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Introduction to Project Management

Unit 3

Unit 3

Project Manager – Roles and Responsibilities

Structure 3.1 Introduction Objectives 3.2 Roles and Responsibilities of a Project Manager Roles of a Project Manager Responsibilities of a Project Manager 3.3 Other roles of Project Manager 3.4 Process Responsibilities 3.5 People Responsibilities 3.6 Difference between Duty and Responsibilities 3.7 Balancing of Project 3.8 Summary 3.9 Terminal Questions 3.10 Answers 3.11 Case study 3.12 Glossary

3.1 Introduction
Project manager is the person who is responsible for on-time, on-budget delivery of a project. The project manager is liable for the quality of the finished product to be delivered to the client. He is responsible for the management and coaching of all other team members and serves as a single point of contact between different team members and, for an outsourced project, the vendor. The project manager guides the approval process which includes getting feedback after evaluation, implementing revisions and also drafting progress reports. The prerequisites to become an effective project manager are good organisation skills, time management and also capacity to juggle multiple tasks. The other positive attributes are:    Multiple backgrounds experience. Basic understanding of technical, design and media issues. Mastery of financial fundamentals.
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the time. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. then the project manager is held responsible for it. It is used in project management to give a graphical illustration of a schedule which came be used to plan. an agent of the owner and assumes the role of the owner where the owner lacks the technical and organisational skills for the task.  Elucidate the general functions of a project manager. coordinate. productivity and communication tools which includes Gantt charts1.  Identify the various duties and responsibilities of a project manager. thus. Project manager is.2 Roles and Responsibilities of a Project Manager Project Management is often the state and responsibility of an individual project manager. The project manager is responsible for ensuring the success of the project. spreadsheets and conferencing technologies. which will be based on the knowledge of the firm the project manager is representing. The project manager is responsible to adjust different internal procedures of the contracting party and also form a close association with the selected representatives which is necessary in ensuring that the main issues of the cost. and restricts the costs. you will be able to:  Clearly define the characteristics of a project manager.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3  Proficient usage of scheduling. This individual rarely takes part directly in the activities that can produce the end result. Gantt as a production control tool. A project manager is usually the project organisation’s representative for the client and will have to determine and implement the accurate needs of the client. 1 It is a horizontal bar chart which was developed in 1917 by Henry L. Learning Objectives After studying this unit. 3. maximises the benefits. If the project begins and if any of the team members is not clear on the scope of the project or if the project activities are not executed as scheduled. the quality and the client satisfaction be realised. but strives to maintain the progress and the mutual interaction and the tasks of different parties in such a way that it minimises the risks.: 45 . and track the specific tasks in a project. The project manager’s responsibility begins by defining the project and scheduling the project.

if there are any issues left unidentified in the project. The roles and responsibilities of the project manager are quite simple and straightforward. the time frames and the project goals. where it has to be made sure that the project sponsors and the team members are clear on the boundaries and expectations. However.2. This includes paying constant attention to communication. time and the customer. balancing and delivery the project. time and budget for the project.: 46 . Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The project manager must therefore have a full understanding of what each stakeholder needs. the project manager should be able to establish and maintain a balance between quality. and the project manager has to co-ordinate with all the people to get desired overall result. and provide training to them as and when required. relationships and understanding the customer and business needs. who is responsible for the successful delivery of the project. responsibilities. scope. The project experience shows that the customer should be a prime focus area for a successful projects completion. Secondly. documenting the project details like the tasks. Including the customer in all aspects of the project will definitely help towards project success. cost. This involves meeting stakeholder expectations. Project manager’s roles and responsibilities include the comprehension and implementation of organisational project policies and procedures. He has an entire team to support him for the tasks.1 Roles of a Project Manager Leading a project is like leading a department where there are people with different backgrounds and skills. Firstly.e. The project manager should have the skills required to make the project go smoothly. It also includes defining and adopting a specific project management procedure which can be used to manage the project.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 The work around defining the project involves understanding and agreeing on the overall objectives. They are also required to maintain project staff’s technical proficiency and productivity. Therefore a project manager has two very clear responsibilities i. 3. This does not mean all the tasks are to be accomplished by the project manager himself. the entire blame falls on the project manager. the project manager is the one.

The project manager is also responsible for handling the work of consultants. Identify and procure the project infrastructure needs. to budget and to the required quality standard within the agreed specifications. in coordination with the project sponsors. The following describes the roles undertaken by the project manager: Understanding the client requirements: The client requirements form the basis of the project. Develop and present milestone during review briefings. planned and executed so that the project is developed to suit the client needs. Serve as a focal point for project related communications. Establish and maintenance of project quality. It should be clearly understood. and provide training when required.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 The project manager is responsible for documenting. Ensure that Information Technology security is met. allocating and utilising resources in a proper manner and maintaining a co-operative.: 47  Sikkim Manipal University . Identify and secure project team resources. Define project goals. objectives and success criteria. The project manager should ensure that the project is effectively resourced and should also manage the relationships with a wide range of groups which consists of all the project contributors. Understanding end user requirements: End user requirements of the project of the project should be understood as the clients and the end Page No. Identify and document project assumptions. motivated and successful team. For example. Develop project charter and obtain approval for the same. The project manager then makes sure that the project is delivered on time. Identify and document project constraints. apply the organisational project policies and Maintain the project staff’s technical skill and efficiency. a definition of the project. if the project is for the bank then their requirements should be clearly understood by the project manager to deliver the project to suit their requirements. The general roles of a project manager are as follows:              Understand and procedures.

The project should be developed keeping the end users who are going to use the project.: 48 . then the end-users should also be considered if they are going to use the ATMs for their transactions.   To summarise. The design and design process should be developed along with the development of contract documentation. Also the client should be pre-informed about any likely delays/problems. For example it may be required to send project status report every week. interoperability and portability  Documenting the work  Maintaining customer relationship Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The project has to be planned keeping the timelines. The functional brief should be developed including the design brief preparation.  Understanding the project scope: The scope of the project defines the project tasks. output and the delivery date in mind. The project progress report should be included in the project delivery kit. The planning process and obtaining relevant approvals should be managed. the project manager’s role includes the following activities:  Defining the scope  Planning and sequencing of the activity  Planning for the resource  Developing the schedules  Estimating the time  Estimating the cost  Developing the budget  Controlling the budget  Controlling the quality  Analysing risk  Managing risks and issues  Realising the benefits  Analysing scalability. Understanding the design: All the basic design requirements should be understood. Communicating: The client should be given regular reports which are relevant and meaningful. The project should be defined according to the client requirements and the project should be managed accordingly. For example if the project is for a bank ATM. objectives.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 users may be different.

and appointing and coordinating with the consultants/team members. supervision of letting as well as many other services. In case of emergency. They may (if engaged for a total service) be responsible for such matters like selecting site. The project manager’s role in a project can vary with the nature of the project. selecting contractual system. he has to maintain confidentiality. The organisation’s requirements are communicated to the project manager who ensures that it is implemented by the consultant and contractor. implementing programme. He is also responsible for building a good team which is defined by success. He is responsible for setting up easy communication between the employees and the higher authority. contracting financial control. Ability to get the approval of the various processes involved. evaluating design profiles. The main responsibilities of a project manager are to motivate and provide encouragement to the team members. he should be able to solve the problems for his team members. selecting consultant team along with negotiating and documenting conditions of engagement. Ability to manage the entire project process. Ability to take crucial decisions when and where required. studying feasibility. Ability to manage risks. Ability to manage the development process. It is his responsibility to perform and be truthful and honest. By virtue of being a project manager. A project manager should possess the following skills:        High level of leadership and communication skills. The leadership qualities of a project manager provide the employees a direction and accelerate the rate of the work. Ability to manage the client issues.: 49 . A project Sikkim Manipal University Page No. documenting supervision.2 Responsibilities of a Project Manager The project manager is responsible for preparing a project brief/summary.2.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 3. They need to change the ways and methods to suit the requirement. Project managers are the main source of motivation for the team members. which is the base of any successful project. The project manager should be able to lead the team and bring out the best in them. preparing consultant’s briefs.

schedule. assumptions. Distribute the project information and also maintain the communication. planning. For executing a project successfully. Page No. execution and closure of a project. attainment or procurement plans.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 manager is the one who is responsible for the successful initiation. cost.: 50 Sikkim Manipal University . The Project manager has to obtain the approval of the stakeholder plan and also get the acceptance of the project plan. The document requirements should be translated into the suitable Software Development Life Cycle documentation for example the requirements document. resource requirements. resource. support and procure process and contract administration requirements. This can include the project charter. the project manager should:      Manage and monitor the day-to-day activities and give a direction to the team members and support the team. risk. detection of unstated assumptions and resolving interpersonal conflicts as well as more systematic management skills. Manage. To control the project the project manager should:  Develop and distribute the project performance reports. Develop and update the system security plan and also the security deliverables. The project manager should also be able to develop the supporting plans such as the scope. procurement and change management plans. cost estimates and project budget. scope statement. constraints. schedule. security deliverables. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) defining project deliverables. Manage and monitor the quality targets and aims of both the project and product. The organisational commitment and support for the completion of the project task assignments. timing and quality should be obtained along with establishing the baseline. quality. risk analysis and the communications plan. The project manager should be able to develop a project plan. The project manager should possess a combination of skills including an ability to ask pertinent questions. major milestones.

Assess the project performance and start the change request as required i. the scope. timing. the risk is controlled and uncertainty gets reduced.: 51 . Close the financial accounts or charge codes. schedule and the quality. The project manager is responsible for making decisions both large and small.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3       Frequently review the project status and valuate the performance criteria like the scope. Develop and manage corrective action plans. Review the project risks and establish risk response plans. cost. often by following a policy of open communication. Develop the recommendations for the continuous progress. He can close the project contract and the open action items. The project managers can close the project after obtaining the customer and management approval and acceptance of the completed product. The risk arises basically from uncertainty and a successful project manager is the one who focuses on this as the main concern. cost. The project team should be recognised and the success should be celebrated. Most of the issues that affect a project may arise in one way or the other from the risk. schedule or quality. A good project manager can decrease the risk significantly. Archive all the project information.e. Change the project planning to include the approved changes in the scope. ensuring that every important participant has an opportunity to express opinions and concerns. Participate in the change control board to assess and approve the product or project changes. cost or quality after getting the customer approval. Conduct the lessons learned sessions. All the Sikkim Manipal University Page No. in this way. Once the project is closed the project manager has to:      Develop the post-implementation report. Key duty of a project manager is the recognition of the risk that directly impacts the likelihood of success and that this risk must be both formally and informally measured throughout the lifetime of the project.

Develop and maintain a detailed project plan. Link the updates progress and project routing board or senior management. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Resolve cross-functional issues at project level. Recruit the project staff and the consultants. Record and manage project issues and then escalate it as and when required.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 decision taken by the project manager has to be taken in such a way that it directly benefits the projects. to organise their tasks and the workforces.: 52 . Manage the consultancy input within the specified budget. The software packages allow the project managers to produce reports and charts in few minutes as compared to the several hours it takes if they do not use a software package.3 Other Roles of Project Manager Depending on the project size and complexity the project manager can take other responsibilities along with managing the project work. such as the Microsoft project. For example. Monitor the project progress and performance. Manage project scope and change control and escalate issues wherever it is necessary. The main duties of the project manger are to:                   Manage and lead the project team. Project managers use Project Management software. Manage the project assessment and distribute the activities. Define and manage the user acceptance testing programme. Co-ordinate the partners and manage the work group in a project work. 3. Ensure that the users working closely with the project meet business needs. Elaborate project planning and control. Manage the project training and distribution activities. Identify the user training needs and devise and manage user training programme. Get the final approval of the design specifications. Provide the status reports to the project sponsor.

In some organisations the project managers are responsible for the success of the project. The expectations can be set and managed. If the project manager does not have the authority. This can be dealt by defining the roles and responsibilities as part of the project charter. Instead. designer and technical writer. There are some Project Management responsibilities for multiple projects. For example. An example is managing the team in a matrix organisation. work on design for 15% and do documentation for 15%. Project Management is a specific role that a person fills. In other cases. The project manager spends the remaining of the time in other projects in other project roles such as business analyst. In some other instances. perform business analysis for 25%. it just means that the project is not huge enough to need a full-time project manager. even if the person who is the project manager is working in other roles as well. This does not mean that the project manager’s role is to spend 15% of their time on design. but the combination of which sums up to a full-time role. project managers can manage the project for 45% of their time. it might be found that the ability to resolve issues can get hampered because the priority may not be high in the organisation to get an issue resolved quickly. Project managers have to fill multiple roles each of which requires a certain level of skills and responsibilities. they have the ability to resolve issues quickly. then it is important to know who does and what process is needed to get action. For example. They can manage a project by utilising people who do not have direct management responsibility. but lack the right level of responsibility. These cases can be the cause for frustration. An example is the team management in a matrix organisation.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 the project manager may help in collecting the business requirements or may help in designing a database management system or may write some of the project documentation which may be involved. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.: 53 . it might be found that the ability to be innovative and flexible is constrained by organisational policies and inertia. The frustration level for most of the project managers is not caused so much by the lack of power as much as it is caused by the confusion. each of which is less than the full time. A project manager’s time may be allocated depending on the project size and the organisation of the company. In some cases. if there is no budget or expense approval authority.

the project manager should successfully manage and control the work. If the project has problems or scope creeps or faces risks or is not setting up expectations correctly then the project manager is the person held responsible. Activity 1: SAH Software Company. be able to evaluate the root causes. have a logical thought process.4 Process Responsibilities Once the project begins. Disseminating project information to all the stakeholders proactively. Identifying. Managing scope to make sure that only what was agreed upon is delivered. A good project manager can _________ the risk significantly. 2. managing and mitigating of project risk. Managing the overall schedule and making sure that the work is assigned and completed on time and within the budget. based in Bangalore.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 3. The project manager is responsible for the ________ of the project. tracking. unless the changes are approved through scope management. The project manager is also responsible for handling the work of________. be able to multi-task. To handle the Project Management processes. Defining and collecting metrics to make sense about how the project is progressing and whether the deliverables produced are acceptable. and have a good self-discipline. possess good follow-up skills. ______ and ___________. have good analytical ability. a person should be well organised. be a good estimator and budget manager.   This again does not mean that the project managers physically does all of this but they should make sure that it happens. be process oriented. managing and resolving. 3. has got a new web development project which has to be delivered in 6 months. Making sure that the solution is of acceptable quality. which includes:      Project issues identification. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. List out the things he will have to do in order to achieve this? Self Assessment Questions 1.: 54 . It is the responsibility of the project manager to deliver the project on time.

________. Leadership is all about conveying a vision and getting the team to accept it and strive to get there with the project manager. and holding them responsible for meeting the expectations involves providing good performance feedback to the team members. 5.5 People Responsibilities Apart from process skills.6 Difference between Duty and Responsibility Although project manager’s duties and responsibilities are closely related to each other there is a fine line of distinction between them. Project manager plays a significant role in the growth of a company. money and motivating factors. The bigger the team and longer the project.: 55 . A proactive verbal and written communication skill includes good and active listening skills. __________ defines the roles and responsibilities of project team. Project issues include________. Project Management training is given to project managers to deal with any project which are closely related to construction. Project manager should possess good __________ skills. challenging and expecting from people. a project manager should possess good people management skills which include having the discipline and the general management skills to make sure that people adhere to the standard processes and procedures. machine.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 4. namely men. Leadership skills should be established to get the team to follow the project manager’s direction. material. the more vital it is to have a good team-building skills. The project manager is held responsible for the success of the project. The project manager should have the team building skills so that people can work well together and feel motivated to work hard for the sake of the project and their team members. 3. Reasonably establishing. 6. architecture. 3. ________ and _________. He will have to try and resolve team’s poor morale and also find ways to overcome the missing deadlines. They are also responsible to manage the projects Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Project manager is the one who manages the five M’s of a business. telecommunications and other infrastructural projects. The project managers will be held responsible if the team members do not understand what they have to do.

time and customer. take proactive decisions and also understand the diversity in training. They are responsible to manage the project that they are related to. The difference between duty and responsibilities is that the duty is the task to be performed by the person out of their job profile. sales and services. they become responsible for starting the project at the specified time and also finish it on time. the project manager’s role is to make sure that the spinning top that is the project balance is never allowed to spiral or go out of control. but it is not their responsibility to pay for someone else’s mistake. The dotted line shows the area of control which indicates the area where the project is reasonably ‘on track’ that is in control. and responsibilities are the obligations for which they will be responsible. For example.: 56 . organising and managing a specific task and also bringing out excellency in completion.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 related to the field of design.1. Project Management is related to imparting the duties and responsibilities for a manager. Project Management helps in planning. for project managers it is the duty to manage the task. The four weights are the four dimensions which are quality. Project manager’s duties and responsibilities serve as guidelines for effective management. Therefore. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 3. cost. develop a vision. Those planning to become project managers have to learn to be on an external vigil. If these four weights are in perfect balance then the spinning top will stay in the same point and will not move until and unless one of the four dimensions are altered.7 Balancing of Project Consider the pyramid is continuously spinning top with four ropes attached as shown in the figure 3. Therefore. Many management experts have studied that the duties and responsibilities of the project manager are made to suit the business in the most effective way.

The main techniques used are Systems.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3     Quality Balance through: Systems Risk management Planning Motivation Cost Time Customer Figure 3.: 57 . skill and tools throughout the project phases of initiation.1: Balancing of Project For example. planning. Project manager should not possess good team building skills. To achieve the above mentioned balance a project manager must apply the knowledge. techniques. Planning and Motivation. control and closure. if the project gets affected because of the timing then a project manager could respond to it by adding some cost or by discussing with the customer and therefore balancing the spinning top and bringing it back within the area of project boundary. Activity 2: Boeing airway is the new project obtained by the RSR software company. _____________ should be established to get the team to follow the project manager’s direction. In this project they have to provide software to maintain the various activities of the airway. execution. What are the responsibilities to be followed by the project manager in order to complete the project within the company specified timeline? List them. Self Assessment Questions 7. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. (True/False) 9. The project balancing may require a deeper level of certain dimensions and techniques. 8. Project manager is the one who manages the _____M’s of a business. Management of Risk.

9 Terminal Questions 1. Project manager is the one who manages the five M’s of a business.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 10. Project Management is related to imparting the duties and responsibilities for a manager. 3. money and motivating factors. The main responsibilities of a project manager are to motivate and provide encouragement to his team members. The project manager is also responsible for handling the work of consultants. The techniques used in balancing of project are ______ and ______. 11. 5. allocating and utilising resources in a proper manner and maintaining a co-operative. time and customer. Follow-up skills 7. 3. In project balancing there are four weights are the four dimensions which are quality.: 58 . Success. allocating and utilising resources. Consultants. 2. Explain the steps that the project manager has to take to manage people. architecture. Decrease 4.8 Summary The project manager’s responsibility starts with defining of the project and scheduling of the project and is also known as project coordinator or a team leader. Project size and complexity helps the project manager to take other responsibilities along with managing the work. How can the project be balanced? 3. What are the responsibilities of project manager? List the process responsibilities of project manager. tracking. Project Management training is given to project managers to deal with any project which are closely related to construction. Explain the roles of project manager. Leadership skills Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Identification. namely men. material. 4. managing and resolving 6. machine. 3. telecommunications and other infrastructural projects. 3. 2. _______ is the task to be performed by the person out of their job profile. cost. motivated and successful team. Project charter 5.10 Answers Answers to Self Assessment Questions 1.

Question: 1.2. They have acquired a new project from a private company to develop software for their company which mainly deals with real estate. What should the project manager rectify the mistake so that it which will be accepted by the clients? Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Since their establishment.7 3. The project was delivered in the promised timeline and the client accepted the same. Refer section 3. The project manager did not convey the roles and responsibilities of each team member involved in the project which led to a lot of confusion. he assigned the roles and responsibilities to the team members involved.Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 8.2 3. False Five Duty Systems/management of risk/planning/motivation Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 3. Refer section 3.2. and kept in touch with the client if there where any clarification and also kept them updated about the changes made. 11. their industry has facilitated and empowered top firms in IT. The company appointed another project manager Das to help in overcoming the drawbacks of the project.11 Case study ADG Software solutions are a fasting growing consulting company operating out of India in creating technological products. 9.1 2.5 5. Accordingly. This led to a delay in the delivery of the project and the clients were not happy with the deliverable as there were some major changes to be made. Where did the project manager go wrong? 2.4 4. Das got certain things clarified from the client regarding the project and got the SRS.: 59 . Refer section 3. Refer section 3. The requirements for the project were taken by the project manager Sam from the clients. 10.

ISBN: 978-1-4188-3559-0 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. It is an inherent or a distinguishing characteristic of a project.: 60 . Project Management Institute (2004).Introduction to Project Management Unit 3 3.html 2. Project Management It is the possibility of loss that is danger which can hamper the projects growth. Risk Stakeholders Quality References 1. the people who can influence the design and ultimately they are the people who will reap the benefits of the completed project. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. (2005). (PMBOK) 3. They are an integral part of a project. Introduction to Project Management. Schwalbe K. They are the endusers or the clients. Third Edition. Course Technology.projectsmart.12 Glossary Term Matrix Description It is a set of numbers placed out in tabular form (in rows and columns) that is derived of a complex of lines intersecting at right angles. the people from whom requirements can be drawn. ISBN: http://www.