Geographies by the Multitude The Cartography of Bureau d’Etudes Sebastian Cobarrubias University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill sebcob@email

Prelude: We must now, …be in to understand our lobal state of war and its development throu h research into the enealo y of social and political movements of resistance. !his will lead us eventually toward a new vision of our world and also an understandin of the sub"ectivities capable of creatin a new world. #Hardt and Ne ri, $%%&, '() !o understand this power of the multitude better we need first to investi ate … some of its contemporary e*pressions. #Hardt and Ne ri, $%%&, $'&) Hardt and Ne ri allow the spirit of the above cited phrases to uide their

impressive wor+ throu hout Multitude. !hey reflect upon many e*amples of collective stru le as they trace an outline of this potential body called the multitude. !his essay

see+s to continue the practice of basin one,s theori-in upon social movement activity by en a in with the wor+ of an art.activist collective from Strasbour ./rance called Bureau d’Etudes that is producin its own analyses of the restructurin of the lobal economy as well as tryin to e*plore potential forms of resistance.

0n November $%%$, durin the first 1uropean Social /orum in /lorence 0taly, Bureau d’Etudes distributed copies of a map they had produced called. 21uropean Norms of World Construction,. !he map had three layers that included institutional lin+s between the 1uropean commission, trade le islation and the ban+in industry, union 3

federations and N45s, and forms of social resistance #riots, clandestine or ani-ation, s6uattin ). Within the year, this map was circulatin amon st s6uatter,s movements in 7arcelona, bein written about by art activists in 8ondon, and bein shipped to Chica o where roups were inspired by these curious new maps to pursue the idea of map. ma+in .

!his collective is not only producin tools for use in mass mobili-ations. !heir wor+ is also en a in some of the newest tends in both9 3) social theory and political philosophy: as well as $) cuttin ed e critical carto raphic theory. 71, as part of a broader activist mappin wave, relates in different ways to these two bodies of theoretical wor+ includin wor+in independently on parallel concepts, and respondin to some of their calls. 0n this paper, 0 will focus on Multitude and the common resonances that BE shares with many of the ideas that Hardt and Ne ri present in that wor+, particularly some of their analyses of the constitutions of current forms of lobal power, the criti6ue of representation, and the search for new forms of resistance and democracy. 0n re ards to carto raphic theory, 0 will address some of the e*istin alternative mappin efforts in 4eo raphy as well as calls, from within and without 4eo raphy, for a reinvi orated critical carto raphy. !hrou h usin the tool of activist carto raphy throu h a

theoretically implicated lens this paper will attempt to demonstrate how Bureau d’Etudes is producin mappin s and political analyses that are pushin both of these literatures into new directions.

!his essay will be in by briefly reviewin some of the e*istin e*periences of critical carto raphy within the discipline of 4eo raphy. !his will be followed by a $

presentation of Bureau d’Etudes and one of their mappin pro"ects. How this collective,s wor+ evo+es common notions e*posed in Multitude will be e*plained here as well. /inally, this paper will situate Bureau d’Etudes wor+ within broader calls for a theoretically re.invi orated and politically critical carto raphy from within and without 4eo raphy.

0n some sense then, this piece as+s critical human

eo raphy to continue

e*plorin the shift towards a new theoretically informed carto raphy as an anta onistic pro"ect. ; carto raphy that can help 2plot, some initial 2navi ational charts, 3 helpful in understandin the political con"uncture…in much the same spirit as Hardt, Ne ri and Bureau d’Etudes. . Part I: Experiences of Post-Imperialist Cartographies <!he map is open and connectible in all of its dimensions: it is detachable, reversible, susceptible to constant modification. 0t can be torn, reversed, adapted to any +ind of mountin , rewor+ed by an individual, roup, or social formation. 0t can be drawn on a wall, conceived of as a wor+ of art, constructed as a political action or as a meditation. ; map has multiple entryways…!he map has to do with performance…#=eleu-e and 4uattari, 3>?@, 3$) Carto raphy as a field can seem an odd place to be in discussin some of the latest practices in lobal resistance movements. Historically, Carto raphy has been

associated with the imperial pro"ects of the last several centuries by mappin ‘terrae incognitae’ in order to facilitate material and co nitive con6uest. While it is ar ued that more maps are bein produced now than at any time in the +nown past #especially than+s to 40S and computeri-ed carto raphy), the ma"ority of these are classically Cartesian and

!his notion is inspired in the early writin s by =ebord on psycho eo raphy as a practice which provides us with tentative and initial maps #similar to the navi ational maps of the ;tlantic for 3' th century 1uropean sailors) in order to navi ate the current confi urations of power #see =ebord 3>(?, p . &).


dedicated towards mappin s 2ob"ects, such as

laciers, streets, military tar ets, and

potential mar+ets. Buch of this new mappin actually seems to only deepen the reach of e*istin institutions already occupyin privile ed sites of power #the military,

corporations, etc.). 4iven this panorama, the relevance of carto raphy to pro"ects of emancipatory politics can seem limited at best. How then, to articulate a post.imperial carto raphyC ;re the small efforts at recapturin it even worthwhile or should the practice "ust be dropped alto etherC ; few recent efforts at buildin alternative carto raphy or counter.mappin this sort of a

will be mentioned here as buildin

bac+ round upon which efforts such as the Bureau d’Etudes intervene.

5ne critical intervention into the field of maps, and carto raphy more broadly, has been the critical carto raphy literature. /rom Harley,s classic essays #3>??), to =ennis Wood,s The Power of Maps #3>>$), to Dohn Eic+les, wor+ on 40S #3>>() and the history of spatial representation #$%%&) this literature has successfully destabili-ed the fi*ity of carto raphic representation. 5ften e*perimentin with the social theory of /oucault, =errida, 7en"amin, =eleu-e and 4uattari amon others, this literature has channeled attention toward Carto raphy #and maps in particular) as a historically produced ob"ect which serves as a powerF+nowled e or even an apparatus of a particular discourse on the nation, economy, etc. Baps become an instrument which can deepen or solidify a particular vision of the world often servin concrete interests or actors in specific ways. !his approach has #and does) contribute a reat criti6ue and a new way of understandin maps. 5ften this literature has produced inspiration in rethin+in new or 2other, ways of mappin , thou h it has been difficult as of yet for this approach to move beyond this criti6ue and analysis towards producin a new form of carto raphy. &

!hose e*periences of radical participatory mappin have inspired many eo raphers partly by throwin in a +ey element.s of yet there is not anythin apparent that seems to challen e the theoretical underpinnin s of imperial carto raphy #such as its Cartesian lo ic). has now been producin yearly . eneratin policy debates. interested in participatin in the pro"ect to remap the territories they inhabited. Buch time has passed since those initiatives and unfortunately the 1*pedition $ See http9FFwww. etc.dditionally. nor that these carto raphers haven. the carto raphy here is still one belon in to the 2e*perts. and this approach in eneral.. team members have even dabbled in tryin to carto raphically represent wor+s on social theory. .institutionally based eo raphers9 community members. While the information this team in particular.s wor+ itself.s and wor+ of 7ill 7un e in particular. in the process of map. that these carto raphers assume their maps to be <truerH representations.5ther approaches to critical carto raphy have simply ta+en standard techni6ues of professional map production and carto raphic research but applied it to critical political ends. . ood recent e*ample of this is the carto raphy team at the Le Monde Diplomatique "ournal. .diplomati6ue. merely that the ap between the political en a ement and the theoretical challen e has yet to be brid ed or at least addressed. ( .monde. A !his is not to say it is anti6uated.n e*pert carto rapher still ma+es 2the.t en a ed some of the critical carto raphy literature. the participation of non.frFcartesF. 5ther attempts to push Carto raphy into even more e*perimental and radical terrain are now le end within 4eo raphy. such Ga+ecewit-.s attempts to create a map of Bbembe. !his team. is producin has been very useful in educatin a wider public or on occasion.s and @%. activists.$%%%). map and uses methods that are theoretically standard and which have been sub"ected to criti6ue by the literature on critical carto raphyA. such as the urban 4eo raphical 1*peditions of the late '%. coordinated by Ehilippe Ge+acewic-.tlases utili-in carto raphic information and maps to present a critical analysis and <situation reportH of the state of the world $. .

the participation can "ust as often become a new way to collect data. !he EE40S community has wor+ed with roups in both the 4lobal North and South in an effort to brid e the technolo ical divides that e*clude community involvement in decision.mapcru-in.s. and the CBGN(.comF ' . Without bein e*haustive. channelin parameters. http9FFwww.6uo.dditionally.=&. around 6uestions of !hou h not always as politically radical as the early days of the 4eo raphical 1*pedition. it can become another form of anestheti-ed community input #or outra e) into reco ni-able representational politics. the intense amount of e*perience and wor+ by the EE40S community has lead vast archives and clearin . rather than challen in the spatial status. or as a way to challen e the fi*in of carto raphic +nowled e from a limited number of often patented computer fi*es and technolo ical mediation in carto raphic production. to attempts to repro ram and rethin+ alternative forms & ( 0nte rated .E. . Iet authors such as Wood #$%%() have e*hibited s+epticism over the de ree and 6uality of community participation in EE40S. development. to re.houses of resources for this sort of wor+. Gather than a new form of freein carto raphic cate ories for a rethin+in from the 2bottom. such as9 the 0. Nonetheless recent discussions around participatory development and community development have met with the 40S community and branched into the rowin field of Eublic Earticipation a form of carto raphic wor+ and research did not continue with the same vi or after the early @%.appropriations of historical indi enous spatialities.or F Clary Beuser Gesearch Networ+.pproaches to Earticipatory =evelopment. other forms of counter mappin that are challen in the historically predominant role of maps in politics include the rowin field of 0ndi enous Carto raphy which can ran e from forms of EE40S.

eduFKeoslavicFpro"ectsFbombsitesFinde*. !his newer wave of activist mappin ' that is more See9 !he 0nstitute for 0nfinitely Small !hin s. Some of them are of the style of the <propa anda mapH demonstratin and creatin a particular spatial ima inary #Eic+les. 4eo raphy as a discipline has recently discovered this trend #Jry ier and Wood $%%'). 5bviously.of computeri-ed carto raphyF map creatin software with the cate ories of spatial understandin of a particular first nation pro rammed into the code #see Co swell and Schiot. to be mapped. 0n the art world as of late there has been an intense en a ement with 2mappin .i+atun. many of these efforts comin from social movements9 3) are theoretically en a ed and critical of imperial carto raphy: $) have a clear political en a ement: A) attempt to create participatory fora and rassroots mappin techni6ues: and &) often try to develop a new aesthetics of mappin and new concepts of 2thin s. !his artistic movement.s a trend. nor is all activist mappin of the type "ust described above. as well as some of the strands in indi enous carto raphy. $%%&): others are street protest maps or 2action maps.comF.comFinstituteFinfinitelysmallthin sF: 1lin Slavic. a transformed carto raphy of the +ind su scholars mentioned above. . http9FFwww. identify safe -ones. this recent trend in activist mappin is not the first time mappin has been used by social movements.html: and !he Eublic 4reen Ero"ect by 8i-e Bo el http9FFwww. or map out areas for differin levels of physical militancy.s <Elaces the US has 7ombedH. that desi nate tar ets. both as a metaphor to e*plore for artwor+s as well as al literal practice bein carried out in aesthetically challen in ways'). http9FFwww. ested by the critical carto raphy !he risin trend in activist mappin that this paper en a es with ta+es on many of the insi hts of the new critical carto raphic approaches mentioned above.public reen. are pointin towards a practice of theoretically reinvi orated.3>>'). @ .unc.

as a participant of a prolific and increasin ly referential activist mappin collective in Spain and Borocco. ma+es use of the notions of eo raphies of the multitude as opposed to eo raphies of empire to capture the comple*ities of the chan in territories they inhabit and want to intervene 8ama. based on the spatiality of flows and information. and some roups are specifically en a in with the tradition of carto raphy to further their political pro"ects. 5ne of these is Bureau d’Etudes. !his is how they describe one of ac!itetura’s mappin pro"ects focused on the Straits of 4ibraltar9 …the ob"ective of the map LisM increasin ly centered on the representation of the flows and conflicts in the border re ion.appropriation of carto raphy for the politics of lobal "ustice. 5n the one hand. are confi urin habitats and spatial orders in confrontation and competition with those produced by lobal capitalism Lthat we. $ author’s translation.ima inin s of the spatialities of biopolitical power. eo raphical area of the 1uropean Specifically. italics mine) Dose Eere. called ac!itectura. the oal was to map the mechanisms of militari-ation and the e*tension of the 2border. this roup is based on the challen in Union. Part II: Cartographies by the Multitude? Prelude Currently new emer ent processes are bein produced that. 4lobal "ustice movements in eneral are en a in in dense re. We propose callin these new anta onistic ways of inhabitin . usin Ne ri and Hardt. !his is often due to le.del 8ama. $%%A. and economics and how to interact with what appears as a shiftin efforts to articulate a lobali-in identity of stru eo raphy.ll call. geographies of the multitude #Eere.North . ? . participatin in the new spatiality of flows and technolo ies of networ+ or ani-ation.frica border of the Straits of 4ibraltar. geographies of empireM. communication and networ+ or ani-ation technolo ies.theoretically and analytically en a ed has also emer ed as a re. towards the south.s terminolo y. 7esides ac!itectura #www. en a in with the latest social theory and e*perimentin with new political forms of or ani-in . economic restructurin and social theories such as Hardt and Ne ri. !heir contributions will be further en a ed and translated in later 8ama. Several activist mappin roups have be un to en a e the notions of empireFmultitude #or somethin similar) and elaboratin them in spatial terms. . /oreman. $%%(.netFmapasFcatFinde*Ncat. =e 8ama and other participants in Hac+itectura have produced some fascinatin maps and te*ts on issues relevant to new carto raphies. in the title and as central theme of the wor+s9 <4eo rafPas de la BultitudH and . but we include the processes lin+ed to networ+s of social movements and the multiple flows of communication.and the productive. and 2multitude. 5n the other hand we tried to map the processes that challen e the imperial system and its border that permanently traverse and deconstruct it.<4eo rafPasNdeNlaNmultitudNLconectadaM.s urban development of bein increasin ly @ 0t is interestin to note that DosO Eere.hac+itectura. are circulatin throu h social movement circuits due to their evocative 8ama has written two pieces with 2 eo raphies of the multitude. wave of this +ind of activist mappin . mi rations lin+ed to wor+ leap to prominence. 0t should be noted thou h that often the use of these notions is not necessarily based on Hardt and Ne ri.s use or elaboration of the terms even if there is an implicit conversation at wor+. > . !he ran e includes pro"ects such as <"orumH a collective carto raphic effort focused on the multiple types and sites of conflict oin on within 7arcelona #http9FFwww. has be un to multiply in recent years with the upswin in lobal resistance mobili-ations and their interconnections. resistance.mon these. We characteri-ed those flows in a eneral manner as flows of the multitude. #Eere.s. author. =ifferent activist andcommunity roups wor+ed to ether developin an analysis of corporate structures and influence in the city. italics mine)@ ac!itectura is only one e*ample of how the terminolo ies and concepts such as 2empire. accusin the city. Casas and Stallman $%%').htm).economic flows lin+ed to capitalist lobali-ation.s translation. Introduction .sindominio.H. there is an emer ent panoply of collectives and pro"ects located worldwide #!oret and S ui lia $%%': !uc+er.

net. mar+etin tool durin the event of the 2/orum de las Culturas. 3 .html): i(ee from the 0nstitute of . e*chan es.pplied . !he widely distributed map acted as an anti. re ulatory and technolo ical) helpin to constitute it.s an e*ample of this diffusion. !hese are merely some e*amples of a practice that is spreadin and interconnectin >. 5ther initiatives include9 the <transitmigrationH from 4ermany on the new 1U border re ime #http9FFwww.calendars.netFmesshallFd%3F3%F$%%&C displayQBRstyleQ7Rpositionin Q. their e*ecutive boards and political administrations also from the US. understandin the unfoldin of the 71. that was supposed to celebrate a sort of mainstream cosmopolitan multiculturalism. as well as the spaces available for different forms of an alternative pro"ect based on creatin a series of maps to understand the institutions and discourses aidin in creatin the new forms of precarity as well as the multiple strate ies and tools developed by communities and movements to cope and combat precarity #http9FFwww. a critical political art fest was held which focused strictly on mappin practices and theory # http9FFplus.precarity. temp wor+.mon these activist carto raphic collectives.netF). unemployment.more oriented to business and social control. . ?.or Fmi mapFinde*.s deployment of theoretical concerns. and more). usin the internet to create networ+ maps of corporations.transitmi in the US on surveillance in New Ior+ City #http9FFwww. > .s efforts focus primarily on lobal economy and the processes #political. ). !here. e*hibitions etc. and the list oes on.html): !heyrule. !his is a multi.s also the Ean. in Chica o durin 5ctober $%%&. 71.comFisee. new buildin inau urations.appliedautonomy. 1uropean <Precarit#$%e&$'ingH emer in out of all the vibrant mobili-ation around the issues related to precarious labor #fle*ible wor+. lac+ of access to services. 71 has been e*tremely productive and elaborate both in terms of te*ts and maps. visual ? !he /orum de las Culturas was a year lon series of me a events includin concerts.

a roup that has en a ed with issues of casuali-ed labor and culture wor+ers under neoliberalism. with particularly stron connections developin with s6uatters.fter several other collective pro"ects in /rance. 5ne of the central . !he followin brief en a ement will present 71 as an e*ample of how contemporary activist carto raphic pro"ects are. . 0n coordination with other artists and in reaction to structural unemployment they founded the 2(#ndicat Potentiel.E. #the 2Eotential Union. Some of their early wor+ included representations of economic institutions or powerful individuals in their city and re ion. movements around Western 1urope oals of these roups is the production of 3 #Holmes $%%A).versions of maps and flowcharts of economic networ+s as a form of publicFpolitical art. !he roup be an to e*periment with what may be called proto.techni6ues. !he Bureau d’Etudes pro"ect be in to carry out its pro"ects in 3>>$. !he frustration with the political economy of the art world as well as the actions of unemployed and s6uatters movements at the time too+ the efforts of the BE into even more politically en a ed art wor+.). spatially enactin empireFmultitude. thou h the ori ins of their mappin e*ercises be in around 3>>? with a collection of political art called the 2archives of capitalism. the roup be an to 6uestion how to brea+ out of the typical allery. !he roups #both Bureau d’Etudes and (#ndicat Potentiel) are ti htly networ+ed with other autonomous activist roups. and economic analysis ma+e for some interestin pro"ects. the notions of History and Mission of circuit for art. in their own ways.

these carto raphic e*periments seem to have e*panded in scope and reach.or FdriftF). in 3>>? 33 and the widespread emer ence and ac+nowled ement of lobal resistance movements. counter summits a ainst +ey international institutions.3% Geflections on the chan in nature of the economy as well as the increasin prominence of lobal resistance movements and the calls to articulate a new sort of international solidarity.ontinental Drift in New Ior+ with =avid Harvey #see http9FFwww.political chan es throu h the practice and metaphor of mappin . e*chan e of ideas. !hese seminars include periodic en a ement and dialo ue with university scholars.or FnadirFinitiativFa pFmayday3. and practices amon other movement roups as an e*plicit strate y of movin BE out of the allery. No 7order camps a ainst mi ration policin .<autonomous counter +nowled esH and an economy of the 2free. http9FFwww. services. =istribution of the material has occurred throu h events such as the 1uropean Social /orum.htm 3 . economic and dynamic and into more open circulation #Holmes $%%A). pushed Bureau d’Etudes #BE) toward a lon .revuedumauss. etc. increasin their networ+in . !he roup has produced over a do-en ma"or 3% !hese efforts have resulted in other collectives e*perimentin with map. such as the recent seminar .free. #see Manifesto of the )ni*ersit+ Tangente).ction website for more information9 http9FFwww. as in free stuff.s 2 ift as a form of intervention and have even helped create a spin.3'beaver roup.nadir.. Holmes $%%A). 33 See the Eeople.s 4lobal .comF). 4raeber $%%$. and they have been widely disseminated and used throu h movement events and atherin s.frF. and his rediscovery in /rance after the eneral stri+es of 3>>( #Holmes $ series of political seminars discussin new eo. !hese latter ideas are based at least indirectly on Bauss. which often show dense networ+s of institutional actors in re ional and lobal economies function as tools to incite conversation and analysis. Earticularly after the first 2 lobal days of action.term en a ement with carto raphic representation as a way to wor+ on and communicate these same issues. as well as other movement spaces #see http9FFutan ente. !he maps bein produced.

as immersed in the modern art world and the information a e. BE. in addition to their maps. interstate a encies and Tcivil societyT roups. #Holmes $%%A) Bureau d’Etudes. one sees then the choice of usin carto raphy to decipher systems of power as an elaborate and intentional choice based on how 71 understands their social and economic role and possibilities. combine the roles of political artists and hac+ers into one. as constructed Sby collusion between specific individuals. U! $%%A.capitalist efforts. demandin a new a-e on the world that we really live in. that are used by different participants in lobal resistance and anti. terrifyin ly abstract space.powers formerly e*ercised within the purview of the national states. !actical Bedia $%%A). and indeed. at least until recently when the communicative possibilities have allowed a certain measure of Sco nitive mappin S to be performed by inhabitants. 3 . transnational corporations. almost totally invisible .s notions of the immaterial laborer and the production of social cooperation. radical activism. and in particular the pro"ects of (#ndicat Potential and )ni*ersit+ Tangente. BE continues to produce new maps and is increasin ly tryin to respond to the political con"unctures and perceived needs of movements. overnments. and political sub"ectivity. L!Mhese maps present an e*cess of information. as well as accompanyin te*ts. transnational version of state capitalism. Wor+in throu h their te*ts. shatterin sub"ective certainties and demandin reflection.maps. BE has additionally helped to establish the )ni*ersit+ Tangente. has elaborated on how they understand the economy of the art world. a sort of free web resource and networ+in reflection and research re ardin space for critical lobal transformations. with Holmes in particular articulatin the broader theoretical possibilities of social movements and carto raphic practice #Holmes $%%A. 0n fact a lot of interestin parallels can be drawn with Hardt and Ne ri.S !hey ma+e visible the institutional patterns that have structured themselves in an overarchin . !hese are synoptic visions of the contemporary. almost totally beyond the rasp of the democratic counter. the information a e and the possibilities for autonomy and rebellion.

.dditionally they appropriate the ability to produce communication and social relations by circulatin the products of their s+ills throu h anta onistic networ+s. The Norms of orld Production Bureau d’Etudes’ maps in the ‘European -orms of %orld Production’ series are particularly instructive in showin how BE is tryin to use a form of mappin to challen e accepted cate ories of 1urope. 1lle se constitue en rupture avec les recherches scientifi6ues. 3 .articulatin lin+s between two forms of immaterial labor and politici-in them.s te*t has. etc. les prati6ues culturelles et artisti6ues domesti6uOes par l. les productions et transmissions de connaissance. both Hardt R Ne ri and 71 seem to be driftin in a similar social field of thou ht with re ards to the possibilities of appropriatin immaterial production for new anta onistic political pro"ects autonomous from those who focus on either the sei-ure of state power. the ideas have one beyond the te*ts themselves into a wider social field. researchers. hac+ers.monetari-ed e*chan e challen in notions of scarcity. and producin what they call 2autonomous +nowled es that can be circulated throu h circuits of social movements. !hou h it is unclear whether 71 would a ree about the he emonic tendencies of immaterial labor. notions of free and non. or on le al reco nition from the state. 3$ . 0t is interestin to note how some of the notions of the possibilities of immaterial labor have resonated in movement networ+s whether or not any particular roup or theorist.Utat ou le marchO.3$ #Bureau d’Etudes $%%$a R $%%$b). unemployed collectives.H #Banifesto of the )ni*ersit+ Tangente). youth roups.s an interestin e*ample of some of these ideas we can read the openin lines of the Banifesto of the )ni*ersit+ Tangente9 <8.universitO tan ente est une universitO -Oro. artists. !hey articulate the oals of some of their wor+ throu h the notions of political and economic autonomy.

#2European -orms of %orld Production’. re ulatory a encies../)'E 01 -ormopathic . and non. which puts before the reader a series of 1U institutions. such as tas+ forces. state and re ulatory power #re ulatory doesn. unpredictable human re ion into a play round for capitalism. personalities. etc.tan+s.or. truth criteria. !hese become the second nature of an e*pandin . or ani-ations and movements. lobbies. map le end) ". !he instruments it uses are norms9 industrial standards. court systems. Eart of the second sideFlayer of the map is that of 2or ani-ed civil society. as a smo+escreen to hide and further their own interests. personalities.i*il (ociet# 3 .state and 1U as well as with industry #if not directly then throu h secondary roups. !he map is made up of three parts. ideolo ical uidelines. actors. thin+. nation.industry policy platforms that are nonetheless lin+ed in multiple and comple* ways with the nation. acceleratin drive to ma+e this vast./)'E 3 4rganised . territorial models. a labyrinth of laws and standards lends tan ible form to our e*istence. Sophisticated services have now arisen to lead corporations throu h the tan le of a encies that their own lobbies helped to create. 5n one side of the map is the 2Normopathic Comple* #1urope).bsent from the local landscape. police forces and a wide array of norms and laws that facilitate the e*pansion of the above #see /i ure 3 for an e*ample).state institutions. Here one sees a series of N45s.omple2 http9FFut. thin+.atFsiteFcarteFnormopathicNcomple*$%%$.. 8in+s are drawn between the different items to create a sort of networ+ map of corporate. tan+s. !he 1uropean Union …is an attempt to produce the world we live in. policy initiatives. 1U committees on civil society.t%. invisible to the na+ed eye. always seem e6uivalent to state here).: see /i ure $) "..pdf !he map is intended to be polemical and to facilitate the ima ination of lobal activists in picturin a di--yin array of institutions.

or./)'E 5 .paranoid representation of the 2 lobal.pdf) 5ne issue melds into another includin thin s such as9 2anti. thou h analy-in the roup.http9FFut. 2heterodo* research centers. a reaction that 71 has reco ni-ed and not discoura ed. !he re.n!lings of 6utonom# http9FFut. near.porous boundaries #see /i ure A). nor provo+e a conclusion that could lead to apathy or inaction. ".appropriation of public oods and services. V$%E=/For anised. and includes a wide array of social movement activity. 2re.s oal is not to stymie action.atFsiteFdownloadsF0n+lin NautonomyN$%%A. but rather embrace the comple*ity and confusion with which we are faced. 71. seems to and they don.atFsiteFima esF7UG1. !he movements are purposefully represented with hyper.utonomy. and more.$. 0t is unclear where action is to be ta+en at times from this sort of pro"ect since it can have a paraly-in as well as alvani-in effect.. neatly severed from the autonomous sphere where 2hope.presentations at wor+ in European -orms of 3 . When tryin to ma+e sense of the uses of this map it may seem li+e an overwhelmin .t%.or..s effort definitely embraces and even encoura es the visceral response one may have when faced with the sort of overnance force that is presented. !he final layer in the map is 20n+lin s of .UV$%=V$%1!U=1SV$%.t%.pdf).prison.presentin networ+s of political and economic power.s wor+ further it can be seen that 71.t try to separate this emotion from the detailed wor+ of 2abolition of the state..

3 .to. !he dynamic of the lobal economy that appears is that of comple* interactions and conflicts amon st and between a) corporate7state7regulator# apparati.c) autonomous spheres of politics and economics.b) ‘official’ ci*il Production can lead to some 6uite interestin 6uestions and challen es to be addressed.

0nterpretation of the layers of ‘European -orms of %orld Production’ map9 NORMOPATHIC COMPLEX corporatestate-think tanksregulatory apparati- ‘OFFICIAL’ CIVIL SOCIETY larger NGOs. or at least a lobali-in political.… !his conception can provide an interestin sort of framewor+ for understandin the production and dynamics of a lobal economy. EU committees on civil society Inklings of Autonomy social movement space. policy task forces.economy 3 . alternative economies.

is not 6uite the result of a dynamic of conflict and collaboration between states and firms conceived of as separate wholes but rather of the emer ence of a lar er whole that is able to produce rules and norms that benefit the channelin of flows and power in certain directions and towards certain actors.private partnerships are challen in this scheme. and the firm or corporation.within the re ion of 21urope. interpretations of lobali-ation. !hese are fields. !he boo+ deals with all sorts of issues but one important theme that comes up a ain and a ain are the comple* dynamics of conflict and collaboration between states and firms. version of the lobal such as the 2nation. 3 . Eart of the idea of this map then is that it is the interplay of these three layers #the Normopathic. of actors involved in constructin this 2re ionali-ed. ac6uires a body throu h its institutions and 3A =ic+en. .re ional.t permit neat division between the spheres.utonomy) that is creatin many of the social contours of a new 1urope. and helpful in challen in some of the simpler versions of either 2whither the nation. !he messa e from BE seems to be that the intertwinin and networ+in of political and economic forces doesn.state. . or 2supra. the BE map demonstrates a hi h de ree of permeability of spheres with re ards to the state.s ma nificent and encyclopedic wor+ in the various editions of /lo&al (hift read li+e and encyclopedia to current economic transformations. or the 2state is the prime mover. or 21urope.layers where many #thou h by no means all) of the tensions around the idea of 21urope.s opposed to the conceptions of political economy that posit states and firms as fairly distinct entities that conflict and collaborate #as proposed by =ic+en. 5fficial Civil Society.rooms and political appointments are not dealt with to any de ree. the boo+ still leaves one with the impression that states and firms remain to distinct and identifiable bodies that interact as entities e*terior to one another9 6uestions of how public. $%%A3A). or of 6uestions of revolvin doors between corporate board. 5ne e*ample of this is how the map presents the 2boundedness. No clear line e*ists where one could demarcate 2state. !he map ma+es an abstract thin li+e 21U.state. corporations. or 2firm. are bein fou ht out. the production of a particular form of the 2 lobal. and 0n+lin s of . of influences of corporate lobbies..ccordin to this readin . and the norms of re ulation. While fascinatin in and of itself.

institution.ins. !he carto raphic practices of Bureau d’Etudes involve the location of one law. and leaves readers wonderin what to do. 3& Bureau d8Etude8s maps should not be considered as entirely self. institutions into a lar er framewor+. !hou h the institutions seem solid. !he map has primarily been used as a wor+shop tool for teach. Iet it also shows "ust how many points at which this new 21urope. Gussia.frF$%%AF overnin bynetwor+s.pdf) maps out the which details the networ+s and lin+a es of this investment fund to other parts of the service and manufacturin economy.. third map can help us complete part of the picture. !he neoliberal 1urope of power becomes more than a hierarchically or ani-ed functionalist set of powerF+nowled e dispositifs…. the United amon other thin s #Holmes.frF$%%AFbarclays. !he conception of carto raphy that 71 is wor+in with seems to be that maps are always incomplete and should be thou ht of and produced accordin ly. 0t has certainly produced a more directed dialo ue about what the 1U is #beyond the counter. While these states may be interactin on their own in other ways. (). and it has also helped spread the idea of mappin as a tool to map out power and to map out collective stru collectives now at developin online map les. different re ional states and blocs are shown such as the 1uropean Union. interpretation). .contained. We can start with the 2%orld /o*ernment’ map #and wor+in with Holmes. and is more readily understood as a comple* articulation of contin ent actors and institutions. ‘%orld /o*ernment1 Barcla# PL. it becomes less a distant bureaucracy and more li+e a tar et in your daily life. is vulnerable and at how many level of society it can be challen ed. .s an e*ample some U! maps can be read in with each other to deepen analysis con"unction #as if layers or continuations of other maps). $%%&b. !he map impresses people with its di--yin comple*ity. their e*istence or role is irrelevant outside the web of relations that produces a particular 21urope. How different re ulatory framewor+s uide the development of certain communications $ . BE is also wor+in with other enerators that could be much more participatory with input from different roups and campai ns3&.summit that used to happen twice a year) and how to challen e it. and then followin the multitude of connections and networ+s that brin those same laws. a process of articulation is visuali-ed throu h a map of financial inte ration on the part of deterritoriali-ed institutional investors such as 7arclay.s and /idelity investments throu h their dealin s in bond mar+ets. China and 0ndia.laws.’ #see http9FFutan ente. ‘/o*erning &# -etwor!s’ #see http9FFutan ente. No one map contains all the relevant information nor possible answers to 6uestions. communications infrastructures that underpin many of the financial transactions by powerful investors. We can follow the trail to another map.

s wor+ can be seen as an important contribution to the often overused trope of 2flow. $ . le al. powerful family linea es. BE. i-ation of the technolo y is demonstrated here. throu h which thin s such as +nowled e. etc. economic. and the way it is or ani-ed into layers. brin in up 6uestions of where the state and the firm end or be in. are flowin . thin+ tan+s. the notion of 2flow. emer ent autonomous technolo ies facilitated by defense needs and at times maintained by defense contractors after the civilian. corporations. social movement activity. 5ne can see how specific actors are mapped as nodes. While wor+ such as .s maps can be seen as attempts to visuali-e spaces of flows3(. p. /lows are not assumed to be unidirectional nor stable.ppadurai. Neither pro"ect should be read as a reflection of the other. Networ+s of circuited flows are visuali-ed movin throu h actors such as states. BE helps by attemptin to trace out the <flowsH as multiple ne*uses of comple* institutional. as a way to thin+ about lobali-ation. the 0ma inaries of 4lobal 0nte rationH 7rian Holmes su ests that 71. (). media.0n </lowmaps. money. lobbies. on the other hand. Cartographic !isions of the Multitude !his map. armies. !he final aim of most of these maps is to plot out different overnance structures of lobali-in economic.s recent boo+s The Le2us and the 4li*e Tree and The %orld is "lat come to mind here). media roups. 7ut some of the possible parallels may be seen as an illustration of how ideas of networ+ed power structures.s #3>>') writin s on scapes has been helpful in early conceptuali-ations of the spatialities of lobali-ation. thou h lin+s of what appear to be stron er connection are drawn between actors that seem to be more closely lin+ed. and any parallels between the two should not be forced. has become an often too easy way to thin+ about and naturali-e the lobal #!homas /riedman. political. transnational reli ious or ani-ations and social movements #Holmes $%%&b. reflects some of the problematics and 6uestions raised by Hardt and Ne ri in Multitude and Empire in interestin ways. and military networ+s or. investment funds. 3( 0n this sense. or political relations.

!he 2Normopathic Comple*. $ . become 6uite clear from this layer of the 71. !he resonances with a notion of 1mpire as a de. for this form of power. actors.standards ma+in bodies. 3@ !his Normopathic layer also lends itself to an interestin readin of the state. !he map also brin s up the issue of where is the stateC 0n the case of the 1U bein e*amined. the lin+s between it and Multitude will mostly reflect insi hts form the sections of the boo+ on =emocracy and Bultitude. !he 1uropean Commission is pic+ed as a center for the map. the 2nation. or 2control center.. So while the 2state. lar ely because this is a map about the 1U and 1urope. becomes increasin ly vivid as one traces the lin+a es and flows across the 2Normopathic Comple*. are circulatin throu h anta onistic networ+s currently3'. both the state and firms become mutually empowered.and often ephemeral radical movements amon other concepts. !hou h the section of the boo+ on War is relevant to en a e in dialo ue with other pro"ects by the Bureau d’Etudes. may be chan in . investment ban+s. the 2state. that play a role in the shapin of the 1uropean Union pro"ect are dense. 0n this framewor+ some states. and so on 3@. !hrou h the comple* interrelations of the state.state. bureaucracy) reach 6uic+ly to corporate lobby structures.. thou h where the state intervenes. power deepens. comple* and far. !he lin+s and networ+s spinnin out from the center #and the central nodes of 7russels. 0 will brac+et it this off for now. chan e #ontolo ical for Hardt and Ne ri) in the form of soverei nty. important family linea es. and oes a step beyond. may be out rowin the 2nation. international institutions. institutions. thus providin a visual structure and point of view. layer is a representation of a networ+ed form of overnance and soverei nty.s #$%%%). as a set of social relations may be empowered throu h the construction of a particular +ind of 1urope. re ulatory and industry. new security and intelli ence a reements. 0n a sense the ar ument is similar to Sas+ia Sassens.centered networ+ed form of power that operates in all spheres of civil society and e*ists as a means to reproduce that society alon certain*us. itself may or may not be. or at what level and scale of society. and in the ability to locate a 2central nervous system. .corporate.s European 3' 4iven the wor+ of Bureau d’Etudes in this particular series of maps..reachin . 5ne 6uic+ly notices thou h that the relations. etc.

!he multiple N45s. with a de ree of e*teriority to the Normopathic. 0n this layer then. !he multiple or ani-ations and issue. 8in+s draw connections between those that sit on policy platforms #possibly alon side important corporations). 0nstead of remainin vehicles of radical criti6ue and empowerment. and humanitarian or ani-ations are not necessarily visually represented in the map as co. etc. etc). but rather their formal structures and le al constitution ive them a form similar to some of the icons on the Normopathic layer.heralded 2third. !hou h 1mpire is a pervasive system of biopolitical power.s situation or point of view.opted. environment. /or e*ample 71 places the 1uropean Commission and +ey lobbies in the center of the ima e of this networ+ of power. is shown as additionally playin a role of representin the multiple fault lines of 2identity. or understandin #a <situated 1mpireH as opposed to an ethereal omnipresent 1mpire that frustrates many). often accordin to rather fi*ed definitions of the same. from a particular point.based platforms are shown rouped accordin to sector #labor. location.-orms of %orld Production. society is also reminiscent of the ar uments posed in Multitude on representational politics. it does ive the means to start thin+in about 1mpire or somethin of the li+e. !he layer on 25r ani-ed Civil Society. While one 6uic+ly reali-es that this centrality does not si nify a unilateral node of concentrated power. you can find a center relative to your position that becomes a pathway to understandin the multiple articulations of empire that stretch well beyond the chosen center. and those that participate with overnment ministries and may even carry out studies or wor+ for them. 71 lends an additional contribution to this understandin of power by su estin that one can find a center relative to one. and no absolute center e*ists. the much. ender. this layer demonstrates $ . !rade Union federations.sector. se*uality.

how 2or ani-ed civil society.bro+en down alon identifiable subpopulations and roups. techni6ues. is posed. !he stru les are represented in an unbounded and often indeterminate way Was opened bubbles channelin into each other. !he representative form of many of these or ani-ations can hinder the morphin sin ularities mer in into a transformin common that will allow the multitude to manifest itself as a political pro"ect.term results mi ht be of bein le ally articulated to an officially sanctioned 2third sector. of similar issues. policy tas+ forces. What mi ht it mean to have or ani-ations that are proposed to 2represent. helps "ust as much to deepen the reach of already powerful political and economic networ+s as to challen e them. social movements roups and campai ns lin+ed precariously across each other. and not #or never) here as of yet. 0t seems li+e a field of unreali-ed potential and possibility. 1ach appears as a sin ular moment or place within and amorphous whole. !he 6uestion of what some of the lon . eo raphy…a 2swarmin . .n!lings of 6utonom# layer visually represents different stru les. !his open.tan+s. . the interests of the 2peoples.t times different points or bubbles are morphin into each other or seem to share space of commonality accordin to themes. moments of insurrection. campai ns and $ . with one topic flowin in an unclear fashion toward the other. le al protest.endedness of the fi ures estures toward the as of yet unreali-ed form and political pro"ect of the Bultitude. etc.)C 5r ani-ed Civil Society in this case can 6uic+ly become a form of constituted power as opposed to the constituent power of the multitude.) throu h certain sanctioned and le ally constituted channels #such as thin+. 5ne can invo+e it throu h moments and illustrative e*amples yet it is un+nown. !he . before an increasin ly powerful soverei n form #the 2normopathic comple*. thus the 0n+lin s.

in the 0n+lin s map there is much less respect towards the sorts of borders and boundin of what we mi ht consider 1uropean. $ . $%%&b. @). 2a carto raphy that is coe*istent with the whole social field. Wor+in further throu h =eleu-e and /oucault. North . the 0n+lin s maps includes stru Biddles 1ast. we could turn to 7rian Holmes. Deleu9ian ontologies: !o further understand the renderin s of the lobal political con"uncture that may be at wor+ in these maps. institutions and at times their lin+a es to international sites.crossed with tensions.merican and elsewhere.s map series and Multitude. "ther Common Notions 7esides the possible relations between one of 71. @).. $%%&b. !he networ+s visuali-ed are indeterminate. it is possible to find other points of conver ence between 71 and HardR Ne ri.movements …could this be a series of sin ularities producin a commonC 0t is additionally interestin to note that althou h the entire map ma+es reference to the 1U pro"ect. .H #Holmes. While the Normopathic and 5r ani-ed Civil Society layers focus much more on 21uropean. and =eleu-e in Holmes. of power are not simply <static ridsH but rather <productive matricesH criss.H #Holmes. the idea is that these 2dia rams. open to <a field of possibility or of potential strate y. su les that stretch into the estin in a similar way the incapacity of understandin the multitude accordin to common eo raphic divisions of the world such as nation. a collaborator with the Bureau d’Etudes. Holmes states <we can approach LtheseM mapLsM of lobal flows as dia ramLsM of power in the =eleu-ian sense.states or North.s wor+.South.s su ested in 1mpire one of the first demands of the multitude may be for its own ri ht to mobility and transnationalism.

to a lar e de ree. forms of politics and economics.stateFnon.71. to Dameson. !here is no one center.private sphere. but rather a re ime of overnance that reproduces #and rema+es) itself and the society it re6uires continuously. in particular those sectors tryin to find tools for the construction of alternative 2non. Iet the 2totality. While the networ+s of overnance visuali-ed throu h the maps can be fri htful. the sheer number of points also su ests a certain vulnerability of any particular point in the networ+. represented in these maps shows itself. of the 2 lobal.s research then has the oal of creatin pools of +nowled e to aid in this endeavor. 71. !his understandin of power and ways it would have to be mapped are a+in to the notions visible in Empire and Multitude of a productive power that operates as or throu h a series of points. as they put it9 . 6utonomous cogniti*e production Why does Bureau d’Etudes attempt to produce both these maps with their representations of specific actors and the concepts of networ+ed power embedded in themC !o a lar e de ree this can be answered by situatin Bureau d’Etudes’ oals within lobal resistance movements. to be contin ent and con" an ecolo y of institutions. you can also deconstruct the $ . overnment or institution that holds power. assist in disruptin the overall ecolo y.utonomous +nowled e can be constituted throu h the analysis of the way that comple* machines function L…M !he deconstruction of comple* machines and their 2decoloni-ed.s maps can be seen as <co nitive toolsH #Holmes.L…M 0n the same way as you deconstruct a pro ram. 0t is the entirety of the networ+ wor+in as a whole . $%%A) 2respondin . =isruptin any point. reconstruction can be carried out on all +inds of ob"ects. eneratin 2autonomous +nowled e. that concedes it its overarchin power.s call #3>>3) for a lobal co nitive mappin of the scales and structures of a lobal system un raspable to any #accordin to Dameson) individual sub"ect wanderin throu h it.

Geminiscences of the notions of social cooperation and a common produced by the immaterial laborers of the multitude #as in Hardt and Ne ri $%%& p .or. shared. businesses. $%%A. 71 additionally claims that this common can be 2+nowled es. etc..html) under the 2Chantier Carto raphies. lobbies.H #7ureau d.. built on. etc. much in the same way that Hardt and Ne ri point to e*istin and historical moments of rebellion as precursors of the multitude. you can define modes of action or intervention. as with any form of e*pertise. over time and in stru witness a <chan e in scale of autonomous stru le.state forms of social or ani-ation and production already e*ist.n!lings of 6utonom#’ is based on their conviction that non. $%%$. 5ne way of potentiatin these forms is throu h the production and articulation of autonomous +nowled es that can be shared and modified by others 3?.internal functionin of a overnment or an administration. throu h articulation. A). !hese are +nowled es that are researched. we can les.1tudesFU!. mar+ets and or ani-ations. criti6ued. a firm or an industrial or financial roup. 3%>. capitalist and non. 0t is interestin to situate 71 #and other collectives. 71 is now tryin to create interactive map enerators that will facilitate user participation on a continuous basis in tryin to understand and subvert current capitalist or ani-ation #see footnote $$).t%. referenced. Part III: Calls for a Theoretically ein!igorated Cartography !his new wave of activist mappin . involvin a precise identification of the operatin principles of a iven administration.atFsiteFinde*. 3>'. in the scientific sense. #Bureau d’Etudes. $ . wor+) within the e*pansive literature on 3? /or an interestin e*ample of this see )ni*ersit+ Tangente website #http9FFut. is contributin to a theoretical and analytical e*pansion of the field of Carto raphy. 5n the basis of such a deconstruction. or the lin+s or networ+s between administrations.3>>) can be seen here. A) . as e*emplified by Bureau d’*ersit+ Tangente. 71 posits that throu h the potentiation of these autonomous political forms.s emphasis on autonomous politics and their visuali-ations of these throu h maps such as 2.dditionally 71.

ma+e some of early calls for a new carto raphy beyond 4eo raphy. and order. 0n a way similar to Dameson #3>>3). what is needed then are spaces for dialo ue amon st these diver ent actors #3>>&. Western forms of carto raphy attempted to achieve closure. $) with a diversity of interactin social a ents.en a ement with carto raphy as a critical practice. synthesis.disciplinary re.portraits #3>>&. Bappin this diversity becomes a form of postmodern politics for Eaulston and 8iebman. () that ideally should be available for dialo ue and input from readers of the maps. 7ecause postmodernism.en a ements seem to pic+ up steam durin the mid. the <invisible can be made visibleH and <mechanisms of powerH can be e*posed #3>>&.). these authors see a spatial lo ic ta+in precedence over a temporal lo ic #associated with what they call the 2modern. 0n <!he Eromise of Critical Social Carto raphyH 8iebman and Eaulston see a new +ind of carto raphy and mappin pro"ect as the +eys to brea+in out of <positivistic modernismH.s emphasis on hetero eneity opens up a realm of possibility #3>>&. A). Not only is 71. 8iebman and Eaulston. 0t is also e6ually in dialo ue with a broader inter.s wor+ buildin on alternativeFcritical mappin literatures in 4eo raphy thou h. 7y focusin on mappin these spatialities. '). R non. Baps $ . and how to use the above to further an anta onistic political pro"ect. from 1ducation departments. all run throu h these literatures as do multiple conceptions of what needs be mapped. the critical social carto raphy called for by these authors emphasi-es maps as wor+s of art. how to embrace diver ence and dis"uncture throu h carto raphy.critical mappin such as that mentioned earlier in the paper.late nineties Xuestions of how to understand the lobal. Whereas 2older. !hese re.

appropriation of carto raphy by politically mar inali-ed roups as +ey to a practice of political resistance #see especially !ally. What becomes interestin is the de ree to which Dameson. instead of the placeless a-e of classic mapsC #7artolovich. !ally "oins in the analysis that the spatial has reemer ed as socially important and puts this way wouldn. !hou h limitations and criti6ues are pointed out.artograph# #3>>') . ').s call for a lobal co nitive mappin is en a ed. How to inte rate the criticisms of carto raphy and representation throu h post. but only <momentary crystalli-ationsH < la =errida #3>>&. and as if foreshadowin current trends.structuralism becomes important for 7artolovich.s postmodern call for mappin alon side the maps of =eleu-e and 4uattari read throu h /oucault. (ocial . 7artolovich. He as+s.ppadurai) and post. 0n a chapter by Gobert !ally. !ally. 0nterestin ly enou h. &%>). 3>>'. can notions of itineraries # < la de Certeau) be inte rated to produce carto raphies 2from the inside.t represent 2!ruth.s piece <Bappin the Spaces of CapitalH #3>>'). A?A). a ree on the increasin use and <centralityH of carto raphy for the economic and political powers that be. Critical 1n a ementH #3>>'). Eaulston followed this piece with an edited volume. they see a re. 3>>'.s Ero"ect of Co nitive Bappin 9 . where many of these themes are e*plored in more detail from a variety of disciplinary viewpoints.s ori inal call was somethin of a referential turnin point for many concerned with a new en a ement with carto raphy #even if this did not imply a deep theoretical commitment to Dameson. it seems that Dameson.colonialism #7artolovich includes wor+ by Spiva+ and . and others in the volume. <Dameson. $ . !he oal is similar to Crystal 7artolovich.s wor+).

has "umped into the debate on the lobal economy. not only the uses. Nonetheless. Deremy Crampton #$%%3) also calls for a new relation between maps and map users throu h the tools of 2distributed mappin . some of the e*plorations of new carto raphic forms of have e*plicitly addressed new forms of representation and new relations between the map. 7rian Holmes. li+e the authors wor+in in Eaulston. Eic+les loo+s for maps that are open to multiple and different readin s or that can be read in con"unction with other te* He also su ests the notion of the 2writerly map. Crampton calls for a new lin+ between carto raphy and critical human eo raphy.s mappin pro"ects. a map that can en a e its reader as a potential author or carto rapher. of maps #$%%A. to thin+ of a map production process that ta+es this shift into account opens even more doors into reconceptuali-in .s A . . further step in articulatin calls for a reinvi orated social carto raphy comes directly from the theoretical wor+ of a collaborator of 71. resonatin with carto raphic pro"ects such as Bureau d’Etudes...Within the discipline of 4eo raphy. !he ob"ects that may be mapped could be different than the traditional ob"ects of carto raphy. the map. 3'3). and the map reader. an e*ploratory form of map. Holmes. Eic+les even states that these ways of understandin and usin maps may already be possible within e*istin carto raphy and thus re6uire an epistemolo ical rather than a technolo ical shift. Dohn Eic+les #$%%A) implicitly en a es with and pushes beyond the calls for a new carto raphy reviewed above. as well as an e*ploration of tactics of 2carto raphic resistance. carto raphy and emancipatory politics. #e*plorin the possibilities of tryin to understand the 2interte*tuality. or the use of maps in strate ies of social stru le. in several pieces. but even the raphic appearances of maps.

also refers to Dameson. the authors #especially !ally. to rediscover and share the space. !his becomes politically relevant because for Holmes <every successful carto raphy ultimately helps create the world it purports to represent.pparently. Holmes presents carto raphies in a dialectic between dominant and dissentin maps.H #Holmes. political economy and the politicalFartistic e*periments by Bureau d’Etudes and similar roups. !his happens throu h the openin s and closin s that occur with the representative lo ic at wor+ in maps and the types of activity that are enabled or constrained due to renderin one means of the lobal economy visible over another #Holmes. A . and they often see their wor+ as respondin to it. $%%&a. even the basic representational lo ic at wor+ in maps becomes somethin to 3> !hou h to Dameson. buildin Holmes. $%%&b. interaction with the world of late capitalism #3>>3).H #Holmes. of"ect.s initial call for a political pro"ect of co nitive mappin seems referential for many of these authors.s noted above. in the sense that there are no 2!rue. 3). &). maps and the usefulness of the map is not in its accurate 2representation. in fact. $%%&a R b) and brin s in the analysis that !ally and 7artolovich #3>>') su a ain on =eleu-e and /oucault #Holmes. Dameson.s credit. Iet. but in its usefulness for sub"ects. He stresses the <need LforM radically inventive maps e*actly li+e we need radical political movements9 to o beyond received ideas and orders. $%%&b). $%%&a.creatin potentials of a revolutionary ima ination. to be mapped as problematic 3>. est. wor+ as articulates the connections between some of the theoretical contributions mentioned above. 7artolovich and Holmes) see Dameson. to o beyond representation. $).s focus on the individual sub"ect and the search for a sort of 2totality. it should be noted that the maps called for are not meant to be 2totali-in . call to a lobal co nitive mappin pro"ect #Holmes. . .

a determinate networ+ map which attempts to identify and measure the forces in playH #Holmes.lbert attempt to tac+le this difficulty.nlFmdrFpubsfolderFbhima esFflowmapsFchesnaismap.lbert. important as they were.South dichotomies. $% Holmes uses a particular map called <Centers and Eeripheries in the WorldH by /rancois Chesnais.s boo+ The /lo&ali9ation of .carto rapher. $%%A). the new maps that he invo+es still follow an older carto raphic lo ic of representation.wd+a.surpass. his thou hts for a new carto raphy..s wor+ was one of the first attempts to apply post. ma+in are a classic by now. of maps #Harley in . Holmes notes that Castells draws on Chesnais several times for his analysis in The 'ise of the -etwor! (ociet#. representations. as a te*t. while Harley successfully deconstructs the 2map. 3. p. superimposed with a star+ center. based on .lbert. !his map opens up the same author. !he same authors be in to ma+e use of post.lbert. !his map has fi*ed borders and actors with fairly clear dynamics underlyin their relationships$%. see also https9FFp-wart.structural thou ht to mappin from a carto rapher. Harley. Ba+in specific reference to maps of the lobal economy and of power. 3>>&). a critical artist."p ) A .A. !he map is a curious adaptation of the dyma*ion ima e W+nown for brea+in North. Iet while his criti6ues of traditional map.structural theories to attempt to overcome this and reali-e a new form of carto raphy.apital #Earis9 Syros. periphery representation of power #Holmes $%%&b. . of classic eopolitical economy to efforts by 71 !he first style is that of a < eo raphical representation of networ+ed power.s perspective.s #3>?3) wor+ of the same name. 0nterestin ly.s new carto raphy does tac+le the 2internal power.lain Geynaud. sub"ect is still invo+ed by maps.&). even thou h Harley. Holmes and .lbert and . are considered by some as not oin 6uite far enou h #. $%%A.ccordin to Saul .$. 2. @). Holmes compares carto raphic styles .hro. $%%&b.

!his productive matri* coe*ists alon side and in tension with others operatin throu hout the realm of the 2social. Holmes continues9 <=eleu-e describes the dia ram of power as 2hi hly unstable or fluid… constitutin hundreds of points of emer ence or creativity. !he aim Lof mappin M is to indicate the openness. <2a carto raphy coe*tensive with the whole social field.. which opens up a field of possibility or of potential strate yH #Holmes. see footnote $) !he second form of map is that of <an undetermined networ+ dia ram. A . from =eleu-e. $%%&b. ?) Bappin becomes a way of visuali-in this <meshwor+H #see appendices for e*amples of these maps). the possibility for intervention that inheres to every power relation. $%%&b.s wor+ on /oucault.#clic+ on ima e to see lar er lin+. Holmes invo+es the notion of 2dia rams of power.human bein sH. !he map does not desi nate a <static ridH fi*ed in spaces but rather a productive matri* that interacts across myriad <points.H #Holmes. @).H..

it becomes a +ind of spatial ontolo y. . ') .lbert also some of the same notions of =eleu-ian.ob"ects. T. 0f it removes its a. !his is the use of the map as a communicative tool: as successive actants en a e with the map. Baps are seen as a possible e*ample of these 26uasi.lbert then brin s up Serres. #. or from multitude to multitude. a representation with which each actant becomes a sub"ect. and brin in in 6uite a bit of 8atour and Serres . and the de.priori assumptions.lbert.ob"ects. $%%&.end9 after havin complicated Harley.lbert.lbert and 8atour in .nalytical carto raphyT.lbert A . hand tools./urther ideas on how to build this new carto raphy are developed by Saul . as a formalisation of human relations. $%%A.!heory in its practices but not necessarily in its epistemolo ical bases and 2representational norms. .ontolo ical moral standard of TirreducibilityT. one that is well e6uipped with both the tools and methods of constructivist research.Networ+.fter . each locates their sub"ectivity in its representational schema. . and the power relations Harley identifies in it. #such as ru by balls.9 !his is how Serres would view the map. #. >) . ').li+e 2dia rams of power.ctor.lbert claims in fact that9 8atourTs e*ample unintentionally chal+s an outline around the missin half of Harley.: maps actors thou h without any a priori assumptions: acts as an articulator of human relations and multiple sub"ect positions dependin on when its used and by whomC !oward the end.s hi hly theoretical en a ement he comes close to a dead. is an e*ample of the Tdeterministic practicesT this use of the map may ive rise to.N! and carto raphy now whatC What are the e*amples of this new +ind of carto raphy that9 visuali-es 2dia rams of power.lbert. &.lbert.s criti6ue9 that carto raphy is potentially an ontolo ical investi ation.lbert. sub"ect positions and sets of social relations that are interconnected and contin ent. #. between person and multitude. $%%&. and chairs) as means used to articulate particular roles. the T0T is shifted from person to person. discussion of 26uasi.lbert mentions how 8atour sees carto raphy as bein rather similar to .s initial criti6ues and elaboratin an interestin theoretical conversation between .

.H #8iebman and Eaulston. by filterin . A . hi hli hted by Harley.. .s multiple cultural truthsH #8iebman and Eaulston. a map. $). $%%&a. A). Carto raphers ta+e events and ob"ects <ma+Lin M them consumable. $%%&a. 3>>&. The Theoretical #esthetics of Bureau d$Etudes$ Cartography 4iven the visual nature of maps. where map $3 While more wor+ remains to be done in this area. 3>>&. from a map. $). and re.H #8iebman and Eaulston.<art representin the possibilities portrayed by bein open to the world. determined by the inclusions and e*clusions of information written into the map.mentioned calls for a reinvi orated carto raphy throu h visual techni6ues. 0n an even more provocative li ht. !o challen e the 2internal power. 3>>&: Harley in 8iebman and Eaulston.elaboratin LthemM. 1ven mundane 6uestions of color. fra mentin . one of the oals of a critical carto raphy has been to see and produce maps not as 2!ruth. another author states <2map desi n can be thou ht of as mind desi n: the way a map is desi ned will influence the views of the world it stimulates or inhibits.actually turns to Bureau d’Etudes in order to point to a concrete e*ample of his useful but hyper.H #Holmes..3>>&. (). some initial thou hts will be posed here. what they e*clude and how.a commodity for our readers.s mentioned before however. maps tell stories throu h what they include. What +inds of aesthetic and representational strate ies are bein deployed$3C 0n a way similar to te*ts. &). line thic+ness and shape <become immediately relevant when you want … to 2 et some information. but as portraits.abstract theori-in .s internal power is < 2embedded in the map te*t.ccordin to Harley.H #Bontello in Holmes. it is useful to spend a moment discussin how 71 may be enactin some of the above.

U! made a call for roups to pursue pro"ects of collaborative mapma+in of con"unctural political and economic 2powers that be. map layer mentioned above. this could ta+e carto raphy itself into interestin theoretical territory. !he criti6ues about the 2internal power of maps. and a eneral body of #spatial) +nowled e that is drawn upon to then produce future maps #Holmes.fter the 1nron scandal. and the wealth of information on financial structures leaned from the debacle. overnments and laws are depicted with concrete shapes representin their functions and strai ht lines connectin them in networ+s to other roups. !he wor+ bein done by these ima es ives the reader an impression of officialdom. Baps of movement activity. . order. !hou h in very initial and e*perimental sta to map user. 0nstitutions. #Worthin ton $%%&). Holmes brin s up wor+ by the C-ech carto rapher Jolacny on how we may be in to thin+ of carto raphic information as bein communicated throu h a feedbac+ loop which circulates continuously between map. as well as the ‘=ue se >a#an $$ Bureau d’Etudes has 2pushed. laws.. A).ma+ers. includin many N45s as well as corporations. e*tendin beyond its sheets$$. 5ften their maps are drawn in such a way as to appear unfinished #especially for social movement activity) or as e*tendin to the very ed es of the sheet as if pushin beyond it #with re ards to institutions of overnance). statutes. Currently Bute ma a-ine has be un to ta+e on this call throu h a pro"ect called 2Bappin Contemporary Capitalism. A .information travels unidirectionally from map. . #e*ercised throu h e*clusion and closure) voiced by Harley and echoed by so many mi ht be at least partially answered by a pro"ect that allows almost anyone to enerate their own maps or build on e*istin ones.utonomy. that could be continually added to throu h the latest techni6ues of open source software.nother techni6ue used by U! has been the distinct ways of depictin overnance institutions and official or ani-ations as opposed to social movements. and 2under continuous construction. BE deploys the techni6ues of carto raphic visuality in several peculiar ways to further their pro"ects. $%%&a. users. this idea of the 2unfinished. the 2flows. No one map is a finished wor+ in this way. map even further. especially the 20n+lin s of .

frF$%%AF6uesebayan. 5ne can follow a route but it feels more li+e an itinerary than a 2map. !he density of icons can ma+e it difficult to navi ate the map.. 8in+s in these maps thou h may have little correspondence to pro*imity and one must often follow a thread from one point of the map throu h a mess of items all around the other side of the map in order to find what is bein represented as a 2direct lin+. 5n loo+in a bit deeper one can say that these maps are an initial representation of usin what we could call ‘internet and epistemologies’.ended bubbles with bits of information splattered around. pro*imity #as in countries that appear to ether on a political map). $A See appendi* $ and related lin+. or 2find your way. final comment on the visual aspects of these maps deals with the sheer amount of information on them and the incredible density of icons and lines demonstratin lin+a es between points on a networ+. it is useful to enable a possible readin of the map as a visuali-ation of followin the multiple lin+s of different websites or the results of multiple searches.m throwin the term out somewhat playfully. .http9FFutan ente. !he movements seem to be presented more as a series of intense moments and coa ulations of ener y.. so to spea+. so to or sectoral pro*imity. show open.Todos’ map$A. 5ften items appearin as icons in the maps are rouped in what seems to be either classical 2 eo raphical. practices associated with the internet as ways of attainin structurin +nowled e as well as carryin out lar e parts of the research.pdf A . While 0.

. not only because of the sub"ect matter addressed but also throu h the channels of distribution and feedbac+ chosen. on the part of BE amon others. A . throu h different social movements. democracy and uses of carto raphy as a radical tool. it may be important to consider how the e*ample of Bureau d’Etudes is pointin researchers to e*amine efforts emer in from outside the institutional limits of the university as a way to further conversations on new analyses of power.Conclusions !hese efforts at enactin a critical carto raphy. as well as push them into new 2territories. of lobali-in spatiali-ed ima inaries of resistance and democracy #as with the Bultitude). !hese maps are also creatin a space for political en a ement. So what could be ne*tC /or critical human eo raphy. communications spaces. is challen in us to loo+ at the possibilities of a reinvi orated carto raphy distanced from the colonial maps of the past and the =i ital 1levation Bodels of military services in the present. !hey ive us opportunities to apply and interact with different theories of the lobal and of power #as with 1mpire).

7un e. Bureau d’Etudes?)ni*ersit+ Tangente #$%%A). <Navi ation in the 0nformation . Eeter #$%%A).lbert. e9 .free.or Fprint. Saul #$%%A). Christopher and Ulri+ Shliot. Gevised version accessed at http9FFtwenteenthcentury. <Barcel Bauss9 4ive it .nteracti*ist .H at the UniversitO !an ente homepa e www. ed.or FarticlesFS0FenFdisplayNprintableFA3& =e 8anda. Golland 4.H in Gichard Eeet #ed. Banuel #3>>').ffects.htmYfootrev.ntimar+ets and Networ+ 1conomies. Crystal #3>>').H accessed at http9FFwww.H .ommuciation. <Bappin the Spaces of Capital.BIB%I"G&#PH' . William 3>@@ #3>'>). .free. 7artolovich.s !hesis for the /aculty of California 0nstitute of 0nte ral Studies. 4raeber.or Fsaulalbert. .comFsaulFcarto Jnowled e and Eower in a Society without .telefonica.H at the UniversitO !an ente homepa e www. accessed at http9FFutan ente.html Bureau d’Etudes?)ni*ersit+ Tangente #$%%$b). < !he /irst Iears of the =etroit 4eo raphical 1*pedition9 a Eersonal Geport.% . <4overnmentality of 0nformation. <Critical Carto raphy.furthert*t. Binneapolis9 University of Binnesota Eress.ultural Dimensions of /lo&ali9ation.3(. .ppadurai.ccessed at http9FFutan ente.=etermination in Hawai.html).nothin ness.n 1*ploration of the Eotential Use of 4eo raphic 0nformation Systems for Sustainability and Self.frFanewpa esFholmes.way.html Co swell.nternationale (ituationniste no. $.nfo E2change. !ranslated by 7rian Holmes. accessed at http9FFslash. .hange.html Bureau d’Etudes?)ni*ersit+ Tangente #$%%$a). !ranslated by 7rian Holmes. =ebord.entur#. . 4uy #3>(?).H in (ocial . New Ior+9 4arland Eublishin . 'eshaping the /lo&al Economic Map in the 30st .autonomedia.html =ic+en.H in "urthert2t #http9FFwww. Chica o9 Barroufa Eress. < esFautoart. =avid #$%%$). 8ondon9 4uilford Eress.artograph#1 Mapping %a#s of (eeing (ocial and Educational . Self.r"un #3>>').ccessed at Modernit# at Large1 . Eaulston.H Baster.ontemporar# .plCsidQ%$F3%F33F3$&'$3& A .utan ente.) 'adical /eograph#1 6lternati*e >iewpoints on .H ori inally publisher in . <Bar+ets.frFanewpa esF /lo&al (hift.ccessed at http9FFutan ente. <!heory of the =Orive.published ma a-ine.#3>>').ssues.i. 6utonomie 6rtistique et (ociet+ de .utan

ulture 3$ #3)9 $3(.@%'. the 0ma inaries of 4lobal 0nte ration.H at the Eiet Zwart 0nstitute. Cambrid e9 Harvard University Eress Harley.H at the Eiet Zwart 0nstitute accessed at https9FFp-wart. accessed at http9FFp-wart.html special issue of .netFprint. Goland 4. !oret. . Eaulston. (A. Golland 4. <Bappin 1*cess.!ransversaal web "ournal & . <Dameson. accessed at9 http9FFinfo. #Dr. Davier and Nicol[s S ui lia #$%%').frFanewpa esFcartesholmes$. Sas+ia #$%%%). 4lobal Solidarities. and Eower.plC sidQ%AF3%F3%F%3&3$(? Holmes. Multittude1 %ar and Democrac# in the 6ge of Empire.artographic Perspecti*es.ccessed at http9FFwww. Cambrid e9 Cambrid e University Eress.interactivist.wd+a. Ga+ecewit-.1tudes.conograph# of the Landscape1 Essa#s on (#m&olic 'epresentation Design and use of Past En*ironments.nteracti*ist . 0sabel Casas. Bichael and . No.s Ero"ect of Co nitive Bappin 9 . Gobert !. in !ransform. <Bappin Concepts. Jry ier. accessed at http9FFutan ente. Postmodernism or.) #3>>'). ed.ntonio Ne ri #$%%%).H at the UniversitO !an ente homepa e www. <Baps. 7rian #3>??).or F8aV$%1ducaV$%33>Fpauls. </lowmaps.) The .Hardt. 7rian #$%%&a). Empire.$A$ !ally. <0ma inary Baps.H translated by BarPa. New Ior+9 Goutled e. 7rian #$%%$). <Spatialities and !emporalities of the 4lobal9 1lements for a !heori-ation.artograph#1 Mapping %a#s of (eeing (ocial and Educational .nlFmdrFpubsfolderFbhflowmapsF Holmes.H .H at the 0nteramerican . or the Geven e of the Concept.hange.H in (ocial .H in =enis Cos rove and Stephen =aniels #eds.Baria 7oitumelo Ba+hulu.nfo E2change.wd+a.ultural logic of Late . 7rian.nne.nlFmdrFpubsfolderFbhima inaryF Holmes. /redric $%%A #3>>3). 7rian #$%%&b).H in Pu&lic . Eaulston.ulture 3$ #A)9 @%A. in Pu&lic .oas. Jnowled e.ssociation for Cooperation and =evelopment. Bichael and . New Ior+9 4arland Eublishin . and Bartin 8iebman #3>>&) <!he Eromise of Critical Social Carto raphy. the . Hardt. =urham9 =u+e University Eress.hro.ntonio Ne ri #$%%&). Ehilip #$%%%). New Ior+9 Een uin Eress.hro.utan ente. <. #$%%').fr.apitalism.H translated by .iacd. Holmes. 6 istor# of (paces. See+in Uses9 Bureau d’Etudes and Bultiplicity. #$%%A) <Baps for the 5utside9 7ureau d.CortOs and Sebasti[n Cobarrubias.rt and Bappin . Sassen.htm Eic+les. <Carto raphy and War Bachines9 Challen es and 1*periences around Bilitant Gesearch in Southern 1urope. Critical 1n a ement. Dohn #$%%&). Dohn and =ennis Wood.

<!he 7ermuda !rian le in Geverse9 Bappin Contemporary Capitalism. Cleveland State University.eipcp. =aniel. accessed at http9FFri*c. ‘European -orms of %orld Production’. The Power of Maps. Duly A3.vailable on the EE40S Conference Eroceedin s C=). <Eroducin Counter !erritories9 !he 0ntersections of Bappin and Gesistance Eractices. Gi a Centre for New Bedia Culture. Bute ma a-ine #UJ) and Eosse Ba a-ine #0taly) & .CortOs. Cleveland. /ebruary $%%' #http9FFwww. Wood.H at the G0\C. http9FFtransform.H presentation at the National Conference on 5r ani-ed Gesistance.pril.0sabel Casas. Sebasti[n Cobarrubias and !im Stallman #$%%').phpCidQ3>$RlQen Maps Bureau d’Etudes #$%%$). New Ior+9 4uilford Eress. Conference on EE40S.or ani-edresistance. BarPa.lvFreaderFt*tFt*t. 1mily /oreman.ddress at the UG0S. =enis. Worthin ton. $%%( #.phpYterritories) Wood. =ennis#3>>$). Simon #$%%().or Fwor+shops.. SEublic EarticipationC 4eo raphicC 0nformationC SystemsCS Jeynote . 5hio.netFtransversalF%&%'Fts Fen !uc+er. $%%(.