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(1) ESpf ‘70’ jynft h xdr;f trSwt f jzpf xkwa f 0ygonf? txl;xkwf r[kwy f g? t"duwifjycsio f nfh tcsuf (2) csuu f y kd J uGu+f yD;wifjyrSm jzpfygonf? (2) yxrwifjycsio f nft h csur fm S Auy udk touf&n S a f ponfh a&aomufjrpfrsm;udk wifjyzd@k jzpfygonf? ‘Auy eJ@ Auo ausmif;om;rsm;’ - ‘Auy eJ@ tvkyo f rm;ta&;awmfyw kH ufºuolrsm;’ ‘Auy eJ@ v,form;ta&;awmfyw kH yfom;rsm;’ pojzifh aqmif;yg;rsm;a&;+yD; wifjyxm;ygonf? óuwif+yD; ajymxm;vdo k nfrm S taxmuftxm; odyjf ynfp hr kH m S r[kwy f g? (od@k aomf) tcsut f vuf cdi kr f mygonf? Auy opPmazmufrsm;u vdo k vdk qGa J &;onfh ‘ordi k ;f tjzpfre S ’ f rsKd ; r[kwy f g? (3) 'kw, d wifjyvdo k nft h csur f m S - Auy . rdru d , kd u f kd a0zefa&; vky[ f efukd wifjyzd@k jzpfonf? ‘ðzwf - xkwf - owf’ vrf;pOfrm S ;tay: ed*;kH csKyfcsuf vkyx f m;onfa h qmif;yg; (2) yk'f wifjyxm;ygonf? &efot l pd;k &u OD;wnf+yD; twdu k c f& H aom Edi ki fa H &;tiftm;pkrsm;twGuf Auy . ‘ud, k a f wG@oifcef;pm’ udk jyef@apvdo k nft h a=umif;a=umifh wifjyjcif; jzpfygonf?

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(4) aemufxyfwifjyvdo k nfrm S ESpf ‘70’ oufwrf;qdw k m Edi ki fw H umhpc H se d t f & ‘csmwdw’ f jzpfygonf? ArmjynfEi kd i fa H &;pHcse d t f &awmh ‘zd;k ouf&n S ’ f yg? 'gtwGuf *k%, f & l ovdk ESpf (80) ESpf (90) ESpf (100) twGuv f nf; óuwifjyifqifxm;ygonf? Auy . yxrrsKd ;quf&@J acwfu (ppfe@J awmfve Sa f &;acwfukd jzwfoef;cJo h r l sm;acwfu) ukeq f ;kH pðyaeyg+yD? tck - 'kw, d rsKd ;quf&@J acwfukd jzwfoef;aeygonf? olw@kd &@J acwfve Gu f mvtwGuf tckuwnf;u jyifxm;ygonf? &efo0 li kd ;f 0di k ;f vnfaeonfh ygww D i kd ;f onf tajccHvw l ef;pm;a&aomufjrpfe@J ruif;uGmor#/ qENpt JG rSm;uif;or# touf&n S y f gvr dr fh nf? (5) ygwu D jzwfoef;ae&onfh rsua f rSmufumvonf ESpf 70 oufwrf;wGif tcufcq J ;kH umv jzpfonf? urBmwGif rmhup f0 f g' acwfrpm;cse d f jzpfonf? acwftqufqufu rmhup f0 f g'udk qef@usic f =hJ uaom yk*Kd~ vfrsm;. 0g'rsKd ;pHw k ap>rsm; wpcef;jyefxaeonft h cse d f jzpfonf? nDtpfuy kd gwr D sm;onfvnf; olw@kd wi kd ;f jynf. tajctaersm;t& ‘21 rmhup f 0 f g'’ udk &SmazGprf;oyfae=u&onft h cse d f jzpfonf? u|ea f wmfw@kd &ifqi kd a f e&aom ppfAsL±du k &uf"e&Siv f w l ef;pm;uvnf; rmefrmetwuf}uD; wufaecse df jzpfonf? xd@k a=umifh ygwt D aeeJ@ trSm;t,Gi;f twdr;f tapmif; r&Sa d tmif owdðy&ygrnf? [dw k e k ;f uqdv k #if trSm;t,Gi;f twdr;f tapmif;udk cHEi kd & f nf&c dS y hJ gonf? {&mrtrSm;}uD; rSm;wmudy k if cHEi kd & f nf&c dS y hJ gonf? ,ckawmh trSm;t,Gi;f twdr;f tapmif;uav;udy k if cHEi kd & f nfr&So d nft h ajctae jzpfygonf? wygwv D ;kH u Edi ki fw H umhtajctae/ jynfwi G ;f tajctaersm;udk pl;prf;avhvmwm rsm;rsm;vky& f ygrnf? rajymcif/ rvkyc f if pl;prf;avhvmwm vkyx f m;ygu trSm;t,Gi;f enf;vdrr hf nf? ajym+yD;vky+f yD;v#iv f nf; jyefvnfqef;ppfwmvkyv f #if trSm;&Su d jrefjrefjyifEi kd y f gvr dr hf nf?

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ord k i f ; u¹cif ; csef c J h w J h jy\emud k rS e f r S e f u ef u ef ud k i f w G , f a &;eJ @ ywf o uf I Armjynf u G e f j rLepf y gwD ajyma&;qd k c G i f h & S d o l . xk w f j yef c suf trS w f 1§2009 (18 - 2 - 2009)

(1) b*Fvm;a'h&SfeJ@ yifv,fa&jyifydkifeufudpP tjiif;yGm;wm r+yD;ao;bl;? ‘±d[ k if*smudp’ P ay:vmjyef+yD? a&jyifydkifeufudpPu ydk+yD;±_yfaxG;vdrfhr,f? &Sif;&wmvnf; ydkcuf vdrr hf ,f? rSer f e S u f efuef rudi kw f , G w f wf&if jy\em}uD;vm+yD; ppfjzpf Edi kw f ,f? ppfjzpf&if wdi k ;f jynfemvdrr hf ,f? (2) rSefrSefuefuefudkifwG,fa&;qdkwm wzufowfav#mhay;a&; r[kwfbl;? ol@bufu, kd b hf uf r#r#wwpOf;pm;+yD; aphpyfaqG;aEG;zd@k y? J w±kwe f @J we k ;f uvnf; 'Dvy kd J ajz&Si;f cJ& h wmyg? b*Fvm;a'h&e fS @J vnf; 'Dvy kd J vky& f rSmyJ? a&jyifyi kd e f ufup de P @J vlrsKd ;a&;udpy P gaeawmh w±kwe f @J ajz&Si;f &wmavmuf vG,r fm S r[kwb f ;l ? 2 Edi ki fw H nf; usw d +f y;D ajz&Si;f vd@k &r,fu h p d P r[kwv f @kd b? J Edi ki fw H umu tenf;eJ@trsm; ygvm&rSmyJ? 'gukd ‘etz’ vufc& H vdrr hf ,f?

(3) oDaygvufxuf rEWav;aejynfawmfeef;wGi;f rSm ‘e,fcs@J t*Fvy d0 f ifvm&if wdu k x f w k y f pfvu kd w f mayg’ h ajymwJo h e l @J e,fcs@J awmif;or#ukd tav#ma h y; vdkufcsifwho J l uGc J h=J u+yD; wdkif;jynfygoGm;&wmrsdK; rjzpfapbJ ysOf;rem; aejynfawmfu ppfAdkvf}uD;rsm; tajrmftjrif&Sd&Sd vkyf=uvdrfhr,fvdk@ ar#mv f ify h gw,f?

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a':atmif q ef ; pk = unf u d k ±H k ; wif p pf a q;jcif ; eJ @ ywf o uf I Armjynf u G e f j rLepf y gwD ajyma&;qd k c G i f h & S d o l . xk w f j yef c suf trS w f 2§2009 (23 - 5 - 2009)

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jopajw;vsuGef_rLepfygwDodkh

ay;ydkhonfh 0rf;enf;o0%fv$m
od@k A[da k umfrwD =opa=w;vsue G jf rLepfygwD rS A[dp k nf;±H;k a&;aumfrwD Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwD 2009ckEp S /f Zefe0g&D 21&uf? ta=umif;t&m? ? 0rf;enf;o0%fvm $ ay;yd@k jcif;? cspv f p S m G aom&Jabmfrsm;cifAsm;=opa=w;vsjynf uGefjrLepfygwD.OuUÏvnf;jzpf/ EdkifiHwumuGefjrLepfv_yf±Sm;r_. xGef;ajymifonhf acgi;f aqmifwOD;vnf;jzpfaom &Jabmfyw D mqdi kr fe G f uG,v f e Go f m G ;onhf owif;ud=k um;od&onft h wGuf u|ea f wmfw@kd vGep f m G rS a=uuG0 J rf;enf;&ygonf? &Jabmfw@kd Ei S fh ol.use& f pfaomcspr f o d m;pktm; u|ea f wmfw@kd vnf; xyfwx l yfr# 0rf;enf;rdyga=umif; ajym=um;vdy k gonf? olESifhu|efawmfwdk@ w}udrfawG@qHkcGifh&cJhI u|efawmfwdk@ygwDrS =opa=w;vsuGefjrLepfygwD XmecsKyfodk@ oGm;a&mufvnfywf&eftpDtpOfrm S ADZmtcuftcJa=umihf ysujf ym;oGm;cJ& h ygonf? u|ea f wmfw@kd twGuf tcGit hf a&; aumif;wckudk pdwfraumif;p&m vufvGwfoGm;jcif;jzpfygonf? =opa=w;vsjynfolrsm;ESifh urBmhjynfolrsm;. ta&;awmfyt kH wGuf }u;D rm;pGm tvkyt f au|;ðycJo h nhf &Jabmfqi kd r fe Gu f kd qH;k ±H;_ &onht f wGuf u|ea f wmfw@kd tm;vH;k u 0rf;enf;a=uuGr J =d uygonf? }uH@ci kd a f omuGejf rLepfwOD;taejzifh q,fpE k p S a f ygi;f (7) ckausmjf zwfoef;cJo h nhf Tyk*Kd~ vf. acgi;f aqmifr_ atmufwi G f =opa=w;vsue G jf rLepfygwo D nf ydr kp kd nf;vH;k tm;aumif;cJ+h y;D =opa=w;vsjynfor l sm;ESiv hf nf; cGr J &atmif *a[qufEi kd c f =hJ uygonf? od@k aomf Tod@k acgi;f aqmifwOD;usq;kH jcif;onf =opa=w;vsjynf uGejf rLepfygw0 D ifrsm;. yef;wdi ko f @kd csw D ufonhf ajcvSr;f rsm;udw k @Hk aES;aprnfr[kw[ f k u|ea f wmfw@dk p+JG rJpm G ,H=k unfygonf? ol@ta=umif; jyefpOf;pmvdu k w f i dk ;f olw@kd tzd@k oEMÏ d mefyr kd kd cdi kr f mum ajcvSr;f rsm;vnf; ydr kt kd m;±Sv d m=urnfom jzpfygonf? &Jabmfyw D mpdi kr fe Gu f , G v f e Ga f omowif;udk u|ea f wmfw@kd ygw. D ygw0 D ifrsm;t=um; To0%fvm $ ESit hf wl jzef@vu kd +f yD jzpfygonf? &Jabmfyw D mqdi kr fe Gt f m; u|ea f wmfw@kdEv S ;kH om;ESihf OD;a%Smufxw J i G f xm0&owd&ae=uvdrr hf nf[k ,H=k unfry d gonf? A[dp k nf;±H;k a&;aumfrwD Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwD

7

wif j yol & J @ trS m ESpf (70) ygwo D rdi k ;f wckv;kH udk a&;rSmr[kwy f g? rsua f rSmufjzwfoef;ae&wJh c&D;pOftwGi;f toH;k 0ifrnfh ordi k ;f tawG@tñuHrsm;ESihf oifcef;pmrsm;udk acgi;f pD;trsKd ;rsKd ;eJ@ a&;ygrnf? &Jabmfrsm;rdwa f qGrsm; pOf;pm;oH;k oyfcsic hf se dE fi kd & f eftwGuo f ma&;jcif; jzpfygonf? yk*v ~ u d rSwp fo k m jzpfygonf? 1980 ckEp S r f sm;u ‘ygwo D rdi k ;f ’ ðypk&ef aumfr&Siw f ckukd ygwA D [du k zG@J pnf;wm0efay;zl;ygonf? ygww D nfaxmifpup+yD; acwftqufquf jzwfoef;cJz h ;l olrsm;udk wm0efay;+yD; a&;apcJw h m jzpfygonf? ‘aumfr&Si’ f u vtcsKd @óu;pm;+yD; (rl=urf;) a&;=unfy h gonf? aemufq;kH awmh vufav#mv h u kd & f ygonf? ta=umif;rSm ordi k ;f udz k efw;D zd@k awmfve Sa f &;w&yfqifEa J$ e&pOfwi G f ordi k ;f uda k &;zd@k roifa h o;[k jrifvmaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? ygww D i G f xde;f odr;f &rnfh v#Kd @0u S c f sur f sm; &Sy d gonf? 'gawGukd zGi+hf yD;a&;vdu k v f #if

ESpf (70) twGif; urBmhpepf (World

Order)

tajymif;tvJrsm;

(1) ygw. D ESpf (70) c&D;wGif urBmp h epf (World Order) (2) ck ñuHc& hJ ygonf? ygww D nfaxmifcgpu (WO) rSm Edi ki fH aygi;f csKyftzG@J }uD; ¡League of Nations (LN)¢ pepf jzpfygonf? tJ'w D e k ;f u Edi ki f }H uD;rsm;&J@ tcif;tusi;f u ‘LN pepf’ udk xde;f odr;f umuG,o f nfh Edi ki f }H uD;rsm; (t*Fvy d /f jyifopfe@J qdA k, D uf(±k&m S ;) ponf) wd@k &So d nf? ‘LN pepf’ udk pdea f c:onfh olrsm;u zufqpf0if±;kd wef;Edi ki fa H wG (*smr%D/ tDwvD/ *syef) wd@k &So d nf? tar&duefu LN xJ rygcy hJ g? oD;jcm; aeonf? ‘LN pepf’ rSm yxrurBm ppfwi G f ppfEi kd c fo hJ r l sm;u csrw S x f m;wmjzpfv@kd t*Fvy d /f jyifopfw@kd u umuG,w f m rqef;yg? qdA k , D uf (±k&m S ;) ygaewmuawmh Zmbk&if±& k m S ; u yxrurBmppfrm S t*Fvy d /f jyifopfw@kd e@J wzufwnf; wdu k c fv hJ @kd ygEi kd w f m jzpfonf? qdA k, D ufu Zmbk&ifukd ðzwfcs+yD; qd& k , S v f pfawmfve Sa f &; qifEx J$ m;wmjzpfv@kd olu 8

ESpf (70) c7D;
tawGhtjuHKESifhoifcef;pmrsm;

&efot l óuuf jzpfom G ;ygvr dr hf nf? zH;k w0ufazmfw0uf a&;vd@k vnf; rjzpfyg? ygw& D @J Oya'wGi;f ygwb D 0udk (3) ESpf eD;yg;yJ &cJw h m jzpfonf? wcse d v f ;kH ajratmufygwb D 0eJ@ &yfwnfc& hJ wm jzpfonf? Oya'wGi;f Oya'y wdu k y f o JG ¿mefrsKd ;pHu k kd qifEc J$ & hJ wm jzpfonf? ajray: O/G ygwr D sm;eJ@ Edi ki f jH cm;rSnt D pfuy kd gwr D sm;udk v#Kd @0u S q f ufqc H& hJ wm jzpfonf? 'gawGukd a&;vd@k rjzpfyg? a&;v#if &efo@l tóuuf jzpfom G ;vdrr hf nf? jynfwi G ;f jynfyu &Jabmfrsm;eJ@ rdwa f qGrsm;udk xdcu kd o f m G ;vdrr hf nf? 'ga=umifh a&$@qi kd ;f vdu k z f @kd qH;k jzwfvu kd & f onf? aemifrS tajctaeay;v#if a&;Edi fk z f @kd ‘ordi k ;f tawG@tñuHEi So hf ifcef;pmrsm;’ udk tcka&;vdu fk y f gonf? &Jabmfrsm;/ rdwa f qGrsm; ud;k um;csic hf se d & f ef taxmuftulðyvdrr hf nf[k ar#mv f ify h gonf? ygwñD uHc& hJ wJh tawG@tñuHawGu rsm;ygonf? xd@k twl oifcef;pmuvnf; rsm;ygonf? wd;k cs@J &efe@J a&SmifusO& f eftwGuf &nf&, G +f yD; a&;ygonf? tawG@tñuHEi So hf ifcef;pm a&maxG;aeygvr d r hf nf? ?

(League of Nations) pzG@J we k ;f uawmh ygci G hf r&cJy h g? 0di k ;f y,fcx H m;&onf? aemufyi kd ;f usrS yg&onf? tar&duefuawmh wrsKd ; jzpfonf? yxrurBmppftprSm ‘=um; aeonf’? ‘2’ bufpvH;k udk qufq+H yD; ta&mif;t0,fvy k o f nf? t}uD;tus,f tjrwfxw k o f nf? teD;tem;u wdi k ;f jynfuav;awGukd odr;f ydu k o f nf? (1917) ckEp S u f srS ppfEi kd a f wmhrnfb h ufxJ 0ifygvu kd o f nf? 1918 rSm *smr%D ppf±;_H onf? 1920 rSm (LN) zG@J onf? (LN) zG@J a&;udk tar&duefu pwifajymcJw h m jzpfayr,fh (LN) wu,fz@JG awmh r0ifcy hJ g? Oa&myt±_yx f J 0ifrygwmu tar&dueftwGuf tusKd ;&Sr d ,fxifv@kd yJ jzpfonf? tDwvDe@J *syefuvnf; ‘LN pepf’ udk tpuvufco H nf? aemufusrS tmcHonf? olw@dk u ppfEi kd w f b hJ ufu Edi ki fa H wGjzpfayr,fh &wJa h 0pku enf;onf? t*Fvy d f - jyifopfuyJ a0pkawG vuf0g;}u;D tky, f x l m;w,fq+kd y;D rauseyfv@kd qef@usiw f m jzpfonf? 'Dup d u P kd tus,a f &;&wmu ygwp D wifxa l xmifwe k ;f u Edi ki fw H umhtajctaeeJ@ tcif;tusi;f udk odap 9

_ynf o l h t m%m
vdv k @kd jzpfonf? acwfopfrm S b,f awmhrqdk jynfwi G ;f a&;eJ@ jynfya&; tjyeftvSeq f ufpyf ywfoufaew,f qdw k mudk owdðyrd=uapzd@k jzpfonf? ygwDaxmif+yD; (19 &uf om;) t&G,r f m S 'kw, d urBmppf}uD; jzpfonf? ygwDu tpki,fuav; awGukd pkpnf;+yD; zG@J xm;&wmjzpfv@kd tawG;tac:awG ±_ya f xG;onf? ygwp D wifxa l xmifwe k ;f u uGefjrLepfEdkifiHwumh tzGJ@csKyf}uD; a&;’ ‘t*F v d y f v uf a tmuf u vGwa f &;’ udk 0g'jzef@aeawmh rufcsif p&m}u;D jzpfaeonf? ‘t*Fvy dt f cuf Armhtcsuf’ qHk;jzwfcsufuvnf; &So d nf? 'D v d k t ajctaerS m “19 &ufom;ygwD” tzdk@ tawG;tac: ±_ya f xG;wm rqef;yg? b,fvdkjzpfcJhw,f qdkwm awGua kd wmh tm;vH;k od+y;D jzpfv@kd ra&; awmhyg? wwfaeyg+yD? (1944) rS m ‘zwyv’ a&Sma&Sm±ª ± ª z G J @ Ed k i f w m[m tawG ; tac: r±_yv f @kd jzpfonf? (1945) rSm jynfv;kH u|wf *syefzufqpf awmfve Sf a&; vkyE fi kd c fw hJ m ‘zwyv’ . acgi;f aqmifr_ rSeu f efv@kd jzpfonf? 1945 rSm ‘'kwd, uGef *&uf’ usi;f yEdi k jf cif;onf ‘Auy’ vl vm;ajrmufvmwmukjd yonfh ordi k ;f 0ifrw S w f i kd f jzpfonf? zufqpf awmf vSea f &;omr&Sv d #if ‘Auy’ . Edi ki fH a&; tqifhae&m jrifhwufvmrSm r[kwy f g? (3) ‘LN urBmp h epf’ +yD;awmh ‘UN urBmp h epf’ay:vmonf? 'gukd (WO) 2 ck[k ajymvdu k jf cif;jzpfonf? ‘UN urBmp h epf’ u tcktxd &Sa d eonf? ESpa f ygi;f (60) ausmc f +hJ yD? ESpf (60) ausmt f wGi;f WO udk xde;f !‡& d wmawGawmh trsm;}u;D &Sdonf? odk@aomf tajccHuawmh ajymif;roGm;yg? ‘LN pepf’eJ@ ‘UN pepf’ rSm xifxif&m S ;&Sm;uGjJ ym;wmu (LN) rSmwkef;u Security Council (SC) vHðk ca H &;aumifpD r&S? d (UN) rSm &So d nf? Security Council qdw k m ay:vm&wmuvnf; 'kw, d urBmppf wke;f u atmify& JG cJw h hJ r[mrdwf tzG@J xJrm S qd& k, S v f pfpepfukd ud, k p f m;ðywJh qdA k , D uf (±k&m S ;) ygaevd@k jzpfonf? (SC) xJu ADwt kd m%mydi k f (5) Edi ki fH rSm (1945 ckEp S f UN zG@J we k ;f u) qdA k D ,uf±& k m S ;wEdi ki fw H nf;yJ qd& k , S v f pf Edi ki ft H jzpf ygonf? w±kwu f kd KMT tpdk;&u udk,fpm;ðyonf? 'gvnf; UN &J@ xl;jcm;csuv f @kd ajymvd@k &onf? (udv k e dk w D ydi k ;f ) wdi k ;f jynfu }u;D w}u;D

omrefat;csrf; aewJ h u mvrS m ESpfeJ@csD+yD; oif,l&rnfh trSefw&m;udk ppf } uD ; twG i f ; rS m &uf y d k i f ; avmuf oif , l ± H k e J @ &wwf y gonf ?

(Comintern) &Sdonf? zufqpf qef@usifa&;qHk;jzwfcsuf &Sd+yD;vnf; jzpfonf? 'ga h =umifh Edi ki fw H umh (cGi) f *GifrSm &efolb,folvJ - rdwfaqG b,fov l q J w kd m &Si;f onf? *smr%D/ tDwvD/ *syefwdk@udk &efoltjzpf owfrw S +f yD; qef@usiw f u kd y f0 JG if&rnf qdw k m &Si;f onf? 'gayrJh cufwmu Armjynf &J@ vufawG@b0u t*Fvy d & f @J uv kd e kd D jzpfaeonf? 1300 jynft h a&;awmfykH rSm emem=unf;=unf; cHxm;&wm vnf; &So d nf? tcJraus vufpm;acs csifonf? t*Fvdyfudk r[mrdwfðyzdk@ qdw k mudk vufc& H cufaeonf? wzuf uvnf; *syefu ‘Armjynfvw G v f yf 10

*syefu Armjynfukd odr;f rd wm[m tawG;tac:±_yfaxG;r_ rSef or#ukd &Si;f ay;vdu k o f vdk jzpfom G ;vd@k ('Dbufu=unf& h if) *syefukd aus;Zl; wif&vdrfhrnf? ppf}uD;twGif; jzpf vdk@vnf; trSefw&m; jrefjref&wm jzpfonf? omrefat;csr;f aewJu h mv rSm ESpfeJ@csD+yD; oif,l&rnfh trSef w&m;udk ppf}uD;twGif;rSm &ufydkif; avmuf oif,± le kH @J &wwfygonf? zufqpfqef@usia f &;vrf;pOf [m tjreftqefzGH@òz;wdk;wuftm; }uD;vmonf? 1943 rSm uGefjrLepf tifwmae&Sie f ,f zsuo f r d ;f awmh ygwD tzd@k bmt±_ya f xG;rS r&Sc dy hJ g? ud, k hf vrf; ud, k x f i G f ud, k v hf rf;ud, k a f v#muf

_ynf o l h t m%m
tjzpf yg0ifcGifh&aewm jzpfonf? 'kwd,urBmppfrSm w±kwfawG oef; aygi;f rsm;pGm taocH+yD; wdu k c fv hJ @kd 'D tqifhae&m&wm jzpfonf? tar &duefu aus;Zl;qyfwm jzpfonf? (udv k e kd ) D tdE, dN uvnf; UN pwif zG@J we k ;f u tzG@J 0ifEi kd i ft H jzpf ygco hJ nf? 'gvnf; xl;jcm;csuf jzpfonf? 'kw, d urBmppftwGi;f rSm oluvnf; oef;eJ@ cs+D yD; tar&duef - t*Fvy d t f wGuf taocHwu kd a f y;cJ& h wm jzpfonf? UN p+yD;zG@J we k ;f u ppf±;_H Edi ki fa H wG vH;k 0ryg &yg? tDwvDu (1955) rSm *syefu (1956) rSm *smr%Du (1973) rSmusrS yg=u&onf? (4) UN urBmhpepfudk zsufodrf;+yD; urBmhpepfopf NWO xlaxmifzdk@ tck tar&duefajymaeonf? (1990) uwnf ; u ajymcJ h w mjzpf o nf ? qdkAD,ufqdk&S,fvpf (±k&Sm;) pwif òyuGJwkef;u pdwf"mwfwufºu+yD; ajymwm jzpf o nf ? aemuf a wmh NWO ajymoH a wG nH v monf ? “‘21’ &mpkukd tar&dum;&mpk jzpfap &rnf” qdw k mwd@k / ‘orki d ;f ed*;kH ’ wd@k ay: vmonf? 9§11 ta&;tcif; +yD;wJh aemufrm S awmh wqifw h ufvmonf? wnf&a dS eaom ‘UN urBmh pepf’ udk ajymifajymifwif;wif; wudk,fawmf pdea f c:vmonf? tD&wf ppfyu JG kd ol@ oabmeJ@ol 0ifwu kd o f nf? UN udk ab;csw d v f u kd o f nf? [dw k e k ;f uawmh ‘urBmh pepf a[mif;’ udk zsuo f r d ;f vdv k #if urBm ppfwyGJwdkuf+yD; zsufodrf;zdk@ óu;yrf; &onf? urBmppfwyGJ pwdu k o f nfo h l uvnf; wcgu ppf±;H_ xm;olyJ jzpf wwfonf? *smr%D/ tDwvD/ *syef wd@k u ‘LN urBmp h epf’ udk zsuo f r d ;f +y;D ‘zufqpfurBmhpepf’ eJ@ tpm;xdk;zdk@ ppfpwdu k z f ;l onf? od@k aomf olw@kd ppf±;_H onf? 'ga=umifh ‘zufqpfurBmp h epf’ ray:vmbJ ‘UN urBmp h epf’ yJ ay: vmwm jzpfonf? tckawmh NWO ajymol UN urBmp h epfukd zsuo f r d ;f vdo k u l ppf±;_H cJo h l r[kwy f g? tar&dum; jzpf vGey f u JG =umvdrr hf nf? ±_yf axG;vdrr hf nf? (1930 - 40) wke;f uvdk jrefjrefjywfrnf r[kwy f g? ygwu D vnf; touf (70) &S+d y? D [dw k e k ;f uvdk tawG; tac:±_yr f nf r[kwy f g? ±_y& f ifvnf; acwfe@J tnD ±_yz f @kd yJ &So d nf? [dw k e k ;f u e,f c sJ @ pepf a [mif ; acwf ? tck u ‘e,fcsJ@pepfopf’ acwf jzpfonf?

[dkwkef;uawmh ‘urBmhpepf a[mif;’ udk zsufodrf;vdkv#if urBmppf wyGJwdkuf+yD; zsufodrf;zdk@ óu;yrf; &onf?
aeonf? tar&dum;onf urBmppf r±H;_ zl;yg? urBmppf (2) yGa J =umify h J urBmh eHygwf0rf; jzpfcJholyg? tckxd ol@ pD;yGm;a&;udr ko D l r&Sa d o;yg? ol@ppfa&; tif t m;ud k v nf ; rD o l r&S d a o;yg? ork'N&mtm;vHk;udk olyJtkyfpD;xm; onf? ppfpcef;awG urBmtES@H csxm; onf? NATO udk OD;aqmifaeonf? NATO udk wd; k cs@J aeonf? olu tck awmh ‘urBmp h epfopf’ cscsia f eyg+yD? odk@aomf oljzpfcsifwmudk wjcm;tiftm;}uD;Edi ki fa H wGu vuf rcHcsi=f uyg? ‘UN urBmp h epf’ udk zsuf odrf;rypfbJ ðyjyifwmyJ vkyfcsif=u onf? tar&dum;u 0if±dk;wck wnf; (ol@) udk A[dðk yvnfywf&onfh urBmp h epf xlaxmifcsio f nf? wjcm; tiftm;}u;D awGu 0if±;kd trsm; (olw@kd) udk A[dðk yvnfywfonfh urBmp h epf jzpf apcsifonf? 'Dtjrif (2) ck tm; òyifaeonf? vGeq f a JG eonf? oHwref a&; upm;uGua f wG vkya f eonf? e,fcs@J pepfa[mif;u &Si;f onf? jywf onf? =urf;onf? ‘iguocif rif;u u|ef’ qdkwhJ qufqHa&; jzpfonf? e,fcs@J pepfopfuawmh ‘vGwv f yfre _ @J 'Dru kd a&pD’ udk tmaygua f tmif ajym a[monf? ‘vGwv f yfa&;’ udv k nf; azmazmoDoa D y;onf? tD&wf ‘vGwf vyf’ oGm;+yD? udkqdkAdk ‘vGwfvyf’ oGm;+yD? ‘awmfve Sa f &;’ awGuv kd nf; awmfawmfajymonf? ‘vdarRma f &mif awmfve Sa f &;’ ‘opfca G &mif awmfve Sf a&;’ ‘ESif;qDa&mifawmfvSefa&;’ ponfponfw@kd ukd ajym+yD;+yD? ‘vGwf vyfa&;’ ay;+yD;&if/ ‘ta&mifawmf vSea f &;’ vky+f yD;&ifvnf; NATO xJ wef;+yD;oGif;ay;onf? tar&dum; ajymwJh NWO qdw k mu ‘UN urBmh pepf’udk csne hf @J tm;aysmo h m G ;atmif vkyfzdk@eJ@ ‘NATO urBmhpepf’ udk tm;}uD;atmifvy kz f @kd jzpfa=umif; &Si;f ae+yD? tar&dum;u (UN) &J@ tjyif bufxu G +f y;D wud, k a f wmf (&rf;) vdu k f (UN) udk jyef+yD;toH; k csvu kd f vkya fe 11

_ynf o l h t m%m
wm[m [dkwkef;ueJ@ vHk;vHk;rwlwJh vkye f nf;opfjzpfonf? [dw k e k ;f uawmh (LN) xJ ygaewJh tDwvDe@J *syefw@dk u (LN) &J@tjyif bufxu G +f yD; wud, k f awmf (&rf;) +yD;v#if (LN) udk vH;k vH;k *±krpdu k b f J aevdu k o f nf? (LN) udk jyefvmwm rvkyy f g? ±_yf±_yfaxG;axG;jzpfaewm udk ud, k u f ±d;k ±d;k }u;D pOf;pm;vd@k rjzpfyg? wa=umif;wdu k p f Of;pm;v#if ±d;k t&m usvr dr hf nf? tD&wfudk tar&duefu (UN) udk ab;csw d +f yD; ppfwu kd v f u kd f awmh Armjynfrm S vnf; tar&duef u 'DvdkyJvkyfvdrfhrnf xifcJholawG &So d nf? olw@kd xifovdk tar&duefu rvkyy f g? ‘em*pf’ udpjP zpfawmhvnf; tar&duefppfoabFmawG ‘vlom; csif;pmemr_ tultnD’ ay;zdk@qdk+yD; yifv,fjyifu apmifa h eonf? rdrw d @kd xJu wcsKd @u R2P (umuG,f ay;&ef wm0ef&r dS ) _ udk udi k +f y;D 0ifvm awmhrnf xifonf? 'gayrJh r0ifyg? vSnfhjyef oGm;onf? a*smf * sD , mrS m usawmh wrsdK;? yifv,fjyifu apmifhaewm rvkyy f g? wdu k ± fu kd y f J “vlom;csi;f pmem onft h ultnDawG” ay;aeonf? u|efawmfwdk@odxm;oifh wmu urBmay:rSm qm;AD;,m; tD&wfvdk EdkifiHcsnf; &Sdwmr[kwf? umv/ a'o/ ya,m* rwlwmawG xnfw h u G & f ygrnf? Armjynfu ppftkyfpkwdkif; [m b,ftcse d r f m S b,fo@l ukd uyf aygi;f &r,f/ b,foe l @J cGm&r,fqw kd m udk em;vnf=uonf qdw k mudk rarh oify h g? (1959 - 60) u tdra f pmifh ppfty kp f /k (1962 - 88) u rqv ppf tkyfpk/ (1988 u tckxd) e0w 12 §etz ppftkyfpkwdk@onf tJ'DvdkyJ uyfvdkufcGmvdkuf vkyfcJh=uwm jzpf onf? aemifrm S vnf; uyfvu kd f cGm vdu k f vky=f uOD;rnfqw kd m rarhoify h g? ±d;k taev#if cH&vdrr fh nf? ud, k t hf ±_yu f kd ud, k b hf mom &Si;f &rnf? olrsm; 0if&i S ;f ay;rnf r[kwy f g? olrsm; u Armjynfup da P =umifa h wmh =urf;rSm &rf;rSm r[kwy f g? ,d;k ',m;0ef}uD;csKyf bmajymovJ ? awmif b uf u rlqvifup d P (rav;&Sm;eJ@ ywfouf w,f) ta&S@bufu uarBm'D;,m; ud p P (AD , uf e rf e J @ ywf o uf w ,f ) 'Dvjkd zpfaecse dr fm S Armjynfppftpd;k &udk &efvy ka f erSm r[kwy f g? w±kw/f tdE, dN uawmh ajymp&mrvdk? etz uyf xm;+yD; jzpfonf? ygwDordkif;udk b,f v d k y nmay;=urvJ wm0ef&a dS =umif; odvmatmif ‘ygwD ordi k ;f ynmay;a&;’ pmapmifpmwrf; rsm;udk a&;ay;&ygonf? (2) ESpf ‘70’ ygwDordkif;udk ‘ygwD pdw" f mwf’ wnfaqmufonfo h rdi k ;f [k csKyf+yD;ajymEdi ky f gonf? 1939 ckESpfu ygwDwnf axmifwe k ;f u ygw0 D if q,f*%ef;yJ &Sy d gonf? 'guvnf; cef@re S ;f +yD; ajym &onfh udef;*%ef;yg? ausmif;om; or*~ tEG,0 f if tpk (3) pk &S& d mrSm ol@tpke@J ol eD;pyf&mudk odr;f oGi;f xm; aom ygwD0ifrsm; &Sdygonf? ocif A[de;f tpkrm S b,foa l wG&o dS nf qdk wmudk olyo J y d gonf? ocifatmifqef;/ ocifva S zwd@k uvnf; xdt k wdi k ;f yif ol@oabmeJ@ol odr;f oGi;f xm;wm jzpf ygonf? ocifp;kd / ocifAwif (*d& k , S ) f wd@k uvnf; xd@k twl jzpfygonf? pm&if;csKyf&Sd&atmifvnf; tajctae ray;yg? 'ga=umifh ygwD 0ifawGrSm ‘tpkpdwf"mwf’ yJ &Sd=u onf? ‘ygwp D w d " f mwf’ r&ifu h suy f g? Eke,fygonf? ppf}uD;twGif; jzwfoef;& awmh ‘tpkpw d " f mwf’ u ydv k @kd om tm;aumif ; vmonf ? ‘ygwD p d w f "mwf’ rnfrnf&&r&Sy d g? aemufyi kd ;f usrS ‘ygwD p d w f " mwf ’ &vmwm jzpfonf? yxru ud, k t hf pkuav; twGi;f rSmyJ ,H=k unfpw d c f sonf? ud, k hf tpkacgif;aqmifr_udkyJ A[dkðyxm; onf? ‘zwyv’ ay:vm+yD;rS ‘ygwD pdw" f mwf’ (enf;enf;) &Sv d monf? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;t+yD; ‘'kwd, uGef*&uf’ usif;yEdkifrS ‘ygwDpdwf "mwf’ tajccH&vmygonf? tdE, dN uGejf rLepfygw. D tawG@tñu& H cJa h om udo k e d ;f az (jrif) h udk *k%ðf y&ygrnf? ygwp Dw d " f mwf/ ygw0 D ifwm0ef0wW&m;

(1) ygwDordkif;udk ygwD0iftopf ta[mif; tm;vH;k udk ynmay;&vdrhf rnf? ray;vd@k rjzpfyg? ygwo D rdi k ;f udk tus,ftjyef@/ ESpftvdkuf/ jzpfpOf tvdu k a f &;zd@k roifa h o;bl;qdw k mudk trSmwGif wifjyxm;ygonf? Tod@k qo kd jzifh ygwo D rdi k ;f udk vH;k 0ra&;&[k qdv k jkd cif; r[kwy f g? vdt k yfcsut f & a&;ae&ygrnf? Auy ta=umif;udk rdwf qufay;zd@k awmif;qda k om Edi ki f jH cm;rS ygwDrsm;&Sdv#if/ olwdk@odzdk@ vdktyf oavmuf u d k rd w f q uf p mapmif uav; a&;ay;&ygonf? rdry d gw0 D ifrsm;udk ygwD pdwf "mwf & S d v matmif / &if h u suf v m atmif/ ygwDtwGuf *k%f,lwwf atmif/ ygw& D @J *% k a f &mif jri ‡w hf ifay;zd@k

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owfowfrw S r fw S & fa dS tmif olvy ka f y; cJhvdk@ jzpfonf? ygwD0ifuwfjym; awmif xkwa f y;cJa h o;onf? ‘Oya' wGi;f &yfwnfci G’ hf &ojzifv h nf; 'Dvkd vkyfEdkifwm jzpfonf?‘Oya'wGif; &yfwnfr’ _ udk wefz;kd xm;vGe;f tm; }u;D wma=umifv h nf; udo k e d ;f az (jrif) h udk tjypfajymEdkifjyefonf? xm;yg awmh? ocif p d k ; onf ‘tpk p d w f "mwf’ udk ‘ygwp Dw d " f mwf’ od@k jri ‡w hf if ray;Edi kc fy hJ g? 'ga=umifh *d% k ;f *%0g' vd_ufpm;jcif; cH&onf? Zmwfodrf; raumif;cJhyg? (1946) rSm tvHeD *d% k ;f cGa J wmh ygw0 D iftrsm;pk}uD;onf ‘Auy A[d’ k ESit hf wl &yfwnfcw hJ m [m ‘ygwDpdwf"mwf’ (tajccHtm; jzif) h &Sa d e=uvd@k om jzpfonf? ocifp;kd ajymonfh ‘ode;f oef; tacsmiform;’ rsm;udk ‘tpkpdwf"mwf’ eJ@ emcHae =uvd@k r[kwy f g? ‘'kw, d uGe* f &uf’ &J@ (A[dk) udk emcHae=uwm jzpfonf? 'gu ‘tpkpw d " f mwf’ udk ‘ygwD pdwf "mwf’ eJ@ tpm; xd;k Edi kc f =hJ uvd@k om jzpfonf? ‘1948’ aemuf y d k i f ; wG i f jynfwi G ;f ppfumv jzwfoef;&onf? ‘'kwd,uGef*&uf’ . (A[dk) onf ‘wwd,uGef*&uf’ usif;yEdkifonfh tajctae&SdygvsufeJ@ rusif;yEdkifcJh onfrSm csdK@,Gif;ygonf? ‘wwd, uGef*&uf’ udk vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ wdu k a f epOfrm S usi;f ycJo h ifo h nf? (1960) ckESpfawG a&muf awmh ‘wwd,uGe* f &uf’ usi;f yzd@k rajymeJ@ A[da k umfrwDpn kH D pnf;a0;zd@k yif cufom G ;+yD? (1967) wGif ‘ygwDwGif; awmfvSefa&;’ trnfcH+yD; ‘*dk%f; tpkpw d " f mwf’ udk (ygwA D [d) k u oGwf oGif;vmjcif;onf {&mrtrSm; jzpf onf? ‘ygwp Dw d " f mwf’ udk ‘*d% k ;f tpk pdwf"mwf’ jzifh tpm;xdk;vdkufjcif; jzpfv@kd rSm;ygonf? rSm;wmuvnf; =um&Sno f nf? jyifcse d v f nf; r&cJ& h m S =uyg? OuUX (2) a,muf usqHk;? acgi;f aqmifawG usq;kH ? vufeufcsawG ay:+y;D yJc;l ±d;k r/ jrpf0u|e;f ay:/ txuf Armjynf/ jrpfzsm;a'o pwmawG us±;_H oGm;onf? ‘ygwDwGif; awmfvSefa&;’ qdw k m}u;D udk rvkyc fo hJ nfh a'oawGyJ useo f nf? w±kwjf ynfue G jf rLepfygwD (CPC) . tultnD&vd@k e,fpyf a'oawGrm S }uD;xGm;E_e;f jrefonf? od@k aomf ‘ud, k t hf m; ud, k f udk;tajccH ysufcJhyg+yD?’rSDcdkae&yg+yD? trSDaysmufwJh ‘1989’ rSmusawmh tusemawmhonf? b,fo@l tjypfrS r[kwy f g? ygwA D [dk (PB) &J@ tjypf jzpfonf? ‘udk,fhtm;udk,fudk;a&;’ vkyfzdk@ tcsdeftrsm;}uD;&cJhvsufeJ@ ‘ud, k t hf m;ud, k u f ;kd vkya f &;’ udk CPC u tawG;tac:t&/ ±kyf0wˆKt& tultnDay;cJy h gvsue f @J olw@kd u pdwf &Snf&Snfwm0ef&Sd&Sd ulnDcJhygvsufeJ@ rdrdwdk@acgif;aqmifrsm; oEMdXmefrcdkif rmvd@k jzpfonf? pGe@f vw $ p fe G @f pm; vkyf v#if tcse dt f rsm;}u;D &onf? ud, k t hf m; ud, k u f ;kd tajccHa'o wckEp S c f k {&m 0wDjrpf0r S ;f twGi;f azmfEi kd c fo hJ ifo h nf? Auy . arG;&yfZmwd/ Auy . atmifjrifr_&cJh&ma'owGif jyef vnf t ajcrcsEd k i f j cif ; onf ao avmufaomtrSm;udk usL;vGer f jd cif; jzpfonf? vufeufui kd w f u kd y f JG xd;k &yf oGm;jcif;/ ygwDwckvHk; ajratmuf qif ; &jcif ; rS m ‘aoavmuf a om trSm;’ a=umifh jzpfonf? ‘ygwp Dw d " f mwf’ &Sa d eaom/ &ifu h sua f eaom ygw0 D ifrsm; &Sa d evd@k om? 'guvnf; wwd,uGe* f &ufukd (1985) wGif usi;f yEdi kc fv hJ @kd om &ifh usuv f mwm jzpfonf? (1988) vlxk tHºk ur_}uD;&Sc dI hJ vnf; cHomoGm;jcif; jzpfonf? (3) ‘ygwDpdwf"mwf’ udk jr‡ifhwif ay;a&;onf ,ae@wGif t}uD;qHk; wm0ef jzpfonf? &Jabmfarmfpw D e k ;f u ‘jynfoludk ,Hk=unf&r,f? ygwDudk ,H=k unf&r,f? 'D (2) ck[m t&if;cHrl (2) &yf jzpfw,f? 'D (2) ck r&S& d if bmrS atmifjrifrm S r[kw’ f vd@k oGeo f ifchJ ovdk rdrw d @kd vnf; jynfou l kd ,H=k unf &rnf? ygwDudk ,Hk=unfwJh ‘ygwD pdw" f mwf’ jr‡iw hf if&rnf? A[dp k nf;±H;k a&; aumfrwD (COC) . wm0efrm S ygwp Dw d " f mwf jr‡iw hf ifay;zd@k e@J aemifrsKd ;qufo@kd ygwD tvHvc J$ z hJ @kd jzpfonf? yxrrsKd ;qufrm S aoolao=u+yD? &Sifaeol tdkvS+yD? COC onf 'kw, d rsKd ;qufjzpfonf? olwdk@vnf; touf}uD;=u+yD? (60) ausmf (70) wef; jzpfonf? wwd, rsKd ;qufukd tvHva J$ y;&rnf? jzpfEi kd f v#if (jzpfEi kd v f #i) f ‘pwkwu ˆ e G* f &uf’ usif ; yzd k @ óu;pm;&rnf ? pwk w ˆ uGe* f &ufu ‘A[da k umfrwD’ udk a&G;& rnf? 'Dvv kd y k +f yD;rS wwd,rsKd ;qufo@kd tvHvE J$ i kd v f #if aumif;ygonf? ‘ygwD pd w f " mwf ’ xuf o ef a eygrS ygwD touft"Ge@f &n S y f gvr d r hf nf? ?

13

Auy eJh tvkyform;
‘"e&S i f v l w ef ; pm;ES i f h ypP n f ; rJ h v l w ef ; pm;t=um; &ef b uf twd k u f t cH j zpf r _ E S i f h ywf o uf I jzpf E d k i f r nf h &S i f ; vif ; jywf o m;aom tod u d k tvk y f o rm;vl w ef ; pm;twG i f ; od k @ oG w f o G i f ; ay;&ef uG e f j rLepf r sm;onf c%wmr#yif r&yf e m;cJ h a y?’ (uG e f j rLepf a =unmpmwrf ; )

uGejf rLepfjzpfcsio f w l i kd ;f a=unmpmwrf;udk avhvm=uonf? (1939) ckEp S r f m S Auy rxlaxmifru D wnf;u ausmif;om;rsm;/ ynmwwfrsm;onf uGejf rLepfa=unm pmwrf;udk avhvmcJ=h uonf? avhvmtm;aumif;aomolukd q&mwif+y;D avhvma&;tpkrsm; zG@J c=hJ uonf? Tod@k jzifh ‘avhvma&;tpkrsm;’ ay:vmonf? Auy onf xdk ‘avhvma&;tpkrsm;’ udk pkpnf;jcif;jzifh ay:vmwm jzpfonf? Auy zG@J pnf;cgpu acgi;f aqmifrt _ zG@J u=kd unfv h #if &Si;f ygonf? trsm;pk}u;D u wuUov kd a f usmif;om;or*~ acgi;f aqmif awGcsn;f jzpfaewmudk awG@Ei kd o f nf? uGejf rLepfa=unmpmwrf;udk avhvmv#if "e&Siv f w l ef;pm;ESihf ypPn;f rJv h w l ef;pm;. twdu k t f cHjzpfrE _ i S hf tvkyo f rm;vlwef;pm;udk vlwef;pm;tod oGwo f i G ;f ay;&rnfqw kd mudk odjrifvm+rjJ zpfonf? uGejf rLepfw@kd .wm0ef bmvJqw kd mudv k nf; odjrifvm+rJjzpfonf? tvkyo f rm;vlwef;pm;udk awmfve Sa f &;tod oGwo f i G ;f ay;wJt h vkyu f kd c%uav;r# r&yfem;&[laom oGeo f ifcsuu f udA k [de;f udk a&eHajrtvkyo f rm;rsm;qDo@kd yd@k ay;cJw h m jzpfonf? &Jabmf Adv k y fw k @kd a&eHajrausmif;om;rsm;&J@ oydww f u kd y fu JG v kd nf; a&S@aqmifz@kd udA k [de;f oGm;cJw h m jzpfonf? avhvma&;tpk0if wdi k ;f u eD;pyf&m tvkyo f rm;xktwGi;f 0if+yD;pnf;±H;k =uonf? Armjynftvkyo f rm;vlwef;pm;&J@ xl;jcm;csu? f t*Fvy d e f ,fcs@J orm;u tdE, dN udt k ajccH+yD; Armjynfukd wd;k cs@J cw hJ m&J@ tusKd ;quftjzpf Armjynfwi Gf pay:onfh "e&Siv f w l ef;pm;onf ukvm;rsm; jzpf=uonf? "e&Sif vlwef;pm;ESit hf wl ay:+rJjzpfonfh tvkyo f rm; vlwef;pm;uvnf; ukvm;rsm;yif jzpfonf? acwfro D ,f,l yd@k aqmifa&; vkyi f ef;}uD;rsm;jzpfonfh oabFmeJ@ rD;&xm; vkyi f ef;rsm;ud=k unfv h #if "e&Siu f t*Fvdyf/ tvkyform;u ukvm;rsm; jzpfaewmudk awG@&rnf? oabFm}uD; ukefwifukefcs vkyfief;udk yifv#if 14

_ynf o l h t m%m
ukvm;tvkyo f rm;rsm;jzifh vkyc fw hJ m jzpfonf? urf;±d;k wef;oGm; pufavS vkyfief;eJ@ &mbmvkyfief;/ yk*~vdu b,folu &efolvJ/ b,folu qefeJ@qm;vkyfief; vkyf=uonfh/ rdwfaqGvJ/ b,fol@udk a&mif;0,fa&; vkyi f ef;uav;rsm; vkyf rSDcdk&rvJqdkwJh =uonfh w±kw" f e&Sie f @J w±kwf tvkyf aoe*F A sL[mtjrif r S m orm;wcsKd @ukd awG@Ei kd o f nf? olw@kd u =unfvifjywfom;aezdk@ odyr f rsm;yg? Armjynf wdkif;&if;om; tvk y f o rm;vl w ef ; pm;u qm; vkyi f ef;/ qefpufvy k i f ef;vdk 0g}udwf pufvy ki f ef;vdk vkyi f ef;rsm;rSm ,m,D aoG;pnf;a&;pdw" f csre _ ;f =u’ [k aºu;a=umfoH xkwf f mwf’ &Sa d e=uonf? rSwa &moD a y: tvk y f o rm;rsm;tjzpf Armjynfue xm;onf h ‘ppftkyfpk’ udk rdrdwdk@u G jf rLepfygwD xlaxmif=u vky=f u&onf? rnfh &Jabmfrsm;eJ@vnf; wzufu rdwf &efol[k rowfrSwfbJ rdwfaqGvdk@ qufay;xm;ojzifh tquftpyf owfrSwfv#if rdrdwdk@avmuf rdkufrJ xl;jcm;csua f =umifh ay:&wJh h l urBmrSm &Sr d nfr[kwy f g? ppf &Sa d e=uonf? xdo k @kd aom ta=umif; onfo tm;enf;csu? f fu k xda k ºu;a=umfou H kd ±kyo f r d ;f +y;D rsm;a=umifh Auy onf b,fwe k ;f ur# tkyp vlrsKd ;a&;t"du±k%;f axmifacsmufxJ aphpyfaqG;aEG;a&;pm;yGJrSm vmxdkif t*Fvy d " f e&Siu f ukvm;eJ@ od@k rusa&mufcw v#if u m; ‘aqG ; aEG ; buf ’ [k hJ m jzpfonf? Arm/ w±kwe f @J Armudk tvG,w f ul S & f rSm jzpfonf? ‘aqG;aEG;buf’ vl r sd K ;a&;qef @ usif b uf owfrw aoG;cGa J y;Edi ko f nf? wcgw&Hrm S t"d jzpfr/_ t"du±k%;f jzpfr_ axmifacsmuf onf &efol r[kwy f g? rdwa f qGvnf; u±k%;f udy k if zefw;D ay;Edi ko f nf? Arm xJo@kd rusa&mufz@kd qv f g?) kd #if b,fou l r[kwy jynfwi G f jzpfco h J nfh vlrsKd ;a&;t"du±k%;f &ef o l v J / b,f o l u rd w f a qG v J / rsm;ud=k unfv h #if &Si;f ygonf? f b,fol@udk rSDcdk&rvJqdkwJh aoe*F Oya'wGi;f umv (3) ESp? AsL[mtjrifrSm =unfvifjywfom; tm;enf;csuu f a kd cszsuo f nfh Auy taejzifh toufom aezd@k ta&;}uD;ygonf? tm;omcsu? f & e f o l q d k w m u v n f ; (70) jynfhoGm;onf? U/G rvkyf h mvu (3) ESpo f m &Sc do hJ nf? xdk worwfwnf; r[kwy f g? tajymif; &wJu w±kwjf ynf uGejf rLepfygwD tvJ &S d w wf y gonf ? 'guawmh (3) ESpt f wGi;f wGif tvkyo f rm; vl ESifh tdENd,jynfuGefjrLepfygwDwdk@udk acwfe@J qdi G f ky f gonf? t*Fvy de f ,fcs@J ukd wef;pm;ESihf tus,jf yef@q;kH qufo, 1920 vGefumvrsm;uwnf;u zGJ@ t"du&efov l @kd owfrw S & f onfa h cwf pnf;±Hk;EdkifcJhonf? odk@aomf tòyif pnf;xlaxmif+yD;jzpfonf? w±kwf &So kr f sm;vSonf? uGejf rLepf/ qd& k , S f d vd/k *syefzufqpfukd t"du&efov l @kd tqdi uGejf rLepf (U/G) eJ@ ukvm;uGejf rLepf owfrSwf&wJhacwf &Sdonf? jynfy vpf/ jynfol@&Jabmf pojzifh ygwD (U/G) rsm; Armjynfa&mufvmonf? usL;ausmr k ;f u tòyiftqdi k f pnf;±H;k =uojzifh fu _ kd &efov l @kd owfrw S & f cse d f wdi olw@kdu w±kwt f vkyo f rm;ESihf ukvm; &So f rm;rsm;udk aoG;uGa J ponf? d vdk jynfwi G ;f zdEy dS r fu _ kd &efot l jzpf tvkyo tvkyform;wdk@udk (uGefjrLepfwdk@&J@ owfrSwf&csdef &Sdonf? 'gudkawmh *d% k ;f *%pdwf yGm;aponf? ‘trsKd ;om; wm0ef t &) vl w ef ; pm;tod acwfumvtvdu G a f &;’ &Sa d ev#if omrefjynfol k f towfrw S & f rSm nD!w oGwo f i G ;f ay;=uojzifh ukvm;/ w±kwf jzpfonf? wGi;f yËdyuQr# jzpfaomfvnf; ‘trsKd ; tvkyo f rm;acgi;f aqmifrsm;twGi;f wGif (pum;csyf? ‘jynfwGif;jynfytzsuf om;nD!w G r f ’ _ òyuGv J #iu f m; tjyef ‘wdi k ;f jynftm;vH;k &Sd tvkyo f rm;rsm; orm;rsm;tm; bH& kd a f &;qDo@kd / &efbuf k efot l jzpf owf tvSef tðywfwu 15

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o¿mefrsKKd;eJ@ ukdvkdeDacwfrSmvnf; v,form;vl wef;pm;awG&@J xºu ykefuefr_uav;awG ay:cJhygw,f? trsm;pku ya'o&mZfacwfuvkd rif; avmif;ay:wJh yko H ¿mefrsKKd;eJ@ ay:cJh wmyg? ukv d e dk a D cwfrm S txif&m S ;qk;H awmifov l ,form;awG&@J xºur_u awmh q&mpHv,form;olye ky f gy? J 1926-27 ckEp Su f q&mawmf OD;0dpm&wk@d / q&mawmfO;D OwWrwk@d u v,form;xk}uD;tm; vlcGefawmf raqmifz@dk vSnv hf nfa[majympnf;±k;H cJw h ,fqw dk meJ@ 1930 ckEp S f arv 30 &ufae@rm S pwifwnfaxmifvu dk w f hJ wkd@Armtpnf;t±kH;eJ@twl 'DtzGJ@ tpnf;&J@vufatmufrm S v,form; tpnf;t±kH;w&yfukd pwif wnf aqmufEi dk v f u dk w f ,fqw d k mvnf; xnfh oGi;f ajymqkz d @dk vkt d yfygvr dr hf ,f? 1930 'DZifbmv 22 &uf ae@rm S pwifvu dk w f hJ q&mpHv,form; olykef[m vufeufukdifykefuefr_yg? e,fcs@J wyfom; 2000 ausmf usq;Hk onftxd wkdufckdufEkdifcJh+yD; v,f orm;olykef 2000 ausmf touf ay;cJ h & ygw,f ? q&mpH t ygt0if }uK;d ay;towfc& H ol v,form;olye kf 302 a,muf/ woufwu|ef;tykd@ cH&wJh v,form;olye k f 890 OD; &Sc d hJ ygw,f? 'Dvdk aoG;ac|;toufaygi;f rsm;pGm pGe@f vw $ p f aw;cJ& h wJh v,f orm;olykef}uD; jzpfyGm;aepOfrSm w±kwjf ynf uGejf rLepfygwu D ypPn;f rJh vlwef;pm;tvHawmfukd ay;ykd@+yD; axmufcH*k%fjyKcJhygw,f? 'DypPnf;rJh tvHawmfukd om,m0wD&J@ ta&S@ buf&dS &efuif;awmifudk t*Fvy d w f @dk wkdufckdufpD;eif;pOf odrf;ykduf&&SdoGm; ygw,f?

v,form;olykefacgif;aqmif q&mpH

q&mpHv,form;olykef&J@ t"duaºu;a=umfoHawGuawmh æ tcG e f a wmf r ay;a&;/ v,f v k y f o l v,fyi dk a f &;eJ@ uk, d b hf & k if uk, d o hf cif ay:aygufa&;aºu;a=umfoHwkd@yg? 'D orkdif;0ifv,form; olykef}uD;[m }uD;jrwfygw,f? 'gayrJh orki d ;f tajc taet& csKd @ ,G i f ; csuf a wG v nf ; ra&Smifv$JEkdifcJhygbl;? ya'o&mZf oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepfukd jyefvnf wrf;w+yD; &nfre S ;f csux f J xnfo h i G ;f xm;wmu t"duuswhJ csK@d ,i G ;f csuf yg? tvkyform;/ ausmif;om;pwJh tajccHvw l ef;pm;awGe@J us,u f s,f jyef@jyef@ r[mrdwf rzG@J Ei dk c fw hJ m/ tif;/

tki d /f vufz@JG / *gxm/ rEW&m;tay:rSm tm;ukd;,kH=unfwmpwJh wjcm; csK@d ,i G ;f csua f wGvnf; &Sy d gao;w,f?

v,form;vlwef;pm;u tvk y f o rm;/ ausmif ; om;/ wjcm;tajccH v l w ef ; pm;rsm;eJ @ vufwGJwkdufyGJ0ifvmjcif;

q&mpH v,form;olye k }f u;D ta&;edrfhoGm;+yD; q&mpH }uKd;ay; towfcv H u dk & f wJh 1931 ckEp S f Ek0 d if 19

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bmvaemufykdif;rSmvnf; Armjynf EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awG[m &yfpJ+idrf; at;oGm;wm r[kwfygbl;? 1933 ckESpfrSm a&eHajrvkH;qkdif&m wkd@Arm tpnf;t±kH;ukd zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif cJw h ,f? 1936 ckEp S r f m S jynfv;Hk u|wf ausmif;om;oydwf}uD; ay:xGef;cJh w,f? 1939 ckESpfrSm e*g;eDpmtkyf a&$wd*kHukef;awmftxd ajcvsifc&D; &Snf csw D ufwhJ ta&;awmfy}Hk uD; jzpf vmcJw h ,f? 'DrSm t"duazmfjycsifwm uawmh 'D t a&;awmf y k H } uD ; rS m ysO;f rem;/ awmifi/l yJc;l / jynf/ om,m 0wD/ tif;pdef tp&SdwJh te,fe,f t&yf&yfu v,form;awG[m tvkyf nGef@aygif;tpkd;&ukd ðywfusoGm;ap jcif;qkw d hJ atmifo;D atmifyi Gu hf a dk wmh qGwc f ;l Eki dc fy hJ gw,f? xkdacwfxkdumv&J@ tae txm;t& v,form;v_yf&Sm;r_yJ jzpfjzpf/ 1300 jynft h a&;awmfy}Hk uD;yJ jzpfjzpf t"du tm;enf;csuu f awmh (uGefjrLepfygwD ray:aygufao;wJh twGuf uGejf rLepfygwr Dw S qif) h tvkyf orm;vlwef;pm;&J@ acgi;f aqmifru _ dk r&&Sa d o;jcif;ygy? J

tvkyo f rm;vlwef;pm;eJh r[mrdwz f hE JG i dk w f m[m v,form;vlwef;pm; v+y& f m S ;r+twGuf wqifhw;dk _rifhrm;vm_cif;yJ?
toif ; ay:xG u f v m+yD ; Armjynf jynfov l x l u k dk rsup fz di Ga hf y;wJh vuf0J pmaytygt0if wkd;wufwJh pmay awGudk pwifjzef@jzL;vmEki dc fw hJ ,f? 1938 ckESpfuawmh }uD; rm;wJh Eki di fa H &;v_y& f m S ;r_awG ay:wJE hp Sf vk@d qk& d rSmyg? 'DZifbmv 20 &ufae@ rSm ausmif;om;xku twGi;f 0ef±;Hk ukd 0kdif;wJh v_yf&Sm;r_}uD; ay:cJh+yD; Akdvf atmifausmf usq;Hk cJ& h w,f? 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfy}Hk u;D uawmh tJ'E Dp Sf arv 1 &ufae@u pwifcw hJ myg? Arm jynf&J@ yxrqkH;tvkyform;ae@ukd a&eHacsmif;òr@rm S usi;f ycJw h ,f? tJ'D v_y& fm S ;r_uae qufvuf+y;D a&eHacsmif;/ acsmuf/ a&eHcsy/f vrf;&Gmwk@d rS tvkyf orm; 2000 ausmw f @dk u pwif oydwf arS m uf = uw,f ? 'D a &eH a jrtvk y f orm;oydw}f u;D [m us,jf yef@}u;D xGm; vm+yD; ausmif;om;awG/ v,form; awG/ wjcm;tajccHvlwef;pm;awG yg0ify;l aygi;f +y;D e,fcs@J tpk;d &&J@ wm;qD; r_trsK;d rsK;d ukd ausmv f m $ ;um &efue k f 20 orm;/ ausmif;om;/ òr@ae qif;&Jom; rsm; pwJhvlwef;pm;awGeJ@ &efol qef@usifa&;rSm vufwGJyl;aygif;rdwJh tcsufyJ? acwfrDpufr_ vkyfief;eJ@ qufo, G a f ewmrk@d acwfrw D hJ vlwef; pm;/ vkyfief;obm0t& ADZt& pnf;vk;H r_ pdw" f mwf&w dS /hJ pnf;urf;&Sw d /hJ tem*wfukd }uKdwifawG;ac:EkdifwJh tajrmftjrif&w dS hJ vlwef;pm;/ ADZt& aESmif}uKd;uvGJvkd@ ykdifqkdifr_ bmrS r&Sw d t hJ wGuf uk, d u f sK;d tpGe@f Ei dk q f ;Hk / tjywf o m;qk H ; / awmf v S e f a &;uk d ukep f ifatmif tqifEE J$ i dk q f ;Hk vlwef;pm; jzpf w J h tvk y f o rm;vl w ef ; pm;eJ @ r[mrdwfzGJ@Ekdifwm[m v,form; vlwef;pm; v_y& fm S ;r_twGuf wqifw h ;dk jrifr h m;vmjcif;yJ? tajccHvw l ef;pm;rsm; 'Dvdk awmfvSefa&;r[mrdwf zGJ@EkdifcJhwJh twGuf 1300 jynft h a&;awmfy}Hk uD; [m t"du &nfre S ;f csujf zpfwhJ atmif yGJ yef;wki dx f d ra&mufEi dk a f o;apumrl xka d cwfxu dk mvu a'guw f mAarmf&@J

zuf q pf * syef a wmf v S e f a &;eJ @ v,form;vlwef;pm;

orkdif;vkdtyfcsuf/ acwf umvtajctae&J@ awmif;qkc d suw f @dk eJ@ ukdufnDpGm ArmjynfuGefjrLepf ygwDukd 1939 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv 15 &ufae@rSm pwifzGJ@pnf;awmh ygwD zGJ@pnf;a=umif; a=unmcsufeJ@ ppf wrf;ukd xkwjf yefcw hJ ,f? 'Dppfwrf;xJrm S Armjynf[m ukdvkdeDwykdif;/ ya' o&mZfwykdif; EkdifiHjzpfw,fqkdwJh vuQ%mowfrw S c f suf yg&o dS vkd ygwD uvmyfpnf;rsm;ukd tvkyform;/ v,form;eJ@ ausmif;om;xktwGi;f zG@J pnf;+yD; 'Dvw l ef;pm;rsm;ukd pnf;±k;H odr;f oGi;f oGm;&ef qk;H jzwfcsuv f nf; yg&c dS w hJ ,f? oufwrf;Eke,fao;wJh ygwD twGuf rdr& d @J pnf;±k;H a&;pGr;f &nfudk prf; oyfppfaq;zk@d tylwjyif; awmif;qkd vmwmuawmh zufqpf*syefqef@usif a&; vkyi f ef;wm0ef}uD;yg? ajratmuf ygwb D 0a&mufaewJh ygw[ D m 1942 ckESpfrSm zufqpf*syefqef@usifa&; twGuf jyifqifr_vkyfief;ukd jrpf0

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u|e;f ay: a';'&J aus;vufa'orSm ajratmuf X mecsKyf w ck / ocif oef;xGe;f &Sw d hJ &efue kr fm S XmecsKyfwck vk y f i ef ; wm0ef c G J + yD ; aqmif & G u f c J h w,fv@dk qk& d rSmyg? ygw& D @J ajratmuf pnf;±k;H a&;vkyi f ef;[m tajccH vlwef; pm;toD;oD;ukd pnf;±k;H cJw h myg? 'gayrJ@ trsm;pk pnf;±k;H cJ& h wmuawmh aus; vuf e J @ v,f o rm;vl w ef ; pm;yg? ygw& D @J ajratmuf XmecsKyftygt0if ygwD&J@ vkyfief;wm0efawGeJ@ ygwD &JabmfawGtrsm;pkukdvnf; v,f orm;awGu umuG,fapmifha&Smuf ay;cJ=h uvk@d ygw& D @J ajratmuf pnf;±k;H a&; vkyfief;awG atmifjrifchJwmyg? ygwu D BDA wyfwi G ;f rSmvnf; ajr atmufyo Hk ¿mefe@J pnf;±k;H cJy h gw,f? BDA wyfqw dk mrSmvnf; wyfom; awG[m v,form;awG/ v,form; om;orD;awGu trsm;pkyg? }u;D us,c f rf;em;+y;D atmifyJG qGwc f ;l Eki dc fw hJ hJ 'Dorki d ;f 0ifzufqpf*syef awmfve S a f &;rSm tiftm;pktoD;oD; yg0if=uaomfvnf; t"du pnf;±kH; azmfaqmifcJholu ygwDyg? zwyv zGJ@pnf;a&;rSmvnf; ygwDu t"du tcef;u ygcy hJ gw,f? wrsK;d om;vk;H yg0ifw,fv@dk qkE d i dk w f hJ zufqpf*syef awmfvSefa&;[m vlwef;pm;yg0ifr_ bufu=unf& h ifawmh t&if;ppfvu dk f &if aus;vuftajccHwhJ v,form; ppfyy JG gy? J vkdvkd ay:xGufvmwJh v,form; v_yf&Sm;r_uawmh &ckdif- ysOf;rem;ewfarmuf v,form;olye kr f sm;yg? (ysOf ; rem; ewf a rmuf ta&;uk d » wwk d i f ; jynf v k H ; u axmufca H pzG,f » olye k f bma=umifh x&w,f » » » qif;&JvSwJh v,fr, hJ mrJh ypPn;f rJu h dk csKyc f s,v f @dk &,f olykefxw,f » &mZ0ifar#mfawG; aoG;eJ@ a&;&r,f » » ») qkw d hJ v,form;olye k f oDcsi;f pmom;awG ukdyJ =unfhvkduf&if v,form;awG bma=umifh ykeu f efxºu&w,fqw dk m &Si;f ygw,f? (v,form; olye ko f c D si;f uk d oD ; oef @ azmf j yxm;ygw,f ? ) zufqpf*syef awmfvSefa&;t+yD;rSm +Aw d o d #w@dk ArmEki di fu H dk jyefvnfa&muf &Sp d ;dk rk;d =uygw,f? olw@dk oabmxm; uawmh ArmEki di fu H kd +Aw d o d #"eo[m& pk;d rk;d r_abmiftwGi;f qufvufxm;&Sd a&;ygy? J Armhvw G v f yfa&;ukd rpOf;pm; ao;wJh oabmxm;ygyJ? 'Dtcsdef ArmEki di f H v,form;awG[m v,fq;Hk ajrqk;H +yD; v,form;b0rS ol&if;iSm; b0ok@d av#musa&muf&a dS e=uw,f? +Adwo d #w@dk Eki di f jH cm;rS ac:oGi;f vmwJh cspw f ;D rsm;vufokd@ u|JEGm;tkd;tdrfrS tp orD;ysKr d sm;tqk;H Armv,form; awGu xk;d tyfae=u&w,f? qefpyg; a&mif;0,fa&;utp ArmEki di f& H @J pD;yGm; a&;ukd EkdifiHjcm;om;rsm; 0ifa&muf aoG;pkyc fi G jhf yKwJh pepfw&yfudk usio hf ;Hk aewJh tcse d y f g? ysO;f rem;v,form; olye k f &ck d i f - ysOf ; rem;-ewf a rmuf qkw d m +cKHia Hk c:wmyg? ysO;f rem;awmif v,f o rm;ol y k e f r sm; yki d ;f v,fa0;e,frm S “bke;f }uD;acgi;f atmif}uD;” acgif;aqmifwJh v,f orm;olykeftzGJ@wzGJ@/ “&Sm;awm zufqpf*syef awmfve Sa f &; at;armif” acgif;aqmifwJh tpku t+yD;rSm ra&S;raESmif; wqufwnf; wpk / 'D v ,f o rm; ol y k e f t pk u wyfue k ;f òr@e,f taemufjcrf;rSm xºu cJ=h uwmyg? 'Dv,form;olye k x f r J m S v,form;awGtjyif *syefawmfve S f a&; ajymufusm;wyfom;a[mif;awG/ wyfzsuc fv H u dk & f wJh wyfom;a[mif; awGvnf; yg0ifygw,f? wyfzsufcH vk d u f & w,f q k d w mu t*F v d y f e J @ zqyv 11 OD;yg uk, d p f m;vS,f tzG@J wzG@J w@dk csKyfqv dk u dk w f hJ ‘uEND pmcsKyf” t& ArmhrsK;d cspw f yfrawmfudk zsuf odr;f vku d w f mukd qkv d w dk myg? v,fa0; òr@e,frSmqkd&if Akdvfe*g;ac: e*g; xGe;f &Se d w f @dk &@J wyfrawmfom;a[mif; rsm;tzGJ@[m xif&Sm;ausmf=um;yg w,f? ygw& D a J bmf (aemifrm S ygw& D @J A[k d a umf r wD 0 if jzpf v m+yD ; ,ck uG,fvGefoGm;ol) &JabmfOD;&JxGef; [mvnf; v,form;olye k w f yfom; wOD;yg? ol[m ysOf;rem;c±kdif c±kdif aumfrwD0ifwOD;yg? vGwfvyfa&; r&rDuwnf;u zqyv xJu qk& d, S f vpf*% dk ;f om;awGe@J zqyv vuf,m *k% d ;f om;awGu jynfoq l ef@usia f &; rSm vufapmif;xufaecJh=uwmyg? &JabmfO;D &Jxe G ;f ukd qk& d , S v f pf*% dk ;f u vky}f uHz@dk vkyc fw hJ ,f? 'gudk ykvy d u f jyef+yD; owif;ay;wJt h wGuf &Jabmf OD;&Jxe G ;f awmck& d ygw,f? vufeuf uki d f wku d y fx JG 0 J ifz@dk ole@J twl wyfue k ;f òr@e,faumfrwD0if &JabmfpHnGef@ukd vnf; ygwu D wygwnf; xnfa h y;vku d f ygw,f? tvkyo f rm;eJ@ v,form; vlxu k dk umuG,z f @dk ygwu D zG@J pnf;cJw h hJ wyfe( D jynfo@l &a J bmf uGt J +yD; wyfeD jzpfvm=u) tzG@J tcsK@d [mvnf; v,f orm;olykefeJ@ aygif;rd cJh=uygw,f? &JabmfO;D &Jxe G ;f &J@nt D &if; v,fa0; Akv d n f e G @f armif[m tJ'w D yfex D u J yg? tJ'Dumvu qkd&S,fvpf ykvdyfu owfv@dk usq;Hk cJo h vkd Akv d o f e d ;f aqG 21

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[mvnf; ysO;f rem; v,fa0;rSm usq;Hk cJy h gw,f? ysOf;rem;c±kdiftv,fykdif; usnfawmifuefòr@e,fxJrSmqkd&if AkdvfApdefacgif;aqmifwJh v,form; ol y k e f &S d y gw,f ? Ak d v f A pd e f [ m usna f wmifuefòr@e,f&@J òr@e,fygwD aumfrwD0ifwOD;yg? aemifrm S ol[m wku d y ft JG wGi;f usq;Hk oGm;cJ& h ygw,f? acgif;aqmifwa,muf jzpfygw,f? 'gt h jyif Akv d w f m&m&J@ ysO;f rem;olye k f e,fajr qkw d mvnf; &Sc dy hJ gao;w,f? Akv d a f tmifqef;wk@d t*Fvef oGm;+y;D vGwv f yfa&;twGuf ta&;qkd aepOfumvrSmyJ ewfarmuf v,f orm;olye k f ay:cJy h gw,f? *syef awmf vSefa&;rSmygcJhwJh ArmhrsKd;cspf wyf rawmfom; “Akv d & f mjzwf” (aemifrm S ygw,f? +Aw d o d #uv dk e dk t D jzpf wnf&q dS J umvuwnf;u &cki dw f i dk ;f &J@ Eki di fa H &; tajctaerSm wnf+idrfr_ r&SdcJhyg? zufqpfawmfve S a f &; t+yD;rSmvnf; Eki di fa H &;rwnfr+ir d jf zpfre _ @J tkºH ur_awG ykeu f efra _ wG &Sc dy hJ gw,f? txift&Sm; ykefuefr_uawmh OD;pdEWmeJ@ AkHayguf omausmfwkd@&J@ &ckdifawmifykdif;u ykefuefr_yg? olwkd@[m 1947 ckESpf/ {+yDv 1 &ufae@rm S “ajrykn H v D mcH” tjzpf ajrykòH r@rm S wyfaygi;f pknv D mcH w&yfudk zqyv tzG@J e@J pifòyif jyKvkyf usif ; ycJ h y gw,f ? zqyv tzG J @ eJ @ oabmuGJvGJr_ }uD;ygw,f? 'D&ckdif ajymufusm;rsm;twGi;f ygw& D @J =oZm }uD ; ygw,f ? ygwD u OD ; pd E W m wk d @ &J @ ykeu f efru _ dk axmufcc Hy hJ gw,f? xkp d Ofu ygw[ D m ysO;f rem;/ ewfarmufe@J &cki dv f ,form; olye k f a'orsm;ukd awmfve S a f &; pwifjrpf zsm;cH&m tajccHa'otjzpf owfrw S f cJy h gw,f? vGwv f yfa&;rwki dr fu D wnf; u Armjynfrm S a&S;OD;ay:cJw h hJ 'D v,f orm;olykefrsm;[m trSefyJ 1948 rwfv 28 &uf jynfol@'Drkdua&pD vufeufui dk a f wmfve Sa f &;&J@ a&S@awmf ajy;yg?

'Dv,form;olye ka f wG[m &GmawGrm S a+Amifaejuwmyg?
“jrref;” "m;jy*k% d ;f qkw d m ysO;f rem;c±ki dx f r Jm S v,form;awGu "m;jyxwku d w f hJ *k% d ;f yg? 'D"m;jy*k% d ;f [m tiftm;}u;D xGm;vm+y;D aemifrm S olwkd@vnf; v,form;olykefawG jzpfvm=uygw,f? 'Dv,form;olye k a f wG[m &GmawGrm S ajAmifae=uwmyg? v,f orm;olye ka f wG[m vufeuf tusK;d tyJhawGeJ@ p=u&wmyg? zufqpf *syefawmfvSefa&;u ºuif;usefcJhwJh vuf e uf a wG / wyf z suf w J h t cg vufeufrtyfbJ ygvmwJh vufeuf awG/ wyfea D wGu ygvmwJh vufeuf awGeJ@ wpwp vufeuftiftm; awmifhwif;atmif vkyf,l&wmyg? wcsKd@v,form;olykefawG/ wyfeD tzGJ@awG[m 0g;c|efukdif wyfzGJ@awG awmif zG J @ xm;=uygao;w,f ? “bkef;}uD; OD;rJoD;” qkdol[mvnf; emrnf a usmf v,f o rm; ol y k e f 22 jynfol@&Jabmf) u acgif;aqmif ygw,f? qkd&S,fvpf*kd%f;om;awGeJ@ vuf,m*kd%f;om;awG }uD;pkd;aewJh zqyv tzG@J udk wl;wl;cg;cg; rke;f wD; aewma=umifh AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; xdef;wmawmif r&bJ v,form; olye k r f m S yg0ifco hJ l jzpfygw,f? aemif rSm 'DtzG@J udk ygwu D pnf;±k;H odr;f oGi;f Edi kc fy hJ gw,f? ysO;f rem;/ ewfarmuf v,f orm;olye ku f twdtvif; v,form; olykefyg? 46 ckESpf aemufykdif;rSm ppfui dk ;f / jrif;+cH/ tif;pdee f @J jynfc±ki df rsm;rSm v#K@d 0u S v f ufeufui dk w f yfrsm; toGifeJ@ wcsKd@wyfzGJ@awG &Sdae=u ygw,f? *syef a wmf v S e f a &;t+yD ; orki d ;f 0if zqyv &J@ a&$w* dt Hk v,f ypP,HnDvmcH&J@ qkH;jzwfcsufxJrSm &ckdifv,form;olykefukd axmufcH a=umif; twdtvif; azmfjyxm;

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wyf/ ppfwyfw@dk e@J ESr d e f if;cki d ;f w,f? 'D Eki di fa H &;v_y& f m S ;r_awGxr Jm S zqyv&J@ a&$wd*kHtv,fypP,H nDvmcH[m vnf; ta&;}uD;ygw,f? (xkt d cse du f zqyv wGi;f vuf,m*k%;f eJ@ qk& d, S v f pf ygw* D% dk ;f wk@d r}u;D pk;d ao;?) 'Dnv D mcH&@J qk;H jzwfcsux f r Jm S tvkyo f rm; v,f orm;wk@d &@J Eki di fa H wmfudk wnfaqmuf oGm;&efqw dk hJ tcsuy f g&c dS o hJ vkd &nfre S ;f csur f sm; qGwc f ;l Eki d& f ef vufeufui dk f wku d y fe JG @J Oya'wGi;f wku d y fr JG sm; qifEJ$ oGm;&efqkdwJh tcsufvnf; yg&SdcJhyg w,f? 'Dq;Hk jzwfcsu[ f m v_@H aqmfcsuf w&yf jzpfom G ;cJy h gw,f? 1946 ckEp S r f m S jzpfysuc fw hJ hJ Eki di fa H &;v_y h& f m S ;r_awGxu J t"duus wJh ta&;tcif; 2 ckudk azmfjyygr,f? wcku 1946 ckEp S /f arv 18 &ufae@rm S t*Fvy de f ,fcs@J &@J vuf yg;apwkd@u tif;pdef xef;wyifrSm v,form;vlx}k uD;ukd aoewfe@J ypf cwfv@kd v,form; 4 OD; usq;kH cJy h g w,f? qefor d ;f wku d y fr JG m S anmifav;yif ol touf t &G , f Ek e ,f a o;wJ h “raqmif;wif” ypfowfcv H u dk & f w,f? ygwDu pnf;±kH;+yD; tmZmenf raqmif;wif&@J psmyeyGr Jw S qifh qENjyyGJ w&yf jzpfvmatmif azmfaqmifcy hJ g w,f? &efo& l @J vy k & f yfudk vlx}k uD;u rcHEi dk v f @dk qlyu G v f m=uw,f? 1946 ckEp S f pufwifbmv 5 &ufae@rSm tvkyform;oydwf/ pmwku d o f ydw/f tjcm; tpk;d &Xmersm; rS tr_xrf;aygif;pkH&J@oydwfrSwqifh aemufq;Hk taxGaxGoydw}f uD;txd jzpfay:vmcJw h ,f? ygwu D 'D vlwef;pm; tkHºur_rsm;rSwqifh a&S@okd@ xyfqifh wGe;f wif+yD; wku d y f0 JG if=u&ef aqmf=o vku d w f ,f? tusKKd;quftjzpf 1947 ckEp Sr fm S +rK@d ay: tvkyo f rm;wku d y fr JG sm;/ oydwr f sm; qufvufjzpf ay:vmcJw h hJ enf;wl v,form;wkd@&J@wkdufyGJrsm;/ tiwfwyfcsw D ufyr JG sm; qefor d ;f yGr J sm; òrifòrifqi dk q f i dk }f u;D ay:xGuv f mcJw h ,f? qefor d ;f yGa J wGrm S zqyv qk& d, S v f pf*% dk ;f u olw@dk acgi;f aqmifr_ &zkd@ }uKd;pm;cJhayr,fh wu,fwrf; usawmh olw@dk acgi;f raqmif&=J ubl;? 'Dvx l [ k m ygwp D nf;±k;H xm;wJh vlxy k? J 'ga=umifh qefor d ;f yGa J wGudk ygwu D yJ acgif;aqmif qifE$JcJh&w,f? tpkd;& rD;&xm;u qefwa JG wGudk azmuf+yD; qefor d ;f yGJ awG vkyc fw hJ ,f? aemufyi kd ;f aus;vuf v,f,majrrSm xGefwkH; wku d y fa JG wG vkyc fy hJ gw,f? t±k;H qkw d mawGudk vku d z f @JG vmw,f?) ygwA D [ku d v,form;vlxk ta&;ukd v,form;xke@J xa d wG@ pnf;±k;H +y;D pepf wus a&S@wqifw h ;dk wku d y f0 JG ifz@dk vSr;f vku d w f hJ ajcvSr;f awGy? J &efo& l @J tm; tenf;qk;H / rdr& d @J pnf;±k;H a&;tm; taumif;qkH; ae&mawGukd a&G;+yD; v,form;nDvmcH (uGefz&ifhrsm;) usi;f ycJw h m jzpfygw,f? (v,form; pnf;±k;H a&; atmifjrifcw hJ hJ ygw& D @J v,f orm;nDvmcH ykp Hr H sK;d rqv acwfu vkdufvkyfcJhayr,fh twkta,mif nDvmcHawGom jzpfwmrk@d bmtESpf om&rS r&Sc dy hJ gb;l ?) jzL;nDvmcHukd ajr&Sifu *syef a cwf 3 ES p f p moD ; pm;c jyef awmif;aepOf usi;f ywJh 'Dnv D mcH[m ygwjD yefwufvmwJh trSwt f om; jzpf cJw h ,f? (ygw[ D m uef@owfcsKyfcs,f cHae&wmrk@d bmtpnf;ta0;rS rvkyf EkdifwJh tajctaeuae yxrqkH; jyefvy k w f hJ v_y& f m S ;r_yg?) 'Dnv D mcHudk 1947 ckEp S f azazmf0g&v D 25 &ufae@ rSm usi;f ycJw h ,f? 'Dnv D mcHrm S v,f orm;wodef;ausmf wufa&mufcJh w,f? jynfrSm v,form;nDvmcH vkyc fw hJ ,f? tmvmuy` v,form; nDvmcHukdawmh ocifoef;xGef;eJ@ ocifZifwkd@ukd,fwkdif wufa&muf cJ h w ,f ? ausmuf q nf n D v mcH r S m c±ki dw f i G ;f rS v,form;awG aomif;eJ@ csD+yD; wufa&mufyg0ifw,f? ABC

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23

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1948 ckEp S f rwfv 28 &uf/ jynfo@l 'r Du d k a&pDvufeufui dk a f wmfve Sf a&;}u;D [m ArmjynfEi dk i fa H &;v_y& fm S ;r_ orki d ;f xJrm S tav;eufq;Hk / tcrf;em; qk;H / t}uD;jrwfq;Hk / toufaoG;ac|; tpGe@f vw $ & f qk;H / awmfve Sa f &; v_y& fm S; r_xr Jm S vufeufui dk p f JG wku d y f0 JG if&wJh txd tjrifr h m;qk;H Eki di fa H &;v_y& f m S ;r_ }uD; jzpfygw,f? 'DawmfvSefa&;}uD; twGif; toufpGef@v$wfoGm;&wJh awmf v S e f a &;orm;aygif ; axmif aomif;csD &Sa d e+yD; usq;Hk oGm;olawG&@J t±kd;awGukdom pkvkdufr,fqkd&if awmifvkdykHrwwf &SdaerSmjzpfovkd olw@dk &@J pHerlemuswhJ pGe@f vw $ r f a _ wG

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26

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27

_ynf o l h t m%m

Auy eJh ausmif;om;or*¾
wuo/ Auo eJ@ wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk; (ocifygwD) wdk@txJrSm Auy oaE< w nf + yD ; 1939 ck r S m arG ; zG m ;vmwm jzpf y gw,f ?
Auy . ZmwdZmpfjrpf wuo/ Auo eJ@ wd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k (ocifygw) D wd@k txJrm S Auy oaE<wnf+yD; 1939 ckrm S arG;zGm;vmwm jzpfygw,f? Armjynfu acwfynmwwfawG[m 1917 ±k&Sm; atmufwdkbmawmfvSefa&;tajrmufoHudk 1920 rwdi kr f u D wnf;u =um;ygw,f? 1920 vGea f wmh Armjynfrm S tdE, dN uGejf rLepfygwe D @J w±kwu f e G jf rLepfygww D @kd &@J v_y& f m S ;r_rsm;uwqifv h nf; atmufwb kd mawmfve Sa f &;/ abmf&A DS pfygwD uGejf rLepfygwo D abmw&m;rsm;udk avhvm rSwo f m;&ygw,f? bdvyfjyefrsm;u ,lvmwJh rmhup fv f e D ifpwmvifw@kd &@J uGejf rLepfoabmw&m; pmtkyr f sm;udv k nf; avhvm&ygw,f? 'Dve kd @J (wuo/ Auo) ausmif;om;awG/ ocifygwx D u J ocifygw0 D ifawG[m rmhup f0 f g'avhvma&; tpkrsm;zG@J +yD; rmhup f0 f g'avhvm=uygw,f? pmtkyp f mwrf;a&;+yD; xkwa f 0=uw,f? 1936/ 1938 ausmif;om;oydwr f sm;eJ@ 1300 jynft h a&;awmfykH +y;D wJa h emufrm S awmh Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwD zG@J pnf;zdk@ tajctaeay;vmw,f? zG@J pnf;awmh obm0uspGmyJ avhvma&;tpk acgif;aqmifawG[m Auy &J@ acgi;f aqmifawG jzpfvm=uw,f? tpk0ifawGu ygw0 D ifawG jzpfvm=uw,f? vGwv f yfa&;wdu k y f0 JG ifumvu wd;k wufwhJ Edi ki fa H &;ausmif;om;rsm;[m wd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k (ocifygw) D 0ifp+rJy? J 'ga=umify h J Auy &J@ acgi;f aqmifa&m/ ygw0 D ifawGyg ocifb@JG co H a l wGcsn;f jzpfvm&wmyJ? ñuHóuufv@kd tjzpftysuu f av;wckukd ajymcsiw f ,f? KIO eJ@ Auy r[mrdwz f @JG we k ;f u jzpfwmyg? Auy u KIO udk vufeufawG ulnc Dw hJ ,f? vufeufray;cif KIA wyfz@JG awGukd jynfo@l 'r Du kd a&pDvy ki f ef;pOf oabmw&m; oifwef;ay;w,f? oifwef;q&mu ‘Auy ordi k ;f ’ ajymawmh ygwa D cgi;f aqmifawG tm;vH;k u ocifb@JG co H a l wGcsn;f jzpfaew,f? em;uavmvmvd@k xifyg&@J KIA Adv k w f a,mufu x+y;D aumw,f? ‘ocifa,±_wa,mufyJ =um;zl;w,f? ckawmh Auy rSm ocifawG rsm;vSygvm;’ vd@k ajymzl;w,f? 28

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1945 tvGef Auy &J@ a&aomufjrpf Auo acgi;f aqmifawGcsn;f yJ? 'gayrJh Auo udk &efbufv@kd yJ owfrw S =f u D vd@k yJ a&aomufjrpfu ‘Auo’ w,f? Auo udk Auy (,l§*s) ‘tvkyo f rm;or*~’ ‘awmifol v,f oHo,&S=d uw,f? orm; or*~’ pwmawG jzpfvmw,f? OD;Eku yg;pyfe@J yJ +cr d ;f ajcmuf ocifygwDu wZmwfodrf;oGm;+yD? w,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f u aoewfe@J +cdr;f azmufjyefom G ;+yD? ajcmufw,f? Adkvfcifarmifav;u tJ'Dwkef;u Auy vnf; awmh olu, kd w f i kd f aoewfazmuf+yD; Oya'wGi;f O/G ygwD jzpfovdk Auo/ +cd r f ; ajcmuf w ,f ? 'gu ‘Auo’ tvkyo f rm;v,form;or*~awGvnf; acgif;aqmifa[mif;awG&J@ &efvkyfyHk w&m;0ifawGcsn;f jzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh jzpfw,f? bmrS v#Kd @v#Kd @0u S 0 fu S f vkya f ep&m rvdk bl;? Auy &J@ uGez f &ifa h wG/ tpnf; 1962 tvGer f S tcktxd ta0;awGrm S Auo ausmif;om;awG wuf+rJ jzpfw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; b,fausmif;om;u uGejf rLepfyJ qdk ppf t m%mod r f ; tpd k ; & wmudk tm;vH;k u od=uwmyJ? Auy acwf r S m vnf ; Auo ud k Auy &J@ wif;usyw f hJ pnf;rsO;f udk rvdu k e f m (,l§*s) D vd@k yJ oHo,&Sw d ,f? olw@kd u Edi ka f wmhv@kd udo k ef;xGe;f (a'guw f m ‘Auo’ rSm wcgrS rvkyfzl;bl;? d ;l ? 'ga=umifh aoewf oef;xGe;f ) u ygwu D xGu+f y;D ausmif; oHa,mZOfr&Sb kH ubl; aoewfe@J ypf q&mvkyfw,f? EdkifiHjcm;ynmawmf eJ@ +cdr;f ajcmuf±r oif oGm;zd@k av#mufawmh ynmoif w,f? ypfwmuvnf; aoatmif d y f pfwm? tpkvu kd t f ðyHvu kd f ao a&G;cs,a f &;tzG@J u vlac:awG@w,f? cse tzG@J OuUÏOD;ausm+f ir d ;f u ol@ukd uGejf rL atmif ypfwmyJ? 'Dve kd @J Auo vnf; ajrv#Kd ; epf ,l§*sD vkya f ew,fv@kd oHo,jzpf +yD; ar;jref;ppfa=umcJhwmyJ? ar;yHk &+yD? ajrv#Kd ;&wm ESpf (50) eD;ae+yD? S vnf; ajrv#Kd ;ae&OD;rSmyJ? ajzyHu k kd ‘igajymcsio f r# igt h a=umif;’ a&S@rm rSm zwf&w,f? a&S@wac:ar#m=f unfh 1948 tvGeu f mv Auo eJ@ Auy &yfwnf Auy ygwD u awmxJ csufwlaevdk@ tjrifwl/ tawG;wl/ a&mufom G ;+yD? Auo u w&m;0if tvkyw f c l =hJ uw,f? a&S@wac: ar#mf tzGJ@tpnf;yJ? tm%mydkifawGu =unfh awmh ‘2008 tajccHOya'’ eJ@ ‘Auo’ udk r,Hkbl;? OD;Ekup+yD; ‘2010 a&G;aumufy’ JG udp[ P m bDv;l OD;ausmf+idrf;/ Adkvfcifarmifav;wdk@ pnf; - vlpnf; cGr J ,fh pnf;a=umif;vd@k uvnf; Auo udk &efbufvdk@yJ jrifygw,f? wjynfvHk;rSm t}uD; oabmxm;w,f? olw@kd u wcse du f tus,f uGjJ ym;r_}uD; jzpfr,f? +yD;&if

'D w cgrS m vnf ; Auy eJ@ Auo tjrif w l / tawG ; wl / tvkyfwl =uvdrfhr,fvdk@ ,H k = unf y gw,f ?

t}uD;tus,fjyefvnfpkpnf;r_}uD; jzpfr,fv@kd Auy u ajrmfjrifygw,f? b,foa l wG b,fvv kd y k =f urvJ rajym wwfyg? owif;awGawmh trsm;}uD; =um;ygw,f? ‘a&G;aumufyJG Oya'’ xGuv f m&if &Si;f vmygvr dr hf ,f? 'DwcgrSmvnf; Auy eJ@ Auo tjrifw/l tawG;wl/ tvkyw f l =uvd r f h r ,f v d k @ ,H k = unf y gw,f ? csw D uf&r,fc h &D; a0;ygw,f? tcuf tcJawG wif;usrf;jzpfaeygw,f? bmyJjzpfjzpf rdrw d @kd u oEMÏ d mef cdi kr f m pGmeJ@ csw D uf&if ausme f if;Edi kr f ,fv@kd ,H=k unfygw,f? 'g[m Auy &J@ ESpf (70) jynfh o0%fv$m jzpfygw,f? Auo u (73) ESpf yg? r=umrD (75) ESpf jynfhygr,f? ydkrdkaumif;rGefwJh awmufywJh tem*wfqo D @kd csw D uf =uygp@kd ? 29

_ynf o l h t m%m

Auy eJh vlrsdK;pktiftm;pkrsm;

(u) ordkif;udkzefwD;wm jynfolvlxkyJ jzpfw,f? 'g[m rmhufpf&J@ tckdif trmqHk; ordkif;tjrifyJ jzpfw,f? rmhufpf0g'DawG[m 'Dordkif;tjrif tay: enf;enf;rS oHo,r&Sdyg? uGejf rLepfygwa D wG[mvnf; 'Dordi k ;f tjrift& rdrdygwDudk }uH@cdkifatmif wnfaqmufygw,f? 'Dordkif;tjrif csdK@wJholawGudkvnf; ygwD0iftjzpf vufcHavh r&Sdyg? uGefjrLepfygwDudk ord k i f ; ±k y f 0 g'tjrif t &om wnf aqmuf&wm jzpfygw,f? uGejf rLepf ygw0 D ifawG[m ordi k ;f ±ky0 f g'udk vufcH ,H=k unfoa l wGom jzpf&ygw,f? vl@ordkif;rSm yk*~vduydkif qd k i f w J h p epf ay:vm+yD ; aemuf vlwef;pm;uGjJ ym;oGm;+y;D a&S;OD;bHp k epf òyuGJoGm;+yD;wJhaemufrSm ,Ofaus;r_ wpwp xG e f ; um;vmcJ h y gw,f ? 30

'ga=umifh vl@tzGJ@tpnf; jzpfay: wd;k yGm;vmwm[m vlwef;pm; wdu k y f JG eJ@om jzpfay:vmw,fv@kd rmhup f0 f g'D awGu em;vnfygw,f? 'Dt h jyif vl wef;pm;wdu k y fe JG @J yJ vl@tzG@J tpnf;rSm vlwef;pm;uGJjym;r_udk csKyf+idrf;ap+yD; vlwef;pm;rJh vl@avmu}uD;/ ,Of aus;r_ ydr k jkd rifr h m;wJh vl@avmu}u;D udk vlom;w&yfvHk; a&muf&SdoGm;vdrhf r,fv@kd rmhup f 0 f g'a D wGu ,H=k unfyg w,f? uGejf rLepfygwa D wG[m 'Dtjrif tay: tcdkiftrm&yfwnf+yD; rdrd ygwu D kd wnfaqmufygw,f? vl w ef ; pm;uG J j ym;aewJ h vl@tzG@J tpnf;rSm tkyp f ;dk olvw l ef;pm; 'grSr[kwf zdESdyfaoG;pkyftkyfcsKyfwJh vlwef;pm;eJ@ tzdESdyfcH aoG;pkyfcH tkyfpdk;cH vlwef;pm;qdk+yD; uGJjym;r_ &Sy d gw,f? zdEy dS c f /H aoG;pkyc f /H tkyp f ;kd cH vlwef;pm;awGtm;vH;k uda k wmh tzd

ESdyfcHjynfolvlxk}uD;vdk@ qdkygw,f? tzdEy dS c f jH ynfov l x l }k uD;xJrm S vlrsKd ; aygi;f pHk yg0ifygw,f? 'ga=umifh tzdEy dS f cHvr l sKd ;aygi;f pHk jynfov l x l }k u;D w&yfv;kH zdEy dS r ft _ aygi;f u vGwa f jrmufa&;[m Auy &J@ t"duwm0efwck jzpfygw,f? zdEy dS r ft _ aygi;f udk wcsw D nf; eJ@ wdu k z f suy f pfz@kd vH;k 0rjzpfEi kd y f gb;l ? wcsDrSm t"dutusqHk; &efoludkyJ a&G;+yD; OD;wnfwu kd & f ygr,f? OD;wnf &efolu ajymif;Edkifygw,f? t"du zdESdyfol[m t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ@ jzpfzl;yg w,f? *syefzufqpfvnf; jzpfzl;yg w,f? aemufvGwfvyfa&;&awmh tqufqufaom AsL±du k &uft&if;&Sif vlwef;pm; ud, k p f m;vS,t f pd;k &awG jzpfvmygw,f? (1948) u (1962) txd (14) ESpf twGif;rSm t"du &efolu zqyv qdk&S,fvpftpdk;& jzpfcJhw,f? zq - qdk&S,ftpdk;&udk

_ynf o l h t m%m
qef@usifwJh vlrsdK;pktiftm;pkawG tm;vHk;eJ@ pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;&zdk@ Auy u óu;pm;cJhygw,f? olwdk@&@J Edi ki fa H &;&nfre S ;f csue f @J Auy &J@ Edi ki fH a&;&nfre S ;f csuf rwlb;l qdw k mudk odyg w,f? 'gayrJh tJ'gukd t"durxm;bJ zqyv qd& k, S v f pftpd;k & qef@usia f &; twGuf b,fae&mrSm nD!w G E fi kd r f vJ qdkwmudkyJ &SmcJhygw,f? 'ga=umifh vnf; rEWav;bufukd csw D ufvmwJh KNDO wyfawG jrpfi,fww H m;udk rjzwfausmfEdkifbJ zqyv qdk&S,f vpfwyfawGe@J ol@r[mrdwf jynfo@l &Jabmfwyfz@JG &@J ckcr Hu _ kd cHae&vd@k wef@ aecse dr fm S Auy u jywfjywfom;om; ul n D c J h y gw,f ? 'ga=umif h v nf ; rEWav;udk odr;f Edi kc fw hJ myg? tus,f csKyfcHae&wJh u&ifppfonfawGudk olw@kd u,fxw k +f yD; rEWav;u qkwf oG m ;awmh v nf ; Auy u ul n D vkdufwmygyJ? olwdk@xlaxmifcsifwJh ‘aumfo;l avwdi k ;f jynf’ qdw k hJ oD;jcm; Edi ki fx H a l xmifa&;udk Auy u oabm rwlygb;l ? wdi k ;f jynfwpnf;wvH;k wnf; &Sa d &;/ vlrsKd ;wdi k ;f wef;wln! D w G a f &; udy k J Auy u vdv k m;ygw,f? aemuf v nf ; ‘r'w eJ @ Auy yefqef;aqG;aEG;yG’ J rSm olw@kd &@J EdkifiHa&;&yfwnfcsufudk Auy u oabmrwlayr,fh ppfa&;t& yl;l wG+J y;D rqv ppfAsL±du k &uftpd;k &udk OD;wnf wdkufEdkifzdk@ ppfa&;t&yl;aygif;Edkifzdk@ tpGrf;ukefóu;pm;cJhygw,f? olwdk@ uk, d p f m;vS,t f zG@J e@J oabmwlnc D suf &cJy h gw,f? toHvi $c hf y hJ gw,f? csuf csif;yJ KNU A[dku tJ'Doabm wlnDcsufudk wzufowf zsufodrf; cJw h ,f? oabmwlnc D sur fm S vufrw S f xdk;cJhwJh olwdk@udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@ udv k nf; ta&;,lygw,f? u|ea f wmf wd@k pdwr f aumif;jzpf±u kH vG+J yD; bmrS wH@k jyefa0zefwm/ wdu k c fu kd w f m rvkyf bJ aecJy h gw,f? (2) buf oabmwl pmcsKyfcsKyf+yD;&if wzufowfzsuf odr;f wm[m apmfum;wmyg? t"du &efol rqv tpdk;& 0rf;omr,fh tvk y f r d k @ u|ef a wmf w d k @ onf ; cH c J h ygw,f ? 1958 td r f a pmif h t pd k ; & acwfwkef;uvnf; Auy tðywf wdkufa&;twGuf Adkvfarmifarmif/ Adkvfatmif}uD;/ Adkvfatmifa&$wdk@eJ@ }uw d +f y;D KNU u em;vnfr, _ c lw hJ m od y gw,f ? aemuf a wmh v nf ; udu k ;kd u|e;f jyef u|ea f wmfw@kd &a J bmfawG jzpf w J h &J a bmf a tmif a 0/ &J a bmf ^m%f0if;/ &Jabmfwifarmif0if;eJ@ &J a bmf a tmif a bmf w d k @ ud k aoG ; at;at;eJ@ owfcJhw,f? Auy u }ud w f r S d w f o nf ; nnf ; cH c J h y gw,f ? (z'dr k ef;&SmeJ@awG@awmh 'Dup dt P wGuf Auy u }uw d r f Edi kc fr J & jzpf&a=umif;/ &efop l pfty k p f k 0rf;omr,fh tvkyr f @kd vl o d & S i f = um; rvk y f b J aewmyJ jzpfa=umif;udk ajymvdu k y f gw,f?) erl e mtjzpf y J KNU eJ @ quf q H a &;ud p P u d k tck x k w f a zmf ajymvdkufwm jzpfygw,f? wjcm; wjcm;aom vlrsKd ;pkrsm;eJ@ qufqa H &; rSmvnf; 'DvdkyJ jzpfcJhwmyg? &efol ppfty kp f k tóuufjzpfapr,fh udpa P wGr@kd }udwr f w dS o f nf;cHcy hJ gw,f? Auy u oD;jcm;EdkifiH xlaxmifa&;jzpfjzpf/ cG J x G u f a &;jzpf j zpf b,f [ mud k r S oabmrwlygb;l ? oabmrwla=umif; udkvnf; oufqdkif&mtzGJ@tpnf; acgif;aqmifrsm;udk yGifhyGifhvif;vif; ajymjyygw,f? 'gayrJh vlo& d i S =f um; atmf } uD ; [pf u s,f rvk y f c J h y gbl ; ? t"d u &ef o l t óuuf jzpf o G m ;rS m pd;k vd@k yg? &efo@l tóuuf vdu k v f y k & f if b,fov l y kv f y k f rSm;wmcsn;f ygy? J (c) uGejf rLepfygwa D wG[m tzd ESy d c fv H r l sKd ;aygi;f pHk jynfov l x l t k usKd ; pD;yGm;udk tajccH+yD; rdrdygwD&@J rl0g' vrf;pOfay:vpDawGudk csrSwf&wm jzpfygw,f? jynfolvlxk&J@ b0udk trSeu f efq;kH xif[yfEi kd w f hJ tcgrm S uGefjrLepfygwDawG&J@ rl0g'vrf;pOf ay:vpDawG[m rSeu f ef+yD; vufawG@ uswwfygw,f? vlxv k y _& f m S ;r_}uD;eJ@ wom;wnf; jzpfoGm;avh&Sdygw,f? vlxkwdkufyGJudkvnf; taumif;qHk; a&S@aqmifEi kd y f gw,f? jynfov l x l & k @J b0udk tvGv J t JG rSm;rSm; xif[yf&if ygwD&J@ rl0g'vrf;pOfay:vpDawG[m tvGJvGJtrSm;rSm;jzpf+yD; vlxkb0 wdu k y f e JG @J uif;uGmoGm;wwfygw,f? tJ't D cgrsKd ;rSm uGejf rLepfygwa D wG[m epfemqH;k ±H;_ r_e@J ñua H wG@&ovdk vlx}k u;D rSmvnf; xdcu kd e f pfemr_awG }uD;rm; wwfygw,f? 'ga=umifh uGefjrLepf ygwa D wG[m b,ftcse d /f b,fae&m/ b,ftajctaerSmrqdk vlxk}uD;eJ@ wom;wnf;jzpfaeatmif rjywfv;kH yef;&rSm jzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh &efolvlwef;pm;eJ@ &ifqdkif&mrSm wcgw&HrSm tiftm; tcsKd ;tpm;tay: rlwnf+yD; ,m,D ±H;_ edrr hf /_ aemufqw k & f r_/ epfemqH;k ±H;_ r_awGe@J ñuHawG@&wwfygw,f? &efol vlwef;pm;u rdrdtvpftidkufudk zrf;+yD; vufO;D r_,o l m G ;Edi kw f t hJ cgrsKd ; rSmvnf; ñua H wG@&avh &Sw d wfygw,f? tJ't D cgrsKd ;rSm rdr[ d m vlxe k @J wu,f uif;uGmoGm;&ifawmh wu,fq;kH ±H;_ r_ }u;D rm;rSmyg? tu,fI vlxe k @J ruif; uGm&if enf;emtrsKd ;rsKd ;udk vlxt k ul 31

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tnDeJ@ }uHqEdkif+yD; vufOD;r_jyef& atmif vkyE f i kd y f gw,f? vl@ordi k ;f rSm uGejf rLepfygwa D wG&@J v_y& f m S ;r_ordi k ;f rSm &efov l w l ef;pm;eJ@ tzdEy dS c f H vl wef;pm;awG&@J t=um; bwjyef usm; wjyefjzpfr_awG[m 'Dvdk ta=umif; tcsufawGa=umifh ay:ayguf&wmyJ jzpfygw,f? 1989 rSm Auy [m ta&; ed r f h r _ } uD ; eJ @ ñuH & ygw,f ? vl r sd K ;pk tiftm;pkawG cGx J u G =f uw,f? ‘Auy &J@ vlrsKd ;pkay:vpDrm S ;vd@k y’ J vd@k wcsKd @u pGyp fy JG gw,f? r[kwy f gb;l ? olw@kd cx JG u G f wm[m Auy A[d& k @J “ppftpd;k &/ ppf tkyp f /k ppftm%m&Sip f epf” qef@usif a&;udk oabmrwl=uvdk@yg? cGx J Guf +yD;+yD;csif; e0w eJ@ yl;aygif;oGm;=u wmyJ =unhfyg? e0w &J@ ‘vlrsdK;pk ay:vpD’ u ydkaumif;w,fxifvdk@ olw@kd yl;aygi;f oGm;=uwm r[kwy f gb;l ? ppfqufwu kd & f rSm ¡txl;ojzifh Edi ki fH wumhtultnD (w±kwjf ynfue G jf rLepf ygwD&J@ tultnD) r&bJ ppfquf wdu k & f rSm¢ udk pd;k &drv f @kd yJ jzpfygw,f? olwdk@eJ@ Auy [m 1967 rwdkifrD uqd k & if b,f v d k r S tquf t pyf r&Sc dy hJ gb;l ? jynfwi G ;f u vlrsKd ;pkawGe@J urS acwftqufqufrSm tquf tpyf&c dS w hJ myg? u&ife@J u&ifee D @J q& kd if *syefacwfuwnf;u qufpyfr_&SdcJh wmyJ? apmoef;wif (odi k ;f oef;wif) udk awmifir l m S t*Fvy d f CAS (B) u zrf;awmh Auy uyJ ol@vGwf ajrmufa&;twGuf vlxq k ENjyyGv J y k +f y;D vGwa f jrmufatmif vkya f y;cJw h myg? wjcm; ytd;k 0fawG/ &Sr;f awG/ "EkawG/ vD a &S m awG / yavmif a wG e J @ vnf ; tquftpyfu tapm}uD;uwnf; u &Sdygw,f? 0awG/ udk;uef@awG/ tcgawGe@J uawmh w±kwjf ynf uGejf rL epfygwD rdwq f ufay;rSyJ odchJ (quf pyfc) hJ &wmyg? olwdk@wawG cGJxGufawmh vnf; olw@kd [m Armppfty kp fe k @J =um =umaygif;vdk@r&bl;qdkwmudk wGuf =unf+h yD;om;yg? 'ga=umify h J olw@kd ukd &Jabmf (a[mif;) rdwa f qGrsm;vd@k yJ oabmxm;cJy h gw,f? t}uHay;p&m &S& d if ay;ygw,f? ay;wJt h }uu H kd vku d f vkyr f vkyu f awmh olw@kd oabmyg? 'ga=umifv h nf; óuuf&ifvy k /f róuuf &ify,fygv@kd ajym+yD; t}uHay;wmyJ? oifwef;uay;wJh Edi ki fa H &; tawG@tñuHxuf ud, k y f i kd v f ufawG@ tawG@tñuHu yd+k yD;tzd;k wefygw,f? olw@kd [m e0w Adv k c f if!e G @f e@J q& kd if odyf+yD;&if;ESD;ygw,f? Adkvfcif!Gef@udk tm;vnf;ud;k ygw,f? Adv k c f if!e G @f uvnf; ‘Auy udk enf;y&d,m,feJ@ atmifEdkifol }uD;’vd@k ol@u, kd o f l txifa&muf+yD; ajczsm;axmufygw,f? 'ga=umifh vnf; ‘Auy Armqdk&if b,folrS vufcHrxm;eJ@ armif;xkwfvdkuf’ ‘Auy [m uifqmuvmyfpnf;eJ@ wlw,f? enf;enf;uav;uae rsm;rsm; }uD; yGm;oGm;wwfw,f’ ‘uGejf rLepf wcgjzpfz;l &if woufv;kH uGejf rLepf jzpfwmyJ’ ‘tck&xm;wJh ppf&yfpa J &; oabmwl n D c suf u d k zsuf c J h & if b,f o l z suf z suf zsuf w J h o l u d k u|ea f wmfw@kd 0di k ;f +yD;wdu k =f uwmayg’ h qdw k p hJ um;awG wGiw f i Ga f jym+yD; odr;f oGi;f cJw h myJ? 'ga=umifv h nf; ‘tb Adv k c f if!e G @f ’ vd@k wcsKd @u ac:=uw,f? (aiGawG/ vlawG trsm;}uD; ðzef;wD;+yD; Auy &J@ ajrwvufr&zd@k vkyc f& hJ wJh ppfAdkvfawGu Adkvfcif!Gef@ajczsm; axmufwmudk rke;f =uw,f?) 'Dy, J if;t+y;D rSm Adv k c f if!e G @f ðywfom G ;awmh olw@kd (ppf&yftzG@J awG) wtm;i,f=uw,f? tckawmh BGF (e,fjcm;apmifhwyf) qdkwJh"m;rdk;wm cH a e&+yD ? Auy uawmh jynf o l w&yfv;k H ppfu|eb f 0u vGwa f jrmufa&; twGuq f & kd if b,ftcef;u yg&yg& ygrSmyg? ppftkyfpkudk qef@usifwm rSeo f r#ukd axmufcr Hm S yg? ppfty kp fu k kd yvl;yvJvy k w f mrSeo f r#ukd qef@usif rSmyg? (*) Armjynfue G jf rLepf ygw[ D m rmhufpf0g'udk avhvmwJh tpktzGJ@ uav;awGu Armjynfjynfov l x l & k @J e,fcs@J qef@usia f &; tHºk uwdu k y f 0 JG ifr_ jzpfwhJ 1300 jynft h a&;awmfy}kH uD;rSm yg0ifjzwfoef;vdu k +f y;D wJt h cgrS arG;zGm; oef@pifvmwm jzpfygw,f? Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDudk 1300 jynfhta&; awmf y H k } uD ; u arG ; xk w f v d k u f w m jzpf y gw,f ? Armjynf u G e f j rLepf ygw[ D m pwifay:ayguv f muwnf; u vlxw k u kd y fe JG @J b,fwe k ;f urS ruif;

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32

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uGmcJhyg? 1939 ckESpf =o*kwfv 15 &ufae@rSm v#dK@0SufpGm pwifzGJ@pnf; &ayr,fh 1300 jynfh vlxw k u kd y f e JG @J ruif;uGmcJy h g? zufqpf*syefukd awmf vSefzdk@ pnf;±Hk;pOfa&m/ zufqpf*syef awmfve S a f &; qifEp $J Ofrm S yg v#Kd @0u S f ajratmufygwb D 0eJ@ v_y& f m S ;cJp h Ofrm S vlxb k 0/ vlxw k u kd y fe JG @J ruif;uGmcJy h g? urBmhjynfolvlxk&J@ e,fcsJ@qef@usif a&;/ zufqpf*syefqef@usia f &;wku d y fe JG @J Armjynfov l x l & k @J e,fcs@J qef@usia f &;/ zufqpfqef@usia f &;wdu k y f u JG kd aygi;f qHkrdoGm;atmif óu;yrf;EdkifcJhw,f? 'Denf;eJ@ Armjynfue G jf rLepfygw[ D m Armjynfoa l wGukd aumif;pGmtvkyf tau|;ðy&if ; urB m h j ynf o l v l x k twGuf wa'giw hf ae&muae tvkyf tau|;ðycJy h gw,f? Auy [m vlrsKd ;a&;EGx H u J kd b,fwkef;urS tusrcHygbl;? ygwD rxlaxmifcifuwnf;u ukvm;Arm t"du±k%f;udk rjzpfoifhwJh udpPvdk@ oabmxm;cJy h gw,f? tJ'v D y kd J w±kwf Armt"du±k%f;udkvnf; qef@usif ygw,f? 'ga=umify h J ygwD pxlaxmif pOfu ygwDxJrSm b*FgvD&JabmfawG trsm;}uD; ygcJhygw,f? w±kwfArm ujym;awG trsm;}u;D ygcw hJ ,f? Auy u vlrsKd ;ADZeJ@ r=unfy h gb;l ? vlwef;pm; ADZeJ@ =unfhygw,f? ygwD&@J pnf;rsOf; yk'r f (1) rSmqdx k m;wmu aoG;rpkyfol Armjynf om; tvkyo f rm;/ v,f ,m tvkyo f rm;/ qif;&J aomv,form;/ tvwf wef;pm; atmufv $ m v,form;/ òr@ae qif;&J om;/ wjcm; awmfve S f aom yk*Kd~ vfrsm;/ vlrsKd ; ra&G ; usm;r ra&G ; /

rsd K ;±d k ; u aoG ; pk y f o l v l w ef ; pm;u &if v nf ; jzpf a e e&if oludk,fwdkifu orm;’ ‘awmf v S e f a &; &;orm;’ jzpfae&i f
touf 18 ESpf jynfo h l rSeo f r# udk ygwv D y ki f ef;pOfvrf;pOf vufc& H if/ ygwv D y ki f ef; wufwufºuºu aqmif &Gu& f if/ qH;k jzwfcsue f @J pnf;urf;vdu k f em&if / ygwD a =u;ay;&if ygwD 0 if jzpfEi kd w f ,fv@kd yJ owfrw S x f m;ygw,f? vlrsdK;udk tajcrcHygbl;? Armjynf om;vnf;jzpf/ aoG;pkyw f v hJ w l ef;pm; vnf; rjzpf&if w±kwf/ ukvm;/ t*Fvy d f b,fojl zpfjzpf vufcy H gw,f? vlrsdK;pkwdkif;u Armjynfom;awG csnf;yg? uGefjrLepfjzpfcsif&if jzpfEdkif ygw,f/ vlwef;pm;udk tao;pdwf azmfjyxm;wmuawmh wcsKd @u rdb rsdK;±dk;t& aoG;pkyfol jzpfaew,f qd& k ifow l @kd vnf; (0ifcsi& f if) 0ifEi kd z f @kd ‘tjcm;awmfvSefaomyk*~dKvfrsm;’ qdkwmudk wrifxnfhxm;ygw,f? rsKd ;±d;k u aoG;pkyo f v l w l ef;pm;u jzpfae &ifvnf; olu, kd w f i kd u f ‘awmfve Sa f &; orm;’ jzpfae&if 0ifEi kd z f @kd yg? ygwD pwifxlaxmifpOfu ygwD0ifjzpfcJholawG trsm;pk}uD;u "e&S i f a yguf p aomf v nf ; aumif ; / wdi k ;f &if;om;"e&Sif vlwef;pm;rdbu qif;oufvmwJh ynmwwfawGyJ jzpfwwfygw,f? ygwD x l a xmif p u ygwD A[du k kd ‘ygwu D vmyfpnf;’ wckvy kd J v_y& f m S ;cJ& h wmyJ? ‘A[d’ k rSmuvnf; ocifp;kd uvG& J if tm;vH;k u wuUov kd f ausmif;om; Edi ki fa H &;orm;awGcsn;f yJ? &Jabmf*& kd , S u f pnf;±H;k odr;f oGi;f &if b*F g vD y nmwwf jzpf a erS m yJ ? udkA[def;/ udkvSaz (Adkvfvusfm)/ udkatmifqef;wdk@u odrf;oGif;&if vnf ; tnmom;ausmif ; om;eJ @ ocifuyJ trsm;pk jzpfaerSmyg? 'g rqef;ygb;l ? ynmwwfjzpf&ifvnf; rdbuawmh wpHk w&m acsmifvnfol (aoG ; pk y f o l ) jzpf a ewwf y gw,f ? 'ga=umifh ‘ADZt"du’ wdrf;!ïwfr_ trSm; rjzpfatmif a&;xm;&w,f? ‘awmfve Sa f om yk*Kd~ v’ f qdw k m e,fcs@J qef@usio f /l ya'o&mZfqef@usio f /l AsL±du k &uf "e&Siq f ef@usio f l (wckck awmh) jzpfaerSmyg? (C) 1989 aemufydkif;rSm ygwD wGi;f rSm ±_ya f xG;+yD; qkw, f w k u f sqif; r_awGe@J vH;k axG;aeygw,f? urBmrSm vnf; ppfat;wdkufyGJumv +yD;qHk; oGm;um tar&duef[m Adv k w f Adv k f wnf; jzpfvmw,f? qdA k , D uf òyuGJ oGm;w,f? urBmu h e G jf rLepfvy _ & f m S ;r_ aemufqkwf&wJhumv jzpfay:vm ygw,f? 'Dvu kd mvrSmyJ Armjynfrm S 33

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8 av;vH;k vd@k ac:wJh vlxt k ºkH ur_}uD; ay:aygufvmw,f? 'Drdkua&pDa&; ta&;awmfyHk}uD;ygyJ? 'g[m 1300 jynfhta&;awmfyHk tESpf 50 jynfh ESpfeJ@vnf; wdkufqdkifaeygw,f? 'D ta&;awmfy}kH u;D rSm Armjynfue G jf rLepf ygw[ D m ud, k t hf wGi;f a=umif;eJ@u, kd f jzpfaewma=umifh wwyfwtm; yg0if Edi kc fa hJ yr,fh tajctae&J@ awmif;qdr k_ udk rjznfq h nf;Edi ka f wmhyg? 'ga=umifh 'D t a&;awmf y H k } uD ; &J @ atmif o D ; atmifyGifhawGudk qufvufwdk;csJ@ xdef;odrf;zdk@ vHk;yef;&wJhumvrSmyJ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m tajccH a'otm;vH k ; vuf e uf u d k i f w yf tm;vH;k qH;k ±H;_ cHvu kd & f ygawmhw,f? vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ A/S qif;ol trsm;pk}uD;u vlrsdK;pk vuf e uf u d k i f tif t m;pk a wG q D a&mufygw,f? tar&duefukd u,f wif&i Sv f @kd txifrm S ;=uwJh umv}u;D vnf; jzpfygw,f? ‘uGejf rLepf0g' ed*;kH csKyf+y’ D ‘ordi k ;f ed*;kH csKyf+y’ D pwJ[ h mawG acwfpm;ygw,f? Auy ‘usq;kH cef;’ a&;olawG/ ‘Armjynfta&; u|r;f usif ol’ awGu Auy &J@ ocsKõ if;rSww f i kd f pdkufay;ygw,f? Auy qef@usifa&; av±l;wdu k c fw hJ ,f? KNU u ‘awmf vSefa&; q&m}uD;’ jzpfvmygw,f? olO;D aqmifwhJ wyfaygi;f pkawG trsm; }u;D ay:w,f? (xm;ygawmh) tckawmh tJ ' gawG ord k i f ; jzpf o G m ;+yD ? ppf tm%m&Sip f epfqef@usia f &;rSm jzwf vrf; r&Sy d gb;l ? a&&Snr f ,f/ ZG& J & dS r,f/ oEMX d mefci kd r f m&r,fqw kd mudk ESpf (20) vufawG@u jyaeyg+yD? ‘vGwa f jrmuf a'o’ qdkwmuvnf; yxrawmh e,fpyfrm S aemuf wzufa&mufom G; w,f? tckawmh ydkIa0;&mqDodk@ a&mufom G ;+yD? 'Dawmh bmjzpfovJ? (wpf) ,H=k unfcsuf ysuw f ,f? (ESp) f tcsi;f csi;f w&m;cH&m S w,f? (oH;k ) ‘ta&; awmfyv kH n S ;f }uD;’ udk awG@u&mvlu wufarmif;zd@k vkyv f mw,f? vlrsKd ;pku Armudk r,H/k Armu vlrsKd ;pkukd r,Hk jzpfvmw,f? (av;) jynfwGif;u opPmazmufawGu 2008 tajccH Oya'udk vufcv H u kd z f @kd aqmf=ow,f? pdwf"mwfppfqifa&;u *sme,fpm apmifawG xkww f ,f? (ig;) Edi ki f jH cm; om; rke;f wD;a&;/ w±kwu f v k m; rke;f wD; a&; av±l ; awG wd k u f v mw,f ? (ajcmuf) cgawmfrD Edi ki fa H &;orm;awG ‘2010 a&G;aumufy’ JG ar#m=f uw,f? 'D v d k tajctaerS m tm;vH;k u awmfve Sa f &;tay:/ vlrsKd ;pHk jynf o l t ay: opP m &S d = ur,f v d k @ ar#mfvifhygw,f? pnf;vHk;nD!Gwf a&;udk t"duxm;/ aoG;uGa J &;udk z,f &Sm;=uzdk@ vdkygw,f? ppftm%m&Sif pepf qef@usifolwdkif;eJ@ vufwGJ=u zd@k [m tckacwf&@J t"duawmif;qdk csuf jzpfa=umif;yg? (i) ppfty k p f k Edi ki fa H &;tm%m&wm &mpk ESpfw0uf &SdcJhyg+yD? zqyv tcsif; csi;f udk &efwu kd a f y;wJe h nf;eJ@ tm%m ‘odr;f ’ cJ& h mup+yD; tcktxd olw@kd [m tcsi;f csi;f &efwu kd a f y;wJe h nf;eJ@yJ tm%mudk ‘xdef;’cJhwmjzpfa=umif; owdðyoify h gw,f? twdwu f zqyv tcsi;f csi;f / uGejf rLepftcsi;f csi;f udk &efwu kd f ay;cJ h w mud k rajymawmh y g? tck NLD tcsi; f csi;f / 88 rsKd ;quf tcsi;f csi;f &efwu kd a f y;aeygw,f? KNU udk (KNU cGx J u G ) f DKBA u vufeuf eJ@ wdkufaeyg+yD? r=umrDrSm BGF vufcHwJh ucsifu BGF pDrHcsuf vufrcHwhJ ucsiu f w kd u kd a f tmif &ef wdu k a f y;ygvr dr hf ,f? u&ifet D csi;f csi;f / u,ef;tcsif;csif;/ ytdk;0ftcsif;csif; rwdu k r f =d uapzd@k a&Smifoify h gw,f? aoG;cGa J y;wmudk vufcr Hw d hJ vlrsdK;pkwdkif; tcsif;csif;wdkuf=u& ygvd r f h r ,f ? tJ ' D a xmif a jcmuf x J rusa&muf a tmif rd w f a qG r sm; a&Smif&Sm;Edkifvdrfhr,fvdk@ Auy u ar#mv f ify h gw,f? Armtcsif ; csif ; / tajccH vlwef;pm;tcsif;csif; &efbufjzpf atmif vkyw f e hJ nf;uawmh ‘'Dy, J if; enf;’ jzpfygw,f? tckq& kd if ‘'Dy, J if; enf;’ u wjynfvHk;tESH@ jyef@oGm; cJhyg+yD? tckaemufqHk; aoG;cGJwJh enf;wcku BGF rzG@J csi& f if ‘jynfo@l ppf ’ zG J @ zd k @ ajymwJ h e nf ; jzpf w ,f ? rdwa f qGrsm;u jiif;y,fvu kd =f uwmudk od&vd@k cs;D usL;*k%ðf yygw,f? rdwfaqGrsm;taeeJ@ udk,fh twG i f ; yd k i f ; nD ! G w f a &;eJ @ vl r sd K ;pk tcsif ; csif ; nD ! G w f a &;ud k wnf aqmufEdkif=uvdrhfr,fvdk@ ar#mfvifh ygw,f?

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34

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(1) jy\emu }uD;ygw,f? ygw& D @J pnf;±H;k a&; (rl) jzpfwhJ 'Dru kd a&pDA[dc k sKyfui kd r f _ (DC) ysujf ym;oGm;+yD;csne hf @J aewm jzpfv@kd yg? 1989 wke;f u tjzpftysua f =umifh DC ysujf ym;wm jzpfygw,f? vlrsKd ;pkygw0 D ifawGu ‘uGejf rLepftvH’ atmufu ‘vlrsdK;pk trsdK;om;a&;0g'tvH’atmufudk jywfjywfom;om; ul;ajymif;oGm;=uwmom jzpfw,f? uGejf rLepfygwt D vHukd rvkygb;l ? tJ'v D kd acwfysut f ajctaerSm ygww D i G ;f u ArmvlrsKd ; ygw0 D ifwcsKd @u ‘uGejf rLepf tvH’ udu k i kd +f yD; wpifaxmifz@kd óu;pm;vm=uw,f? (DC) csne hf @J om G ;w,f? olw@kd u ygwA D [d& k @J acgi;f aqmifru _ kd oabmrawG@ jzpfae=uwm =umyg+yD? ‘cGx J u G a f &;awG’ ay:awmh csua f umif;&+yDq+kd yD; oD;jcm;ygwD (uGejf rLepfygw) D cGa J xmif=uw,f? 'gayrJh oufq;kd r&Sn=f ubl;? cGx J u G w f t hJ zG@J awGu olw@kd ukd vufc+H yD; aeEdi ka f yr,fh Adv k c f if!e G @f u uGejf rLepfq& kd if b,fo@l rS rxm;eJ@ armif;xkwy f pfvu kd z f @kd !ïe=f um;vd@k armif;xkwy f pfvu kd =f uw,f? 'Dve kd @J olw@kd wawG Zmwfacgi;f uG+J yD; vufeufcsom G ;=uw,f? ‘uGejf rLepf’ b0uae+yD; ‘vpfb&,f'r Du kd &uf’ b0udk ajymif;oGm;=uw,f? ae0if;a=umifh qd& k , S v f pftrnfcH ygwa D wGvnf; tm;vH;k uG,a f ysmufue ky f g+yD? uGejf rLepftvHxx l m;wm Auy yJ &Sy d gawmhw,f? (2) 'gayrJh (DC) udk ajAmifcsKd ;azmufom G ;olawG aysmufom G ;ayr,fh ygwx D r Jm S (DC) uawmh csne hf @J use& f pfygw,f? 'Dvkd jzpf&wmrSm ta=umif; (2) ck &Sw d ,fv@kd oH;k oyfygw,f? yxrta=umif;u ygwDudk A/S ygwu D U/G ygwDodk@ csufcsif;ul;ajymif;vdkuf&wm jzpfw,f? pdra f jyeajy tcse d, f +l y;D ul;ajymif;&wm r[kwb f ;l ? ygwA D [de k @J uif;uGm+y;D z±dz k &Jjzpfom G ;wJh ygw0 D ifawG wdi k ;f jynftES@H jyef@usu J se& f pfcw hJ ,f? olw@kd u A[da k cgi;f aqmifre _ @J tqufjywfom G ;=uw,f? A[du k kd vnf; t,Ht k =unfro hJ m G ;=uw,f? wcsKd @u u±k%ma'gaomeJ@ tjypfwif=uw,f? A[du k vnf; b,fob l ,fa&mufaew,f rodygb;l ? olw@kd u qufo, G v f mrSyJ odw,f? A[db k ,frm S &Sv d q J w kd mudk vnf; ygw0 D iftrsm;pku rodb;l ? Auy A[dr k &Sa d wmhb;l qdw k mudv k nf; jynfwi G ;f jynfyrSm a&;=u ajym=uw,f? jynfwi G ;f U/G (4828) uvnf; &efo@l vufukd tm;vH;k avmuf usue kw f ,f? 'gbmrS rqef;bl;? cGx J u G a f wG oHawmfO;D wifv@kd cif!e G @f u tm;vH;k avmuf odae+yD? vufeufcsom G ;wJh 35

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‘xd@k a=umifh Tod@k ’ tpk&@J tppfcc H sut f & tajccHa'ou ta=umif;vnf; cif!e G @f oa d e+yD? ygw0 D ifwcsKd @uy kd J A[du k pDrc H ef@cE JG i kd w f m jzpfom G ;w,f? 'kw, d ta=umif;u ArmjynfEi kd i fa H &;rSm vpfb&,f'r Du kd a&pDvi _d ;f vH;k }uD; ±du k c f wfvmwm jzpfw,f? ygwA D [du k kd t,Ht k =unfro hJ m G ;wJh ygw0 D ifawGu ‘vpfb&,f0g'’ usio hf ;kH vm=uw,f? &Jabmf armfpw D e k ;f u w±kwjf ynfue G jf rLepfygwx D r Jm S vpfb&,f0g'o¿mef (11) rsKd ;udk azmfjycJz h ;l w,f? (1937 rSma&;wJh vpfb&,f0g'qef@usi=f u) olu (11) rsKd ; tjyif wjcm;trsKd ;tpm;awGvnf; &Sa d o;ayr,fh t"duuawmh (11) rsKd ;yJv@kd qdw k ,f? u|ea f wmfw@kd ygwx D r Jm S ay:wJh vpfb&,f0g'eJ@ rwlb;l ? Auy xJu vpfb&,fu wrsKd ;wzHk jzpfw,f? (3) Auy xJu vpfb&,f0g'rSm t"dutm;jzifh o¿mef (2) rsKd ; &Sy d gw,f? wjcm;o¿mefawG&a dS yr,fh razmfjy awmhyg?ta&;w}uD; ajz&Si;f &r,fu h p d a P wG r[kwv f @kd yg? ta&;w}uD;ajz&Si;f rSjzpfr,fh (2) rsKd ;udy k J tckaqmif;yg;rSm wifjyygr,f? yxrtrsKd ;tpm;? 1990 eJ@ aemufyi kd ;f umvawGrm S ArmjynfEi kd i fa H &;twGuf }uD;us,w f hJ ta&;tcif;}uD;awG ay:ygw,f? wjynfv;kH vuQ%maqmifwjhJ y\emrsm; tqufrjywfay:ygw,f? tck 2009 ckEp St f xdvnf; ay:aeqJyg? aemif ‘2010 a&G;aumufy’ JG umveJ@ tJ'u D mvtvGer f m S vnf; tqufrjywfay:aeOD;rSmyg? tJ'v D kd wjynfv;kH vuQ%maqmifwhJ jy\em}u;D awGukd b,fva kd y:vpDe@J vky[ f efe@J Auy u csO;f uyf&rvJ qdw k mudk A[du k om qH;k jzwfEi kd y f gw,f? A[du k aqG;aEG;qH;k jzwfxw k jf yef&ygw,f? 'ga=umify h J tcse d r f D wygwv D ;kH udk od&a dS p&ef A[d& k @J tmabmfukd xkwjf yefEi kd w f hJ ‘ajyma&;qdc ki G& hf o dS w l OD;’ udk xm;&Sy d gw,f? tcse dr fv D nf; xkwjf yefaeygw,f? wcgw&Hrm S tus,w f 0ifh A[d& k @J oabmxm;udk wifjyzd@k v& kd if taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rª;&J@ tpD&ifcp H m xkwy f gw,f? wjynfv;kH vuQ%maqmifwhJ jy\emeJ@ ay:vpDukd wjcm;ygw0 D ifrsm;u xkwjf yefci Gr hf &Sy d gb;l ? 'gukd ygwD pnf;rsO;f rsm;&J@ yk'r f (24) rSm &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; azmfjyxm;ygw,f? 'Dru kd a&pDvnf;&Sd A[dc k sKyu f i kd r fv _ nf;&Sw d hJ vkye f nf;udk a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f? wygwv D ;kH avhvmoify h gw,f? 1989 umvysu}f uD;wke;f uawmh A[de k @J uif;uGmaewJh ygw0 D ifawG rsm;ygw,f? 'Dvjkd y\em}uD;awGukd vGwv f w G v f yfvyfyJ tmabmfxw k jf yefwmawG &Sy d gw,f? Edi ki fa H &;tajymif;tvJawGuvnf; odyjf refqefwmqda k wmh tmabmfukd tcse dr f D ay;Edi kz f @kd vdy k gw,f? 'ga=umifh vGwv f w G v f yfvyf ay;=uygw,f? A[dc k sKyfui kd r fr _ &Sb d J ay;=uawmh olwrsKd ;ud, k w f zHk jzpfue k y f gw,f? tJ'v D e kd @J ygw0 D ifawG[m rdru d , kd u f kd A[dðk y+yD; pOf;pm;awG;ac:wwf vkyu f i kd w f wf jzpfvm=uygw,f? 'g[m vpfb&,f0g' vky[ f efygy? J wcsKd @uqd& k if taxGaxGvy ki f ef;pOf vrf;pOfua kd wmif rdrw d OD;wnf; oabmeJ@ a&;om;jzef@a0wm &Sc dy hJ gw,f? A[de k @J uif;uGmaecse d r f m S vkyc fw hJ mawGjzpfv@kd cGiv hf w $ & f rSmygy? J 'gayrJh 'Dvy k [ f efu tusi}hf uD; jzpfvm+yD; qufvy ka f e=uwm &Sy d gw,f? 'gua kd wmh cGir hf v$wE fi kd a f wmhyg? ygwA D [du k kd wifjyEdi kw f v hJ rf;vnf; &Sw d ,f? 'gayrJh rwifjybJ wud, k a f wmf tmabmfvi $a hf ewm[m oabm±d;k r[kwy f gb;l ? DC udk wrifcsKd ;azmufaewmvd@k owfrw S & f rSmyg? 'Duo kd e d ;f az (jrif) h vkye f nf;udk cGiðhf yxm;&if wae@rm S ygwu D kd tEW&m,fay;vmygvr d r hf ,f? udo k e d ;f az (jrif) h [m ygww D i G ;f 'Dru kd a&pDukd tjynft h 0usio hf ;kH cGi& hf cJy h gw,f? rdrw d ud, k a f wmf oabmxm;eJ@vrf;pOfukd tjyifrm S xkwjf yefv@kd ta&;,lcc H& hJ wm jzpfw,f? uGv J w JG hJ oabmxm;eJ@ vrf;pOf&v dS @kd ta&;,lc& H wm r[kwy f gb;l ? ocifp;kd u ajAmifcx JG u G w f ,f? udo k e d ;f az (jrif) h u ajAmifcr JG xGub f J uGv J w JG hJ oabmxm;vrf;pOfukd tjyifo@kd wrifxw k jf yefwm jzpfygw,f? 'Dvy k e f nf;udk ygwu D onf;cHae&if ygwy D sur f m S yJ? tpktzG@J uav;awGukd pkpnf;+yD; (1939) wke;f u ygwa D xmifc& hJ wmyJ? touf}uD;rS tpktzG@J uav;awGay:&if ygwy D sur fm S yJ? 'kw, d trsKd ;tpm;? wud, k a f wmf vpfb&,f0g' vGwv f w G v f yfvyfusio hf ;kH Edi kz f @kd wrifwum ygwe D @J a&&Snu f if;uGm atmifaewm jzpfw,f? ygw0 D ifwOD;[m cdi kv f w kH hJ ta=umif;tcsur f &Sb d J ygwe D @J (6) vausmf uif;uGmae&if tvdk 36

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39

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‘ygww D i G ;f awmfve Sa f &;vrf;pOf’ jzpfonf? ygww D i G ;f Aef;pum; (jargon) u ‘ðzwfxw k o f wf’ jzpfonf? tJ'A D ef;pum;u opPmazmufawGe@J &efo& l @J 0g'jzef@ra _ =umifh wGiu f s,a f eonf? 'ga h =umifh wGiu f s,a f ewJh Aef;pum;udy k J ,lo;kH vdu k jf cif; jzpfonf? (pum;csy) f¢ ‘ðzwfxw k o f wfvrf;pOf’ ESiy hf wfouf+yD; xl;jcm;csu}f uD;rsm; &Sy d gw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh (u) ygwo D rdi k ;f rSm t&Sn=f umqH;k trSm;jzpfjcif; (1967 rS 1975 xd (8) ESpf =umonf?) (c) trSm;udk acgi;f aqmifpu k jrifcse d /f jyifcse d f r&vdu k b f J usq;kH ukejf cif;? (*) trSm;udk ygw& D @J xy d y f i kd ;f (PB) xJrm S yJ ed*;kH csKyfvy k E f i kd jf cif;/ wygwv D ;kH udk csrjyEdi fk jf cif;wd@k jzpfygw,f? tJ'x D ;l jcm;csu}f uD; (3) ck bma=umifjh zpf&ovJqw kd mudk tck (tus,) f wifjyygr,f? t&Sn=f umqH;k jzpfjcif;? ygwv D rf;pOftrSm;awG trsm;}u;D &Sz d ;l ygw,f? tJ't D rSm;awGukd csrw S c fw hJ hJ acgi;f aqmifrsm;uyJ tcse dw f t kd wGi;f jyifqifEi kd c fw hJ mcsn;f jzpfw,f? bmha=umifv h q J a kd wmh ygww D i G ;f 'Dru kd a&pD &Sa d evd@k / A[dc k sKyu f i kd r fu _ c kd sn;f tav;ray;vdk@ jzpfw,f? ‘zxo’ rSmusawmh ygwDwGif;'Drdkua&pD oif;owfcHae&w,f? A[dkcsKyfudkifr_vnf; zsuo f r d ;f cHae&w,f? A[dc k sKyfui kd r ft _ pm; *d% k ;f tpkawG&@J csKyfui kd r fu _ kd tpm;xd;k wmcHae&w,f? vrf;pOfu, kd w f i fkd u f *d% k ;f zG@J z@kd / tpkz@JG z@kd tm;ay;aewm jzpfv@kd ygy? J trS m ;&J @ a&cH a jrcH ? yxra&cHajrcH? š ygwA D [du k kd atmufajcu t,Ht k =unfra hJ ewm =um+yD? ‘2 ESpt f wGi;f ppfEi kd a f &;’ trSm;vky+f yD; uwnf;u ay:aewmyg? yxrawmh wdk;wdk;wdwfwdwfyJ eD;pyf&mrSm aqG;aEG;=uwmyJ? “'D acgi;f aqmifre _ @J awmh awmfve Sa f &;ratmifEi kd b f ;l ? w±kwjf ynfue G jf rLepfygwr Dm S armfpw D e k ;f ay:ovdk Auy rSmvnf; armfpw D e k ;f vdk acgi;f aqmifrsKd ;ay:rS atmifjrifrm S yJ” qdw k mudk }udw+f yD;aqG;aEG; =uw,f? ‘}uw d 0 fi kd ;f ’ awG trsm;}u;D ay:ygw,f? ‘ppfwrf;’ awGvnf; a&;=uw,f? vuf,mbuf wdr;f !ïwo f a l wGu “r ‘3’ vH;k ppfwrf;” vd/k ‘csr;f at;ppfwrf;’ vd[ k mrsKd ; a&;=uw,f? (‘r 3 vH;k ’ u *d% k ;f axmifw,f? ‘csr;f at;’ uawmh ol@taetxm;t& wud, k a f wmfy? J ‘*d% k ;f ’ rzG@J Ei kd y f gb;l ?) aemufq;kH awmh olw@kd tm;vH;k ‘vufeufcs’ =uw,f? š trsm;pkuawmh ‘armfpw D e k ;f ’ vdv k l &Sm=uw,f? rawG@ygb;l ? A[da k cgi;f aqmifpu k kd A[dk aumfrwDpn kH D tpnf;ta0;uyJ ðzwfcsEi kd w f myg? A[da k umfrwDukd uGe* f &ufuyJ topfvE J i kd f wmyg? uGe* f &ufu rac:wm =umcJ+h y? D A[da k umfrwDpn kH t D pnf;ta0;uvnf; rxdi kE fi kd w f m =um+y? D aemufawmh t,Ht k =unfr&St d qdu k A[da k umfrwDxt J xd a&mufvmw,f? 'kw, d a&cHajrcH? “1962 Zlvi kd f 7 &uf” +y;D awmh ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifawG awmcdv k mw,f? olw@kd u &efot l ay: odyjf ywfom;w,f? ygww D i G ;f tajctaeudv k nf; tm;r&bl;? 1963 rSm ae0if;eJ@ ‘aphpyfa&;’ udk ta=umif;ðy+yD; w±kwjf ynfu &JabmfawG jyefvmw,f? olw@kd Armjynfu xGuo f m G ;wke;f u tajctaersKd ; r[kwb f J tajctae edru hf saewmudk awG@w,f? olw@kd uvnf; tm;r&bl;? wwd,a&cHajrcH? 'guawmh w±kwjf ynfrm S ‘,Ofaus;r_awmfve S a f &;’ qdw k m}uD; jzpfw,f? armfpw D e k ;f udk A[dðk ywJh awmfve Sa f &; trnfcH *d% k ;f awG ay:w,f? 'D ‘a&cHajrcH’ u txufrm S ajymcJw h hJ a&cHajrcHawGukd ‘xGu& f yfvrf;’ jyvdu k o f vdk jzpfom G ;w,f? yDuif;a&'D,u kd vnf; ‘4’ OD;*d% k ;f &J@ tmabmfawG v$ia hf eawmh - toHvi $w hf mem;axmif+yD; *d% k ;f *%tpkpw d " f mwfawG wzGm;zGm;ay:wmyJ? 'Da&cHajrcH (3) cku aygi;f pnf;rdom G ;awmh ‘ygww D i G ;f awmfve S a f &;’ ay:wmyJ? (CPC) rSmu ‘,Ofaus;r_ awmfve S a f &;’ udk xde;f csKyfEi kd w f hJ ygwx D u J wjcm;tiftm;pkawG &Sw d ,f? (4) OD;*d% k ;f yJ&w dS m r[kwb f ;l ? (CPB) u|ea f wmfw@kd rm S uawmh xde;f csKyfEi kd w f hJ wjcm;tiftm;pk r&Sb d ;l ? Armjynf&@J x;l jcm;csuq f +kd yD; ‘owf’ wmawGtxd vufve Gu f e kw f ,f? [kww f ,fav? Armjynfrm S u ðzwfxm; xkwx f m;olukd e,fEi Sw f m/ tdrc f sKyfcswm/ axmifxw J nfw h m vkyE fi kd w f mrS r[kwb f ? J ‘owf’ ypfrS &wmyJ? tJ'v D e kd @J “Arm vsLa&Smufcs” D qdw k hJ (&Jabmf}u;D *d& k, S ) f wd@k ‘Armwde@f a&Smifyif’ qdw k hJ (&JabmfaX;) wd@k towfc& H wmyJ? w±kwjf ynfrm S u wde@f a&Smifyiftppfu jyefay:vm 46

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Edi kw f ,f? Armjynfrm S (emrnfay;cH&wJ) h wde@f a&Smifyifuawmh towfcv H u kd & f w,f? 'gvnf; xl;jcm;csuy f? J Armjynfrm S u t&Se do f wfay;Edi ko f l r&Sb d ;l ? cgwi kd ;f rSmawmh ocifoef;xGe;f yJrm S ;/ olyJ trSm;jyifEi kd c fw hJ myJ? tckawmh olu apmapmuyJ vky}f uHcv H u kd & f +yD; ocifZifw@kd / ocifcspw f @kd u trSm;udk ‘jrif’ OD;awmh ‘jyif’ zd@k rvG,a f wmhygb;l ? ‘yJcl;±dk;r[m atmifajr’ qdkwJhtpGJ? txufArmjynfrm S xk;d ppf}uD;udk a&Smif&if;wdr;f &if;eJ@ (A[d) k u rd;k ukwb f uf a&mufvmw,f? jynfo@l &a J bmfu vufeufcsom G ;vd@k a&mufvmwmyJ? rd;k ukwe f ,frm S &Sw d hJ ygw& D @J ajymufusm;wyfe@J vnf; tqufr&bl;? A[d[ k m wu,fu h kd ‘vdyy f ufvuf’ b0yJ? qufajy;&if w±kwjf ynfxJ ajy;zd@k y& Jw dS ,f? 'Dtcse dr fm S A[du k *k%a f &mifajymifwq hJ ;kH jzwfcsuf csvu kd w f ,f? yJc;l ±d;k rudk UG vrf;uaeqif;zd@k qH;k jzwfw,f? PB awG vlc+GJ yD; qif;w,f? wavmu *sme,fwckxr J m S 0rf;td0 k rf;ausm0 f if;armif&@J aqmif;yg; zwfvu kd & f w,f? &Jabmf}uD;*d& k , S u f kd rEWav;txd ac:xkwv f mwm olyv J @kd od&w,f? aus;Zl;wifygw,f? PB tm;vH;k yJc;l ±d;k rudk acsmacsmarmarm a&mufw,f? tJ'u D wnf;u yJc;l ±d;k rudp ke G @f &if qH;k ±H;_ w,f? yJc;l ±d;k r[m atmifajrqdw k t hJ pG}J uD; pGa J wmhwmyJ? tpGe J @J wif &yfae&if awmfao;w,f? ppfa&;vrf;pOftjzpfyg ocifoef;xGe;f u qH;k jzwfxm;cJa h wmh OuUX ocifZif/ ocifcspw f @kd jyifv@kd r&awmhb;l ? yJc;l ±d;k rudk cGmcJz h @kd ta&S@ajrmufe@J &Sr;f jynfe,fu b,fvy kd w J ifjyygap olw@kd rjyif0a hH wmhb;l ? 'Dppfa&;tjriftrSm;u use d p f moifo h vdk jzpfawmhwmyJ? 'Dve kd @J yJ (jrif) cse d f (jyif) cse dr f & jzpfom G ;vk@d ‘zxo trSm;’ u a&&Sno f m G ;wmyJ? rD;pmukeq f c D ef;jzpfrS tvdv k kd +ir d ;f oGm;&wmyJ? *Guswt hJ aetxm;? ocifAode;f wif/ ocifwifxe G ;f wd@k acgi;f aqmifwhJ ta&S@ajrmufa&m/ &Sr;f jynfe,fyg ðzwfxw k o f wf rSm;ae+yq D w kd mudk (CPC &J@ tultnDe@J ) odaewm =um+y? D ud, k t hf xufu (A[d) k udk ajymzd@k usawmh ody* fu G saew,f? A[d& k @J vrf;pOfrm S ;udk wdu k & f mrSm rwdu k w f wf&if ygwu D w JG wfygw,f? ('gvnf; CPC &J@ tultnD? olw@kd &@J tawG@tñuH t&ay;wJh t}uH^m%fy? J) ocifZif/ ocifcspw f @kd ukd a&mufatmifyJ vkyy f g? a&mufvm&ifvnf; cifAsm;wd@k u ‘zxo vrf;pOfta=umif;’ wcGe;f rS r[yge@J ? CPC u olw@kd ukd w±kwjf ynfxJ tvnfvm&if óuqdw k ,fqw kd mavmufyJ ajymjyyg? w±kwjf ynfxJ a&mufrS olw@kd u ‘azsmif;zsajymqdy k gr,f’ qdw k mtxd enf;vrf;ay;ygw,f? w±kwjf ynfrm S uvnf; ±_ya f xG;aewmyg? ‘,Ofaus;r_awmfve S a f &;’ uvnf; vkyq f y J g? qdA k , D ufuc kd m G +yD; tar&duefe@J &if=um;apha&;uvnf; vkyq f y J? J (4) OD; *d% k ;f uvnf; wefc;kd xGm;qJyg? ±_yy f gw,f? Edi ki fa H &;tuGua f wG rsm;ygw,f? u|ea f wmfw@kd rodEi kd w f hJ t±_ya f wGyg? OyrmwckyJ ay;ygr,f? 1971 rSm CPB u CPC udk o0%fvm $ ay;aeus xH;k pHtwdi k ;f ay;ygw,f? a&;aeustwdi k ;f yJ Armjynfu tajctaeudk a&;ygw,f? tar&duef&J@aemufvdkufacG; ae0if;ppftpdk;&qdkwm ygw,f? tJ'DawmhrS CPC u o0%fvm $ rSmygwhJ tar&duef&@J aemufvu kd a f cG; qdw k mudk tjzpfre Se f @J rudu k v f @kd jyifay;ygv@kd ajymygw,f? (tJ'w D e k ;f u xH;k pHu o0%fvm $ udk (2) bufu wòyifwnf; toHvi $w hf m/ rD', D mrSmwifwm vky& f vd@k rwwfombJ olw@kd u ajymvmwm jzpfygw,f?) Edi ki fa H &;t&ajym&if ae0if;ppfty kp f[ k m qdA k, D uf*% kd ;f udk rSc Da kd ewmyJ? b¾ma&;t&ajym&if *syefu tulnq D ;kH yJ? ppfa&;t&ajym&if tar&duef/ +Aw d e d /f tpPa&;vf pwmawGuyJ ulna D ewmyJqw kd mudk axmufjy ygw,f? tJ'u D wnf;u ‘e,fcs@J aygi;f pHu k kd rSc Da kd ewJh ae0if;ppfty k p f ’ k qdw k hJ toH;k tE_e;f udk ygwu D ajymif;oH;k wmyg? xm;ygawmh? ñuHv@kd a&;wmyg? ‘*Gusw’ hJ taetxm;[m tJ'u D wnf;u pygw,f? ‘zxo a=umif’ h *Guswm r[kwy f gb;l ? ppftpk;d &u CPB &J@ t"du&efojl zpfae+yD; CPC &J@ rdwa f qG jzpfaewm[m *Guswt hJ aetxm; jzpfapygw,f? ‘zxo ed*Hk;csKyf’ udk bma=umifh PB xJrSmyJ xm;&ovJ? zxo vkyw f mudk tm;ay;wJo h a l wG&@J *% kd ;f CPC xJrm S &Sw d ,f? olw@kd a=umify h J e,fpyfrm S tajccHa'oawG/ wyfawG azmfEi kd w f myJ? tckra S wmh rxl;ygb;l ? &efou l vnf; cGx J u G a f wGuwqifh odaewmrd@k ta&;r}uD;awmhygb;l ? [dw k e k ;f u 'gawGukd CPB u zGia hf jymvd@k rjzpfygb;l ? CPB [m nDtpfuy kd gwe D @J qufqa H &;udk v#Kd @0u S x f m;&ygw,f? 47

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ol@ta=umif;vnf; udk,frod Edkifyg bl;? odoavmufvnf; rajymoifh ygb;l ? wm0ef&& dS dS xde;f odr;f &ygw,f? w±kwf ‘,Ofaus;r_awmfve S f a&;’ u 1978 usr+S yD;w,fv@kd ajym&ygr,f? CPB &J@ PB u ‘zxo ed*; kH csKyf’ udk (1975) rSm vkyw f myg? 'g a=umifh PB u tJ'D ‘ed*;kH csKyfpmwrf;’ udk rjzef@ ygb;l ? xde;f odr;f xm;ygw,f? zH;k w0uf zdw0ufvnf; rvkyc f sib f ;l ? ud, k e f @J xdawG@cJh&wmawGuvnf; wydkif; wpyJ jzpfw,f? CPC rSmu *d% k ;f tpkawG trsKd ;rsKd ;&Sw d ,f? ud, k o f w d m av;eJ@ wwfa,mifum; 0ifajymvd@k rjzpfbl;? ‘zxo’ uvnf; olwdk@ qD u twk , l x m;wmqd k a wmh ‘w±kwf,Ofaus;r_ awmfvSefa&;’ ta=umif; rajymvd@k r+y;D bl;? 'ga=umifh rxkwjf yefbJ xm;wmyg? tck a wmh ,Of a us;r_ awmfvSefa&;qdkwmu twdwfjzpf oGm;+y? D 'ga=umifh ‘zxo’ u &vdu k f wJh oifcef;pmudk (vdo k avmuf) a&;Edi kf yg+yD? rwl&ifrwkeJ@qdkwJh yxroif c ef ; pm? wdi k ;f jynfwjynfe@J wjynf rajymeJ@ ud, k w hf i kd ;f jynfwjynfxr J m S yifjzpfap c|wp fw G f - xyfwl jzpfw,f qd k w m avmurS m r&S d E d k i f y gbl ; ? (1939) (1940) (1941) awGwe k ;f uvdk tjzpfrsdK; u|efawmfwdk@ ArmjynfrSm xyfrjzpfEi kd y f gb;l ? qifw, l ;kd rSm;awmh jzpfEi fkd y f gw,f? urBmhtajctaeuvnf; xyfrjzpfEdkifbl;? qifwl,dk;rSm;awmh jzpfEdkfifw,f? c|wfpGwf xyfwlawmh b,fawmhrS rjzpfEi kd b f ;l ? 48 wdkif;jynfwjynfeJ@wjynf ord k i f ; jzpf a y:r_ wl z d k @ qd k w m yd k + yD ; a0;w,f? ‘zxo’ &J @ (yxrqH k ; trSm;) u w±kwjf ynfe@J Armjynf wl ovdv k kd yHw k u l ;l cswmyJ? w±kwe f @J Arm rwlb;l qdw k mudk w±kwa f cgi;f aqmif }u;D awG odovdk u|ea f wmfw@kd e,fpyf u acgi;f aqmifawGuvnf; odaewm yJ? - w±kw, f Ofaus;r_ awmf vSea f &;u awmfve Sa f &;atmifjrif+yD; (17) ESpa f erS vkyw f mjzpfw,f? csef au&Sw d u f xdi k0 f rfajy;ae&+yD? tar &dum;u qdA k, D ufuy kd J t"duxm;ae &+y? D u|ea f wmfw@kd uawmh awmf vSea f &;u wtdtu d sqif;aewmyJ? ae0if;uvnf; rdi kt f enf;i,fya J 0;wJh &efukefrSm txdkifusaew,f? yJcl; ±dk;rqdkwmu &efol0dkif;0dkif;vnfae w,f? rdre d @J &efot l iftm;tcsKd ;tpm; u 1;1000 avmuf jzpfaew,f? ‘&efoluvnf; xdk;ppf rdrduvnf; xd;k ppf’ qdw k hJ ppfa&;vrf;pOfu urBm rSm b,fwe k ;f urS r&Sz d ;l wJh aoe*FAsL[m tjrifyJ? 'Drdkua&pDA[dkcsKyfudkifr_udk rzsufqD;eJ@qdkwJh 'k w d , oif c ef ; pm? uGejf rLepfygw& D @J pnf;±H;k a&; rl[m 'Dru kd a&pDA[dc k sKyfui kd r f _ (DC) jzpfw,f? 'Dru kd a&pDukd zsuo f r d ;f &if ygww D i G ;f b0udk zsuq f ;D wmyJ? *d% k ;f awG/ tkyfpkawG/ }udwf0dkif;awG rkcs ay:rSmyJ? “ygwD&J@zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk pnf;rsOf;” rSm ygwD0ifawG&J@ tcGifh ta&;awG azmfjyxm;w,f? (6) csuf &Sw d ,f? ygwu D csrw S w f hJ vkyi f ef;pOf/ vrf;pOf/ ay:vpD/ ajcvSr;f awGomru Edi ki fw H umh uGejf rLepfvy _& fm S ;r_e@J qi kd w f hJ jy\emrsm;rSmyg ygw0 D ifwi kd ;f yg0if aqG;aEG;Edi kc fi G hf ay;xm;w,f? trsm;pk &J@ qH;k jzwfcsuu f kd oabmrwl&ifvnf; rdrx d ifjrifcsua f wGukd xde;f odr;f xm;Edi kf w,f? rdry d g0ifwhJ ygwt D zG@J tpnf;rSm jzpfap/ txuftzG@J tpnf;od@k jzpfap wifjyEdi kc fi G& hf w dS ,f? A[d& k @J qH;k jzwfcsuf udk oabmrwl&if jynfv;kH u|wy f gwD uGe* f &uftxd wifjyEdi kc fi G& hf w dS ,f? ‘zxo’ u tJ'p D nf;±H;k a&; rlawGukd zsuq f ;D ypfwmyJ? ‘zxo’ umvrSm (A[d) k r&Sa d wmhb;l ? w±kw, f Ofaus;r_ awmfve Sf a&;rSmu (A[d) k udk zsuo f r d ;f rypfb;l ? zsufodrf;vdk@vnf; rjzpfbl;? olu w±kwjf ynf}u;D wckv;kH udk ud, k p f m;ðyae &wJh tpd;k & (tm%m&) ygwD jzpfw,f? &JabmfcsdKtifvdkif; OD;pD;wJh tpdk;& tzGJ@u tpdk;&wck&J@tvkyfudk yHkrSef vnfywfatmif vkya f ewm jzpfw,f? u|efawmfwdk@u olykefx ae&wke;f yJ? ygwA D [dr k &S& d if bmrSr&Sd awmhwmyJ jzpfr,f? ta&S@ajrmufrm S zxo rvkyfba J ewm[m wu,f awmh (A[d) k udk qef@usiw f myJ? wzuf uvnf; (A[dkppfppf) vkyfzdk@ wifjy aewmyJ? pifòyifA[dkaxmifcsif&if vG,fygw,f? udk,fhrSm wyf}uD;}uD; rm;rm; &Sdw,f? wnf+idrfwJhtajccH a'o}uD; &Sw d ,f? Edi ki fw H umhtquf toG,f &Sw d ,f? toHvi $± hf kH &Sw d ,f? pifòyifvy kc f si& f if vG,y f gw,f? 'gayrJh b,fvr kd S rvkyc fb hJ ;l ? OuUXocifZif&@J rde@f ce G ;f awGukd (wnf;jzwf+yD;) v$ia hf y; ygw,f? wnf;jzwfwm[m A[dc k sKyf udkifr_udk tjynfht0 emcHwmawmh r[kwfbl;? 'gayrJh rwnf;jzwfvdk@

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rjzpfb;l ? wygwv D ;kH ‘zxo’ vky=f u qdw k mrsKd ;uda k wmh wnf;&rSmyJ? jzwf& rSmyJ? 'g[m A[dc k sKyfui kd r f u _ kd wpdwf wydi k ;f csKd ;azmufwmvd@k qdE ki kd w f ,f? 'Dvdk csdK;azmufzdk@ vdkaevdk@ rwwf ombJ vky& f wmyJ? rD;pmukeq f c D ef; jzpf+yD; yJcl;±dk;rrSm (A[dk) r&SdawmhrS 1975 A[dkqdkwmudk azmfxkwfwm jzpfw,f? Auy tvHvv J @kd rjzpfb;l ? 'ga=umifh tvHxv l u kd w f myJ? 'kw, d uGe* f &uf (1945) u wifajr‡mufcw hJ hJ vufuseA f [da k umfrwDawGukd tajc cH+y;D wd;k cs@J vu kd w f m jzpfw,f? ygwo D pf axmifwm r[kwb f ;l ? 'kwd,uGef*&ufu 1945 rSm vkyc fw hJ mjzpfv@kd =umcJy h g+y? D wwd, uGe* f &ufukd ‘75 A[da k umfrwD’ u 1985 usrS vkyfEdkifw,f? ESpf (40) =umoG m ;w,f ? uG e f * &uf u d k jzpfuwwfqef;vkyfvdk@ rjzpfygbl;? ocifpdk;u 1944 ckESpfrSm tJ'Dvdk jzpfuwwfqef; “v,fwu J e G* f &uf” vkyc fv hJ @kd 1946 rSm tvHec Dr JG _ ay:cJh wmyJ? 'Doifcef;pmudk b,fawmhrm S rarhz@kd vdy k gw,f? txl;ojzifh U/G umvrSm t"duacgi;f aqmif vkya fe olu owd}uD;}uD;xm;&ygr,f? ygwD uGe* f &uf usi;f yEdi kw f hJ tajctae&Sd ae&if ygwA D [du k uGe* f &uf ac:ay;& rSm jzpfovdk jzpfuwwfqef; uGe* f &uf rsdK;udkvnf; rvkyfrdzdk@ owdxm;& ygr,f? 1985 rSm ‘45 A[da k umfrwD’ u rsm;rsm;pm;pm; usefawmhwm r[kwfbl;? toufquf±Hkuav;yJ usea f wmhwmyJ? ¡vufeufui kd w f u kd y f JG wdu k a f ewJy h gwt D zd@k uGe* f &ufukd yHr ke Sf usi;f yEdi kz f @kd qw kd m rjzpfEi kd y f g? 'Dvy kd J Edi ki fw H umrSm vkyc f =hJ uwm jzpfonf? 'DcsdK@,Gif;csufudk jyifwJhtaeeJ@ ‘75 A[da k umfrwD’ u ygwp D nf;rsO;f wGif yk'r f (33) udk jyXmef;cJw h m jzpfonf? yk'r f (33) u 'Dvkd qdo k nf? “uGe* f &uf ac:Ed k i f o nf h t ajctaevnf ; r&S d / ygwA D [da k umfrwDukd wd;k cs@J z@JG pnf;&ef tylwjyif; awmif;qda k eom ta&; w}u;D tajctaersKd ;wGif A[dk aumfrwD onf æ æ A[da k umfrwDw;kd cs@J z@JG pnf; jcif ; ud k ¹cif ; csuf t aejzif h ðyvk y f Edi ko f nf” vd@k a&;xm;onf? ,ckygwD u A[dp k nf;±H;k a&;aumfrwD COC udk zG J @ pnf ; xm;jcif ; [m xd k y k ' f r t& jzpfonf? pwkwu ˆ e G* f &uf usi;f yEdi kw f hJ tcse d t f xd COC u A[dw k m0efukd ,laerSm jzpfonf? (Tum; pum; csyf)¢ wwd , oif c ef ; pmu *dk%f;tkyfpkzGJ@wmudk b,fawmhrS tm;ray;eJ @ ? ygwA D [du k kd r,H=k unfawmh &if *d% k ;f tkyp f q k w kd m ay:p+rJyg? ygwD A[du k kd r,H=k unfawmhwmu ‘zxo’ ray:cifuwnf;uyg? (u) w±kwjf ynf rSm ,Ofaus;r_awmfve Sa f &;ay:wm (c) ae0if;u w±kwq f ef@usia f &;vky+f yD; rl}u;D (5) csuu f kd csKd ;azmufay;wm (*) w±kwjf ynfygwr D m S ‘4’ OD;*d% k ;f u tm%mwpdwfwydkif;&aewm tJ'g awG (rawmfwq) aygi;f pyfro d m G ;vd@k ta&S@ajrmuf NE ay:wmyJ? NE ay:vmvd@k vnf; ‘Auy &J@oufwrf; &Snw f myJ’? 'D (uGi;f quf) udk tod trSwr f ðy&if rSm;ygw,f? ¡'D (uGi;f quf) udk odae&if bma=umifh ‘Auy’ rSm cGx J u G a f wG ay:ovJ/ bmha=umifh w±kwu f e G jf rLepf tpdk;&u (e0w§etz) eJ@ &if;ESD; cspf=unfae&wmvJ qdkwmawG&J@ tajzu ay:vmrSmyg? (pum;csy) f¢ t"du oifcef;pm}uD; (3) &yfukd wifjy+yD;yg+yD? aemuf q H k ; wif j ycsif w m? ygwD & J @ ouf w rf ; (70) twG i f ; rS m trS e f a wG / trS m ;awG trsm;}uD;vkyz f ;l ygw,f? 'gayrJh *k%f ,l+y;D ajymEdi kw f mu trSm;awG b,fvkd yJ usL;vGeu f sL;vGef ‘&efolraysmuf ygbl ; ?’ ‘zxo’&J@ trSm;[m ao avmuf w J h t rS m ;yJ ? 'gayrJ h ol u ‘&efolaysmufoGm;wm’ r[kwfbl;? ‘jyefvnfjyifqifa&;0g'’ om;pOfajr; quf b,fawmhrS ray:apzdk@qdkwJh (vGr J m S ;wJ& h nfre S ;f csu) f eJ@ ud, k y hf gwD wGi;f rSm ‘&efo’ l &SmcJv h @kd jzpfw,f? jynfow l i G ;f yËdyuQ (ygww D i G ;f yËdyuQ) udk ‘&ef§ig yËdyuQ’ tjzpf jr‡iw hf if vdu k v f @kd rSm;wmyJ? wu,fu ‘ygww D i G ;f vrf; pOfwu kd y f’ JG udk ‘ygw& D @J pnf;rsO;f Oya'’ t& qifE$Jwmudk tm;ay;&rSmyg? ‘ygww D i G ;f rSm vrf;pOfwu kd y f’ JG u b,f awmhrqdk &Sa d erSmyJ? r&Se d @J q+kd y;D uGy! f y ‡f vdk@ rjzpfygbl;? ‘'Drdkua&pDA[dkcsKyf udkifr_’ abmifxJrSm vrf;pOfwdkufyGJ wdu k w f mudk tm;ay;&ygr,f? ‘ygwD wGi;f vrf;pOfwu kd y f’ JG udk 'Dru kd a&pD vnf;&S/d A[dc k sKyfui fkd r fv _ nf;&Sw d t hJ ajc taerSm wdu fk =f uzd@k tm;ay;&ygr,f? txl;ojzifh tiftm;}uD; EdkifiHawG urBmhpepfopf (NWO) vGey f q JG a JG ecse d r f m S jynfwi G ;f rSmvnf; NLD-SPDC vGey fq JG a JG ecse dr fm S owd xm;&r,fh xm0&oifcef;pmjzpfa=umif; wifjyygw,f?
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49

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“&efoludkrdwfaqGjzpfatmi tmiffvkyfa&;” eJ@ ywfoufwJh tawG;tac: (aqG;aEG;csuf)

(1) &efou l kd rdwa f qGjzpfatmifvy kw f hJ tawG@tñuHawG rdrw d @kd rm S vnf; &Sy d gw,f? jynfytawG@tñuHawGvnf; avhvmzl;ygw,f? awG@&& dS wmu rdrw d @kd &efyx JG uf yd+k yD;}uD;us,w f hJ +cdr;f ajcmufr}_ uD;/ tEW&m,f }uD;udk (2) bufpvH;k u jrif=urS/ todtrSwðf y=urS rdwa f qGjzpfatmifvy ka f &; atmifjrifwmyJ? 1938 - 39 u rdrw d @kd e@J t*Fvy d [ f m &efbufy? J 'gayrJh *syefzufqpf0g'&J@ +cdr;f ajcmufr}_ uD; tEW&m,f}u;D ay:vmawmh rdwa f qGjzpfa&;udk pwif+y;D óu;pm;cJw h myJ? t*Fvy db f ufu tifwifwifvy kc fa hJ yr,fh aemufq;kH usawmh rdwa f qGjzpfom G ;=uwmyJ? 'gu ud, k y fi kd t f awG@tñuH jzpfw,f? jynfytawG@tñuHukd avhvmawmhvnf; 'Dvy kd J awG@&wmyJ? ±k&m S ;eJ@t*Fvy d f &efbufjzpfaewm uae [pfwvmemZDw@kd &@J +cr d ;f ajcmufr}_ u;D ppftEW&m,f}u;D usa&mufvmawmh rdwa f qGjzpfom G ;=uwmyJ? tdre f ;D csi;f w±kwjf ynfua kd vhvmawmhvnf; 'Dvy kd J awG@&w,f? tckq& kd if w±kwjf ynfue G jf rLepfygwD (CPC) eJ@ ulrifwef (KMT) wausmjh yef+yD; rdwz f ufjzpfae=ujyef+yD? bma=umifv h ? J yd}k uD;wJ+h cdr;f ajcmufr}_ uD;udk (2) bufpvH;k u jrif=uvd@k y? J (2) bufpvH;k u jrif=urS/ todtrSwðf y=urSvnf; atmif jrifwmyJ? wzufwnf; jrifaevd@k uawmh bmrSjzpfrvmEdi kb f ;l ? (2) vufawG@ususpOf;pm;&r,f? e0w§etz u NLD udk “bH& k efo” l vd@k owfrw S x f m;w,f? xGuo f r# pme,fZif;rSm a&S@q;kH uae+y;D azmfjycdi k ;f xm;w,f? acsre _ ;f =u&r,fv@kd vnf; qdw k ,f? 'Dvo kd abmxm;&So d u l kd ‘rdwa f qG’ jzpfatmif b,fvr kd S rvkyE fi kd y f gb;l ? 'ga=umifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;+yD; &if=um;aph&atmifv@kd NLD u tmaygur f wwf ajymaewmyJ? SPDC Adv k o f ef;a&$w@kd uawmh tJ'v D kd rjrifb;l ? ‘2008 tajccHOya'’ &J@tm%m oufa&mufvm&if “acwfrz D @HG òz;wd;k wufwhJ Edi ki fa H wmfopf” jzpfvmr,fv@kd jrifaew,f? ‘jynfwi G ;f jynfy tzsuo f rm;awGukd bH& k efot l jzpf’ acsre _ ;f ypf&r,fv@kd aqmf=oaew,f? vufawG@vnf; vkya f ew,f? tckq& kd if tif;pdea f xmifxr J m S NLD acsre _ ;f a&; vkya f ew,f? rdwa f qGjzpfvmzd@k aeaeomom &efyu JG yd+k yD;}uD;vmr,fh tajctae &Sa d ew,f? (3) ol@bufu rjrif&ifvnf; jrifwb hJ ufu av#ma h y;vdu k v f @kd ajym&ifawmh tJ'g[m ‘rl’ rJw h hJ ausat;a&;yJ? opPmazmufry l J jzpfvr d r hf ,f? ‘rl’ ay:rSm }uH@}uH@ci kd /f enf;emrSmaysma h ysmif;zd@k yJ vdw k ,f? ‘rl’ rJw h hJ ausat;a&;vky& f if jynfou l vufrcHb;l ? '%fcwfvr dr hf ,f? OD;Ek ‘yxp’ tusemwmudk oifcef;pm ,l&r,f? OD;Ekvnf; ‘&efou l kd rdwa f qGz@GJ cw hJ myJ’ r[kwv f m;? 'Dt&ifuvnf; ‘apmpdea f rmf’ tusemcJw h ,f r[kwv f m;?

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ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD jzwfoef;cJw h hJ ESpf (70) twGi; fu xl;jcm;wJh ordi k ; f umvrsm;
1939 ckEp S f =o*kwv f 15 &ufae@rm S pwifwnfaxmifcw hJ hJ Armjynfue G jf rLepf ygw[ D m 2009 ckEp S r f m S ESpf 70 jynfc h +hJ yD jzpfygw,f? ygwD jzwfausmc fw hJ hJ ESpa f ygi;f (70) twGi;f &&Sc dw hJ hJ tawG@tñuHe@J oifcef;pmawG trsm;tjym;&Sy d gw,f? tkyp f ;kd olvw l ef;pm;tajymif;tvJ trsKd ;rsKd ;udk ñuHc& hJ ovdk awmfve S a f &;tajctae trsKd ;rsKd ;udv k nf; jzwfoef;cJ& h ygw,f? ñuHvm&wJh tajctaetrsKd ;rsKd ;rSm ygw[ D m wdi k ;f jynfe@J tzdEy dS c f jH ynfov l x l & k @J tusKd ;udk a&S@±+_ y;D taumif;qH;k pOf;pm;qH;k jzwfum &J&& J if& h if& h ifqi kd w f u kd y f0 JG ifcy hJ gw,f? 'Dvt kd awG@tñuH awGxu J 1948/ 1968/ 1989 ckEp S u f mvrsm;&J@ tjzpftysua f wG[m xl;jcm;xif&m S ;wJh ordi k ;f tauG@tcsKd ;rsm; jzpfcw hJ m awG@=u&rSm jzpfygw,f? 1948 -- 1939 rSm ajratmufygwt D jzpf pwifz@JG pnf;cJw h hJ ygw[ D m t*Fvy d f e,fcs@J qef@usia f &;/ *syefe,fcs@J qef@usia f &;rsm;rSm a&S@wef;u &J0p hH m G yg0ifcy hJ gw,f? zufqpf *syef awmfve S a f &;twGi;f rSm Edi ki fa H &;tiftm;pktoD;oD;eJ@twl wdu k y f 0 JG ifcw hJ hJ ygw[ D m *syefawmfve Sa f &; atmifjrif+y;D qH;k oGm;cse dw f i G f Oya'wGi;f rSm w&m;0ifay:xGuv f mcJy h gw,f? Oya'wGi;f jzwfoef;cJw h hJ tcse d u f mv twGi;f tvkyo f rm;/ v,form;/ òr@aeqif;&Jom;/ 0efxrf;aygi;f pHu k kd pnf;±H;k +yD; tajccHvw l ef;pm;rsm;&J@ tusKd ;pD;yGm;twGuf wdu k y f 0 JG ifEi kd c f hJ ygw,f? wdi k ;f jynfe@J tajccHvw l ef;pm;rsm;&J@ tusKd ;pD;yGm;twGuf jynfov l x l u k kd pnf;±H;k wdu k y f 0 JG ifvmwJh Oya'wGi;f umv (3) ESpf twGi;f rSm Armjynfue G jf rLepfygw& D @J vrf;pOfukd axmufcw H hJ vlxt k iftm; wpwp wd;k rsm;vmcJy h gw,f? 'Dvkd jynfov l x l a k xmufcr H _ wpwp wdk;rsm;vmwJh tajctaeudk zqyv tpdk;&u olwdk@twGuf tEW&m,fvdk@ =unfjh rifygw,f? Oya'wGi;f rSm twdu k t f cHòyifbuf ygwt D jzpf ae&mray;vdy k gb;l ? 'ga=umify hJ Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwu D kd tjywfacsre _ ;f zd@k vkya f qmifygw,f? 1948 rwfv 28 rSm wjynfv;kH u uGefjrLepfygwD0ifacgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;cJhygw,f? 'DumvrSm wyfrawmfxJu uGefjrLepfygwD0ift&m&SdwOD;&J@ owif;ay;r_t& ygwD&J@xdyfydkif; acgif;aqmiftrsm;pk a&Smifwr d ;f Edi kc fw hJ myg? a&Smifwr d ;f vGwa f jrmufvmwJh ygwx D y d y f i kd ;f acgi;f aqmifrsm;twGi;f aqG;aEG;yGðJ yvky+f y;D zqyv tpd;k &&J@ 'Dvkd t=urf;zuf acsre _ ;f wdu k c fu kd r fu _ kd wH@k jyefz@kd enf;vrf; &SmazGc=hJ uygw,f? 'g[m ygw& D @J Oya'wGi;f w&m;0if wnf&+dS yD; 'Dru kd a&pDenf;us vlxu k kd pnf;±H;k v_y& f m S ; wdu k y f0 JG ifru _ kd vH;k 0ydwy f ifacsre _ ;f vdu k w f m jzpfygw,f? ygw[ D m 'Dtwdi k ;f om iH@k cv H u kd & f if ygww D nf&r dS _ ysup f ;D oGm;rSmjzpf+y;D jynfov l x l k tusKd ;pD;yGm;udk qufvufO;D aqmif wdu k y f 0 JG ifay;r_vnf; &yfqi kd ;f oGm;awmhrm S jzpfygw,f? 'DtajctaersKd ; ta&mufrcHEi kd w f hJ ygwa D cgi;f aqmifp[ k m Oya'wGi;f &yfwnfwu kd y f 0 JG ifci G hf r&awmh&ifvnf; &wJe h nf;eJ@ ckcH qef@usifwdkufyGJ0if+yD; &yfwnfoGm;zdk@ qHk;jzwfcsuf cscJh=uygw,f? 'DvdktajctaersdK;rSm wdi k ;f jynfe@J jynfov l x l & k @J tusKd ;pD;yGm;twGuf qufvuf wdu k y f0 JG ifr,fq& kd if 'Dvrf;a=umif; uvG+J y;D wjcm;vrf; a&G;p&mr&Sy d g? 'g[m Armjynfue G jf rLepfygw& D @J *k%a f jymifwhJ vufeufui kd f awmfve Sa f &;udk ay:aygua f pcJw h m jzpfygw,f? rmhup fv f e D if0g'eJ@ armfpw D e k ;f tawG;tac:udk

52

_ynf o l h t m%m
udi kp f w JG hJ Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwu D Armjynf&@J tzdEy dS c fH tvkyo f rm;/ v,form;eJ@ jynfow l &yfv;kH &J@ tusKd ; pD;yGm;twGuf Oya'yrSm qufvuf &yfwnf+yD; vufeuf udi kc fc kp H pfyJG qifEc J$ w hJ m jzpfygw,f? ygwA D [d& k @J wjynfv;kH &Sd ygwDtzGJ@tpnf; toD;oD;udk &&mvufeufqGJudkif+yD; tkyp f ;dk ol zqyv tpd;k &udk qef@usif wdu k y f0 JG ifz@kd aqmf=o csufa=umifh ygwDtzGJ@tpnf;&Sd&m a'otoD;oD; rSm vufeufui kd w f u kd y fr JG sm; tus,t f jyef@ jzpfay:cJy h gw,f? Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwD ESpf (70) vH;k vH;k &Sio f ef&yfwnfEi kd c f hJ wm[m &efol&J@ zdESdyfr_udk iH@k rcHbJ jywfjywfom;om; qef@usiw f u kd y f0 JG if&w J hJ pdw" f mwf &Sc dv hJ @kd jzpfygw,f? 'g[m Oya'wGi;f ygwt D jzpfuae vufeufui kd f awmfve Sw f y hJ gwD tjzpf ajymif;vJom G ;cJ& h wJh ordi k ;f tauG@tcsKd ;wck jzpfyg w,f? 1968 -- 1948 u pcJhwJh vufeufudkif awmfve Sa f &; c&D;=urf;[m ESpf (20) twGi;f twuftus trsdK;rsdK;udk ñuHcJh&ygw,f? vufeufudkifwyftiftm;/ ygwD&J@ tajccHv_yf&Sm;Edkif&ma'o/ twdk;tavsmh/ twuftus trsdK;rsdK;udk &ifqdkif+yD; tqufrjywf qufvufwu kd y f 0 JG if&if; ausmv f m $ ;cJy h gw,f? 1967 rSm awmh Adv k a f e0if;ppfty kp f[ k m w±kwq f ef@usia f &; zefw;D cJh ygw,f? 'g&@J tusKd ;quftjzpf Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwu D kd w±kwu f e G jf rLepfygwu D Edi ki fw H umhtultnDawG AH;k ayg vatmay;cJ h w J h t ajctae ay:ayguf v mcJ h y gw,f ? Armjynfue G jf rLepfygw& D @J ordi k ;f wav#muf b,fwe k ;f urS r&Sc dz hJ ;l wJh vufeufc, J rf; t}uD;ti,frsKd ;pHu k kd &&Sc d +hJ yD; ordi k ;f wav#muf r&Sc dz hJ ;l wJh wyftiftm;/ tajccHa'oawG jzpfay:vmcJy h gw,f? t&ifu rodcz hJ ;l wJh vlrsKd ;pktiftm;pk awG[m Armjynfue G jf rLepfygw0 D ife@J wyfrawmfom;awG jzpfvmcJy h gw,f? ygwt D iftm;r&Sc dz hJ ;l wJh Armjynf&@J tpGef tzsm;a'oawGrSm }uD;rm;wJh wyftiftm;eJ@ tajccH a'oawG ESpt f csKd @twGi;f ay:xGuv f mcJy h gw,f? 'Da'o rsm;twGi;f jzpfay:cJw h hJ ppfa&;wdu k y fr JG sm;rSm &J0p hH e G @f pm;pGm wdu k c fu kd c fr hJ & _ @J &v'frsm; jzpfygw,f? &efo[ l m jynfwi G ;f ppf twGif; rñuHzl;wJh xdcdkufqHk;±H_;r_awG tajrmuftjrm; ñuHawG@cy hJ gw,f? 'Dumv jynfrrSm&Sc dw hJ hJ ygw& D @J tiftm;eJ@a'o rsm;&J@ tajctae[m tvGet f iftm;csne hf @J wJh tajc tae jzpfaeyg+yD? ðzwfxw k o f wf vrf;pOftrSm;a=umifh acgi;f aqmiftiftm; ,kwa f vsmc h +hJ yD; ygw& D @J tiftm;pk tm;vHk; EdkifiHa&;t&/ pnf;±Hk;a&;t&/ tiftm;t& ,kwa f vsma h ecse d f jzpfygw,f? 'DtajctaerSm &&Sv d mcJw h hJ Edi ki fw H umhtultnD[m ygwt D wGuf wefz;kd }uD;rm;vS ygw,f? 'DtcGia hf umif;udk qkyu f i kd +f yD; ygw[ D m vufeuf udi ka f wmfve Sa f &; t&Se du f kd jri ‡w hf ifEi kd c fy hJ gw,f? jynfwi G ;f u awmfve Sa f &;tiftm;pk toD;oD;udk wdu k ± fu kd e f @J o, G 0 fu kd f tultnDawG ay;EdkifcJhygw,f? vlrsdK;pkvufeufudkif tiftm;pk toD;oD;udv k nf; }u;D rm;wJh ±ky0 f wˆK tultnD awG ay;Edi kc fv hJ @kd vufeufui kd a f wmfve S a f &;t&Se d f jrifr h m; vmcJy h gw,f? 1968 tjzpftysu[ f m xl;jcm;wJt h ajctae a=umifh a&Smifwcif ay:ayguv f mcJw h m jzpfygw,f? tcGihf aumif; ñuHóuufcse d r f m S jynfwi G ;f awmfve S a f &; tiftm; rsm; csne hf @J ae+yD; vlxu k kd vufeufui kd a f wmfve S a f &;xJ yg0ifvmatmif pnf;±H;k Edi kr f _ rvHa k vmufcv hJ @kd atmifyJG &onftxd rcsw D ufEi kd c fa hJ yr,fh Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwD taeeJ@ 'DtcGifhaumif;udk taumif;qHk;aygif;pyf+yD; awmfve Sa f &;twGuf tusKd ;&Sa d tmif vkya f qmifcy hJ gw,f? 'g[m vufeufui kd a f wmfve Sa f &; tajctaeedra hf e&mu jrifr h m;vmcJw h hJ ordi k ;f tcsKd ;tauG@wckygy? J 1989 -- ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&J@ ordkif; wav#mufrSm rñuHzl;wJh tjzpftysufawG ay:ayguf vmcJw h E hJ p S w f ESpy f gy? J 1981 ckEp S r f m S Armjynfue G jf rLepf ygwD&J@ EdkifiHwumhtajctaeeJ@ jynfwGif;tajctae tay: oH;k oyftuJjzwfcsur f sm;t& Armjynfrm S jynfwi G ;f ppf&yfpa J &;/ jynfwi G ;f +idr;f csr;f a&; wnfaqmufz@kd vkyf aqmifoifw h ,fv@kd ,lqr_&c dS y hJ gw,f? 'Dajrmfjrifr& _ v'f tjzpf rqv eJ@ awG@qa kH qG;aEG;a&;vkyz f @kd jzpfvmcJy h gw,f? 'DaqG;aEG;yGJrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu Armjynf&J@ tusKd ;udk ar#mu f ;kd +yD; r+yD;pD;Edi kw f hJ jynfwi G ;f ppfukd &yfpJ Edi kz f @kd enf;vrf;rsm; wifjycJy h gw,f? 'Dwifjycsua f wGxr J m S ArmjynfrSm ‘ygwDpHkpepf’ usifhoHk;zdk@ wifjywm yg0if ygw,f? taumiftxnfray:cJy h gb;l ? +ir d ;f csr;f a&;aqG;aEG; yGu J kd Adv k a f e0if;u wzufowf&yfqi kd ;f ypfcy hJ gw,f? 'Dvkd aqG;aEG;yGJ ysuo f m G ;ayr,fh ygw[ D m “ygwp D p kH epf” ay: aygua f &;udk enf;y&d,m,fwcktjzpf qufvufusio hf ;kH cJh ygw,f? 'Denf;y&d,m,ft& jynfwi G ;f u Edi ki fa H &;tiftm; pk toD;oD;udv k nf; pnf;±H;k cJy h gw,f? 1987 ckEp S /f rwfv 28 &uf vufeufui kd a f wmfve Sa f &;ae@rm S rqv tpd;k &udk zsuo f r d ;f +yD; ,m,Dtpd;k &w&yfxa l xmif=uzd@k ygwA D [du k 53

_ynf o l h t m%m
a=unmcsuf xkwjf yefcy hJ gw,f? rqv &J@ (26) ESpf oufwrf;twGi;f bufpr kH atmifjrifra _ wGukd pdwu f e k +f yD; tajc taeopfukd ar#mv f ifa h ewJh jynfwi G ;f u Edi ki fa H &; tiftm;pka[mif;/ tiftm;pkopfrsm;eJ@ ygw[ D m vufwJG v_y& f m S; Edi kc fy hJ gw,f? 'Dvkd Edi ki fa H &;tiftm;pkrsm;&J@ tiftm;&S& d dS v_y& fm S ;r_&,f/ 16 ESpv f ;kH vH;k rqv vufatmufrm S zdEy dS c fa H e&wJh vlxk}uD; w&yfvHk;&J@ rauseyfr_aygif;pHka=umifh qef@usiftHkºuvdkr_&,f/ rqv wGif;rSm Adkvfae0if;&J@ vrf;pOfeJ@ acgi;f aqmifru _ kd pdwu f e kv f m=uwJh 0efxrf;aygi;f pHw k @kd &,f aygi;f qHr k +d y;D 1988 rSm vlxt k ºkH ur_}u;D ay:ayguv f mcJy h gw,f? ygw[ D m 'Dvy _& fm S ;r_}u;D twGi;f rSm 'Dumv&J@ enf;y&d,m,ft& ,m,Dtpd;k &w&yf ay:aygua f &;udk OD;wnfvy ka f qmif cJy h gw,f? 'DO;D wnfcsuu f kd taumif txnfrazmfEi kd r f D e0w ppfty kp f& k @J tm%modr;f r_ ay:ayguv f mcJw h ,f? 1988 vlxk tHºk ur_}uD;[m &nfre S ;f csuf ra&mufbJ qufvufwu kd y f0 JG if&zd@k jzpfvmcJy h gw,f? 1968 up+y;D Armjynfue G jf rLepfygw& D @J acgi;f aqmifra _ tmufrm S ygvm=uwJh ta&S@ajrmufppfa'ou vlrsKd ;pk vufeufui kd t f iftm;pk toD;oD;rSm awmfve S a f &;&Sn=f umr_a=umifh awmfve S a f &;tay:rSm +iD;aiG@pw d " f mwfusvm ae=uwm 1988 rwdi kr fu D wnf;u jzpfygw,f? Edi ki fw H umhtajctae tajymif;tvJrsm;t& w±kwjf ynfue G jf rLepf ygwu D ay;aewJh Edi ki fw H umhtultnDrsm; &yfqi kd ;f oGm;cJw h m[mvnf; pdw" f mwfusqif;r_twGuf ta=umif;tcsuf wck jzpfygw,f? Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwD taeeJ@Ei kd i fw H umhtultnD&rS awmfve Sa f &;vkyr f ,fqw kd hJ pOf;pm;r_rsKd ; r&Sc dz hJ ;l yg? ta=umif;tcsuw f ckca k =umif/h tajctaewckca k =umifh tultnD&vmcJ& h if,+l yD; tiftm;&S& d e dS @J qufvufwu kd y f JG 0ifom G ;rSm jzpfovdk tultnDr&awmhwhJ tajctaerSmvnf; &Sw d t hJ ajctaet& qufvufwu kd y f0 JG ifom G ;rSmom jzpfygw,f? uGejf rLepfygww D &yftaeeJ@ tiftm;csne hf @J om G ;vd@k tav#ma h y;tnHc ho H m G ;±d;k xH;k pH r&Sy d gb;l ? Armjynf jynfoa l wGb0 rvGwa f jrmufao;ygb;l ? rzG@H òz;rwd;k wufao;ygb;l ? ppfty kp fe k @J aqGrsKd ;om;csi;f rsm;eJ@ taygi;f ygrsm;om csr;f omºu,f0zG@H òz;wd;k wufaewm jzpfygw,f? Armjynfue G jf rLepfygwD taeeJ@ 1988 vlxt k ºkH ur_}u;D t+y;D rSm atmifyJG r&bJ qufwu kd z f @kd jyifqifaecse d r f m S yJ ygw& D @J ta&S@ajrmufppfa'ou tiftm;pktoD;oD;[m ygwa D cgi;f aqmifr_ atmufuae cGx J u G o f m G ;=u+y;D ppfty kp fe k @J aygi;f oGm;=uygw,f? 'Dvkd vufeufui kd t f iftm;pkrsm; qH;k ±H;_ oGm;wJh Armjynf uGejf rLepfygw[ D m ajratmufygwt D jzpf ajymif;vJ&yfwnf+y;D qufvufwu kd y f0 JG ifcy hJ gw,f? 'g[m 1989 rSm jzpfay:cJw h hJ vufeufui kd a f wmfve S a f &;qifEa J$ ewJh ygwt D jzpfrS ajratmufygwt D jzpfo@kd ajymif;vJc& hJ wJh ordi k ;f tcsKd ;tauG@wck jzpfygw,f? 'Dordi k ;f jzpf&yf 3 ckukd =unfv h u kd & f if Armjynfue G jf rLepfygw[ D m awmfve Sa f &;twGuf ta&;}u;D wJt h ajctae ñua H wG@vm&cse dr f sm;rSm wdi k ;f jynfe@J jynfov l x l & k @J tusKd ;udk OD;wnfaqmif&u G E fi kd r f ,fh awmfve Sa f &;vrf;a=umif;udo k m jywfjywfom;om; a&G;cs,a f v#mufvr S ;f cJw h mudk awG@&rSm jzpfygw,f? 'Dae@ 1989 +yD;aemuf ESpf (20) &Sv d mcJc h se d r f m S jynfwi G ;f &J@ Edi ki fa H &;wdu k y f [ JG m qufvufjyif;xefaeqJ jzpfygw,f? etz ppfty kp f[ k m rqv ppfty kp fv k y kd J tajrmftjrifenf;yg;vGe;f ygw,f? Adv k a f e0if;vdy k J ppfty kp ft k usKd ;udk =unfv h e G ;f ygw,f? 'Dae@acwf&@J Ei kd i fw H umhtajctaet&/ jynfwi G ;f tajctaet& jynfwi G ;f u Edi ki fa H &;tiftm;pk toD;oD;eJ@ 'Dru kd a&pDenf;vrf;usus aphpyfaqG;aEG;ajz&Si;f +yD; wwdi k ;f jynfv;kH +idr;f csr;f om,m zG@H òz;wd;k wufEi kd r f ,fh vrf;a=umif;udk av#mufv@kd &aeygvsue f @J rav#mufyg? jynfwi G ;f u Edi ki fa H &;tiftm;pktoD;oD;udk xdyw f u kd q f ef@usif xdef;csKyf+yD; emrnfcH±kyfao;tiftm;pkrsm;eJ@ ppftkyfpkeef;quf a&&SnfwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;udk tmrcHr,fh/ emrnfcH t&yfom;tpd;k &w&yf ay:aygua f &;udo k m acgi;f rmpGm qufvufvy ka f qmifaeygw,f? Armjynfue G jf rLepfygw[ D m 'Dae@umv&J@ tajctaet& wnf&v dS mr,fh tiftm;pkrsm;eJ@ vufw+JG y;D ppfty kp fk rif;quf w&m;0ifwnf&a dS &; jyXmef;xm;wJh zG@J pnf;tkyc f sKyy f kH tajccHOya'udk ysuo f nftxd qufvufwu kd y f0 JG ifom G ;rSm jzpfygw,f? ygw[ D m ESpf (70) ordi k ;f twGi;f ordi k ;f tcsKd ;tauG@rsKd ;pHr k m S &Sio f ef&yfwnf+yD; wdi k ;f jynfe@J tzdEy dS c fH jynfov l x l t k usKd ;twGuf &yfwnfwu kd y f 0 JG ifca hJ =umif; vufawG@tjzpftysur f sm;u azmfjycJ+h yD; jzpfygw,f? 2010 a&G;aumufyu JG mvrSm jzpfwnfvmr,fh tajctaersm;t& qufvufwu kd y f0 JG ifom G ;zd@k jyifqif+yD; jzpfygw,f?
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