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1. Levels of Organization of Organisms (1)

Anatomy & Physiology
basic framework Achmad Rizal BioSPIN

A. atoms (elements of periodic table) B. molecules (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acid) C. cells (epithelial, bone, muscle, nervous) D. tissues (epithelial, connective, muscular) E. organ (stomach, heart, brain, lung) F. organ system (muscular, skeletal, digestive, nervous) G. whole organism (each different species)
ARL-EL4703- Instrumentasi Biomedis 2

1.Levels of Organization of Organisms (2)

2. Anatomy - the study of the structures of an organism
A. Gross Anatomy - structures as seen by unaided eye B. Developmental Anatomy - study of the anatomy of the developing organism
1. Embryology - fertilization to third month of fetus

C. Histology ("tissues" "to study") - structures that can be seen with the microscope such as cells and tissues
1. Cytology - study of cell structure/function

D. Systemic Anatomy - study of individual organ system E. Regional Anatomy - study of structures in particular area F. Pathology ("disease" "to study") - study of changes in structure due to disease/injury
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3. Structure - Function Relationships
A. Anatomy - study of structure Physiology - study of function B. Structure determines Function Function determines Structure C. Charles Darwin - "Origin of the Species" (1858) - Changes in structure affect function: basis of evolution of all organisms
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4. Anatomical Terminology - The Language of Anatomy (1)
A.

Summary of Common prefixes and suffixes (other file) B. Anatomical Position 1. subject stands erect 2. upper limbs placed at sides with palms forward 3. feet flat on floor in natural forward direction C. Directional Terms (practice using them in the lab!) – SUPERIOR and INFERIOR describe vertical positions of structures. – ANTERIOR and POSTERIOR. Fore and aft positioning of structures are described with these two terms. – CRANIAL and CAUDAL – both may be used instead of anterior and posterior. – DORSAL and VENTRAL – also used in place of anterior and posterior. – PROXIMAL and DISTAL describe the proximity of a structure to its point of attachment on the body. – MEDIAL and LATERAL – are used to describe surface relationships respect to the median line of the body.
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Instrumentasi Biomedis 9 4.Instrumentasi Biomedis 8 4. oral cavity (mouth) b. abdominopelvic cavity i. synovial cavities (freely moveable joints) 5. Body Cavities 1. midsagittal .divides anterior & posterior 3.like balloon pushed in with fist) ii. mediastinum . Planes and Sections 1. Dorsal Body Cavity cranial cavity (brain) .vertebral cavity (spinal cord) 2. heart) b. Anatomical Terminology .Other Body Cavities a. nasal cavity (sinuses for air passage) c. rectum.The Language of Anatomy (4) 3.away from the midline 2. 4. sigmoid colon. muscle tissue.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation. Anatomical Terminology . parasagittal .Instrumentasi Biomedis 7 4.2005-2009 For Evaluation Only.stomach.The Language of Anatomy (3a) E.divide superior & inferior ARL-EL4703. frontal (coronal) .Instrumentasi Biomedis 12 2 . Anatomical Terminology . and so on) ARL-EL4703. small intestine ii.urinary bladder. horizontal (transverse) . abdominal .The Language of Anatomy (2b) sagital frontal horizontal ARL-EL4703. liver.right down the middle b. gallbladder.Instrumentasi Biomedis 10 4.divides into right and left parts a. Ventral Body Cavity (viscera . pleural cavity (space separating the parietal pleura and visceral pleura of lungs . Anatomical Terminology .The Language of Anatomy (2a) • D.Instrumentasi Biomedis 11 ARL-EL4703. cecum. Anatomical Terminology .The Language of Anatomy (3b) • Body Cavity ARL-EL4703. reproductive organs ARL-EL4703. SOCIETY OF CELLS (1) • Cell : simplest structural units into which a complex multi-cellular organism can be divided and still retain the functions characteristic of life • Cell differentiation : process of transforming an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell • Differentiated cells with similar properties aggregate to form tissue (nerve tissue. orbital cavities (eyes) d. spleen. sagittal .organs found here) a. middle ear cavities (in temporal bone) e. thoracic cavity i. pancreas. appendix.all contents of thoracic cavity except the lungs (eg. pelvic .

and absorption of organic nutrients. bladder. liver. ligament. and organic waste 17 Urinary ARL-EL4703. SOCIETY OF CELLS (4) • Types of cell based on their shape : (1)muscle cell – (skeletal). protection. salivary glands. ureter. ORGAN SYSTEM OF THE BODY (2) System Digestive Major organ/tissue Mouth.Instrumentasi Biomedis 15 ARL-EL4703.Instrumentasi Biomedis 18 Primary function Digestion. blood (some classification also include lymphatic vessel and lymph in this system) Nose. pharynx. lungs. kidneys. pancreas. four categories emerge : (1)muscle cell (2)nerve cell (3)epithelial cell (4)connective-tissue cell ARL-EL4703. tendons. salts.Instrumentasi Biomedis 14 5. SOCIETY OF CELLS (2) • Combination of some tissue’s type form organ (the heart. foreign invaders. (2)smooth cell (3) cardiac cell • Tissue : 1)muscle tissue (2)nerve tissue (3)epithelial tissue (4)connective-tissue • Organs are composed of the four kinds of tissues arranged in various proportion & pattern • Organ system : collection of organ that together perform overall function System 6.2005-2009 For Evaluation Only. gallbladder Kidney. 5. blood vessel. often over long distance • Epithelial cell : specialized or selective secretion and absorption of ions and organic molecule • Connective-tissue cell: connecting. and supporting the structure of body ARL-EL4703.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation. intestines. thymus. stomach. throughout the body’s tissue Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen: regulation of hydrogen ion concentration 16 Circulatory Respiratory ARL-EL4703. SOCIETY OF CELLS (3) • Muscle cell : specialized to generate the mechanical force that produce force and movement • Nerve cell : specialized to initiate and conduct electric signals. lung Primary function Transport of blood. water. ORGAN SYSTEM OF THE BODY (3) System Major organ/tissue Primary function Musculoskelet Cartilage.Instrumentasi Biomedis 6. larynx. and water Regulation of plasma through controlled excretion of salt. spleen.Instrumentasi Biomedis 3 . urethra 6. ORGAN SYSTEM OF THE BODY (1) Major organ/tissue Heart. bronchi. skeletal muscle Immune Support. and movement of the body. and so on) • Some organs are linked together to form organ systems. bone. production of blood cell White blood cell. al joint. formation of blood cell ARL-EL4703. Defense against lymph vessel and node. anchoring. pharynx. • Cells are classified according broad types of function they perform. esophagus. and return of extra other lymphoid tissue cellular fluid to blood.Instrumentasi Biomedis 13 5. trachea.

2005-2009 For Evaluation Only. pancreas. provision of nutritive environment for the developing embryo & fetus. 6. special sense organ Regulation and coordination of many activities in the body. hypothalamus. testes. ovaries. parathyroid. cognition Protection again injury & dehydration. nutrition of the infant Regulation & coordination many activities in the body Endocrine Integumentary Skin All gland secreting hormones. contraction to push baby through birth canal – Blood clotting – increase in number of ARL-EL4703.Instrumentasi Biomedis 20 7. penis and associated duct and gland Female : ovaries. Transfer of sperm to female Female : production of eggs. pituitary. kidney.Instrumentasi Biomedis ARL-EL4703. defense again foreign invaders.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation.Instrumentasi Biomedis 22 9. THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT & HOMEOSTATIS • Internal environment : environment surrounding the cell extracellular fluid • Homeostatis : concept that the composition of the internal environment is maintained relatively constant • Homeostatic control system : collection of body component that functions to maintain a physical or chemical property of internal environment relatively constant ARL-EL4703. learning. uterus. detection of change in the internal & external environment.Instrumentasi Biomedis 23 maintain homeostasis within a range 10. regulation of temperature 19 6. peripheral nerves and ganglia.impulses – Endocrine system • Hormones transported in blood to target cells • Receptor – Monitors the environment – Detects changes • Stimuli – changes in the environment ARL-EL4703. adrenal intestinal. effector muscles of uterus. ORGAN SYSTEM OF THE BODY (4) System Nervous Major organ/tissue Primary function Brain. ORGAN SYSTEM OF THE BODY (5) System Reproductiv e Major organ/tissue Male : testes. heart.Instrumentasi Biomedis platelets sticking to the broken blood vessel 24 4 . state of consciousness.Instrumentasi Biomedis 21 8. vagina. thymus. thyroid. pineal ARL-EL4703. spinal cord. uterine tubes. Positive Feedback Mechanisms • The response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus • Positive means that the change occurs in the direction of the original stimulus • Rarely used to promote homeostasis • Examples – Childbirth – pressure receptors. mammary glands Primary function Male : production of sperm. Negative Feedback Mechanisms • Opposes (limits the intensity) or eliminates the original stimulus • Negative means that the variable changes in a direction opposite to the initial change • Negative feedback maintains body functions within a range • Most homeostatic mechanisms in the body involved negative feedback • Mechanisms ignore minor variations but ARL-EL4703. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms • Nervous and Endocrine system – Nervous system • Electrical signals .

Instrumentasi Biomedis 26 ARL-EL4703. BODY-FLUID COMPARTEMENT (2) • Control Center – – – – Integration center Determines the set point within the range Analyzes the information Determines the response 12. not X-rays .employs X-ray technology to create clearer image .presence of cancer cells. C. gallstones. Homeostatic Imbalance • Homeostatic imbalance – Sick – Disease Exp : hypothermia. Computed Tomography (CT) or Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) Scanning .used chiefly on soft tissues such as brain & heart E. BODY-FLUID COMPARTEMENT (1) • Body fluid are enclosed in compartment • The extracellular fluid is composed of blood plasma (higher protein. Ultrasound (US) . volume are for normal 70 kg man • Effector – Provides the response • Muscles contract or relax • Glands secrete or stop secreting ARL-EL4703. 20%) and interstitial fluid (fluid between cell 80%) • The composition of compartments reflect the activities of barriers separating intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid 25 ARL-EL4703.uses high frequency sound waves .measures physiology of heart.Instrumentasi Biomedis 12.Instrumentasi Biomedis 28 13. spinal cord disorders. Medical Imaging Techniques (1) A. lungs.uses magnetic properties of molecules. blood flow problems. chemical disease of brain. tissue damage ARL-EL4703.Instrumentasi Biomedis 29 13.gall stones.employs X-ray technology to see organ action/motion .Instrumentasi Biomedis 27 ARL-EL4703.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation. aneurysms. pelvic organs. measure effects of drugs on tissues . fetal development ARL-EL4703. 11. Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction (DSR) .Instrumentasi Biomedis 30 5 . BODY-FLUID COMPARTEMENT (3) Fluid compartement of body. fever 12. blood flow. injury after stroke. etc. Classic X-ray : radiography (radiograph) . Medical Imaging Techniques (2) D. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) . can indicate abnormality/deformity in structure.2005-2009 For Evaluation Only. kidney stones.good for dense structures (bones and tumors) B. vessels.tumors.

cancer cells . 13. Medical Imaging Techniques (3) F. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) .uses radioisotopes such as Carbon-11.used to study vessels of the brain and heart to help prevent strokes and heart attacks ARL-EL4703. site of molecules.effects of drugs.Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation. Nitrogen-13 .Instrumentasi Biomedis 31 6 . Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) .takes X-ray picture before and after administration of contrast substance to the vessels .2005-2009 For Evaluation Only.very good at studying glucose absorption by neurons in the brain during certain tasks G.