %MAC to weight
versus moment
C-8
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
W
e
i
g
h
t

(
1
0
0
0

k
g
)
Moment (kg-in)
D
a
t
u
m
c.g. (%mac)
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40%
45%
50%
Enlarge this
Area of Interest
C-9
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
W
e
i
g
h
t

(
1
0
0
0

k
g
)
c.g. (%mac)
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%
Moment (kg-in)
C-10
Advantage of this Format is the
Ability to Add Vectors Graphically
Advantage of this Format is the
Ability to Add Vectors Graphically
W
e
i
g
h
t

(
1
0
0
0

k
g
)
c.g. (%mac)
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%
D
a
t
u
m
Order of application does not
affect final result
2
1
3
WT
Init
1
2
3
Total Moment = WT
Init
* x
Init
+
(WT
1
*
x
1
) + (WT
2
*
x
2
) - (WT
3
*
x
3
)
Total Weight = WT
Init
+ WT
1
+ WT
2
+ WT
3
WT
1
x
1
WT
2
x
2
WT
3
x
3
x
Init
Starting point does not affect
final weight and moment
C-11
Determining Desired Forward and Aft
C.G. Limits
C-12
Design Objectives
Design Objectives
The forward and aft C.G. limits for a given airplane model
are selected by Boeing during the design of the airplane,
and are meant to allow for airline-to-airline variations in:
- Operational Empty Weights
- Interior Seating Arrangements
- Operational Curtailments
The airplane structure and layout is then designed to allow
for loading of the airplane within these selected (and
eventually certified) limits.
Lets look at an example of how this process might
proceed using an airplane model we will call the 7G7-X00.
C-13
Determining Desired Fwd and Aft C.G. Limits:
Accounting for OEWVariations
C-14
Accounting for OEW Variations
Accounting for OEW Variations
Boeings design objective is to provide forward and
aft C.G. limits which will allow for airline variations in
airplane configuration:
Interior seat layout, locations of galleys,
lavatories, emergency equipment, etc.
Optional configurations and features (e.g., in-
flight entertainment, pallets vs. containers, EE
bay options, etc.)
C-15
Accounting for OEW Variations
Accounting for OEW Variations
AIRPLANE OEW AND CG VARIATION
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
210
220
230
240
19%
19%
24%
24%
NOMINAL OEW
(based on tri-class, plus a
selected set of nominal
options)
AFT OEW
(based on tri-class, plus
other options which
move the C.G. aft)
FWD OEW
(based on dual-class,
plus other options which
move the C.G. fwd)
(7G7-X00
Example)
C-16
Determining Desired Fwd and Aft C.G. Limits:
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
C-17
Boeings design objective is to provide forward
and aft C.G. limits which will allow for airline
variations in interior seating arrangements:
Ability to load various combinations of
passengers, from empty to full.
Ability to use various combinations of tri-class
and dual-class seating arrangements on wide
body aircraft.
Ability to use various combinations of dual-
class and single-class seating arrangements
on narrow body aircraft.
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
C-18
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
OEW
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
200
300
10% 20% 30% 40%
2
1
2
1
(7G7-X00
Example)
C-19
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
2
1
OEW
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
200
300
10% 20% 30% 40%
Load first-class seats 4
3
4
3
(7G7-X00
Example)
C-20
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
OEW
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
200
300
10% 20% 30% 40%
Dual-Class Defines the Most
Arrangement Considered
FC
EC
D
C
Most Forward
C.G. Considered
Based on Dual-
Class Seating
(7G7-X00
Example)
C-21
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
OEW
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
200
300
10% 20% 30% 40%
2
1
3
2
3
1
(7G7-X00
Example)
C-22
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
OEW
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
200
300
10% 20% 30% 40%
5
4
6
5
6
4
(7G7-X00
Example)
Chosen as more
reasonable
for most-aft C.G.
(rare to have
empty, with
economy full)
C-23
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations
OEW
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
200
300
10% 20% 30% 40%
Tri-Class Defines the Most
Arrangement Considered
FC
EC
T
C
Most Aft C.G.
Considered Based
on Tri-Class
Seating
BC
(7G7-X00
Example)
C-24
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations - Summary
Accounting for Interior Seating
Arrangement Variations - Summary
(7G7-X00
Example)
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
300
10%
200
20%
30%
40%
OEW
T
C
D
C
FC
EC
BC
FC
EC
Most Aft C.G.
Considered
Based on Tri-
Class Seating
Most Forward
C.G. Considered
Based on Dual-
Class Seating
C-25
Determining Desired Fwd and Aft C.G. Limits:
C-26
Boeings design objective is to provide forward and aft
C.G. limits which will allow for airline variations in cargo
Loading any number of passengers and only their
baggage in the cargo compartments. (Baggage may
be placed forward or aft for balance.)
Loading any number of passengers with no baggage
or cargo in the cargo compartments.
Loading any number of passengers with full cargo
(containerized and/or bulk).
Loading any number of passengers with full
containerized cargo only. (There should be no
requirement to balance the airplane with bulk cargo.)
Accounting for Cargo Variations
Accounting for Cargo Variations
C-27
Accounting for Cargo Variations
Accounting for Cargo Variations
(7G7-X00
Example)
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
10%
200
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS & CARGO
1
Passenger Bags 1
C-28
(7G7-X00
Example)
Passenger Bags
Forward Cargo compartment
Aft Cargo compartment
Bulk Cargo compartment
1
Accounting for Cargo Variations
Accounting for Cargo Variations
2
3
4
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
10%
200
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS & CARGO
1
2
3
4
Most Forward
C.G. Considered
Passengers and
Full Cargo (no
bulk)
C-29
Forward Cargo compartment
Aft Cargo compartment
Forward Cargo compartment
Aft Cargo compartment
Bulk Cargo compartment
5
Accounting for Cargo Variations
Accounting for Cargo Variations
6
7
8
9
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
10%
200
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS & CARGO
5
6
7
8
9
Possible Point to
Consider for
Required MZFW
(7G7-X00
Example)
C-30
Repeat steps 5 through 9,
beginning at the highest
weight for tri-class
passengers
10
Accounting for Cargo Variations
Accounting for Cargo Variations
(7G7-X00
Example)
Another Possible
Point to Consider
for Required MZFW
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
10%
200
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS & CARGO
10
C-31
Accounting for Cargo Variations
Accounting for Cargo Variations
Passenger Bags
Aft and Forward Cargo
11
12
(7G7-X00
Example)
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS & CARGO
200
11
12
Most Forward
C.G. Considered
Passengers and
Full Cargo (no
bulk)
Most Aft C.G.
Considered Based
Passengers and
Baggage
C-32
Determining Desired Fwd and Aft C.G. Limits:
Variations
C-33
Usage Variations
Usage Variations
Boeings design objective is to provide forward and aft
C.G. limits which will allow for airline variations in fuel
Use of the total fuel capacity from empty to full.
Ability to load to the maximum gross weight.
C-34
Usage Variations
Usage Variations
Fuel Vector Added to
Most FWD C.G. Point
Being Considered
(7G7-X00
Example)
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
Fuel Vector Added to
Most Aft C.G. Point Being
Considered
C-35
Usage Variations
Usage Variations
(7G7-X00
Example)
40%
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
Notice that adding the
fuel vector to full cargo
(no bulk) would have
actually produced a
slightly more fwd C.G.
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 0%
300
400
200
500
34%
C-36
Determining Desired Fwd and Aft C.G. Limits:
Accounting for Operational Curtailment
Variations
C-37
Accounting for Operational
Curtailment Variations
Accounting for Operational
Curtailment Variations
Boeings design objective is to provide forward and aft C.G.
limits which will allow for airline variations in operational
curtailments to these C.G. limits. Operational curtailments
are generally used to account for:
Landing gear and flap movement.
In-flight movement of passengers, crew, and service
carts.
Difference between actual and assumed C.G. locations
for cargo, passenger seating, fuel loading and usage,
water movement and usage.
* (Note: Later in this course we will be discussing the
concept and use of operational curtailments in detail.) *
C-38
Accounting for Operational
Curtailment Variations
Accounting for Operational
Curtailment Variations
(7G7-X00
Example)
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
Including Forward and Aft Curtailments
Estimated Fwd
C.G. Curtailments
Estimated Aft
C.G. Curtailments
C-39
Accounting for Operational
Curtailment Variations
Accounting for Operational
Curtailment Variations
(7G7-X00
Example)
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
Required C.G. Limits
Required Fwd Limit
Required Aft Limit
C-40
Weight and Structural Limitations on
the C.G. Envelope
C-41
Weight and Structural Limitations
on the C.G. Envelope
Weight and Structural Limitations
on the C.G. Envelope
The allowable forward and aft C.G. limits may be further
constrained by:
Certified weight limitations MTW, MTOW, MLW, MZFW.
Structural limitations imposed by various parts of the
airplanes structure.
Additional limitations imposed in order to maintain control
of the airplane during its operation.
C-42
Certified Weight Limitations
Certified Weight Limitations
(7G7-X00
Example)
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
Basic Gross Weight / C.G. Limits
MTOW
MLW
MZFW
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
C-43
The strength of the wings structure can impose a
limitation on the forward C.G. limits.
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the
tail must = 0:
M
Tail
= W (B.A.
Tail
B.A.
C.G.
) L
Wing
(B.A.
Tail
B.A.
Wing
) = 0
L
Wing
= W (B.A.
Tail
B.A.
C.G.
)
(B.A.
Tail
B.A.
Wing
)
Weight
Lift
Wing
Lift
Tail
The load on the wing is increased both by increasing
airplane weight, and by forward movement of the center of
gravity. Eventually, the wings limits are reached.
C-44
(7G7-X00
Example)
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
Basic Gross Weight / C.G. Limits
Constant
MLW
MZFW
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
MTOW
C-45
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the wing
must = 0 :
M
Wing
= W (B.A.
Wing
B.A.
C.G.
) L
Tail
(B.A.
Tail
B.A.
Wing
) = 0
L
Tail
= W (B.A.
Wing
B.A.
C.G.
)
(B.A.
Tail
B.A.
Wing
)
The strength of the tail and aft body structure can
impose a limitation on the forward C.G. limits.
The load on the tail and aft body is increased both by
increasing airplane weight, and by forward movement of
the center of gravity. Eventually, the tail or aft bodys limits
are reached.
Weight
Lift
Wing
Lift
Tail
C-46
(7G7-X00
Example)
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
Basic Gross Weight / C.G. Limits
Constant
MLW
MZFW
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
MTOW
C-47
NOSE LANDING GEAR LOAD
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the main landing
gear must = 0 :
M
MLG
= W (B.A.
MLG
B.A.
C.G.
) L
NLG
(B.A.
MLG
B.A.
NLG
) = 0
L
NLG
= W (B.A.
MLG
B.A.
C.G.
)
(B.A.
MLG
B.A.
NLG
)
Constant Nose Landing Gear Load
Constant Nose Landing Gear Load
MLG
NLG
Weight
The strength of the nose gear structure can
impose a limitation on the forward C.G. limits.
The load on the NLG is increased both by increasing
airplane weight, and by forward movement of the center of
gravity. Eventually, the NLG limits are reached.
C-48
(7G7-X00
Example)
Constant Nose Landing Gear Load
Constant Nose Landing Gear Load
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
Basic Gross Weight / C.G. Limits
Constant
MLW
MZFW
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
MTOW
C-49
Constant Main Landing Gear Load
Constant Main Landing Gear Load
MLG
NLG
Weight
The strength of the main landing gear structure can
impose a limitation on the aft C.G. limits.
MAIN LANDING GEAR LOAD
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the nose landing
gear must = 0 :
M
NLG
= L
MLG
(B.A.
MLG
B.A.
NLG
) W(B.A.
C.G.
B.A.
NLG
) = 0
L
MLG
= W (B.A.
C.G.
B.A.
NLG
)
(B.A.
MLG
B.A.
NLG
)
The load on the MLG is increased both by increasing
airplane weight, and by aft movement of the center of
gravity. Eventually, the MLG limits are reached.
C-50
(7G7-X00
Example)
Constant Main Landing Gear Load
Constant Main Landing Gear Load
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
Basic Gross Weight / C.G. Limits
Constant
MLW
MZFW
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
MTOW
C-51
(7G7-X00
Example)
Combining All Structural Limitations
Combining All Structural Limitations
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
Design Gross Weight / C.G. Limits
MLW
MZFW
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
MTOW
C-52
Additional Limitations for Control:
Brake Release Tip-Up
Additional Limitations for Control:
Brake Release Tip-Up
At brake release (full thrust, static airplane) there is a
possibility of reduced nose gear steering effectiveness, or
actual airplane tip up.
BRAKE RELEASE TIP-UP
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the airplane CG
must = 0 :
M
CG
= L
MLG
(B.A.
MLG
B.A.
C.G.
) T h L
NLG
(B.A.
C.G.
B.A.
NLG
) = 0
L
NLG
= L
MLG
(B.A.
MLG
B.A.
C.G.
) T h
(B.A.
C.G.
B.A.
NLG
)
The load on the NLG is reduced by: decreasing airplane weight, aft
movement of the C.G., and increasing thrust. At light enough NLG loads,
steering effectiveness is reduced, and eventually, the NLG load can
become negative causing the airplane to tip up.
MLG
NLG
Weight
Thrust
h
C-53
(7G7-X00
Example)
Brake Release Tip-Up
Brake Release Tip-Up
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
Design Gross Weight / C.G. Limits
MLW
MZFW
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
MTOW
B
r
a
k
e

R
e
l
e
a
s
e

T
i
p
-
U
p
C-54
Additional Limitations for Control:
Ground Handling - Tipping
Additional Limitations for Control:
Ground Handling - Tipping
On the ground, if the C.G. moves aft of the main
landing gear, the airplane will tip up.
To account for the effects of towing and ground operations, a
ground stability limit is imposed at C.G.s forward of the
absolute aft limit. This ground stability limit takes into account
3% ramp slope, Towing forces, 40 knot headwind, etc.
NOSE LANDING GEAR LOAD
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the main landing
gear must = 0 :
M
MLG
= W (B.A.
MLG
B.A.
C.G.
) L
NLG
(B.A.
MLG
B.A.
NLG
) = 0
L
NLG
= W (B.A.
MLG
B.A.
C.G.
)
(B.A.
MLG
B.A.
NLG
)
MLG
NLG
Weight
C-55
(7G7-X00
Example)
Ground Handling - Tipping
Ground Handling - Tipping
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

(
1
0
0
0

L
B
)
10%
OEW
20% 30% 40% 0%
300
400
200
500
Design Gross Weight / C.G. Limits
MLW
MZFW
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
MTOW
G
r
o
u
n
d

S
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

L
i
m
i
t
A
f
t

T
i
p
p
i
n
g

L
i
m
i
t
C-56
Examples of C.G. Envelopes for
Actual Airplanes
C-57
(For training
purposes only.
Not kept up to date)
Example
777-200 Center
of Gravity
Limits
Example
777-200 Center
of Gravity
Limits
C-58
Limitations on 777-200
Center of Gravity
Limitations on 777-200
Center of Gravity
CENTER OF GRAVITY ~ % MAC
B
o
d
y

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,
L
o
a
d
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

T
a
i
l

S
i
z
e
S
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

&

C
o
n
t
r
o
l
W
in
g
M
a
i
n
G
e
a
r
Mission
Performance
F
u
e
l

V
e
c
t
o
r
B
r
a
k
e

R
e
l
e
a
s
e

T
i
p
-
U
p
L
o
a
d
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

S
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

&

C
o
n
t
r
o
l
0 5 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
120000
160000
140000
180000
200000
220000
240000
260000
280000
300000
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

~

K
G
N
o
s
e

G
e
a
r
15
C-59
Example
737-800 Center
of Gravity
Limits
Example
737-800 Center
of Gravity
Limits
(For training
purposes only.
Not kept up to date)
C-60
Limitations on 737-800
Center of Gravity
Limitations on 737-800
Center of Gravity
S
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

&

C
o
n
t
r
o
l
W
in
g
M
ain
G
ear
Mission
Performance
F
u
e
l

V
e
c
t
o
r
T
a
i
l

P
o
w
e
r
L
o
a
d
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

S
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

&

C
o
n
t
r
o
l
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
CENTER OF GRAVITY ~ % MAC
35000
40000
45000
50000
55000
60000
65000
70000
75000
80000
85000
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

~

K
G
B
o
d
y

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,
L
o
a
d
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

T
a
i
l

S
i
z
e
B
r
a
k
e

R
e
l
e
a
s
e

T
i
p
-
U
p
C-61
Example
747-400 Center
of Gravity
Limits
Example
747-400 Center
of Gravity
Limits
(For training
purposes only.
Not kept up to date)
C-62
Limitations on 747-400
Center of Gravity
Limitations on 747-400
Center of Gravity
L
a
n
d
i
n
g

L
i
m
i
t

f
o
r

G
e
a
r
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

S
t
a
b
i
l
i
z
e
r
T
r
i
m

L
i
n
e

f
o
r

T
a
k
e
o
f
f
W
in
g
Mission
Performance
F
u
e
l

V
e
c
t
o
r
B
r
a
k
e

R
e
l
e
a
s
e
T
i
p
-
U
p
L
o
a
d
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

S
t
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

&

C
o
n
t
r
o
l
0 5 25 20 25 30 35 40
180000
220000
200000
240000
260000
280000
300000
340000
360000
400000
G
R
O
S
S

W
E
I
G
H
T

~

K
G
N
o
s
e

G
e
a
r
10
B
r
a
k
e

R
e
l
e
a
s
e

T
i
p
-
U
p
T
a
i
l

L
o
a
d

W
i
t
h

T
a
i
l

F
u
e
l
Landing Performance
F
u
e
l
V
e
c
t
o
r
CENTER OF GRAVITY ~ % MAC
320000
380000
420000
B
o
d
y

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
,
L
o
a
d
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

T
a
i
l

S
i
z
e
C-63
End of
Center of Gravity Limitations