mitropoliti anania jafariZe

cthbf% bcnjhbekb ,tlb cfmfhsdtkjc trktcbbcfufy
ufyijht,ekb mfhsdtkt,bcf

afxazeTi

qarTvelTa gaafxazeba

+& e’dtktcb fa[fptsb ‘dtkmfhsekb o.fhjt,bc sfyf[vfl
++& mfhsdtkb bcnjhbrjct,b fa[fptsbc tsybrehb
itvflutykj,bc itcf[t,
+++& fa[fptsbc njgjybvt,b
+|& mdtvj b,thbbc^ fye fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj
|& vsbtkb njvt,bc xfvjcf[kt,f fa[fptsib
|+& uffa[fpt,eksf udfht,b

cfmfhsdtkjc cfgfnhbfhmjc vfyukbc-ofkrbc tgfhmbf
2007
1

\|+ c-lfy thsbfyb cfmfhsdtkjc cf[tkvobajc lfikbc
itvltu^ vbc gth bath bek res[tt,ib^ f lubkj,h bdb
[tkbceakt,bc cbcecnbc ufvj^ xfvjcf[klyty xh lbkj
rfdrfcbtkb vsbtkt,b& fv ghjwtcc y& ,th’tybidbkb #vsbc
xfvjojkfc@ eojlt,c& fct vjtmwf fqvjcfdkts rf[tsb ~zfh,tkfmfyb` - ktrehb njvt,bc [tkib^ iblf mfhskbc vsbfytsb
- jct,bc^ [jkj fa[fptsb - flbqt-xthmtpekb njvbc f,fpt,bc^
fye facet,bc [tkib& \|+-\|+++ cc-ib xthmtpb [fk[b xhlbkj
rfdrfcbfib .dtkfpt vhfdkhbw[jdfyb b.j lf itlut,jlf
efvhfdb vtjvfhb njvbcfufy^ hjvtksfufy ths-thsb^ hjujhw
fqbybiyf^ fa[fptsib xfcf[klf lf [fyuh’kbdb ,h’jkt,bc
itvltu lfbg.hj bcnjhbekb jlbib ~sfyfvtlhjdt cj[evbc^
uekhbaibc^ jxfvxbhbcf lf ufkbc hfbjyt,b`& vrdblhb
mfhsekb vjcf[ktj,f uflfbmwf cfpjufljt,bc .dtkfpt
lf,fk^ lfvjhxbkt,ek atyfl^ itbcofdkf vt,fnjytt,bc tyf
lf flfs-xdtdt,b^ vfqfkvf atyfv fa[fptsbcf - ‘dtkvf
mfhsdtkvf sfdfl-fpyfeht,vf^ it’ktc sfdbfysb vfqfkb
vlujvfhtj,bc ityfhxeyt,f mdt.ybc f[fkb tsybrehb cf[bc
xfvj.fkb,t,bc cfyfwdkjl& fa[fptsib xfvjcf[kt,ek f,fpffacet,c mfhsdtkt,vf mdt.ybc cf[tkbc vb[tldbs #fa[fpt,b@
eojltc^ vjudbfyt,bs tc cf[tkb uflfbqtc hect,vf^ sevwf rb
hjujhw sehmb^ bct ew[jtkb vjupfeht,b vfs xthmtpt,c
~f,fpt,c` eojlt,lyty&
yfihjvib e[d cfbcnjhbj o.fhjt,pt lf.hlyj,bs uflvjwtvekbf fa[fptsbc mfhsdtksf ,tlb \|+ c-lfy \\+ c-vlt&

ã mitropoliti anania jafariZe, 2001, 2007

2

uZvelesi afxazeTi
ZvelqarTuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad

vbof-o.fkb^ hjvtkcfw fv;fvfl fa[fptsb tojlt,f^ ‘dtkmfhsekb o.fhjt,bc sfyf[vfl^ lfcf[kt,ekb b.j mfhsdtkb [fk[bc vtuhtksf tsybehb ]ueabs& rth’jl^ sfyf[vfl
mfhskbc w[jdht,bcf^ e’dtktc lhjc nthbnjhbf kb[bc vsblfy vlbyfht .e,fyfvlt vbtresdyf _ mfhsdtkb [fk[bc thsths tsyfhmc _ tuhjcc^ tcff ybifyb bvbcf^ hjv fqybiyekb nthbnjhbf bv;fvbcsdbc vbbxytjlf mfhsdtkb [fk[bc bv njvt,bs
lfcf[kt,ekfl^ hjvtksf cfthsj cf[tkb #tuht,b@ b.j^ sfyfvtlhjdt nthvbybs rb^ vfs #lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc
vjcf[ktj,f@ tojlt,fs& fqcfybiyfdbf^ hjv faibkt,bcf lf
f,fput,bc njvt,c^ ew[jehb o.fhjt,b v[jkjl + cfereybc
itvltu vjb[ctybt,ty fv v[fhtt,ib& #w[jdht,f vtatsf@^ fye
mfhskbc w[jdht,bc e’dtktcb atyf^ uflvjudwtvc% #[jkj tuhjccf vbtwf mdt.fyf pqdbc .ehbcf^ lf exbyf cfpqdfhb% fqvjcfdkbs vsf vwbht^ hjvtkcf fo /mdbfy kb[b^ lfcfdkbs pqdf^
xhlbkjs vlbyfht vwbhbcf [fpfhtsbcf^ cflf ofhcodst,bc
odthb rfdrfcbcf^ [jkj fvfy tuhjc fqfityf mfkfmb lf eojlf
cf[tkb sdbcb tuhbcb^ fo vfc flubkcf /mdbf ,tlbf@ ~mfhskbc
w[jdht,f^ +^ 1955^ ud& 5`&
vfibyltkb cfpqdfhb tuhbcbcf b.j #vlbyfht vwbhbcf
[fpfhtsbcf@^ tc uf[kfds vlbyfht .e,fyb& [jkj vfibyltkb
wtynhb tuhbcbcf^ hjvtkcfw itvlujv ,tlbf tojlf^ fv;fvfl
fa[fptsib vlt,fhtj,c& fvhbufl^ cfmfhsdtkjc e’dtktcb bcnjhbbc sfyf[vfl^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib tsybrehb
ufycf[kt,bc cfpqdfhb uf[kfds% fqvjcfdktsbs _ kb[bc vsf^
lfcfdktsbs _ ifdb pqdf^ xhlbkjtsbs _ vlbyfht .e,fyb& fqc3

fybiyfdbf^ hjv fqybiyekb o.fhj ~t&b& #mfhskbc w[jdht,f@^
ktjynb vhjdtkb` cfthsjl fh bwyj,c nthvbyc #fa[fptsb@^
#fa[fpb@& ite’kt,tkbf \+ fylf |+++ cfereybc fdnjhc
fa[fptsbc mdt.ybc fqothbc lhjc cbn.df #fa[fptsb@ fy cbn.df
#fa[fpb@ fh t[vfhf& df[einbc sfyf[vfl^ nthvbyb #f,fcb@^
#fa[fpb@ xylt,f vjudbfyt,bs% #[jkj fyfrjabbc lfcfdktsbs
fhc fa[fptsb^ gbhdtkfl ojlt,ekb tuhtsdt tuhbcb^ hfvtse
dbyfbsufy obkb tuhjcbcf fhc pqdfvlt^ vbc ufvj tojlf #tuhb@dt^ fhfvtl itvlujvfl ufylujvbcf^ lfbg.htc hf ,th’tysf^ vfs
eojltc f,fcf^ [jkj mfhsdtksf _ fa[fptsb@ ~mfhskbc
w[jdht,f^ +|^ 1973^ ud& 784`&
vfifcflfvt^ tuhbcbc ths yfobkc fa[fptsb tojlf #ufylujvbc itvlujv@^ hf buekbc[vt,f #ufylujvbc@ mdti(
gfce[b fv rs[dbcf wyj,bkbf ’dtkmfhsekb cfbcnjhbj
o.fhjcfsdbc&
mhbcntij,fvlt +|-+++ cfereytt,ib gbhdtkb thsbfyb mfhsekb cf[fkvobajc itmvybcfc vfcib itdblf mfhsdtkb [fk[bc
.dtkf tsybrehb ]ueab^ vstkb thb^ vfuhfv #,th’yt,bc@ ibibs
fv cf[tkvobajib itcdkfpt efhb smdtc vlbyfht tuhbco.kbc
bmbs vfw[jdht,kt,vf^ bcbyb xdtyc vtvfnbfytt,c mfhsdtkt,fl
vbfxylfs^ obyffqvltu itvs[dtdfib^ vfsb efhb itcekb.dyty
thsbfy mfhsek cf[tkvobajib #ufylujvfl@ ~qfkfnfl^
ufywfkrtdt,fl` fh xfbsdkt,jlf&
afhyfdfp vtatc thsbfyb cf[tkvobajc ityt,fib lblfl
totjlf tuhbcbc thbcsfdb me]b^ vfy afhyfdfpc vbvfhsf% #ity
[fh idbkb sfdsf vfs mfhskbcfsf lf ity uvfhst,c eakj,f
xtvb@^ me]bc cfthbcsfdjc elbltcb yfobkb thsbfy
cf[tkvobajib ufthsbfylf^ #[jkj tuhbco.fkc mdtvjs lfhxf ,th’tysf^ hfvtse vrdblhsf vbc flubkbcfsf fhf byt,tc
ufylujvf ,th’tysf@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +^ ud 24`&
4

thsbfyb mfhsekb cf[tkvobajc vtsfeh afhyfdfpbc nbnekb b.j #vtat mfhsdtksf@^ fv vtabc cf[tkvobajc rb #mfhskbc cfvtaj@ tojlt,jlf& fv mfhskbc cfvtajcf lf
#cf,th’ytsc@ ijhbc afhyfdfpbc lhjc ufdkt,ekb bmyf cfcfpqdhj [fpb _ vlbyfht tuhbco.fkpt& cf,th’ytsbc cf[tkvobaj
fv vlbyfhtcsfy bwfdlf cfpqdfhc mfhskbc mdt.fyfcsfy^
rth’jl^ ,th’yekb v[fht vbbxytdlf^ hjv tuhbco.fkpt cfpqdfhb b,thbfcf lf cf,th’ytsc ijhbc lfblj fktmcfylht vfrtljytkbc lhjc& fvbnjv^ sfyf[vfl #mfhskbc w[jdht,bcf@^ |
cfereytib ,bpfynbbc bvgthfnjhb fw[flt,lf^ hjv cfpqdfhb
vbcb bvgthbbcf vlbyfht tuhbco.fkbf% #ufvjbrbs[f rtbcfhvfy
cfpqdfhb cf,th’ytsbcf^ mdt.fyf pqdbc gbhbcf^ hjvtk fhc
fa[fptsb^ lf hmef tchts% #tuhbc o.fkbsfufy dblht vlbyfht
vwbhbcf [fpfhtsbcf _ tct cfpqdfhb fhc cf,th’ytsbcf
fktmcfylhj,bsufy@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +^ ud& 177`&
bcvbc rbs[df^ cfl uftlbyt,jlf vlbyfht tuhbco.fkb lf
uflbjlf se fhf vfcpt cfpqdfhb cf,th’ytsbc bvgthbfcf lf
mfhskbc cfvtajc ijhbc& vlbyfht tuhbco.fkc fv;fvfl _
qfkb’uf tojlt,f&
#tuhbco.fkb hjv cfpqdfhb b.j^ fvfc vjovj,c hjujhw
mfhsekb ~ktjynb^ ]efyithb`^ bct hjvfek-,th’yekb
o.fhjt,b ~fhbfyt^ | cfereybc gthb gkecb^ ghjrjgb&&&`
~y& ,th’tybidbkb^ cfmfhsdtkjc bcnjhbbc cfrbs[t,b^
1990^ ud& 553`&
vfifcflfvt^ #ufylujvbc@ mdti buekbc[vt,f tuhbco.kbc
bmbs vw[jdht, mfhsdtksf efhb +|-+++ cc& mhbcntij,fvlt
itcekb.dyty thsbfy mfhsek cfvtajib ,th’tysf ibibc ufvj&
fqcfybiyfdbf^ hjv e’dtktcb mfhsekb o.fhjw _ #vjmwtdfb mfhskbcfbw@ mfhsdtksf cf[tkvobajc xhlbkj-lfcfdktsbc cfpqdfhc vlbyfht tuhbco.fkpt lt,c&
5

| cfereytib fqybiyekb vbvfhsekt,bs vjv[lfhf cfcfpqdhj wdkbkt,f ,bpfynbfcf lf cfmfhsdtkjc ijhbc& ufphlbkf afhsj,b cfmfhsdtkjc cf[tkvobajcb^ bvbs^ hjv vlbyfht tuhbco.fkcf lf vbc lfcfdktsbs vlt,fht vl& rkbcehfc
ijhbc vjmwtekb nthbnjhbf bvgthfnjhc uflfewbf mfhsdtksf vtabcfsdbc& rth’jl^ vtat df[nfyu ujhufcfkc itehsfdc rtbchbc mfkb^ hjvkbcfsdbcfw vpbsdfl bvgthfnjhc vbewbf tuhbco.fkcf lf rkbcehfc ijhbc vjmwtekb nthbnjhbf
_ #lfeothf tuhbco.fkcf lf rkbcehfc ief mdt.fyf vpbsdfl@
~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +^ ud& 177`&
fv lhjbcfsdbc vstkb nthbnjhbf vlbyfht tuhbco.kblfy
vlbyfht .e,fyfvlt df[nfyu ujhufcfkvf xhlbkj rfdrfcbfib
kfimhj,bc itvltu lfbzbhf lf lfrfdt,ekb /mjylf sfdbcb
]fht,bs^ tc vbof-o.fkb rb ,bpfynbfc sfdbc cf[tkvobajib
itvfdfkfl vbfxylf^ fvbnjvfw vjkfgfhfrt,bc itvlujv^ bvbc
itvltu hfw mfhsdtksf vtatv jabwbfkehfl vbbqj ,bpfynbbcfufy rkbcehfvlt vjmwtekb nthbnjhbf^ vfy ,bpfynbfc
lfe,heyf fv vlbyfhbc bmbs vlt,fht vbof& vfc erdt fv lhjbcfsdbc fa[fptsb tojlt,jlf _ #&&&lf c[df fa[fptsb erecwf
df[nfyu ,th’tysf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 177`&
hjujhw bsmdf^ mfhsekb o.fhjt,bc sfyf[vfl^ dhwtkb
nthbnjhbf lfcfdkts fvbthrfdrfcbbcf^ dblht .e,fyfvlt _
mfhsdtkb [fk[bs b.j lfcf[kt,ekb^ vfuhfv gbhdtk thsbfy
mfhsek cf[tkvobajib vlbyfht tuhbco.kblfy vlbyfht
.e,fyfvlt vjmwtekb nthbnjhbf fh itdblf^ hflufyfw
,th’yek cf[tkvobajib b.j vjmwtekb& itvlujv fm vhfdfkb
c[dflfc[df njvb lfcf[kt,ekf^ [jkj nthbnjhbfc
tuhbco.fkcf lf vwbht [fpfhtsbc ~.e,fybc` vlbyfhtvlt
vbeqbf cf[tkojlt,f _ fa[fptsb& vbcb thsb yfobkb^ hjujhw
bsmdf^ | cfereytib itethslf mfhsek cf[tkvobajc ~vl&
6

rkbcehfvlt`^ [jkj lfyfhxtyb yfobkb mfhsek cf[tkvobajc
itthst,bf |+++ cfereytib^ bv lhjc^ hjwf #,th’yt,b
vje’keht,ekfy@ fhf,sf uf’kbtht,bc ufvj ~y& ,th’tybidbkb^
lfcf[& yfih&^ ud& 553`&
fhf,sf itvjctdt,bc itltufl erblehtcfl lfcecnlf mfhsekb cf[tkvobajw^ hjvkbc cfpqdfhb ,bpfynbfcsfy fv
lhjbcfsdbc rdkfd vlbyfht rkbcehfpt uflbjlf& fhf,t,b
jhbdt mhbcnbfyekb mdt.ybc ,bpfynbbcf lf cfmfhsdtkjc
vnht,b b.dyty^ fvbnjvfw fv lhjbcfsdbc ,bpfynbbc bvgthbfv
lfbdbo.f sfdbcb bvgthbfkbcneh-vnfwt,kehb phf[dt,b mfhskbc cfvtajc vbvfhs& tc ufvjb[fnf bvgthfnjhbc vbth
ufvjwtvek bv ,h’fyt,f-vbsbst,t,ibw^ hjvtkybw vfc ufeupfdybf thbcsfdbcfsdbc fa[fptsib& hjujhw bsmdf^ bv lhjbcfsdbc fa[fptsb itlbjlf ,bpfynbbc bvgthbfib lf vfc vfhsfdlf ,bpfynbbc cf[tkvobajc ofhvjvflutytkb #fa[fpsf thbcsfdbc@ nbnekbs& vehdfy-.hec cfibytkb itvjctdt,bc itvltu bvgthfnjhc fa[fptsbc thbcsfd ktjybcfsdbc ufeupfdybf
,h’fyt,f^ hfsf bc fqfh lfc[vjlf sfdc mfhskbc cfvtajc^
hjvkbc cfpqdfhb uflbjlf vlbyfht rkbcehfpt^ #lf vjeothf
ktjyc tcht cf[tl% #.jdkfldt cfpqdfhsf mfhskbcfsf xdtyufy
mvybk fhc dyt,f&&& fvbthbsufy yeqfhfvwf [tkvobat,bc dyt,fl
vfslf lf cfpqdfhsf vfssf tuhbcfsf@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +^
ud& 239-240`&
vfhsfkbf^ rkbcehf bv lhjbcfsdbc b.j utjuhfabekb
ufv.jab tuhbccf lf fa[fptsc ijhbc^ vfuhfv bc fvfdt lhjc
bub ofhvjflutylf gjkbnbreh cfpqdfhc mfhsdtksf ~fye mfhskbc` cfvtajcf lf cf,th’ytsc ijhbc^ bvgthfnjhb sfdbc
othbkib hjwf othc ktjyc #.jdkfldt cfpqdfhsf mfhskbcfsf xdtyufy mvybk fhc dyt,f@^ uekbc[vj,c cojhtl ,th’tysf
lf vfsb gjkbnbrehb ofhvjvflutykt,bc _ fa[fpsf
7

thbcsfdt,bc sfdlfc[vt,c fqybiyek cfpqdfhpt& fvbnjvfw itvlujv frjyrhtnt,c ,h’fyt,fc lf othc% #fhfvtl rtsbkfl gfnbdbcwtvlb vtatsf lf thsf vfufs mfhskbcfsf lf fvbthbsufy
yeqfhfvwf [tkutobat,bc dyt,fsf vfslf lf cfpqdfhsf vfssf
tuhbcfsf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 240`& t&b& fa[fptsib itvj[bpyek^
fhf,sfufy ltdybk mfhskbc vtatt,c vbhcf lf fhxbkc gfnbdb
twb lf vfsb mdt.ybc cfpqdfhc tuhbcsfy yeqfh lffhqdtdj&
mfhskbc vtat vbhc df;b fh /.fdlf^ fvbnjvfw bc^ fhf,sf
vbth cfcbrdlbkjl lfzhbkb^ sfdbc cfvtajc e.jac
mfkbidbkt,c ~lf ‘vf fhxbkc`^ jqjyl thsb gbhj,bs^ cb’t
esejl eylf .jabkb.j fhf ew[j mdt.ybc ofhvjvflutytkb^
fhfvtl mfhskbc cfvtajc ofhxbyt,ekb^ vtat sfdbc ‘vf fhxbkc enjdt,c fcts fylth’c% #xdty itvwbht,ek dfhs^ hfvtse
ity [fh ewjkj^ lf vt dfh e’tj^ fo hflufy vjb.dfybfy vfvfsf
xdtysf wjkyb fcekyb thbcsfdsf xdtysfyb^ vbcwty vfs fcekyb
xtvyb lf ufye.dty vfs mdt.fyfyb mfhskbcfyb@ ~mfhskbc
w[jdht,f^ +^ ud& 241`&
vtat vbhc 7 mfkbidbkb /.fdlf^ vfsufy 6 vbcwf mfhskbc
thbcsfdt,c lf vfsdt vbcwf cfvtajc itcf,fvbcb mdt.yt,bw^ vtidvlt mfkbidbkbc ithsdf byt,f fa[fptsbc thbcsfdvf^ vfc
fylth’bc sfyf[vfl fh itt’kj ithsdf vtabc mfkbidbkbcf^
hflufyfw mfhskbc cfvtajc thbcsfdb fh b.j^ fvbnjvfw byt,f
sfdbcb cfthbcsfdj ittthst,byf mfhskbc cfvtajcfsdbc^ fvbs
bc uflfbmwtjlf mfhskbc thbcsfdfl lf fv upbs eakt,f
vbtwtvjlf itthsj vtabc mfkb& vfuhfv bc [jv ,th’tysf mdt.ybc
lf fhf lfvjerblt,tkb mdt.ybc ~fa[fptsbc` thbcsfdb b.j(
bmfvlt^ vwbht [ybs flht^ vfc vjegjdt,bf sfdbcsfdflj,f
,th’tysfufy^ bc te,yt,f mfhskbc vtatc% #[jkj ktjy hmef%
#vjvwf vt rtbcfhvfy mdt.fyf tct vrdblhj,bs rtsbkfl cbv[ybsf
smdtybsf& [jkj fvbthbsufy fhc tct vfvekj,bs cfvrdblht,tk
8

xtvsf rkbcehbsufy dblht vlbyfhtvlt lblfl [fpfhtsfl^ cflf
lfcodlt,bc odthb rfdrfcbbcf fvbc& itvhst vtwf vjyfsf itysf
sfyf^ hjvtkyb _ tct lqtc qbhc .dty idbkfl lf ‘vfl itylf&
fhf vbylf yfobkb ityufy^ fhfvtl xtvbwf tct ityfldt b.jc@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +^ ud& 242`&
t&b& ktjy thbcsfdc bvgthfnjhbcfufy #vfvekj,bs
cfvrdblht,tkfl@ vbeqbf nthbnjhbf vlbyfht rkbcehblfy
[fpfhtsbc vlbyfhtvlt& ufsfdbceakt,bcsfyfdt^ fa[fptsbc
thbcsfdbc cehdbkbf sfdbcb mdt.fyf lferfdibhjc mfhsdtksf
cfvtajc& bc [lt,f mfhsdtksf vtabc #idbkb lf ‘vf@ _ #vjyf@
vcufdcfl c[df mfhsdtkb cb’tt,bcf^ lf fvbc vbcfqotdfl vtatc
ew[flt,c% #fhf vbylf yfobkb ityufy^ fhfvtl xtvbwf tct ityfldt b.jc@& t&b& sfdbc vfvek-mdt.fyfc^ fa[fptsc^ f’ktdc mfhsdtk vtatc^ cfvfubthjl [lt,f cb’t _ bc bhsfdc vtabc mfkbidbkc uehfyle[nc& serb c[df cb’tt,vf cfvtajc hfqfw
yfobkt,b vbbqtc^ ktjy thbcsfdb mfhsdtksf vtabcfufy bqt,c
udbhudbyc _ #lf .dtc fqsmvf lf abwb cfibytkb^ dbsfhvtl fhf
b.jc vnhj,f ijhbc vfscf^ fhfvtl thxjltc ktjy fhxbkc
.jdtksf lqtsf vbcsf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 243`&
mfhskbc cfvtaj nf[nb uflftwf vbh vtabc ‘vfc fhxbkc^
vfcdt vbtwf _ #cfe[ewtcj@ nthbnjhbf _ vstkb lfcfdkts
cfmfhsdtkj #umjyltc cfe[ewtcjl _ te,yt,f fhxbkc vjvfrdlfdb vtat vbhb _ tuhbcb^ cdfytsb^ sfrdthb^ fhudtsb lf uehbf@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +^ ud& 241`& fhf,sfufy fqvjcfdkts
cfmfhsdtkj ‘kbth #ufyh.dybkb@ _ lfmwtekb b.j^ fvbnjvfw
vtat fhxbkb 12 okbc vfy’bkpt #lftvrdblhf tuhbcc^ dblht
ijhfgyfvlt lf ufyfuyf .jdtkyb .jdtkyb wb[tyb lf mfkfmyb@
~bmdt^ ud& 243`&
fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc jlyfdb vjityt,bcsfyfdt fhxbkb
uflfdblf bm^ iblf mfhskib fhf,t,vf fh vbcwtc lfvrdblht,bc
9

cfiefkt,f& bc itvltu uflfdblf rf[tsib^ fm lftvrdblhf^
lfj]f[lf^ vfuhfv itvltu fhf,t,vf itbg.htc lf cbrdlbkbs
lfcf]tc& bcvbc rbs[df^ dby vfhsfdlf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc
vtat fhxbkbc rf[tsib uflfcdkbcf lf vbcb cbrdlbkbs lfc]bc
itvltu( thsflthsb rfyjybthb vtvrdblht cfvtaj nf[nbcf
vstk lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib b.j vbh vtabc mfkbidbkb
uehfyle[nb^ lf w[flbf^ vbcb vteqkt fa[fpsf thbcsfdb
ktjyb& xfyc^ bcbyb vfhsfdlyty rbltw lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc&
vtat fhxbkbc vwbhtokjdfyb idbkt,b ]efyithb lf bjdfyt fv
lhjc ]th rbltd rf[tsib b.dyty^ vfhsfkbf^ itvlujv bjdfyt
fhxbkbc ‘t sfdbc ltlfcsfy thsfl uflfdblf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib^ cflfw vfc rfyjybthb vtaehb eakt,t,b uffxylf^
vfuhfv^ xfyc^ fm vbcb gjpbwbf fhw se bct vnrbwt b.j^ vbcb cfvtaj
j]f[bc erblehtcb lfvwbht,bcf lf fhf,sfufy ltdybc ufvj&
fvfcj,fib cfthsfijhbcj dbsfht,f rbltd eahj lfb’f,f^
rth’jl^ ,bpfynbbc ufdktyf itvwbhlf lfcfdkts fvbthrfdrfcbfib^ uf’kbthlf xhlbkjrfdrfcbehb [fpfhsf
cf[tkvobaj^ hfcfw sfy thsdjlf fqvjcfdkts rfdrfcbfib
fhf,sf ,fnjyj,f& ,bpfynbbc lfcecnt,fv uff’kbthf
fa[fptsbc cfthbcsfdj^ hjvtkcfw v[fhc [fpfhtsbw ezthlf&
#[jkj hf;fvc vje’kehltc ,th’tyyb^ ufluf vfsufy thbcsfdb
fa[fpsf^ cf[tkbs ktjy^ ‘vbcoekb ktjy thbcsfdbcf^ hjvkbcfl vbtwf cfvrdblhjl fa[fptsb& tct vtjht ktjy fcekbc
oekb b.j [fpfhsf vtabcf^ lf ‘fkbsc vfsbsf uffluf ,th’tysf^
lfbg.hf fa[fptsb lf tuhbcb dblht kb[fvlt^ cf[tk-bldf vtat
fa[fpsf^ hfvtse vbwdfkt,ek b.j bjdfyt lf lf,tht,ek b.j
]efyith lf itvlujvfl fvbcf ]efyithbwf vbbwdfkf@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +^ 251`&
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj mfhsdtk vtatsf #cfe[ewtcj@
nthbnjhbfl vbbxytjlf^ bctdt^ hjujhw rf[tsb& t&b& bcts nth10

bnjhbfl^ hjvtkbw cfvtaj j]f[bc cfresht,fl^ gbhfl
cfeakbcoekj vfvekfl bsdkt,jlf& cojhtl fvbnjv^ vbh
vtatv sfdbc mfkbidbkt,c fhw rf[tscf lf fhw lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib vfvekt,b fh uflfcwf^ cb’tt,c vfvekb-vpbstdb
vbcwf iblf mfhskib^ lf thsflthsc _ fa[fptsib& vstkb
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc cfeakbcoekj vfvekb vbtwf vtat
vbhbc ‘vf fhxbkc ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ ud& 241`& vbcb rf[tsib
uflfcdkbc itvltu fhxbk vtatv lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj cfvfhsfdfl^ xfyc^ uflfcwf mfhsdtk vtatsf udbhudbybc vmjyt
uehfyle[ncf lf ktjy +-c fa[fptsbc thbcsfdc& [jkj bvbc
itvltu^ hfw fhf,t,vf afmnbehfl vjcgtc mfhsekb cfvtaj
nf[nb
~afhyfdfpbfy-ujhufckbfysf`^
mfhsekvf
cf[tkvobajt,hbj,fv fhct,j,f ufyfuh’j lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib^ fm fhf se vjbcgj mfhsekb cf[tkvobajt,hbj,f^
fhfvtl fhct,j,bc f[fk cfat[ehpt fdblf^ vfhsfkbf^ lbyfcnbf itbwdfkf^ vfuhfv f[fkb lbyfcnbf rfyjybthb vtvrdblht
b.j ‘dtkbcf& rth’jl^ ktjy ++-tc vstk lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjpt uffxylf eakt,f dbsfhwf ktjy +-bc vtvrdblhtc& f[fkvf
lbyfcnbfv vbbqj nbnekb #fa[fpsf vtatt,bcf@^ vfs vstkb
cfmfhsdtkjc cfvtaj nf[npt uffxylfs rfyjybthb eakt,f
bvbc ufvj^ hjv uehfyle[nb #mfhsdtksf vtabc@ fcekb lf
nf[nbc vtvrdblht b.j^ fvbnjvfw vbcb j]f[bc otdht,b vbbcofhajlyty rbltw sfdbfysb crbgnhbc mdti chekbfl cfmfhsdtkjc ufcfthsbfyt,kfl& sevwf^ cfmfhsdtkjc cfvtaj nf[nbc
rfyjybth vtvrdblhtl vbh vtabc .dtkf cb’bc j]f[c vbfxylf
sfdbcb sfdb ~vfs ijhbc b.dyty nfj-rkfh]tsbc
,fuhfnbjyt,bw`&
vfhsfkbf^ f[kfl itmvybkvf #fa[fptsbc cfvtajv@ vjbwdf
vstkb lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj^ vfuhfv utjuhfabekb
vybidytkj,bs #fa[fptsb@ tojlt,jlf fv cfvtajc ths ufyfg11

bhf res[tc^ hjvtkvfw vfkt flvbybcnhfwbekb
vvfhsdtkj,fw vbbqj&
rth’jl^ fa[fptsbc cfvtaj flvbybcnhfwbekfl lfb.j hdf
cfthbcsfdjl^ ths-thsc tojlf #fa[fptsbc cfthbcsfdj@^ fqcfybiyfdbf^ hjv fa[fptsbc cfthbcsfdjib w[evb ~vjvfdfkb
cj[evb` fh itlbjlf^ vfc sfdbc thbcsfdb /.fdlf^ vfcib fh itlbjlf ,tlbfw ~mfkfmb vlbyfht tuhbco.fksfy`&
vfifcflfvt^ sdbs fa[fptsbc cfvtajibw rb fa[fptsb
tojlt,jlf w[evbc uflfqvf^ xhlbkjtsbcfrty vlt,fht nthbnjhbfc& [jkj w[evcf lf vbc cfv[htsbs vlt,fht nthbnjhbfc tojlt,jlf tuhbcb& tc xfyc fa[fpsf gbhdtkb vtabc
ktjybc vbth mdt.ybc flvbybcnhfwbekb lf.jablfy% #[jkj
lf]lf hf tct ktjy vtatl lf lfbg.hf .jdtkb tuhbcb^ fhqfhf
tojlf tuhbcb^ fhfvtl fa[fptsb lf ufy.j tct tuhbcb lf fo
fa[fptsb hdf cfthbcsfdjl%
1& lfcdf fa[fptsc lf vbcwf fa[fptsb^ ]bmtsb dblht pqdfvlt lf [fpfhsf vlbyfhtvlt&
2& lfcdf w[evc lf vbcwf tuhbc-bmbs fyfrjabf fkfybsehs&
3& lfcdf ,tlbfc lf vbcwf tuhbcbc fqvjcfdktsb
w[tybco.fkfvlt&
4& dbyfblfy fvfcdt ktjyc vjthsyty j’hf[jc obkyb
zjhj[bc cfv[htsbcyb lf ufyeluyty j’hf[jc thbcsfdc& eojlf
uehbf lf lfcdf vey thbcsfdb sdbcb&
5& lfcdf hfzf-ktx[evcf&
6& lfcdf cdfytscf&
7& ijhjgfybcfdt&&& kb[fvlt chekbfl fhudtsbcf&
8& lfcdf mesfsbcc dfrbcf&&& hbjybc lfcfdkbs
w[tybco.fkfvlt&
vfydt fqfityf mesfsbcb mfkfmb lf wb[t /.j cf.lfhb
fa[fpsf vtabcf^ dbsfhwf fyfrjabf /.j nf[nfl vtjhtl
12

tct mesfsbcb& fvbcufydt cfujyt,tk fhc ufysfdbceakt,f
fa[fpsf rfsfkbrjpbcf yt,bsfdt ,th’tysf@ ~mfhskbc
w[jdht,f^ +|^ ud& 796`&
y& ,th’tybidbkb othc% #&&&/thjcbc^ mfhskjcbc lf tuhjcbc
[dtlhb mdt.yt,b _ vfs ijhbc cdfytsb^ fa[fptsb&&& .dtkf tctyb
#mfhsdtkt,b@ b.dyty lf tc fhf vfhnj rjyatcbehb sdfkcfphbcbs^ fhfvtl atjlfkehb reknehbc sdfkcfphbcbs& fv
it[tlekt,bs^ fvltyfldt^ fm fh itb’kt,f c[dflfc[df
thjdyt,fpt^ hjujhw tsyjreknehek wyt,fpt^ cfe,fhb&
hjujhw atjlfkehb mdt.fyf^ fa[fptsb bctsbdt cfmfhsdtkj
b.j lf fa[fpb bctsbdt mfhsdtkb b.j^ hjujhw tuhbcb lf vtuhtkb^ hjujhw /thtsb lf /thb^ hjujhw mfhskb lf mfhsktkb&&&@ ~y& ,th’tybidbkb^ cfmfhsdtkjc bcnjhbbc cfrbs[t,b^
1990^ ud& 668`&

qarTveli istorikosebi afxazeTis eTnikuri
Semadgenlobis Sesaxeb

hjujhw fqbybiyf^ ‘dtkmfhsekb o.fhjt,b dhwtk nthbnjhbfc rfdrfcbbc mtlbc cfv[hts-lfcfdktsbs mfhsdtkb
[fk[bs lfcf[kt,ekfl vbbxytdlf^ vfs ijhbc bcnjhbek
fa[fptscfw& tc vbof-o.fkb sdbs vlbyfht .e,fyfvlt mfhsdtkb [fk[bs^ rth’jl^ rb vtuhtkt,bc njvbs lfcf[kt,ekfl
vbbxytjlf mhbcntij,fvlt lblb [ybs flht^ fvfc vbesbst,c
#mfhskbc w[jdht,f@& itvlujvibw^ lblb [ybc vfy’bkpt^ mfhsek cfpjufljt,fib lfhxtybkb .jabkf ktutylfuflvjwtvfw ‘dtkb fa[fptsbc vtuhtksf njvbs lfcf[kt,bs
itcf[t,& vfufkbsfl^ fyfrjabbc fqvjcfdktsbs vlt,fht nthbnjhbfc jlbib tojlf cojhtl mfhsdtkt,bc ‘dtkfl fm
13

w[jdht,bc vjcfujyt,kfl& df[einb othc% #[jkj jlbib
bcf[tkf jhbsf cf[tkbsf% gbhdtkfl vtuhtkyb^ hfvtse tuhjc fqfityf mfkfmb lf eojlf tuhb&&& [jkj jlbib _ ufyluyty hf tuhbcbc vlbyfhbc bmbsyb lf vbthsyty ,th’tysf^
bn.jlyty% #jltib b.jvt mdt.fyf bub xdtyb@ ~mfhskbc
w[jdht,f^ +|^ ud& 776`&
fm buekbc[vt,jlf itvltub vjdktyf% afhyfdfpbc vbth
cf[tkvobajc itmvybc lhjc^ hjujhw fqbybiyf^ vbc cfvtajib
itdblf nthbnjhbf vlbyfht tuhbco.kfvlt^ fv vlbyfhbc bmbs
vw[jdht,b mfhsdtkj,f vjtmwf ,th’yekb cf[tkvobajc
afhukt,ib^ fvbnjvfw b.j^ hjv tuhbco.fkc fmts vw[jdht,b
vjcf[ktj,f lfyfyt,bs fv,j,lf tuhbco.fkc bmbs vjmwtek
mdt.fyfpt _ #jltib b.j mdt.fyf bub xdtyb@^ t&b& jltcqfw bc
mdt.fyfw xdtyb b.jj& df[einbc^ bct hjujhw ‘dtk mfhsdtk
bcnjhbrjct,c^ tuhbco.kbc bmbs vjmwtekb tuhbctksf
njvbs lfcf[kt,ekfl vbfxylf& df[einbc cbn.dbs^ fyfrjabfc
fqvjcfdktsbs vlt,fht mdt.fyfc jlbib tojlf lf bc
vtuhtkt,bs b.j lfcf[kt,ekb ~fyfrjabf _ pqdbcgbhf vwbht
mfkfmb b.j ,bzdbysfcf lf cj[evc ijhbc^ kb[ybc fqvjcfdktsbs _ #f[fkb fsjyb@`&
mhbcntij,fvlt gbhdtkb fsfcoktekbc vtjht yf[tdfhib
sfyfvtlhjdt fa[fptsbc lf rbltd eahj xhlbkjtsbs vlt,fht
pqdbcgbhf nthbnjhbt,b lfcf[kt,ekb .jabkf /tybj[t,bs^
fmftkt,bs lf rthrtnt,bs^ fhwthsb fqybiyekb njvb fh vbbxytdf flbqeh njvfl^ bcbyb eahj mfhsdtkeh cfv.fhjc
erfdibhlt,bfy& vfufkbsfl^ /tybj[t,b^ hjvkt,cfw fqybiyek
gthbjlib tzbhfs rjljhbc vbvlt,fht vbof-o.fkb ,pbabc
[tj,bc xfsdkbs cjzfvlt^ fctdt cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkjibw^
rth’jl rb zjhj[bc [tj,fib w[jdhj,lyty& fa[fptscf lf mfhskib lfcf[kt,ekb /tybj[t,b ~utjuhfabek geymnt,c sfy14

fvtlhjdt cf[tkt,bs db[ctybt,s`^ xfyc^ thsb lf bubdt njvb
b.j _ vfsb rfdibhb mfhsdtkeh cfv.fhjcsfy etzdtkbf^ bctdt
hjujhw fa[fptsib itvlujv lfvrdblht,ekb cfybut,bcf lf
mfhskib ~zjhj[bc [tj,fib` vw[jdht,b _ zfyt,bcf& fctdt^
fa[fptsib itvlujv lfvrdblht,ek f,fc[t,cf lf mfhskbc
vtc[t,c ijhbc^ vfs g& byujhj.df sfyfvtnjvtt,fl vbbxytdlf&
+ lf ++ cfereytt,ib fa[fptscf lf^ cfthsjl^ rjk[tsib
[lt,jlf tsybrehb wdkbkt,t,b^ njvsf uflfflubkt,fyb& mfhsekb o.fhjc^ rth’jl^ df[nfyu ujhufcfkbc #w[jdht,bc@
sfyf[vfl^ fa[fptsbc xhlbkjtsbs tcf[kt,bfy ]bmt,b& vfsb
‘dtkb cfvij,kj xhlbkjts rfdrfcbbc wtynhfkeh cntgt,ib
vlt,fhtj,lf^ fkfyt,bc vtpj,kfl& ,th’yekb o.fhjt,bc
sfyf[vfl^ ]bmt,b lfvrdblht,ekfy pqdbc gbhfc^ bm cflfw
rthrtnt,bc vbof-o.fkb vlt,fhtj,lf _ #rjk[tsbc xhlbkjts
yfobkib ~lqtdfyltkb fa[fptsbc cfyfgbhjpt^ vbc xhlbkjtsbs`^ cfyfgbhjc ufcodhbd^ fynbrehb o.fhjt,b thsvfytsbcfufy vrdtshfl fyc[dfdt,ty cfyfgbhj pjkbc vidblj,bfy
vjcf[ktj,fc lf vjvb]yfdt vsbfytsib vw[jdht, vtjvfh
njvt,c^ gbhdtks fynbrehb nhflbwbf fresdyt,c rthrtnt,c&
fv erfyfcrytks^ fhntvbljhtc ~’d& o& ++-+ cc&` vb[tldbs^ trfdfs cfyfgbhj pjkb lff[kjt,bs lqtdfyltkb yjdjhjcbbcrblfy dblht nefactvlt& bvfdt fdnjhbc wyj,bs^ nefactc
cfv[htsbs^ cjzbc hfbjyfvlt cfyfgbhjc ufcodhbd
w[jdhj,lyty fmftkt,b^ [jkj fmtlfy cj[evbc vblfvjt,fvlt
_ /tybj[t,b& ‘d& o& + c& lfcfo.bcib eylf vjv[lfhb.j flbqehb
njvt,bc _ ]bmt,bc itvjctdf^ hjvtkybw flht rthrtnt,bs
lfcf[kt,ek nthbnjhbfpt lfcf[klyty@ ~cfm& bcn& yfhrd& n&+^
1970^ ud& 478`&
#mfhskbc w[jdht,f@ .dtkf njvc^ fa[fptsib vw[jdht,c
_ tuhjcbc isfvjvfdkfl vbbxytdlf^ ufhlf ]bmt,bcf& /tybj[t,b^
15

cfybut,b se rthrtnt,b mfhsek njvt,fl vbbxytjlf& eahj
vtnb^ cnhf,jybc wyj,bsfw fa[fptsbc cfyfgbhjpt vw[jdht,^
bv lhjbcfsdbc e’kbthtc cdfyt,bc njvc b,thbtkt,fl vbbxytdlyty& fv v[hbd^ cnhf,jybc wyj,fc ufycfresht,ekb afcb eylf
lftljc& vbc vbth fqothbkb cdfyt,b^ hjvkt,cfw b,thbtkt,cfw
eojlt,lyty^ sfyfvtlhjdt cj[evbcf lf vbvlt,fht vbofo.fkpt vrdblhj,lyty&
s& vbx,efyb othc% #lfdbo.js vcjakbjib wyj,bkb ,th’tyb
utjuhfajcbs _ cnhf,jybs^ hjvtkbw lfb,flf lff[kjt,bs
‘d& o& 64 otkc lf ufhlfbwdfkf f[& o& 24 otkc& fb^ hf wyj,t,c
udfodlbc bub cdfysf ufycf[kt,bc itcf[t,%
«Ê ÷èñëó íàðîäíîñòåé, êîòîðûå ñõîäÿòñÿ â
Äèîñêóðèàäó... æèâóò è Ñîàíè... îíè ïî÷òè ñàìûå
âîèíñòâåííûå è ñèëüíûå èç âñåõ. Âî âñÿêîì ñëó÷àå
îíè ãîñïîäñòâóþò íàä âñåìè íàðîäíîñòÿìè âîêðóã
íèõ, çàíèìàÿ âåðøèíû Êàâêàçà, âîçâûøàþùèåñÿ íàä
Äèîñêóðèàäîé, ó íèõ åñòü öàðü è ñîâåò è 300 ÷åëîâåê,
êàê ãîâîðÿò, îíè ìîãóò âûñòàâèòü âîèñêî äî 200.000
÷åëîâåê... Íåêîòîðûå íàâûâàþò èõ òàêæå èáåðèéöàìè
_ îäèíàêîãî ñ çàïàäíûìè îò çîëîòûõ ðîññûíåé,
íàõîäÿùèõñÿ â îáåèõ ñòðàíàõ... Ïðî÷èå íàðîäíîñòè,
æèâóùèå îêîëî Êàâêàçà, çàíèìàþò ñêóäíûå è
íåçíà÷èòåëüíûå ïðîñòðàíñòâà çåìëè» (Ñòðàáîí,
Ãåîãðàôèÿ, Ì., 1964, ñòð. 473-474)...
vbe[tlfdfl bvbcf^ hjv cnhf,jyb sfdbc yfihjvib dhwkfl
vbvjb[bkfdc fqvjcfdkts ifdbpqdbcgbhtsib vjcf[kt
[fk[t,c cdfyt,c^ rjk[t,c^ asbhjafut,c^ cfyt,c lf f&i&^ vfcsfy fhw ths[tk fh ud[dlt,f #f,fpfc@ fy #faibkt,bc@
vj[ctyt,f& bc fcts [fk[c cfthsjl fh bwyj,c&&& w[flbf^ hjv
cnhf,jybc lhjc lf eahj flht cdfysf ufycf[kt,bc fhtfkib
16

itlbjlf lqtdfyltkb fa[fptsbc pqdbcgbhtsbc ufhrdtekb
yfobkb vfbyw& fvfc flfcneht,c fynbrehb [fybc hjvftkb fdnjhb rkfdlbjc gnjktvfbjcbw ~f[& o& +-++ cc`& vbcb wyj,bs^
ufuhf-,bzdbysbc ctmnjhib w[jdhj,lyty #cefyjrjk[t,b@ ~y&
kjvjehb^ rkfelbjc gnjktvfbjcb^ #utjuhfabekb
cf[tkv’qdfytkj@ wyj,t,b cfmfhsdtkjc itcf[t,& b[& vfcfkt,b
#cfmfhsdtkjcf lf rfdrfcbbc bcnjhbbcfsdbc@^ yfhrd& 32^ 1955^
ud& 44`& dby fhbfy #cefyj-rjk[t,b@^ se fhf cdfyt,b lf rjk[t,b
~vtuhtk-zfyt,b`( &&&eahj vtnbw^ |++ c& #cjv[eh utjuhfabfib@ lfwekbf wyj,f bvbc itcf[t,^ hjv lqtdfyltk flkthcf lf ,bzdbysfc ijhbc rdkfd vjb[ctybt,bfy cdfyt,b&&&@ ~s&
vbx,efyb^ #dby b.dyty cefyj-rjk[t,b(@^ ufp& #cf[& ufyfs@&^ 6&
\++^ 1989 o&`&
fa[fptsbc cfyfgbhj pjkib cfybusf^ f,fput,bcf lf
faibkt,bc njvt,b f[fkb otksfqhbw[dbc + cfereybcfsdbc
ufvjxtybkfy ~cfm& bcn& yfhrd&^ +^ ud& 539`&
bcbyb vbfxybfs vsbtksf njvt,fl lf vfsb xfvjcf[kt,bc
ths-ths vbptpfl b,thbbc cfvtajc lfcecnt,f vbbxytdf
~bmdt^ ud& 540`&
#vfuhfv wtynhfkeh rjk[tsib vsbtksf xfvjcf[kt,f^
hjujhw xfyc^ [lt,jlf fhf vfhnj xhlbkjtsblfy^ fhfvtl
cfv[htsblfyfw^ cfv[hts fqvjcfdktsib ifdbpqdbcgbhts vsbfytsblfy&&& tctyb evsfdhtcfl lfcfdkeh mfhsekb ~zfyehb`
njvt,b b.dyty& vfs^ bctdt hjujhw xhlbkj rjk[tsbc
vsbtkt,c dthfathc e[th[t,lyty ufysmvekb hjvftkb
v[tlfhsvsfdht,b&&& zjhj[bcf lf fh[fdt-cec itcfhsfdt,c
ijhbc 'blhbnt,bc njvb vrdblhlt,f^ hjvtkbw f[&o& ++ c&
b,thbbc vtabc vjhxbkt,fib bv.jat,f^ rbltd eahj xhlbkjtsbs rb^ wtynhfkehb rjk[tsbc pqdbcgbhf pjkib^ fmnbehb hjkbc itchekt,fc bo.t,ty kfpt,b& tc vtuhek-zfye17

hb njvbw^ itb’kt,f cfv[hts-fqvjcfdkts vsbfytsblfy
xfvjcf[klf&&& xfvjcf[kt,ekb vsbtkt,b yfobkj,hbd cltdybfy^ vfuhfv yfobkj,hbd thtdbfy ,fhbc 'dtk flubkj,hbd^ tybs
pju]th vfssfy f[kjc vlujv vjcf[ktj,fc ~fctsb b.j fk,fs
dbsfht,f^ rth’jl^ kfpt,bc ufdhwtkt,bc nthbnjhbfpt^
cflfw erdt lblb [ybc vfy’bkpt fuhtsdt vtuhek-zfyehb
~pfyehb` rjk[ehb njvt,b vjcf[ktj,ty&&&@ ~bmdt^ ud& 540`&
hjvbc vj[tkt fhbfyt bvgthfnjh flhbfytc othlf
rjk[tsbc vjcf[ktj,bc itcf[t,% #vfrhjyt,bcf lf /tybj[t,bc
vtpj,kt,b ‘blhbnt,b fhbfy& tctyb afhcvfybc mdtitdhljvt,b
fhbfy^ ‘blhbnt,bc udthlbs kfpt,b fhbfy&&& kfpt,bc
vtpj,kt,b facbkt,b fhbfy&&& facbkt,bc vtpj,kt,b f,fcrt,b
fhbfy&&& f,fcrsf vtpj,kt,b cfybut,b fhbfy^ vfs vbofpt bv.jat,f
ct,fcnjgjkbcb@& ++ c-bc ,jkjcfsdbc dbsfht,f itwdkbkbf _
f,fcut,b eahj xhlbkjtsbs vjb[ctyt,bfy& #tut,bc flht
cfv[htsbs ofvjotekb faibkt,b lf f,fcfut,b kfpt,vf rjljhc uflfqvf erefultc^ cflfvltw flht ,bpfynbehb [fybc
wyj,t,bs tsyjuhfabekfl erdt kfpt,bc nthbnjhbf
dhwtklt,jlf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 545`&
gfdkt byujhj.dfc vjcfpht,bs f,fcrt,b^ fye f,fc[t,b fhbfy vtc[t,b _ mfhsekb njvb& cfthsjl^ fv lhjbcfsdbcfw
fa[fptsib vw[jdht,b .dtkf njvb^ faibkt,bc lf f,fcrt,bc
xfsdkbs _ mfhsdtkeh njvfl bsdkt,f _ ]bmt,bc ufhlf^
hjvkt,bw fa[fptsbc #,jkjc@^ vbc ufhts w[jdhj,lyty^ fctdt .jabkf |+++ cfereytvlt #fa[fptsbc cfvtajc@ ofhvjmvybc
lhjc lf vbc itvlujvfw&
#o.fhjt,bc ufy[bkdblfy bhrdtdf^ hjv fa[fptsbc v[fhtsf
nthbnjhbf vstkb fv gthbjlbc vfy’bkpt^ hjujhw fynbreh
[fyfib^ bct cfiefkj cfereytt,ib^ lfcf[kt,ekb .jabkf mfhsdtkb njvt,bs^ cf[tklj,h%
18

1& #ief cjatkib@^ t&b& nthbnjhbfpt tuhbco.kblfy dblht
rtkfcehfvlt _ vjcf[ktj,lyty tuhbctkyb _ vtuhtk-kfpyb*
2& vsf fa[fptsb ~’bhbsflb fa[fptsb` lfcf[kt,ekb
.jabkf njvbs^ hjvkbc njvj,hbdb cf[tkojlt,f .jabkf
#vjc[b@^ bubdt vtc[b& hjujhw bhrdtdf^ fa[fptsibw flubkb /
mjybf bctsbdt nthbnjhbek sfyfvtpj,kj,fc vtuhtk kfpeh
lf vtc[sf njvt,bcf^ hjujhw xdty udfmdc cfv[hts rjk[blfib^
cflfw cfvtuhtkjcf lf zfytsbc ief pjksf ijhbc fhbc itzhbkb vtc[ehb njvbc inj ~uehekt,b lf mj,ektstkb
fzfhkt,b`& hjvtk lbfktmnpt kfgfhfrj,lf fa[fptsbc
vtc[sf tc njvb^ cfreshbd mfhsekpt^ se flubkj,hbd tuhbcek lbfktmnpt^ ufehrdtdtkb hxt,f& cfabmht,tkbf^ hjv
sfdlfgbhdtkb tyf fv njvt,bcf cfreshbd mfhsekb b.j^ hfcfw
udfabmht,byt,c vstkb hbub utjuhfabekb cf[tkt,bc cfreshbd mfhsekb [fcbfsb*
3& iblf /tybj[tsb ~cjzbc hfbjyb`^ hjujhw fynbreh [fyfib^ bct cfiefkj cfereytt,ib^ lfcf[kt,ekb b.j vtuhtkkfpsf njvbs*
4& pqdbcgbhf fa[fptsb ~’dtkb cfv[htsb /tybj[tsb` fynbreh [fyfib ofhvjflutylf /tybj[sf cfnjvj nthbnjhbfc^
[jkj fynbrehb [fybc lfcfchekblfy vjrblt,ekb tc pjyf^
hjujhw fqybiyekb udmjylf^ vtc[t,bs ~fa[fpt,bc` cfnjvj
nthbnjhbbc afhukt,ibf vjmwtekb*
5& f,cbktsib ~hjvkbc ‘dtkb cf[tkojlt,ff rjhf[tsb`
yfhtdb vjcf[ktj,f b.j jhb mfhsdtkb njvbcf% vtuhtkkfpt,bcf lf vtc[t,bcf*
6& vbcbvbfytsib ~hjvkbc ‘dtkb cf[tkojlt,ff rjkftsb`
fctdt yfhtdb vjcf[ktj,f b.j jhb mfhsdtkb njvbcf% vtuhtk-kfpt,bcf lf cdfyt,bcf& fv v[fhtib vjcf[kt njvc
vbtvfhst,jlf cf[tkojlt,f #cdfy-rjk[t,b@ fye tuthcdfyt,b@ ~t&b& vtuhtk-cdfyt,b`*
19

7& lfcfchek^ bcnjhbekb fa[fptsbc .dtkfpt xhlbkjtsbs vlt,fht v[fht _ fa[fptsbc ]bmtsb^ fye ‘dtkb xhlbkj /tybj[tsb ~nefacbc hfbjyb` _ fynbreh [fyfib
lfcf[kt,ekb .jabkf vtuhtk-kfpsf njvbs /tybj[t,bs^
[jkj fynbrehb [fybc ,jkj gthbjlcf lf cfiefkj
cfereytt,ib fv v[fhtib ithtekb vjcf[ktj,ff /tybj[t,bcf
~cfybut,bcf` lf ]bmt,bcf@ ~g& byujhj.df^ ubjhub vthxekt^
1954^ ud& 129`&
v& ,th’tybidbkb sfdbc htwtypbfib lflt,bsfl fafct,lf
g&byujhj.dfc rdktdfc% #cojhb eylf b.jc g&byujhj.df^
hjltcfw bub c[df mfhsek njvsf ijhbc^ hjvtkybw
vjcf[ktj,lyty ifdb pqdbc xhlbkj-fqvjcfdkts cfyfgbhjpt
fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjc itmvybc lhjc lf vjvltdyj [fyt,ib ~ief
cfereytt,ib` vtuhek-kfpeh njvt,c /tybj[-cfyb[t,cfw
fcf[tkt,c@ ~t&[jinfhbf _ ,hjct^ vtwybthbc fhmbdblfy^
#vyfsj,b@^ =5^ ud& 140`&
pjubthsb vtwybthb faibkt,cf lf f,fput,c fh vbbxytdc
mfhsdtk njvfl^ vfuhfv fh efh.jac fa[fptsib vrdblhb mfhsekb vjcf[ktj,bc fhct,j,fc&
#bcnjhbekb fa[fptsbc nthbnjhbfpt facbkt,bcf lf
f,fput,bc udthlbs bvsfdbsdt cf[kj,lyty mfhsdtkehb
njvt,bw _ hjujhw vtuhek-zfyehb^ bct cdfyehb& ++ c-bc
,jkjcfsdbc facbkt,cf lf f,fput,c dbsfht,f itwdkbfs^ vfs
xhlbkjtsbs uflfbyfwdktc lf facbkt,bc ufycf[kt,bc
cfv[htsb cfpqdfhb uf[lf erdt vlbyfht rjljhb ~rbckbyub^
u& vtkbmbidbkb^ p& fyxf,f’t`& facbkt,b lf f,fput,b fhfclhjc
sfyfvtlhjdt ufkbc hfbjybc nthbnjhbfpt fh cf[kj,lyty^
[jkj ++ c-bc ,jkjlfy bcbyb rjljhbc uflvjqvfw fqfh
dhwtklt,jlyty lf fvltyfl fqfhw sfyfvtlhjdt jxfvxbhtc
hfbjybc vbof-o.fkpt cf[kj,lyty& +| c-ib facfkt,b^ f,fput,b
20

lf cfybut,b lfbmdtvlt,fhf kfpbrbc^ fye tuhbcbc cfvtajv^ cefyj-rjk[t,bc o.fhjt,ib [ctyt,f fqfh ud[dlt,f^ cfvfubthjl^
,bpfynbtkb facbkt,bc eiefkj vtpj,kfl ,bpfynbtkb
bcnjhbrjct,b fufsbf cmjkfcnbrjcb lf vtyfylht ghjnbmnjhb fcf[tkt,lyty vbcbvbfysf njvc^ vbcbvbfyt,b elfdjl cdfyehb njvbf ~c& .fe[xbidbkb`& fvhbufl^ fv lhjcfw vl& rjljhbc uflfqvf v[fhtib^ facbk-f,fput,bc udthlbs^ vrdblhfl
cf[kj,lyty vtuhek-zfyehb lf cdfyehb njvt,b& +| c-bc
,jkjc se |++ c-bc lfcfo.bcib ,bpfynbbc [tkbceakt,fv rjljhbc xhlbkjtsbs vlt,fht v[fht kfpbrbcfufy ufvj/.j lf
eiefkjl lfemdtvlt,fhf sfdbc flvbybcnhfwbek
vvfhsdtkj,fc^ fct ufxylf f,fpusf cfvsfdhj ~c& ]fyfibf^ p&
fyxf,f’t^ v& uey,f`& sfdbcsfdfl w[flbf^ hjv fv cfvsfdhjc
itvflutykj,fib itdblyty facbksf lf f,fpusf njvt,sfy thsfl fv htubjybc mfhsdtkehb vjcf[ktj,f@ ~y& kjvjehb^
#hjujh eylf udtcvjltc tsyjvb #fa[fpb@^ #kbn& cfm&@^ 1989^
7& +|`& fvbnjvfw tsyjv #fa[fpbc@ mdti bvsfdbsdt mfhsdtkehb vjcf[ktj,fw buekbc[vt,jlf&
hjujhw fqbybiyf^ vtwybthsf thsb yfobkb sdkbc^ hjv
facbkt,b mfhsdtkehb njvt,b b.dyty& fv itvs[dtdfib tsyjybvb #fa[fpb@ ]th rbltd fa[fpsf cfthbcsfdjib mfhsek-mfhsdtkehb vjcf[ktj,bc ufvjcf[fnfdfl ufvjb.tyt,jlf^
[jkj bvbc itvltu^ hfw fa[fpsf cfvtaj itbmvyf^ hjvkbc
vjcf[ktj,bc elbltc evhfdktcj,fc itflutylyty tuhbctkt,b
lf cdfyt,b^ mfhst,sfy thsfl tsyjybvb #fa[fpb@ erdt vstkb
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,bc ufvjcf[fnfdfl
ufvjb.tyt,f^ #fa[fpb ybiyfdlf fv lhjc fv htubjybc vstk
vjcf[ktj,fc@ ~bmdt`& vbe[tlfdfl bvbcf^ tsybrehfl se
hjujhb itvflutykj,bcff #fa[fptsbc cfvtaj@^ fa[fpb
rjyatcbehb lf reknehekb sdfkcfphbcbs ‘dtk cfmfhsdt21

kjib mfhsdtkc ofhvjflutylf ~y& ,th’tybidbkb`& #&&&fa[fpb
bctsbdt mfhsdtkb b.j^ hjujhw tuhbcb lf vtuhtkb^ hjujhw
/thtsb lf /thb^ hjujhw mfhskb lf mfhsktkb% &&& fvfc fct
uh’yj,lf bjfyt vfheibc ‘t jsfqj ifhdfibc ‘t lf wjnyt lflbfyb^ rf[f,th uehbtkb lf ,tmf ]f.tkb& fvfc fctdt uh’yj,lyty
rj[nfc sfdc itsmvekyb lf fhfdby vfsufyb c[dfl fh uh’yj,lf
sfdc se fhf #cfmfhsdtkjc idbkfl@& c[df thsbfyb
atjlfkeh-reknehekb thstekb cfmfhsdtkjib bv lhjc
fh fhct,j,lf@ ~y& ,th’tybidbkb^ lfcf[& yfih& ud& 608`&
|+++ cfereytib lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj vjbwdf #fa[fpsf
cfvtajv@^ itbmvyf f[fkb cf[tkvobaj^ bcvbc rbs[df%
xfvj.fkb,lf se fhf bm f[fkb tsybrehb thsj,f _ #fa[fpb
[fk[b@& fhf^ fh xfvj.fkb,t,ekf^ fa[fptsbc cfvtaj mfhsdtksf cf[tkvobaj b.j^ [jkj fa[fpyb _ mfhsdtkt,b& y&
,th’tybidbkb dhwtkb vc]tkj,bc itvltu fcrdybc% #fvhbufl^
fhfdbsfhb fa[fpb atjlfkeh thjdyt,bc rjycjkblfwbf fh
vjv[lfhf&&& fhfdbsfhb vtuhekb atjlfkehb thjdyt,f fh
xfvj.fkb,t,ekf^ fhfvtl sfdbcb flubkb vfy atjlfkeh mfhsek thjdyt,fib bgjdf^ bubdt bsmvbc rbltd eahj vtnbc
cfae’dtkbs^ fa[fptspt% atjlfkehb thjdyt,bc xfvj.fkb,t,bcfsdbc fa[fptsc fhw rjkjybehb cf[tkvobajt,hbdb
nhflbwbf uffxylf lf fhw htfkehb c[df cfiefkt,fyb^ cojhtl
fvbnjv vj[lf #ewyfehb@ fv,fdb% fa[fpsf lbyfcnbf cfsfdtib
xfeluf mfhsekb atjlfkehb cf[tkvobajc ityt,fc^ mfhsekb reknehbc cfvcf[ehc@ ~bmdt^ ud& 592`&
vfhsfkbf^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj vjbwdf #fa[fpsf cfvtajv@^ vfuhfv bc b.j fhf fa[fpehb cfvtaj^ fhfvtl mfhsekb&
fvbc vbptpb .jabkf bc^ hjv fv mdt.fyfib vjcf[ktj,bc elbltc yfobkc mfhsdtkt,b itflutylyty& y& ,th’tybidbkbc fphbs^ fa[fp vtatsf lbyfcnbfv itmvyf fhf fa[fpehb
22

cf[tkvobaj^ fhfvtl mfhsekb^ bcbyb fa[fpehb cf[tkvobajc
itvmvytkyb hjv .jabkb.dyty@&&& ,th’yekbc flubkfc
fa[fpehb lfvothkj,f eylf uftxbyfs^ t&b& eylf itt’byfs
.dtkf bc ybifyb^ hjvtkbw atjlfkeh thjdyt,fc atjlfkehb cf[tkvobajsb f[fcbfst,c& fa[fpsf bcnjhbekb cfvtaj
.jdkfl efh.jac fa[fpeh atjlfkehb thjdyt,bc rjycjkblfwbfc@ ~bmdt^ ud& 593`& |+++-+\ cfereytt,b tc fhbc tgjmf fhf
fa[fpb thjdyt,bc rjycjkblbht,bcf tuhbco.kbc lfcfdktsbs^
fhfvtl tc b.j fa[fptsbc cf,jkjjl itlujvf mfhsek
atjlfkeh thjdyt,fib #cfrjycjkblfwbjl@ ~bmdt^ ud& 591`&
fa[fptsbc cfvtajib cf[tkvobaj tyf^ jabwbfkehb^ reknehbc se cftrktcbj tyf b.j v[jkjl lf v[jkjl mfhsekb
tyf^ lfvothkj,fw mfhsekb^ fv cf[tkvobajib cfthsjl fhfdbsfhb rdfkb fh fhct,j,c fa[fpehb tybc hfbvt cathjib
ufvj.tyt,bcf^ bcbw rb lfelutytkbf^ cfthsjl fhct,j,lf se
fhf fa[fpehb tyf fv cf[tkvobajib^ vbc fhct,j,fc fh
flfcneht,c vfnthbfkehb vfcfkt,b ~njgjybvt,bc itcf[t,
mdtvjs doths`&
fa[fptsbc cfvtajc ltlfmfkfmb ‘bh’dtk mfhsek mfkfmib
mesfbcib bmyf uflfnfybkb& fmfvlt lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc
ths yfobkib at[vjrblt,ekb ,th’yekb trktcbf fa[fp
vtatsf lbyfcnbfv sfdbc cf[tkvobajlfy uff’tdf lf vbc yfwdkfl bm fqflubyf mfhsekb trktcbbc ‘dtkb behbclbmwbf&
,th’yekb cftgbcrjgjcjt,b fvfdt lbyfcnbfv itwdfkf mfhsekbs^ [jkj trktcbt,blfy uf’tdt,ekb ,th’yekb cftrktcbj tybc yfwdkfl fqlutybk bmyf mfhsektyjdfyb
qdsbcvcf[eht,f&
vfc itvltu^ hfw xfvj.fkb,lf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc
#fa[fptsbc cfvtaj@&&& cjv[eh o.fhjt,ib fv
cf[tkvobajt,hbd thstekc tojlt,f tuhbcbc cfvtaj^ [jkj
23

fa[fpsf vtatt,c tojlt,f #tuhbctkyb@^ fye #vtuhtkyb@^
nthvbyb tuhbctkb fm cbyjybvbf nthvbybc #fa[fpbc@ ~g&
byujhj.df^ lfcf[& yfih& ufv& 321`&
cojhtl fvbnjv^ fa[fptsc mfhsdtkt,b sfdbc cfvij,kjl^
sfdbfys mdt.fyfl vbbxytdlyty^ ubjhub vsfovbyltkbw fvbnjv
fv,j,lf #ths ovbylfsf sjhvtnsf vjwbmeksfufyb^ cbvjyc
dbn.db rfyfytkcf mdt.fyfcf xdtycf lfvfh[ek fhc _ fa[fptsc^
hjvtkcf ybrjacb tojlt,bc^ fvfs ovbylfsf vjwbmeksf
ufyfskt,ekyb dfhs@&
b.j se fhf \-\+ cfereytsf mfhsdtkt,bc sdfkib fa[fpb
c[df thbc c[df #yfstcfdbc@ flfvbfyb@( fhf^ fh .jabkf&
mfhsdtkt,bcfsdbc fa[fpb #yfstcfdbs mfhsdtkbf@^ vfhsfkbf^ ths mfhsek sfhuvfyib ud[dlt,f nthvbyb #fa[fpb yfstcfdbs@^ vfuhfv bub ,th’yek o.fhjt,ib vjs[hj,bkuflvjwtvekb fv,bc sfhuvfybf&
#&&&vtatv becnbfytv vfssfy thsfl cfcf[kbc tdyemsfufyb
uffupfdyf^ njvbs f,fpub^ cf[tkfl tdahfnf lf vbcb
cfiefkt,bs ferh’fkf vfs^ hjv fvbthbsufy fqfhfdby
uftcfzehbct,byfs fv njvib@ othc tdfuht ghjrjgbc vbth
vjs[hj,bkc ~utjhubrf^ 1936^ n& +++^ ud& 297`& mfhsdtkt,c \+
c-ib ptvjs vj.dfybkb obyflflt,f ,th’tyb fdnjhbcf fct esfhuvybfs - #&&&gfkfnfc ibyf becnbybfyt vtabcfcf b.j b.j dbyvt
cfzehbcb fa[fpb yfstcfdbs lf tdahfnf cf[tkbc lt,bs^ hjvtkb ofhbdkbyf vtabcf vbth mflfut,fl vfslf lf fqsmvfl dbsfhvtl fvbthbsufy fhfwf thsbwf dby yfstcfdbcf vfsbcufyb
ufy[et,ek bmytc vfvfrfwj,bcfufy@ ~b[& y& ,th’tybidbkb^ lfcf[&
yfih& ud& 568`&
t&b& mfhsdtkt,c |+ c-bc fdnjhbc #njvbs f,fpub@ esfhuvybfs hjujhw #yfstcfdb fa[fpb@^ #njvb@ _ #yfstcfdb@
c[dfudfhfl sfhuvyf ite’kt,tkb b.j^ fvbnjvfw fhfcojhbf
24

y&,th’tybidbkbc lfcrdyf fqybiyek sfhuvfypt% #fa[fpt,b \+
cfereybc mfhsdtkbc sdfkib wfkrt yfstcfdbf^ yfstcfdbc ybifyb rb tyff@ ~bmdt^ ud& 568`&
fa[fpt,b fhw mfhsdtkt,bc lf fhw ew[jtkt,bc sdfkib
mfhsdtksfufy ufyc[dfdt,ekyb fh .jabkfy&
vfufkbsfl^ rj[nfcsfdbc itsmveksfufy ths-thsc _
wjnyt lflbfyc xdtyb vtvfnbfyt fa[fpc eojlt,c^ c[dflfc[df
res[blfy itrht,bk lblt,eksf itrht,bc itvltu _ #eijhtc
v.jayb fa[fpyb _ lflbfyb wjnyt lf ,tlbfyb^ &&& lf hfzbc thbcsfdb tc .jdtkyb ofhdbltc rfpvfl@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ ++^
ud& 215`&
vtvfnbfytcfsdbc lflbfyb^ ,tlbfyb lf hfzbc thbcsfdb
fa[fpt,b fhbfy^ sevwf rb vfs tsybrehfl vtvfnbfyt bmdt
mfhsdtkt,c eojlt,c^ bct hjujhw bm itrht,bk cfmfhsdtkjc
.jdtkb res[bc ofhxbyt,ekc _ ofhxbyt,ekc _ #tcvf sfsfhsf thsufy itrht,f mfhsdtksfj@ _ othc bc& fctdt vjyqjkt,bw
#mfhsdtkt,c@ eojlt,ty fybcib gfnbvhfl xf.dfybk fqybiyek
ofhxbyt,ekt,c^ wjnyt lflbfysfy thsfl& fybcib xfcdkbc itvltu vjyujkt,b fct ,zj,ty% #dbyfblfy mfhsdtksfyb tcjlty
rtsbk fhbfy lf fhf ufywhedlt,bfy^ hjvtk fa[fptsbs vjdblf rfwb^ hfsf cekb sfdbcb vj.dfcbcfsdbc lfljcj@ ~bmdt^ ud&
917`& fmtlfy xfyc^ hjv vjyujkt,bcsdbcfw rb wyj,bkbf^ hjv
fa[fptsblfy vjcekb rfwb thjdyt,bs fa[fpb rb fhff^ fhfvtl
#yfstcfdbs mfhsdtkbf@ _ fvbnjvfw bc n.ebkc fh bn.dbcj&
vtvfnbfybcfsdbc #fa[fpb@ _ tsybrehfl mfhsdtkbf^ tc
wyj,bkbf fhf vfhnj mfhsdtkb cfpjufljt,bcfsdbc^ fhfvtl
vjyqjksfsdbcfw&

25

afxazeTis toponimebi

mfhsek bcnjhbjuhfabfcf lf tyfsvtwybtht,fib
itveifdt,ekbf /bgjstpf^ hjvkbc sfyf[vfl fa[fpeh-flbqeh-xthmtpek njvt,c ths lhjc trfdfs lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc ifdbpqdbcgbhf nthbnjhbf^ vfs cfw[jdhbcfl 'bhbsflfl bdfhfelt,f uehbf-cfvtuhtkj& dfhfelb lfv.fht,ekbf
jyjvfcnbrbc vjyfwtvt,pt^ rth’jl^ njgjybvbreh^ t&b& utjuhfabek cf[tkojlt,fsf vjyfwtvt,pt^ hjvkt,cfw fa[fpehflbqeh-xthmtpekb tyj,hbdb cfv.fhjc resdybkt,fl vbbxytdty& lfo.t,ekb y& vfhblfy b& ]fdf[bidbkb^ c& ]fyfibf^ f&
xbmj,fdf^ m&kjvsfsb’t lf c[dt,b abmhj,lyty^ hjv
cf[tkojlt,fyb^ hjvkt,ibw ufvjb.jaf -acf^ -.df ~-[df^ -rdf^
-mdf` lf -af ,jkjrblehb tktvtynt,b cojhtl ptvj[ctyt,ekb
tyj,hbdb cfv.fhjc resdybkt,ff ~k&cekfvfyb’t^ t&o& fa[fpehflbqeh-xthmtpek tktvtynsf itcf[t, mfhsdtkeh cfresfh cf[tkt,ib^ ;& #ufysbflb@^ ud& 131`&
gfdkt byujhj.dfv itbcofdkf fa[fptsbc utjuhfabekb
‘dtkb cf[tkt,b^ hjvkt,bw vj[ctyt,ekbf cfbcnjhbj
o.fhjt,ib fynbrehb [fyblfy lf ief cfereytt,blfy lf
lffcrdyf% #.dtkf tc cf[tkojlt,fyb^ hjujhw ufbhrdf^ mfhsek tyj,hbd cfv.fhjc tresdybc@ ~g&byujhj.df^ ubjhub vthxekt^ ud& 146`&
vbe[tlfdfl bvbcf^ hjv gfdkt byujhj.dfv fa[fptsbc
v[fhtsf njgjybvt,bc mfhsekj,f vtwybthekb rdktdf-’bt,bs
lfflfcnehf^ xdty itudt’kj fh lfdsfy[vt,jlbs vfc^ vfuhfv
gfdkt byujhj.dfc lf,flt,fvlt fa[fptsbc njgjybvt,bc
mfhsekj,fc flfcneht,lyty sdbs fa[fpt,b^ fa[fptsbc .dtkf
cjwbfkehb atybc ofhvjvflutykt,b^ 1870 otkc itlutybk
‘fkpt jabwbfkeh #vj[ctyt,bs ,fhfsib@^ hjvtkbw vfs of26

helubytc utythfk-flbenfyn cdbfnjgjkr-vbhcrbc& rth’jl^
bcbyb othlyty% «áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ìåñòíîñòåé íîñèò
ãðóçèíñêèå íàçâàíèÿ» («Äîêëàäíàÿ çàïèñêà
äåï óòàò îâ À áõàç ñêîã î è Ñàìó ðçàã àíñê îãî
äâîðÿíñòâà», ufp& #cf[& ufyfskt,f@^ 23 bdybcb^ 1990 otkb`&
w[flbf^ bcbyb v[jkjl fa[fptsbc flubksf utjuhfabekb
cf[tkt,bc mfhsdtkj,bc itcf[t, othty^ fvfib lfhoveyt,f
ite’kbf fqybiyekb vj[ctyt,bc ofvrbs[dtkc& fvfcsfy thsfl^ ltgenfnt,c itt’kjs cfthsjl fh t[ctyt,byfs fqybiyekb
afmnb^ hflufyfw fvbc ufhtitw fldbkfl vbfqotdlyty sfdbfysb vbcohfat,bc ufy[jhwbtkt,fc& fv itvs[dtdfib bcbyb
vjec.bldtkb vjovtt,b fhbfy&
vfifcflfvt^ fa[fptsbc njgjybvt,bc #lblb yfobkbc@
mfhsekj,fc gfdkt byujhj.dfvltw vbfmwbtc .ehflqt,f lf
vbc itvltufw vhfdfkb vrdktdfhb othlf fvbc itcf[t,&
gfdkt byujhj.df othc^ hjv fa[fptsbc #’dtk utjuhfabek cf[tkojlt,fsf ijhbc xdty dth dgjekj,s dthw ths
cf[tkojlt,fc^ hjvtkbw b[cyt,jltc xthmtpekb ]ueabc
tybs& fvbc vb[tldbs chekbfl firfhf [lt,f ecfae’dkj,f bv
it[tlekt,bcf^ hjvtkbw fv v[fhbc ‘bhbsfl vjcf[ktj,fc
xthmtpek injc vbfresdyt,lf& fvhbufl^ utjuhfabekb
cf[tkojlt,fyb b’ktdbfy chekbfl ufhrdtek xdtyt,fc bvbc
itcf[t,^ hjv se dby b.j ,byflfhb vrdblhb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 146`&
g& byujhj.df ffyfkbpt,c fa[fptsbc .dtkf njgjybvc^
hjvtkbw rb e’dtktcb lhjblfy fynbreh se c[df o.fhjt,ibf
yf[ctyt,b^ vfsb mfhsekj,f sdfkyfstkbf ~bmdt^ ud& 146-188`&
fa[fptsbc e’dtktcb vjcf[ktj,f [tt,c^ vwtyfhtt,c cwtvlf sf.dfyc _ ghjrjgb rtcfhbtkb^ |+ cfereybc wyj,bkb ,bpfynbtkb vothfkb^ othlf vfs itcf[t,% #tc ,fh,fhjct,b xdtyc
lhjvltcfw sf.dfyc cwtvty zfkt,cf lf n.tt,c& [tt,b
,fh,fhjpc hfqfw ueke,h.dbkj,bc ufvj qvthst,fl ofhvje27

lutybf@ ~utjhubrf^ n& 2^ 1965^ ud& 133`& ‘dtkb fa[fpt,bc fv
ofhvjlutyfc fcf[df egjdbf njgjybvbrfibw^ cf[tkt,b
pjubthsb mfkfmbcf se lfcf[kt,ekb geymnbcf [bc
cf[tkt,sfyff lfrfdibht,ekb lf^ hjujhw otcb^ mfhsek
tyj,hbd cfv.fhjc erfdibhlt,f& fctst,bf^ vfufkbsfl^ cjzb^
fzfylfhf^ ufuhf ~ufuhb`^ ,pbab^ ob,tkf^ w[evb^ ,bzdbysf& vwtyfhtek cfv.fhjc erfdibhlt,f vth[tekb^ n.e,eyb lf c[df&
#cf[tkojlt,f mfkfmbcf cjzb lfrfdibht,ekb [bc
cf[tksfy _ cjzb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 160`&
fzfylfhf _ #vwtyfhtekj,bc reknbc ths-ths vsfdfh
wtynhfl fa[fptsib bsdkt,jlf cojhtl tc cjatkb zfylfhb
~fzfylfhf&&& cjatkc zfylfhbcfufy vbeqbf cf[tkojlt,f`& fm
cfzbhjf fqdybiyjs fuhtsdt^ hjv cbn.df zfylfhb ewyj,bf
xthmtpekb injc tyfib &&& ufhlf cjatk zfylfhbcf^ vwtyfhtsf
sf.dfybc wtvbc ofhvfhsekb reknbc vtjht vsfdfhb wtynhb
.jabkf ,pb,bc [tj,bcf lf ,pbc yfdcfluehbc v[fhtib &&& [jkj
.dtkfpt e’dtktcb lf .dtkfpt vybidytkjdfyb wtynhb vwtyfhtsf sf.dfybcwtvbc ofhvfhsekb reknbcf bcnjhbek ofhcekib b.j ,bzdbysf^ cflfw fhbc ufysmvekb abzdbc [t^ hjvtkbw htkbubeh cbovbyltl bsdkt,jlf lf cfblfyfw vbeqbf
cf[tkojlt,f fv geymnc _ ,bzdbysf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 161`&
#ufuhf _ wyj,bkb pqdbcgbhf rehjhnbf^ qekbt ~\|+++
c&` vfc #rfrhf@-c eojlt,c _ tc fhbc bubdt cdfyehb cbn.df
#ufrhf@^ hfw ybudpyfhc ybiyfdc^ ufuhf _ ,bzdbysbc nthbnjhbfpt lqtcfw ths flubkc #jht[jdfbf hjixfc@ t’f[bfy@ ~s&
vbx,efyb^ lfcf[& yfih&`&
#,pbab _ ,pb,b _ #cf[tkojlt,fyb ,pbabc ~,pt,bc` [tj,bcf
lf vlbyfhbcf^ fctdt cf[tkb cjakbcf ,pb,b ~,pt,b`^ mfhsekb
ofhvjij,bcff lf lfrfdibht,ekbf cf[tksfy ,pf ~g&
byujhj.df^ ud& 149`&
28

ot,tklf _ ‘dtkb cf[tkbf ob,tkb^ ob,tksf
#&&&lfrfdibht,ekbf [bc cf[tksfy% ob,tkb^ bubdt obatkb &&&
cbn.df ob,tkb ~obatkb` vtuhek-kfpehib ufvjbsmvbc
hjujhw obaehb^ fv cf[bs fhbc ofhvjlutybkb utjuhfabek
cf[tkt,ibw@ ~bmdt^ ud& 153`&
w[evb _ cj[evbc e’dtktcb cf[tkb% #vrdktdfht,b vfc
erfdibht,ty cdfyeh cbn.dfc _ #w[ev@ _ hw[bkf@ ~s& vbx,efyb`&
hw[bkfc vtuhekfl _ w[evehb tojlt,f&
hw[bkfc lfcfdkeh lbfktmnib w[vtkf /mdbf& w[vtkbc
[t vfhskfw cfreknj [tl b.j wyj,bkb lfcfdkeh mfhsek
njvt,ib& ths-thsb lqtcfcofekbc lhjc _ #cfufyut,jl fv
lqbcfsdbc bzht,jlf w[vtkbc itif@ ~k& zfyzfktbidbkb^
rfkfylj,f uehbfib@ _ tsyjuhfabekb ‘bt,fyb^ 1988^ ud& 77`&
bvbc ufvj^ hjv w[vtkf _ cfreknj [t b.j^ #uehbbc cjakt,ib
vjcf[ktj,fc sfdbc rfh-vblfvjib /mjylf w[vtkbc [tt,b^ evtntc itvs[dtdfib tc [tt,b ohbekfl b.j ufykfut,ekb^ cflfw
zeht,b b.j xfakekb^ fmdt b.j vfhfyb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 77^ itybidyf
6`& w[vtkfc ‘dtkb ajhvf itb’kt,f b.j w[jvtkf^ fmtlfy
w[jvb^ .jdtk itvs[dtdfib vbcufy yfofhvjt, mfhsek njgjybvc bwyj,c |++ cfereybc cjv[ehb utjuhfabf iblf mfhskib^
rth’jl^ fv utjuhfabbc vb[tldbs^ sfyfvtlhjdt w[bydfksfy
.jabkf v[fht _ w[evfhtsb& #cf[tkojlt,f w[jvb^ w[evb^
hjujhw xfyc^ vbcb uhfvfnbrekb ufajhvt,blfy mfhsekb
ofhvjij,bcff&&& itflfhts fuhtsdt utjuhfabekb
cf[tkojlt,fyb iblf cfmfhsdtkjib% w[evfhb^ fye w[vfhb
~cf[tkb stvbcf cdfytsib`^ w[vjhb ~hfzfib`^ w[vjhbcb ~fzfhfib`^ w[jvfhtsb ~bvthtsib`&&& cf[tkojlt,f v[fhbcf #x[evb@
~g&byujhj.df^ ud& 147`&
,bzdbysf _ #cf[tkojlt,f fv geymnbcf abzdbc cf[tksfy
fhbc lfrfdibht,ekb^ hjujhw wyj,bkbf^ ,bzdbysfib
29

vlt,fhtj,c ufysmvekb abzdbc n.t^ hjvtkbw cfqvhsj n.tl
bsdkt,jlf& cf[tkojlt,fib _ ,bzdbysf ae’t cbn.df #,bzdb@
bubdtf^ hfw abzdb@^ hfw itt[t,f lf,jkjt,fc ~#ysf@`^ tc fhbc
utjuhfabek cf[tkojlt,fsf xdtekt,hbdb mfhsekb ajhvfynb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 148`&
vth[tekb _ cjatkb uekhbaibc hfbjyib _ #njgjybvb
vjvlbyfhtj,c cdfyehb cbn.dblfy #vth[tk@ ~zbyzfhb`& zbyzfhb fm lqtcfw afhsjl ufdhwtkt,ekb vwtyfhtf@ ~s& vbx,efyb`&
e’dtktc o.fhjt,ib g&byujhj.dfc vbth vj’bt,ek mfhsek
tyj,hbdb cfv.fhjcflvb vbresdyt,ek 136 njgjybvblfy xdty
v[jkjl hfvjltybvt vjdb.dfyts sdfkcfxbyjt,bcfsdbc^ hjvtkybw flfcneht,ty^ hjv e’dtktcb vjcf[ktj,f fa[fptsbcf
b.j mfhsektyjdfyb^ fctdt lfhxtybkf bc lblb [ybc vfy’bkpt^
xhlbkjrfdrfcbehb njvt,bc xfvjcf[kt,fvlt _ vfufkbsfl^
sfyfvtlhjdt /blhjybvt,b vlbyfhtt,bcf tyueh-qfkb’ufc
ijhbc _ cfthsjl v[jkjl mfhsdtkehbf& /blhjybvt,b
qfkb’uf-rjljhc ijhbc _ f,cjkenehfl mfhsekbf^ /
blhjybvt,b rjljh-uevbcsfc ijhbc ’bhbsflfl rdkfd mfhsekbf ~ufy[bkekb 8 /blhjybvblfy v[jkjl thsb .jabkf
fa[fpeh-flbqtehb ae’bs^ idblb rb mfhsdtkehbs`^ /
blhjybvt,b uevbcsf-,pbacf lf ,pba-acjec ijhbc ithtekbf& fmtlfy xfyc^ hjv xfvjcf[kt,ekt,bc ‘bhbsflb vfcf cojhtl
fqybiyek res[tt,ib w[jdhj,lf lf vstkb fa[fptsbw rb fh
vjewfdc ~ubjhub ababf^ #fa[fptsbc njgjybvbrbc cfrbs[bc
ufvj^ ufp& cf[& ufyfskt,f^ 5 bdkbcb^ 1990 o&`^ sevwf rb^ gjkbnbrehfl tyuehfvlt ,fnjyj,lf& vbe[tlfdfl bvbcf^ hjv
fa[fptsbc njgjybvbrf b’ktdf cfae’dtkc e’dtktcb
fa[fptsbc vjcf[ktj,f mfhsdtkehtyjdyfl vbdbxybjs^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib fhct,ekb fa[fpeh-xthmtpekfl vbxytekb cek hfvltybvt njgjybvpt lf.hlyj,bs fhfse
30

fa[fptsbc^ vstkb lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbf ths
lhjc fa[fpeh-flbqehb njvt,bc vbth lfrfdt,ekfl
ufvjw[fllf _ #mfhsek bcnjhbjuhfabfcf lf
tyfsvtwybtht,fib c& ]fyfibfcf lf fhy& xbmj,fdfc vbth lfveifdlf /bgjstpf^ hjvkbc vb[tldbsfw fa[fpeh-flbqeh
njvt,c ths lhjc vstkb lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbf trfdfs& #lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc njgjybvbrfib _ othc fhy&
xbmj,fdf _ fh fhbc itvs[dtdbsb bctsb flbqehb tktvtynt,bc
fhct,j,f^ hjujhbwff ceacf^ fz.df ~vlh& fzbc o.fkb`^
vfksf.df^ frfvacbcb ~zjhj[bc ‘dtkb cf[tkojlt,f` lf
fhct,j,c cthbjpekb cfae’dtkb dbdfhfeljs^ hjv lfcfdkts
cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbfpt mfhsdtkeh njvt,c oby ecoht,ty
fa[fpeh-flbqehb njvt,b@& m&kjvsfsb’t t[t,f hf njgjybvbreh vfcfkfc^ othc^ hjv #c&]fyfibfv lfflubyf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbfpt xthmtpek njvsf jlbyltkb
fhct,j,bc afmnt,b@& g&byujhj.dfc chekt,bsfw fh vbfxylf
tc lflutybkfl& #cfthsjl eylf fqbybiyjc^ _ othlf g&
byujhj.df^ hjv fh itb’kt,f ufvjnfyf fctsb elbltcb
vybidytkj,bc lfcrdyt,bcf^ hjvkt,bw [fk[bc bcnjhbbc ‘bhbsfl cfrdfy’j cfrbs[c t[t,f _ fctsbc cf,esbfyj,bs^ cek hfvltybvt cbn.dbc ~fhct,bsfl cfvb cbn.dbc` cftzdj tnbvjkjubpfwbbc cfae’dtkpt@& vstkb rfntujhbekj,bs eylf bsmdfc^
hjv g& byujhj.df fv itvs[dtdfib vfhsfkbf& /bgjstpf bvbc
itcf[t,^ hjv fa[fpeh-flbqehb njvt,b lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbfpt oby ecoht,lyty mfhsdtkeh njvt,c^
tv.fht,f cek js[b cbn.dbc ~c[dt,b vfsb fyfkjubehbf` cftzdj
tnbvjkjubfc& tctybf ceacf^ fz.df^ vfksf.df^ frfvacbcb@
~ghja& u& yt,bthb’t^ b,thbek-rfdrfcbehb /bgjstpf&&& cf[&
ufyfskt,f^ 26&+| 1990 o&`& ghjatcjhbc vnrbwt,bs^ frfvacbcb
fhbc fhf xthmtpekb^ fhfvtl ,th’yekb ofhvjij,bc cbn.df
31

#&&&sfdblfy ,jkjvlt ,th’yekbf lf vfcib xthmtpekb #acf@
tktvtynbc ufvj.jaf firfhf itwljvff^ ,th’yekib rb #ac@
rjvgktmcb ufdhwtkt,ekbf bvltyfl^ hjv vbcsdbc
lfvothkj,fib cgtwbfkehb fcjw rb fhct,j,c&&& /blhjybvb
ceacf hjujhw xfyc cfthsjl udbfyltkbf^ akfdbec fhbfyt
~95-175` fv vlbyfhtc #vbuhjc@ eojlt,c@ ~bmdt^ ud& 15`&
g& byujhj.df c[dfudfhfl ufyb[bkfdc fv cfrbs[c^ rth’jl^
vfy ufvjbrdkbf^ hjv mfhsek tyfib cbn.df afc-b^ ac-b ~fmtlfy afc-bcb^ ac-bc-b` ‘bh’dtkbf lf fqybiyfdlf wyt,fc #o.fkb@&
fvfc flfcneht,c bc afmnb^ hjv fv ae’tc vhfdfkudfhb
ufyinjt,f vjtgjdt,f mfhsekib _ #aif@^ hfw ybiyfdc o.fkc^
o.fhjc^ #aifyb@ _ lblb aif #vhfdfk aif@^ o.fhj vlbyfht^
#aif-nfkf@ _ #o.fkb sjdkyfhtdb@ #ajhb@^ #ajcdb@
o.kjdfyb qhevtkb^ #ehbyfc@ cf[tkb mfhsekfl a~f`ctkb^
cfblfyfw elfdjl lfcnehlt,f^ hjv ae’t afc$$ac fqybiyfdlf
wyt,fc o.fkb^ vtuhek lbfktmnpt nthvbyb #acbf@^ vbtvfhst,f
flblt,ek vlbyfhtc^ cf[tkojlt,fyb ptvjs xfvjsdkbkb
vlbyfhtt,bcf lf rth’jl^ rjk[tsbc vsfdfhb vlbyfhbcf afc-b^
afc-b-cb^ fhf ew[jehb ofhvjij,bcff^ fhfvtl mfhsek tyj,hbd
cfv.fhjc tresdybc ~g&byujhj.df^ lfcf[& yfih&^ ud& 185`&
fvbc ufvj^ g&byujhj.df fqybiyek lf c[df vlbyfhtsf
cf[tkt,c^ hjvtksf ae’tibw #ac@ ud[dlt,f^ mfhsekb
ofhvjij,bc /blhjybvt,fl vbbxytdc _ afcbcb ~hbjyb`^ frfvacbcb
_ frfv-afcbcb^ kfuevacf _ kfuey-aif lf c[df&
g&byujhj.dfc cbcojhtc^ hjv #ac@ ae’t mfhsekib ‘dtk
lhjc vfhskfw o.fkc fqybiyfdlf^ flfcneht,c c[df
vfufkbst,bw& vfufkbsfl^ uehek lbfktmnib #acjhb@ ybiyfdc vjuhjdbk o.fkc^ #acjhb@ _ ue,t ~vb[& xbmjdfyb^ #cfblevkj [fk[ehb tyf@ _ #vfhmcbcnekb tyfsvtwybtht,bcfsdbc@^ 1934^ ud& 64`&
32

fctdt bsmvbc ae’t #.dfc@ itcf[t,&
#c&]fyfibfc vnrbwt,bs^ .df-pt ~vl& fublf.df^ vl& fz.df^ vl&
vfksf.df^ ,j.df^ f,;f.df^ ,tht.df lf c[df` lf acf-pt ~ceacf
lf c[d&` lf,jkjt,ekb utjuhfabekb cf[tkt,b xthmtpekb
ofhvjij,bcf fhbfy@ ~i& vtc[bf^ cbvjy ]fyfibf^ 1950^ ud& 45`&
xdtyb fphbs^ .df^ bctdt hjujhw acf- e’dtktc mfhsekib
~fy ae’t mfhsekib` fqybiyfdlf o.fkc^ vlbyfhtc&
eahj pecnfl^ #.df@ ofhvjflutyc yfisc thsb ae’bcfc^
hjvkbc ufy[bkdfvltw eylf bsmdfc^ hjv mfhsdtkeh tyt,ib
lfvf[fcbfst,tkbf [vjdfy #j@-c uflfcdkf df-ib fy e-ib^ fylf
gbhbmbs^ df-j-e^ vfufkbsfl^ mfhsekb #w[dfhb@^ ‘dtkmfhsekfl #w[jhb@^ vtuhekb #i[ehb@^ ]dfhb _ ]efhb ~’d&
mfhs&`& _ ]jhb ~vsbc lbfktmnb`^ vrdf[t _ vre[t ~lbfktmnb`*
odbvf _ oevf ~jrh& lbfktmnb`^ sdfkb _ sjkb ~vsbc lbfktmnb`^ .dfdb _ .jdb^ vtuhekb lbfktmnbs #o.e@ _ ybiyfdc o.fkc^
o.fhjc^ x[jhjo.e _ w[hfo.fhj^ o.ehubkb _ o.e-hubkb _
o.fhj uhbkb ~#hubkb@ _ uhbkb`^ o.epfvtkf _ vlbyfhbc
cf[tkbf^ #ae’t cbn.df _ #o.e@ ybiyfdc o.fkc^ o.fhjc@^ _ othc
g& byujhj.df ~bmdt^ ud& 179`&
o.eh ‘dtkmfhsekibw o.fksfy b.j lfrfdibht,ekb^ tc
xfyc cbn.df #ho.df@-ib^ #o.ehdbkb@^ o.eh-o.fh-o.fk&
se ufdb[ctyt,s #e@-c uflfcdkfc #df@-ib^ vfiby bmyt,f
#o.eh-o.dfh@ ~fmtlfy eylf b.jc #ho.df@`& #o.dfh@ _ xfyc
vfhnbdlt,jlf lf hxt,jlf #.df@ o.kbc fqcfybiyfdfl^ .jdtk
itvs[dtdfib o.kbc w[jdtk-fvab,bfc ‘dtkmfhsekfl v-.dfhb ~,f.f.b` tojlt,jlf^ o.fkb xfadkfc _ #.db-ysdf@&
z.eh _ xfyc vfhnbdlt,jlf lf udf’ktdlf #.eh@-cfw& #.eh@
_ o.fkc fqybiyfdlf^ fvbc vfufkbsbf bc^ hjv fhct,j,c o.fksfy
lfrfdibht,ekb mfhsekb ufvjyfsmdfvb^ #.ehzdf@^
#.ehzevfkb@^ #xf.eh.evfklt,f@^ #xfb.eh.evfkf@ _ .dtkf
33

fv cbn.dbs uflvjbwtvf o.fkib sfdbc xf.jabc ghjwtcb^ .dbysdf o.kbc cnbmbbs uflfafhdf flfvbfybcf^ tc cbn.df ‘dtk
cf,est,ibw b[vfht,f^ vfufkbsfl^ ths \| cfereybc cf,esib
_ #hfvtse vfufy jlty b.ehzev ztivfhbnfl tv,fpcf ibyf
yfskbcqt,bcf@^ _ fv,j,ty fsf,fu vptzf,erpt ~mhjybrt,b^ ++^
ud& 317`^ b.ehzevf _ t&b& yfskj,bc o.fkib xftakj& fhct,j,c
epjvjl o.kbc cvbc fqcfybiyfdfl cbn.df _ #z.ehndf@&
#z.ehnb@ [fk[ehb vtn.dtkt,bs o.kbc fdflv.jaj,fc^
o.fkvfyrc tojlt,f^ pju]th fv cbn.dbs lbf,tnc _ bv
fdflv.jaj,fc fqybiyfdlyty^ hjvtkbw o.fkc fcvtdc flfvbfyc*
#.eh-zf@ _ ,fyfj,bcfc o.kbc .kfgdf ,kjvfl&
cf,fc ufyvfhnt,bs^ #o.ehnb cytekt,f &&& vhfdfko.fkcf
fcvtdc rfwcf@& bubdtf _ #z.ehnb@^ z.ehndf-lfofat,bs cvf ~b&
vfbcehf’t`^ z.evgfkfj,f-,fyfj,f^ #orevgkb@ _ odtsbf&
ptvjs vj.dfybkbs bvbc smvf udcehc^ hjv ae’t #.eh@
~pju]th #o@ sfdcfhsbs^ pju]th rb evbcjl^ fhct,bsbf lf
vsfdfhb& vfu&% _ #.ehzevb@ fqybiyfdc o.fkc^ o.fksfy
lfrfdibht,ek mvtlt,fc& pju]th fqybiyek ae’tc ,jkjcfhsb #h@-w ijhlt,f #x[jhjo.e@^ vtc[tsib ,tdhb /blhjybvb
lf njgjybvb erfdibhlt,f .eh^ .dfh^ ae’tc^ vfu& o.ehsb^
fo.ehb^ o.jh’f^ fo.dbnf^ .db,bcb^ nf,fo.ehb lf c[df ~.dtkf
cjakbc cf[tkt,bf`^ fv ae’bc #o@ sfdcfhsb xfyc pju]th
uflflbjlf #c@-ib^ [jkj #.@ _ #r@-ib& fmtlfy creh-o.eh& cfpjufljl cbn.df crehb _ cfmfhsdtkjib o.fksfy .jabkf
lfrfdibht,ekb lf vbc vb[tldbs itmvybkbf njgjybvt,bw _
.jabkfy cjakt,b cf[tkojlt,bs #crehbf^ crehb^ crehlblb^
crehf^ crehlb _ [j,bc^ ofkty]b[bc^ ,fsevbc^ mj,ektsbc^
w[frfbfc hfbjyt,ib^ vlbyfht crehxf^ ,fsevcf lf fa[fptsbc
v[fhtt,ib^ vlbyfht o.epfvtkfc fctdt hmvtdbf _ crehxfw lf
fctdt vfhvfhbc o.fkbw&
34

vlbyfht #vnrdfhb@-c cf[tkb^ xfyc^ erfdibhlt,f fv ae’tc
_ o.eh-creh-reh-rdfh-vnrdfhb&
vlbyfht rjhfmcbc cf[tkb creh-reh ae’tc eylf
erfdibhlt,jltc&
#lbjcrehbf&&& lbjcrehbbc .ehtcsfy f[kjc pqdfib xflbc
vlbyfht rtkfcehb& vbcb cf[tkojlt,f fuhtsdt ofhvjlut,f
pfyehb cbn.dt,bcfufy #rtkt@ lf #crehb@& gbhdtkb cbn.df
ybiyfdc #vjrktc@ lf vtjhtcsfy thsfl mvybc wyt,fc _ #vjrkt
vlbyfhtc@ ~rtkfcehb`&&& njgjybvt,b^ hjvkt,bw itbwfdty
tktvtynt,c #crehb@^ ud[dlt,f [ibhfl lf vjbwfdty bv nthbnjhbfc^ cflfw ‘dtkfl w[jdhj,lyty pfyt,b lf vfsb tyf
dhwtklt,jlf& fb^ pjubthsb fv geymnt,blfy^ xdtyb mdt.ybc
afhukt,ib v.jab% 1& crehxf&&& 2& mecrehb _ jxfvxbhbc hfbjybc cjatk fmefcrtc ‘dtkb cf[tkojlt,f& cbn.dbc
vybidytkj,ff mdbc o.fhj^ mef _ mfhsekfl _ mdf* 3& cmehb _
ufysmvekb cfvrehyfkj o.fkb^ ofkty]b[bc hfbjyib^
vlt,fhtj,c vlbyfht fifyjc qtktc [tdib^ vlbyfht zfybco.kbc
vfhw[tyf ityfrflb* 4& crehbc wb[t _ zfybco.kbc yfgbhpt
vlt,fht ief cfereytt,bc wb[t* 5& crehbf _ cjatkb ctyfrbc
hfbjyib^ vlbyfht wbdbc [tdib* 6& crehlb _ cjatkb vfhndbkbc hfbjyib^ vlt,fhtj,c vlbyfht f,fibc yfgbhpt* 7& crehlblb _ cjatkb fzfhbc [tkdfxfehbc hfbjyib^ vlt,fhtj,c
fvfdt cf[tkojlt,bc vlbyfhbc yfgbhpt* 8& .ehlblb _ vlbyfht
fzfhfib^ vlbyfht vfzf[tkfc o.kbc vfhw[tyf ityfrflb* 9& crehf _ cjatkb mj,ektsbc hfbjyib^ vlt,fhtj,c vlbyfht
jx[fvehbc yfgbhpt@ ~u& ababf^ fa[fptsbc njgjybvbrbc
cfrbs[t,bcfsdbc^ ufp& #cf[fk[j ufyfskt,f@^ 8&+++& 1990 o&`&
.jdtkbdt ptvjfqybiyekblfy xfyc^ hjv o.eh-o.fh-creh^
.eh cbyjybveh vybidytkj,fc b’tyty lf o.fkc fqybiyfdty^
.eht _ o.kbc^ ue,bc fqcfybiyfdfl ufvjb.tyt,f^ #.ef^ fye .eht
35

_ yfdvbcflujvbc^ yfdvbcf,vtkbc cbyjybvbf@ ~u& he[fbf^ jhb
njgjybvb^ ufp& cf[& ufy&^ \&89 o&`&
.eh-.ef-cufyff yfofhvjt,b o.kbc w[jdtkbc lfcf[tkt,f
v-.df-hb^ se o.fksfy lfrfdibht,ekb njgjybvt,b _ fz.df se
vfksf.df^ o.fksfy lfrfdibht,ekb mvtlt,f _ .dbysdf lf c[df
vhfdfkb& mfkfm w[evbc ths-ths wb[tc lf^ xfyc^ vbc e,fycfw
mfhsekb cbn.df _ #f.e@ hmvtdbf^ fvbc lfcfvnrbwt,kfl xdty
udfmdc vt-18 cfereybc herf cj[evbcf& vfcpt yfxdtyt,bf
#yfdcf.eltkb@^ mfkfmbc wb[tt,b lf c[df ityj,t,b^ fv wb[bc
utuvfib vjsfdct,ekbf ufyvfhnt,bsb cf[bc ofhothf _ #w[evbc
wb[t^ mfhsekfl f.e mdbfy^ jhseqbfyb afif pbc 1723&&&@ ~v&
ht[dbfidbkb^ bvthtsb \|+++ c-ib^ 1982^ lfhsekb hert,b`&
t&b& mfkfm w[evbc ths-ths wb[tc fmdc sfdbcb cf[tkb #f.e@
~bctdt hjujhw^ dsmdfs^ s,bkbcbc ths-ths wb[tc vtnt[b /
mdbf` lf tc cbn.df #f.e@ _ mfhsekb ofhvjij,bcff fv hembc
itvlutytk mfhsdtk utjuhfasf fphbs&
vfifcflfvt%
o.eh-.eh-.e
o.eh-o.e-o.df-.df
o.eh-c.eh-creh-reh
fqybiyekb ae’tt,bs ae’t mfhsekb tyblfyff yfofhvjt,b
_ njgjybvt,b vfksf.df^ fz.df lf c[dfyb^ fvbnjvfw c&]fyfibfc
lf c[dfsf stjhbt,b^ hjv #.dfpt@ lf,jkjt,ekb njgjybvt,b
flbqeh-xthmtpekbf^ fhfcojhbf& tc lf,jkjt,fyb mfhsekbf& fctdt eylf bsmdfc^ hjv sehm vjupfeh t&xtkt,bc vbth
vj[ctyt,ekb vlbyfht #afi@^ hjvkbc bmbsfw bcvjlf fhf vtuhekb tyf^ fhfvtl flbqehb ~xthmtpek-f,fpehb`^ fhbc fhf
vlbyfht afcbcb lf vbcb mfkfmb ajsb^ hjujhw abmhj,lf
wyj,bkb vtwybthb /bebnb lf fctdt mfhsdtkb vtwybtht,b^
fhfvtl fhbc cfyfdcfluehj mfkfmb #aiflb@ rjljhbc [tj,bc
36

fhtfkib^ hjvkbc yfisbf lqtcfw fhct,ekb njgjybvb aiflb _ cojhtl vlbyfht rjljhc eylf uekbc[vj,ltc xtkt,b
lf fhf vl& hbjyc^ hflufy fhf ajsb ofhvjflutylf vbc lhjc
yfdcfluehc ~lfzfj,t,bc ufvj`^ fhfvtl rjljhbc itcfhsfdib
fhct,ekb yfdcflueht,b& fv rjljhbc ~afi-bc` bmbs fqhf
bcvjlf erdt vtuhekb tyf xthmtp-facfhsf itvjctdt,bc ufvj
lf tc vlbyfht xhlbkjts cfpqdfhc ofhvjflutylf cfvtuhtkjcsdbc \|++ c-lfy&

qvemo iberiis,
anu afxazeTis sakaTalikoso

mhbcnbfyj,f chekbfl cfmfhsdtkjc .jdtk res[tib^ vfs
ijhbc fa[fptsib^ bmflfutc xdtyb eakbcf lf vfw[jdhbc btcj
mhbcntc vjwbmekt,vf _ vjofatt,vf& rth’jl^ mfhsekb jabwbfkehb trktcbf cfmfhsdtkjib mhbcnbfyj,bc itvjvnfyfl
sdkblf fhf vfhnj ovblf fylhbf vjwbmekcf lf cbvjy rfyfytkc^ fhfvtl ,fhskjvt lf sfltjp vjwbmekt,cfw& .jdtk
itvs[dtdfib^ lblb xfvjkjwdbc^ #kbnfybbc kjwdbcfc@ ~gehbc rehs[tdf`^ c[df lblb kjwdt,bc lhjc^ hjujhw otcb^ vfs
fct b[ctybt,lyty vqdltkvsfdht,b% #&&&ovblfsf lblt,eksf lf
.jdkfl-mt,eksf vjwbmeksf* ovblfsf vjwbmeksf fylhbf
gbhdtk-ojlt,ekbcf^ cbvjy rfyfytkbcf^ ,fhskjvt lf
sfltjpbcf^ lf ovblfsf vjwbmeksf-cojhbcf mfhsdtks
ufyvfyfskt,tkbcf mfkoekbcf ybyjbcf&&&@ ~cfvqdltkvsfdhj
rjylfrb 1890 o& ud& 8`& fv lhjc^ hjujhw otcb^ b[ctybt,jlf
fhf sjhvtnbdt vjwbmekb xdtyb vfw[jdhbcf^ fhfvtl v[jkjl
37

bcbyb^ hjvtksfw mfhsek trktcbfcsfy /mjylfs rfdibhb^
fctst,fl rb sdkblyty vjwbmekt,c _ fylhbfc^ cbvjy rfyfytkc^ ,fhskjvtcf lf sfltjpc& fctsb b.j jabwbfkehb vblujvf&
vfuhfv fhct,j,ty wyj,t,b lf o.fhjt,b^ hjvtkybw vbesbst,ty^
hjv vfs ufhlf cfmfhsdtkjib sjvf lf vfnfsf vjwbmekt,cfw
emflfuybfs^ [jkj gjynjc^ rf,fljrbfcf lf vwbht fpbfib
vw[jdht, mfhsdtksf ijhbc gtnht lf bjfyt vjwbmekt,cfw
rb emflfuybfs&
xdtysdbc ufycfresht,bs cfbynthtcjf fylhbf
gbhdtkojlt,ekbc vjupfehj,f mfhsek vbof-o.fkpt& bc
fa[fptsib xfdblf fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc ~vtc[tsbc^ mfhskbc` ufdkbc itvltu& vfc o.fhjt,b eojlt,ty rkfh]tsbcf
lf vtuhtkt,bc vjvfmwtdtkc mhbcnbfyek c]ekpt&
#ntmcnt,ib^ hjvtkybw vbtotht,f ljhjstjc ndbhtkc ~+++ cbc lfcfchekbc fdnjhc` lf tgbafyt rdbghtkc ~+| c-bc ++
yf[tdhbc fdnjhc`^ vjbgjdt,f itvltub wyj,f fylhbf vjwbmekbc vjqdfotj,bc itcf[t, lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib% #fylhbf &&&
vbdblf lbl ct,fcnjgjkib^ cflfw fhbc facfhbc wb[t-cbvfuht
~#gfhfv,jkt@ _ ]fhbc #,fyfrb-cf.jatkb@`&&& lf vlbyfht afcbcb^ cflfw w[jdhj,ty eibyfufytcb tsbjgyb ~rjk[yb`&&&@^ fv
wyj,fib fqybiyekbf cfvb geymnb^ vj[ctyt,ekbf cfvb res[t%
f` xhlbkjts rjk[tsb^ fye fa[fptsb^ hjvkbc vsfdfhb wtynhb b.j #lblb ct,fcnjgjkbcb@ ~w[evb`* ,` cfv[hts rjk[tsb^
fye zfytsb^ hjvtkbw wyj,bkb b.j cf[tkojlt,bs cfytsb
~cjcfytsb^ cjcfybutsb`^ hjvkbc vsfdfhb geymnb b.j ‘dtkb
wb[t-mfkfmb facfhb ~zjhj[bc cfv[htsbs` lf iblf rjk[tsb
~wtynhfkehb rjk[tsb` _ vlt,fht vlbyfht afcbcpt ~hbjypt`&&& fylhbf gbhdtkojlt,ekbc sfyfvjqdfobcf lf sfyfvupfdhbc vfnfsf vjwbmekbc itcf[t, vtjht ntmcnib fqybiyekbf% #vfnfsfv &&& bmflfuf cf[fht,f vtjht tsbjgbfib
38

~rjk[tsib`^ cflfw fhbc facfhbc wb[t cbvfuht lf /dbcbc yfdcfluehb &&& bmdt ufhlfwdkbkf lf lfvfh[ekf lqtvlt@ ~g&
byujhj.df^ ubjhub vthxekt^ ud& 224`&
fylhbf vjwbmekbc itcf[t, s[pekt,f |+++ cfereybc fdnjhbcf tgbafyt rjycnfynbytgjktkbcf itvltu ufvjb.tyf tmdsbvt vsfovbyltkvf^ hjvkbc vb[tldbsfw cfmfhsdtkjib fylhbf vjwbmekvf hfvlty]thvt bmflfuf^ rth’jl^ gbhdtkb
mflfut,bc lhjc bc vbdblf mfkfm nhfgbpjyib^ fmtlfy rb uflfdblf b,thbfib^ vtjht vjupfehj,bc lhjc rdkfd nhfgbpjyb lf
cfv[hts mfhsekb mdt.yt,b vjbfhf^ v[jkjl vtcfvt
vjupfehj,bcfc uflfcekf bc lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib^ itcekf fa[fptsib lf bmblfy rb xhlbkjtsbc mdt.yt,ib& #vtcfvt
vjupfehj,bc lhjc _ uflvjudwtvc utjuhfab^ fylhbf lf vbcyb sfyfvjqdfotyb vfnfsf lf cbvjy rfyfytkb vjofatt,bsehs
xfdblyty b,thbfib lf afcbcib@& tmdsbvt vsfovbyltkbc mfhsekb dthcbbs% #vjbobdytc mdt.fyfcf mfhskbcfcf lf dblht
vlbyfhtvlt zjhj[bcfcf fmtlfy vjwbmekyb uflfcekfy
v[fhtib &&& cjcfybutsb@& tc fhbc^ hjujhw ufvjhrdtekb udmjylf^ cfyt,bc^ fye cfybut,bc v[fht&&& vfnfsf sfdbcb
vjofatt,bs lfhxf fv v[fhtib^ cjcfytsib ~&&&cjahjybc wyj,bs^
vfnfsf^ fv v[fhtib^ vbcbjythekb vjqdfotj,bc itvltu^ fmdt
ufhlfbwdfkf& vbcb lfcfakfdt,bc flubkfl lfcf[tkt,ekbf
facfhb`@ ~bmdt^ ud& 226`&
cfv[hts cfmfhsdtkjlfy^ tgbafyt rjycnfynbytgjktkbc
sfyf[vfl^ fylhbf gbhdtkojlt,ekb^ cbvjy rfyfytkb lf vfsb
vjofatt,b vbcekfy #fkfybfib lf mfkfm aecnfib@ ~aecnf
vlt,fhtj,lf fa[fptsbc vsbfytsib _ v[fhtib^ hjvtkcfw vbcbvbfytsb thmdf`& #fkfybf@ thmdf sfyfvtlhjdt fa[fptsib
lfkbc [tj,bc vjvb]yfdtl vlt,fht vsbfy v[fhtc& aecnflfy^ /
fubjuhfabbc wyj,bs^ vjwbmekyb uflfcekfy cfreshbd
39

fa[fptsib ~f,fpubfib`& /fubjuhfab uflvjudwtvc% #lbl
ct,fcnjgjkbcib ~w[evib` hjv xfdblyty^ bmflfutc qvhsbc
cbn.df& fylhbfv lfcnjdf bm cbvjyb vjofatt,bsehs lf sdbs
ofdblf ]bmtsib@& /fubjuhfabbc wyj,bc sfyf[vfl^ cbvjyb fv
v[fhtib vjqdfotj,bc itvltu ufhlfwdkbkf lf
lfecfakfdt,bfs ybrjacbfib^ hjvtkbw fa[fptsbc ]bmtsib
vlt,fhtj,lf& tgbafyt rjycnfynbytgjktkbc ,th’yek ntmcnib yfsmdfvbf% #fhc ]bmtsc ybrjacbfib cfakfdb^ hjvtkcfw
fmdc ofhothf cbvjy rfyfytkbcf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 226`&
vjwbmeksf ufhlf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib mhbcnbfyj,fc
fdhwtkt,lyty hjvbc bvgthbblfy mhbcnbfysf ltdybc lhjc
knjkdbkb mhbcnbfyt,bw +-+++ cfereytt,ib& hjvbc bvgthbfib
mhbcnbfyj,f cfrvfjl ufdhwtkt,ekb cfhoveyjt,f b.j +-+++
cfereytt,ib^ vfc v’kfdhb ufdktyf /mjylf cfpjufljt,bc .dtkf
atyfpt^ sevwf rb cf[tkvobajc vbth ltdybkb b.j& cfmfhsdtkj eiefkj vtpj,tkb b.j bvgthbbcf^ eahj vtnbw^ cfmfhsdtkjc pjubthsb yfobkt,b ~kfpbrf lf rkfh]tsb` pju]th
bvgthbbc cfpqdht,c ibuybs tmwtjlf [jkvt^ [jkj
tuhbco.kbc bmbs vlt,fht mdt.fyf ~fa[fptsb` cfthsjl itlbjlf fv bvgthbfib& fvbnjvfw bc cfhoveyjt,hbdb ghjwtct,b^
hjvkt,cfw flubkb /mjylf hjv-bjysf fye hjv-,th’tysf
mdt.fyfib^ fhw cfmfhsdtkjcsdbc .jabkf ew[j &&& lfcfdkts
cfmfhsdtkjib v’kfdhb mhbcnbfyekb rtht,b itmvybkf^ bvltyfl v’kfdhb^ hjv +| cfereybc lfcfo.bcib^ 325 otkc^ jhb
tgbcrjgjcb xdtyb mdt.ybcf _ ,bzdbystkb lf nhfgtpeyntkb
vjyfobktj,lf + vcjakbj rht,fib^ hjvtkbw ybrtfib
itbrhb,f& bv lhjbcfsdbc^ bc-bc b.j jhufybpt,fc bo.t,lf mfhsekb trktcbf^ vfhsfkbf^ mhbcnbfyj,f cfmfhsdtkjib fct
se bct wyj,bkb lf hfvltyflvt ufdhwtkt,ekb b.j^ mfhs40

kbc vtat htd vfhsfkc mhbcnbfyek vjhfksfy
itcf,fvbcj,fib vje.dfybf cf[tkvobajc rfyjyt,b&
vbe[tlfdfl fvbcf^ xdtyib mhbcnbfyj,f cf[tkvobaj
cfhoveyjt,fl bmwf v[jkjl ovblf ybyjc mflfut,bc itltufl&
ovblf ybyjc fhf vfhnj fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc^ _ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc ufyvfyfskt,kflfw vbbxytdty&
vt-5 cfereybc fdnjhc utkfcb rdbpbrtkc fqybiyekb fmdc^
hjv vt-4 cfereybc gbhdtk yf[tdfhib^ hjvbc bvgthfnjhbc
rjycnfynbyt +-bc ~306-337` lhjc^ #qvthsbc vwyt,f vbbqtc
gjynjc ufcodhbd vlt,fht vbof-o.fkpt vw[jdht,vf b,tht,vf
lf kfpt,vf@& fv fdnjhbc eo.t,bs^ hjujhw b,tht,ib^ bct
kfpt,ib^ mhbcnbfyj,bc lfvrdblht,f b.j itltub ovblf ybyjc
~#n.dt ltlfrfwbc@` vbcbjythekb vjqdfotj,bcf& fqcfybiyfdbf^
hjv cfv[hts rjk[tsib^ zfyts-kfptsib^ sdbs vt-17 cfereytvlt ~hjltcfw zfyts-kfptsb erdt sehmt,c /mjylfs
lfg.hj,bkb`^ ithxtybkb .jabkf uflvjwtvf^ hjv
mhbcnbfyj,f fv v[fhtib ybyjv uffdhwtkf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 227`&
mfhsekb o.fhjt,bw othty ovblf ybyjcf lf vjwbmeksf
cojhb vtabc vbhbfybc vbth .jdtkb bdthbbc vjmwtdbc itcf[t,&
xdtyb o.fhjt,b #.jdtkb bdthbbc@ mdti uekbc[vj,lyty chekbfl cfmfhsdtkjc^ vbc hjujhw fqvjcfdkts^ fctdt lfcfdkts
yfobkc& lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj^ mfhsekb bcnjhbjuhfabbc
lf;byt,ekb vjovj,bs^ mfhskbc cfvtajc ufye.jatk yfobkc
ofhvjflutylf^ hjvkbc cfpqdfhb ]th vlbyfht tuhbco.fkpt^
itvltu rb rtkfcehpt uflbjlf^ fvbnjvfw ovblf ybyjc vbth
jhufybpt,ekb mfhsekb trktcbf vjbwfdlf lfcfdktsfqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc mfhskbc cfvtajc cfpqdht,ib^ fvbnjvfw ufcfut,bf vjovj,f ovblf ybyjc sbsmvbc sfyfvtlhjdt
,th’tyb fdnjht,bcf^ hjvtkybw #n.dt mfkc@ ovblf ybyjc
kfpt,bc ufyvfyfskt,tkcfw eojlt,ty&
41

mfhsekb trktcbf +|-| cfereytt,ib^ mfhsekb o.fhjt,bc
sfyf[vfl^ esejl vjbwfdlf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjcfw&
wyj,bkbf^ hjv mfhskbc cfvtajib hjujhw cf[tkvobaj^ bct
cftrktcbj tyf b.j mfhsekb tyf& mfhsekb obhdf-kjwdf^
qdsbcvcf[eht,f vstk mfhskbc cfvtajib b.j ufdhwtkt,ekb&
wyj,bkbf^ hjv lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc ths yfobkib sdbs
+|-| cfereytt,fvlt ufdhwtkt,ekb b.j ,th’yekb cftrktcbj
tyf^ fvbnjvfw eylf lfbcdfc rbs[df% serb mfhskbc cfvtaj
vjbwfdlf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc ~ovblf ybyjc itvltu lf
df[nfyu ujhufckbc lhjc +|-| cfereytt,ib`^ [jv fh b.j
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib mfhsekb cftrktcbj tyf&
l&vec[tkbidbkbc sfyf[vfl^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc fqvjcfdkts yfobkib | cfereytib cftrktcbj tyf .jabkf mfhsekb
tyf& eahj vtnbw^ bdfyt ]fdf[bidbkb bvjovt,lf y&vfhc lf othlf% #frfl& y&vfhcfw rfhufl vjt[ctyt,f lf sdbsjyfw
fhfths[tk lfelfcneht,bf^ vtuhtkt,bcf lf cdfyt,bcsdbcfw
thsflthsb cfvothkj lf reknehbc tyf b.j lf fhbc t[kfw
mfhsekb cfkbnthfnehj tyf^ hjvkbc itmvyf-itveifdt,fibw
vtuhtkt,cf lf cdfyt,cfw sfdbfysb odkbkb fmds itnfybkb@
~bd& ]fdf[bidbkb^ n& +^ ud& 154`& mfhsekb tyf cfvothkj tyfl
bmwf cojhtl ovblf ybyjc itvltu^ hfsf ufvj.tyt,ekb
.jabkb.j f[fkb lf 'dtkb fqsmvbc kbnthfnehekfl cfsfhuvytkfl^ vlblfhb cftrktcbj kbnthfnehbc itmvybcfsdbc^
fvbnjvfw serb mfhsek cfvothkj lf reknehbc tybc itmvyf-itveifdt,fib vtuhtkt,b lf cdfyt,b vjyfobktj,fc
bqt,lyty ~hfw afmnbf`^ vfiby vfs fcts lbl cfmvtib
vjyfobktj,f eylf vbtqjs +|-| cfereytt,ib^ vfiby^ hjwf
vbvlbyfhtj,lf cftrktcbj mhbcnbfyekb kbnthfnehbc itmvyf& tc hjv fct b.j^ itb’kt,f bmblfyfw xfyc^ hjv gfktcnbybc
42

bv vjyfcnthib^ cflfw fqvjxtybkbf gbhdtkb mfhsekb
ofhotht,b^ gtnht b,thsfy thsfl bjfyt kfpbw vjqdfotj,lf&
fhw se lblb [ybc oby vbxytekb b.j^ hjv lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib mhbcnbfyj,f ufdhwtklf |+ cfereytib lf vfibydt
tc v[fht itdblf ,th’yekb trktcbbc behbclbmwbfib^ vfuhfv
fhmtjkjubehvf fqvjxtyt,vf lfflubyf^ hjv kfpbrfib
mhbcnbfyj,f ufdhwtklf ovblf ybyjc tgjmfib ~+| cfereytib`&
| cfereytib df[nfyu ujhufcfkvf f[fk cbvfqktpt fb.dfyf
cfmfhsdtkjc thsbfyj,f^ uff’kbthf trktcbf^ fvbnjvfw erdt
+| cfereyblfydt lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib^ bctdt hjujhw
vstk mfhsek trktcbfib^ cftrktcbj tyf eylf b.jc mfhsekb
tyf& cfabmht,tkbf^ hjv mfhsekb tyf bv lhjbcfsdbc ~1600
okbc oby` lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vstkb vjcf[ktj,bcfsdbc
cfthsj cf[fk[j kbnthfnehek tyfc ofhvjflutylf^ fvfc
bcbw flfcneht,c^ hjv cfvtuhtkjcf lf cdfytsib
mhbcnbfyj,fvltw^ ofhvfhsj,bc lhjc reknvcf[eht,bc tyfc
ofhvjflutylf mfhsekb tyf& tc lflfcneht,ekbf bdfyt
]fdf[bidbkbc ihjvt,ib^ fvbnjvfw mhbcnbfyj,bc vbqt,bc itvltufw mhbcnbfyekb qdsbcvcf[eht,bc tyf rdkfd mfhsekb
eylf .jabkb.j& cfthsjl^ fqcfybiyfdbf^ hjv gbhdtkb thsbfyb mfhsekb cf[tkvobaj fpjy-afhyfdfpbc lhjc vjbwfdlf
vstk lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vlbyfht tuhbco.kfvlt& fv
lhjbcfsdbc^ mhbcntvlt +|-+++ cfereytt,ib ae’t-mfhsekb
tyblfy f[kfl ufvj.jabkb vtuhekb tyf ~bdfhfelt,f mhbcntvlt |+++-|+ cc-ib` fh eylf .jabkb.j lblfl lfijht,ekb mfhsekb tybcfufy& eylf dbabmhjs^ gbhdtkb thsbfyb mfhsekb
cf[tkvobajc itmvybcfc mhbcntvlt +|-+++ cfereytt,ib vtuhekb lf mfhsekb tyt,b lblfl f[kjc bluyty thsvfytssfy
lf thsvfytsbc vbvfhs lbfktmnt,c ofhvjflutylyty& esejl
fvbc ufvj itc’kj vstkc cf[tkvobajib^ vfs ijhbc tuhbcibw^
43

vtat afhyfdfpvf mfhsekb tybc cf[tkvobaj tyfl
ufvjw[flt,f& mfhsekb cf[tkvobaj tyf fm vfibydt eylf
mwtekb.j reknvcf[eht,bcf lf vfqfkb atyt,bc tyfl^ eylf
dbabmhjs^ hjv vtuhekb lbfktmnb vtuhek tyfl
xfvj.fkb,lf vjudbfyt,bs^ cfthsj mfhsekb kbnthfnehbc^
lfvothkj,bcf lf gbhdtkb mhbcnbfyekb obuyt,bc itmvybc
itvltu& rth’jl^ vtuhekb lbfktmnbc vtuhek tyfl itmvybcfsdbc [tkb eylf itto.j mfhsekb cfvtajc lfikfc ~|+ cib`& hjujhw xfyc^ fhct,j,c fv dfhfelbc lfvfvnrbwt,tkb afmnbw^ rth’jl^ /ftvtnb ntmcnt,bc fqvjxtybcsfyfdt lfbcdf
cfrbs[b [fyvtn ‘tukt,sfy vfsb vbvfhst,bc itcf[t,&
bd&]fdf[bidbkvf^ [fyvtn ntmcnt,bc fqvjvxtyvf^ ofvjf.tyf
sdfkcfphbcb^ hjvkbc sfyf[vflfw sfdlfgbhdtkfl mfhsekib
vtjht ce,btmneh lf vtcfvt j,btmneh gbht,c #[@
ufvj[fnfdlf^ hjvtkbw vthdt cfereytib #/@-l bmwf
~bd&]fdf[bidbkb^ f[kfl fqvjxtybkb e’dtktcb mfhsekb
[tkyfotht,b lf vfsb vybidytkj,f vtwybtht,bcfsdbc^ n& +++^
ud& 361-367^ obuyblfy r& lfytkbf^ p& cfh]dtkf’t^ frfrb ifyb’t^
1987^ ud& 225`&
t&b&^ bd&]fdf[bidbkbc stjhbbs^ [  / ajytnbrehb
ghjwtcbf^ hf lfcrdybc vbqt,f itb’kt,f fv stjhbbc
cfae’dtkpt lf.hlyj,bs( tcff ‘fkpt lblvybidytkjdfyb
cfrbs[b%
se lfdtsfy[vt,bs bd& ]fdf[bidbkc^ hjv ]th #[fyb@ b.j
lf itvltu vbcufy #/ft@ ufydbsfhlf^ vfiby bv lfcrdyfc vbdbqt,s^
hjv mfhsekbcf lf vtuhek-zfyehbc uf.jaf lf lfijht,f
vjv[lfhf mfhsekb trktcbbc itmvybcf lf^ rth’jl^ mfhsek
tyfpt kbnthfnehbc ufxtybc itvltu& fcts lfcrdyfvlt vbdblf
frfrb ifyb’t ~bmdt^ ud& 225`& sevwf^ bd&]fdf[bidbkbc rdktdbc
fcts itltuc bub fh tsfy[vt,jlf&
44

bdfyt ]fdf[bidbkb^ hjujhw .jdtksdbc^ fqybiyek
cfrbs[ibw vfhsfkb eylf b.jc& f[fkb tybc itmvybcfsdbc 1600
otkb cfrvfjl lblb lhjf^ se ufdbsdfkbcobyt,s^ hjv ae’t
tybcfufy^ dsmdfs^ erhfbyekb tyf cek 300-400 oby ufvjb.j&
mfhsek trktcbfc lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj sfdbcb behbclbmwbbc mdti hjv /.fdlf vjmwtekb^ tc xfyc cjv[ehb o.fhjt,bc
xdtyt,t,bsfw^ fctdt fhct,j,c df[einbc wyj,fw^ c[df fhfgbhlfgbhb wyj,t,bw& cjv[eh bcnjhbjuhfabfib fhct,j,c bjfyt cjvt[sf rfsfkbrjcbc wyj,f^ hjvkbc sfyf[vflfw^ mfhsekb trktcbbc vtsfehb rbhbjy + bvfdlhjekfl ofhvjflutylf tuhbctksf vfvfvsfdfhcfw& #fv bcnjhbrjcbc wyj,bs^
vw[tsbc ~mfhskbc` trktcbbc vtsfehb b.j vfvfvsfdfhb
#b,thbtksf^ ueufhtksf lf tuhbctksf@ ~g& byujhj.df^ u&
vthxekt^ ud& 243`^ cjv[eh o.fhjt,ib bcbwff fqybiyekb^
hjv mfhsekb trktcbbc tc vtsfehb tuhbcbc fhmbtgbcrjgjcb
b.j #obyfyltk otcsf sfyf[vflj@^ t&b& vbbxytjlf^ hjv obyfsfw^ t&b& | cfereytib vfbyw^ tuhbcb mfhsek trktcbfib itlbjlf^ eahj vtnbw^ sfyf[vfl df[einbcf^ ]th rbltd
rfsfkbrjcj,bc lfo.t,fvlt^ vfiby^ hjwf mfhsek trktcbfc
vsfdfhtgbcrjgjcb vfhsfdlf^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib ghjdbywbf #dfrt@ hbjycf lf w[tybco.fkc ijhbc vw[tstkb^ cfvsfdhjc tgbcrjgjcbc behbclbmwbfib itlbjlf& #fhc [jyc trktcbf lblb^ uev,fsbfyb^ vidtybthyfut,b^ pbc tgbcrjgjcb^
vo.tvcb dfrbcf& tc b.j thsj,fcf ibyf mfhskbc vsfdfhtgbcrjgjpbcf^ itlujvfl ufy.jabcf lfcdtc fm tgbcrjgjcb@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +|^ ud& 750`&
rfsfkbrjcj,bc lfo.t,bc itvltufw^ hjujhw tc itb’kt,f
ufdbujs ghjrjab rtcfhbtkbc |+ c-bc wyj,bs^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc mhbcnbfyt,b rfsfkbrjcc tmdtvlt,fht,jlyty&
wyj,bkbf^ hjv fv lhjbcfsdbc rfsfkbrjcb vstk cfmfhsdt45

kjib b]lf v[jkjl vw[tsfib^ fvbnjvfw cojhtl vfc lf fhf
c[df hjvtkbvt rfsfkbrjcc tmdtvlt,fht,jlyty tuhbcbc
mhbcnbfyt,b& lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc fqothbc lhjc ghjrjab
othc% #mhbcnbfysf vqdltkvsfdfhcfw rfsfkbrjcc eojlt,ty
tkbysf tybsf^ hflufy bc thsb ufyfut,c .dtkf bmfeh cjakt,c@
~utjhubrf^ 2^ 1965^ ud& 88`&
y& ,th’tybidbkb othlf% #mfhsekb mhbcnbfyj,bc
#fa[fptsib@ ~tuhbcib` flht ufdhwtkt,ekj,bc vjovj,ff^ hf
smvf eylf^ vw[tsbc rfsfkbrjcbc tuhbcbc rfsfkbrjcfl
vj[ctybt,f |++ cfereytib lf c[df&&& vfuhfv tc cfrbs[b wfkrt
itcfcofdkb lblb vybidytkj,bc cfrbs[bf lf vfcptl cfe,fhb
bvtlb udfmdc bm udtmyt,f&&&@ ~y& ,th’tybidbkb^ cfm& bcnjhbbc
cfrbs[t,b^ 1990^ ud& 598`&
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib mfhsekb trktcbbc ufdktyfc |++
cfereytib vbesbst,c bm mfhsekb cftrktcbj fhmbntmnehbc
fhct,j,f^ rth’jl^ tuhbcib cftrktcbj vityt,kj,bcfc
b.tyt,lyty ]dhbc ~vw[tsbc ]dhbc` nbgbc fhmbntmnehfc |++
c-bc lfcfo.bcib& vfuhfv cojhtl |++ cfereytib [lt,f lblb
cftrktcbj wdkbkt,t,b^ hfw gjkbnbrfcsfy b.j
lfrfdibht,ekb&
|++ cfereybc 20-bfy okt,ib cgfhctsc b,thbbc ufdkbs ittcbf ,bpfynbbc rtbcfhb /thfrkt^ lffvfhw[f cgfhcsf vtat lf
iteluf lfvjhxbkt,ekb mdt.yt,bc vjo.j,bc cfmvtc& vfy^
sfyf[vfl mfhskbc w[jdht,bcf^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc #pqdbc gbhb@ xfvjfijhf mfhsek cf[tkvobajc lf eiefkjl
itethsf bvgthbfc& #vfiby refkfl ofhbqtc ,th’tysf cfpqdfhb mfhskbcf^ cgthb lf ,jkj rkfh]tsbcf^ pqdbc gbhb@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ |^ ud& 226`& hjujhw xfyc^ bv lhjbcfsdbc
mfhsek cfvtajc xfvjcwbklf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbf crfylf-ijhfgybc [fpfvlt&|+ cfereytibw cgfhcts-,bp46

fynbbc jvbc lhjc fv [fppt uflbjlf ufdktybc cathjc cfpqdfhb fv cf[tkvobajt,c ijhbc^ f[kf cgfhctsbc lfvfhw[t,bc
itvltu ,bpfynbfv ufvjbxbyf vnfwt,kehb ,eyt,f lf vjcnfwf
mfhsek cf[tkvobajc fqybiyekb nthbnjhbf pqdblfy fqybiyek ~crfylf-ijhfgybc` [fpfvlt& gjkbnbreh wdkbkt,fc
ufvjeodtdbf cftrktcbj behbclbmwbbc wdkbkt,fw& rth’jl^
fqybiyek [fpfvlt vjmwtekb lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbf uflftwf rjycnfynbytgjkbc cfgfnhbfhmjc& [jkj fqybiyekb [fpbc fqvjcfdktsbs vjmwtekb nthbnjhbf rdkfd
vw[tsbc ~b,thbbc` cfrfsfkbrjcjc tresdyjlf&
thtrktc kfimhj,bc #pqdbcgbhtsbc@ xfvjhsvtdbc itvltu b,thbf-,bpfynbbc cfpqdfhb ufblj crfylf-ijhfgybc [fppt&
fvbnjvfw^ fv [fpbc lfcfdktsbs ,th’yekvf trktcbfv lffv.fhf
behbclbmwbf& fm itbmvyf ,th’yekb cftgbcrjgjcjt,b wtynhbs ajsib ~kfpbrbc vbnhjgjkbf`% 1& afcbcbc^ fye ajsbc* 2&
hjljgjkbcbc ~fye dfhwb[bcf`* 3& gtnhfcb ~,fsevsfy^
wb[bc’bhb`* 4& wfbibcf* 5& ‘bqbyt,bc ~uelf.dbc^ bkjhsfy`&
hjujhw kfpbrbc vbnhjgjkbfib^ bct f,fpubbc cftgbcrjgjcjib cftrktcbj tyfc fv lhjbcfsdbc ofhvjflutylf
,th’yekb tyf^ [jkj crfylf-ijhfgybc fqvjcfdktsbs dblht
kb[bc vsfvlt vjmwtekb trktcbbc cftrktcbj tyfc
‘dtkt,ehfldt mfhsekb ofhvjflutylf& fctsb vlujvfhtj,f
ufuh’tklf sbsmvbc 100 okbc vfy’bkpt^ [jkj |+++ cfereyblfy sfylfsfy lfbo.j wdkbkt,t,b^ hjvkt,bw sbsmvbc 2
cfereyt ufuh’tklf& cftrktcbj wdkbkt,t,b rdkfd gjkbnbrehb vlujvfhtj,bc itwdkbs b.j ufvjodtekb& |++ cfereybc ief okt,ib ufvjxylf f[fkb ‘kbthb ‘fkf^ f[fkb htkbubf
_ vf/vflbfyj,f^ lfbo.j fhf,j,f& ufezbhlf sdbs ,bpfynbbc
bvgthbfc^ mfhsekb cf[tkvobaj fhf,t,vf rhbpbcfvlt
vbb.dfytc& ,bpfynbbc gjpbwbt,bc itcecnt,bc ufvj^ fmfvlt fv
47

bvgthbfib itvfdfkvf fa[fptsvf vjbgjdf cfvsfdhjl vjo.j,bc
eakt,f^ itvltu rb vbbqj lfvjerblt,kj,bc eahj vfqfkb
[fhbc[b& hjujhw bsmdf^ fvbs bcfhut,kf fa[fptsbc thbcsfdvf ktjy +-vf lf |+++ cfereybc 20-bfy okt,ib sfdbcb cfvsfdhj itb.dfyf mfhskbc cf[tkvobajc itvflutykj,fib& ktjy
+-cf lf vbh vtatc ijhbc lflt,ekb itsfy[vt,bc sfyf[vfl ~b[&
tgbcrjgjcb fyfybf ]fafhb’t^ cfmfhsdtkjc cfvjwbmekj trktcbbc bcnjhbf^ n& ++`^ ktjy + bmwf mfhskbc thbcsfdfl^ vbcb
cfvsfdhj yjvbyfkehfl itdblf mfhskbc cfvtajib^ cfvfubthjl vbbqj eakt,f mfhskbc vtabc mfkbidbkbc
uehfyle[nbc ithsdbcf^ vbbqj cfvtaj htufkbfw _ cfvtaj
udbhudbyb^ hfw vfc^ fk,fs^ ufhrdtek cfvtaj eakt,t,c
fybzt,lf& fv lhjc vbh vtabc ‘vfv fhxbkvf cfvfhsfdfl vbbqj
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc nthbnjhbf _ tuhbcb^ fhudtsb^
sfrdthb^ uehbf lf cdfytsb& vfkt fhxbkvf vbfnjdf lfcfdkts
cfmfhsdtkj lf uflfdblf rf[tsib& lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc fv
lhjc^ xfyc^ vfhsfdlf rfyjybthb vtvrdblht mfhskbc cfvtaj
nf[nbcf^ fa[fptsbc thbcsfdb ktjy +& vfc sfdbcb
cf[tkvobajt,bc ufthsbfyt,bc lhjc^ xfyc^ ufethsbfyt,bf
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc trktcbfw^ rth’jl^ vfc ufethsbfyt,bf
f,fpubbc cffhmbtgbcrjgjcj lf afcbcbc vbnhjgjkbf^ fv jhb
trktcbbc ufthsbfyt,bs itmvybk f[fk trktcbfc tojlf #mdtvj
b,thbbc@ trktcbf& hfnjv( vbptpb bc b.j^ hjv tuhbcfa[fptsbc ufthsbfyt,ekb trktcbf vjbwfdlf itvltu vbofo.fkc% tuhbcc^ fhudtsc^ sfrdthc^ uehbfc^ fa[fptsc& .dtkfyb
bcbyb tsybrehfl mfhsek mdt.yt,c ofhvjflutylyty^ fvbnjvfw
vfs .dtkfc thsfl ~lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,fc`
ew[jtkt,b mdtvj bdthbtkt,c^ fylf e,hfkjl bdthbtkt,c
eojlt,lyty^ fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,fc rb ptvj
48

bdthbtkt,c& tuhbc-fa[fptsbc^ fye mdtvj bdthbbc trktcbbc
xfvj.fkb,t,fc ew[jtkb lf xdtyb bcnjhbrjct,bw dfhfelj,ty
720 okt,bcfsdbc% bthecfkbvtkb gfnhbfhmb ljcbstjcb othc%
#b,thbfib jhb fdnjrtafkehb fhmbtgbcrjgjcbf^ hjvtksfw
mfhsdtkt,b eojlt,ty rfsfkbrjct,c& mdtvj b,thbf^ hjvtkcfw
‘dtkfl rjk[tscf lf kfpbrfc eojlt,lyty^ fmdc tgfhmbt,b
bvthtsib^ uehbfib^ cfvtuhtkjib^ fa[fptsib^ cdfytscf lf
vtc[tsbc yfobkib& tc tgfhmbt,b tmdtvlt,fht,jlyty rjycnfynbytgjkbc rfstlhfc afcblbc vbnhjgjkbnbc cfiefkt,bs&&&
fct^ hjv /thfrktc itvltu ­_ ktd bcfdhjcfvlt mdtvj b,thbf
erdt b.j fdnjrtafkehb cffhmbtgbcrjgj^ vfuhfv xdty fh dbwbs^ hjvtkb bvgthfnjhbc lhjc lf hjvtk rht,fpt vbfybztc
vfc fdnjrtafkbf&&& ptvj lf mdtvj b,thbfc ijhbc cfpqdfhb
fhbc mtlb&&& mdtvj b,thbbc rfsfkbrjcb gfnbdbs eahj vtnbf
ptvj b,thbbc rfsfkbrjcpt^ hflufyfw bc erdt bcfdhjcbc lhjc
720 otkc rfsfkbrjcb b.j mdtvj b,thbbcf@ ~ljcbstjcb^ bthecfkbvtkb gfnhbfhmt,b^ sfdb 5^ ud& 510^ obuyblfy cfhltkb
vbnhjgjkbnb vfmcbvt^ #mfhsekb trktcbf lf vbcb fdnjrtafkbf@^ #stjkjubf@^ fstyb^ 1966 o& ud& 47-48`&
hjujhw ptvjs vj.dfybkb vfufkbsbs xfyc lf hjvtkbw
c[df vfufkbst,bsfw lfcnehlt,f^ ew[jtkt,b bv trktcbfc^
hjvtkcfw mfhsdtkt,b cfereytsf vfy’bkpt deojlt,lbs
#fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc@^ eojlt,ty #mdtvj b,thbbc@ trktcbfc& vfsb fphbs^ mdtvj b,thbbc trktcbfv vjbwdf mdtvj
b,thbbc utjuhfabekb v[fhtt,b lf othty% #mdtvj b,thbf^
hjvtkcfw ‘dtkfl rjk[tsc lf kfpbrfc eojlt,ty@& mdtvj
b,thbbc^ fye fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc tgfhmbt,b /mjybf
bvthtsib^ uehbfib^ cfvtuhtkjib^ fa[fptsib^ cdfytscf lf
vtc[tsbc yfobkib& bc ,th’yekb trktcbbc vbvfhs fdnjr49

tafkehb^ fye lfvjerblt,tkb trktcbf-cffhmbtgbcrjgjcj
.jabkf lf fdnjrtafkbf vjegjdt,bf lff[kjt,bs 720 okbcfsdbc bvgthfnjh /thfrkt rtbcfhbc itvltu bvgthfnjh ktd
bcfdhjcfvlt&
ptvjs vj.dfybk bthecfkbvtkb gfnhbfhmbc wyj,fc
flfcneht,c vtjht bthecfkbvtkb gfnhbfhmb [hbcfyab ~mhbcfysj`% #cfmfhsdtkjib^ hjvtkcfw flht b,thbf thmdf^ b.j
jhb fdnjrtafkehb fhmbtgbcrjgjcb^ hjvtksfw xdtekt,bc
sfyf[vfl eojlt,lyty rfsfkbrjct,c lf fhf fhmbtgbcrjgjct,c&
fct vfs vfhnj mfhsdtkt,b eojlt,ty& fvfsufy thsb t&b& fhmbtgbcrjgjcb mdtvj b,thbbcf tojlf bvthtsbc^ jctsbc^ uehbbc
lf chekbfl mdtvj b,thbbc eytnfhtc rfsfkbrjcc^ fye vfhnbdfl chekbfl b,thbbc eytnfhtc rfsjkbrjcc& hjvtkb bvgthfnjhbc lhjc fy hjvtk rht,fpt uf[lf bc cffhmbtgbcrjgjcj^
xdty pecnfl dth lfdflubyts^ vfuhfv 26 bdybcbc cdbyfmcfhib
dgjekj,s^ hjv bjfyt ujstsbc tgbcrjgjcb [tklfc[vekb
bmyf b,thbbc rfsfkbrjcbc vbth ~uekbc[vj,c fhf vw[tsbc^
fhfvtl fa[fptsbc^ fye #mdtvj b,thbbc rfsfkbrjcc@ tgbcrjgjcb fyfybf ]fafhb’t`^ hflufyfw hjvfek mdt.yt,ib
,fnjyj,lf [fnvt,h’jksf thtcb^ fct^ hjv^ hjujhw xfyc^ /
thfrktc itvltu bcfdhjcfvlt mdtvj b,thbf cffhmbtgbcrjgjcj
uf[lf ~bmdt^ ud& 48`&
fv o.fhjt,bc xdtyt,blfy itb’kt,f lfdfcrdyfs^ hjv lfcfdktsb cfmfhsdtkj ew[jtksfsdbc b,thbff& pju]th vfc #mdtvj
b,thbfw@tojlt,f& fm erdt |+++ cfereyblfy fhct,j,c fdnjrtafkehb trktcbf^ hjvkbc vtsfehcfw mfhsdtkt,b rfsfkbrjcc eojlt,ty _ tcff fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj& fa[fptsbc
cfrfsfkbrjcjc bvgthfnjh ktd bcfdhjcfvlt vbeqbf fdnjrtafkbf& gfnhbfhmb [hbcfyab cojhtl erfdibht,c
[fnvt,h’jkehb thtcbc ofhvjmvyfcf lf mdtvj b,thbbc trk50

tcbbc vbth fdnjrtafkbbc vbqt,fc thsvfytsc& fdnjrtafkbbc
mdti buekbc[vt,f fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcbc^ fye
ufthsbfyt,ekb kfpbrbc cfvbnhjgjkbnjcf lf f,fpubbc cffhmbtgbcrjgjcjc vbth lfvjerblt,kj,bc vbqt,f ,th’yekb
trktcbbcfufy& fmfvlt^ hjujhw fqybiyekb b.j^ kfpbrbc cfvbnhjgjkbnj sfdbc cftgbcrjgjcjt,bs^ fctdt f,fpubbc trktcbfw itlbjlf rjycnfynbytgjkbc cfgfnhbfhmjc behbclbmwbfib& cojhtl fv lhjbcfsdbc^ |+++ cfereybc lfcfo.bcib^
fqjh’bylf [fnvt,h’jksf vodfkt,kj,f& vfhsfkbf^ bvgthfnjh ktd bcfdhjcfvltw b.j vwltkj,f [fnt,bc frh’fkdbcf
cf[tkvobajt,hbdb vfcinf,bs^ vfuhfv [fnvt,h’jkj,f lfbo.j
ktd bcfdhjcbc ~717-741` lhjc^ bvgthfnjh ktdbc gjkbnbrbc
ufvuh’tkt,tkb b.j vbcb idbkb rjycnfynbyt + ~741-775`^
hjvtkvfw [fnvt,h’jkj,f ltdyfvlt vbb.dfyf& 754 otkc xfnfhlf [fnvt,h’jksf rht,f^ ,bpfynbbc sbsmvbc .dtkf tgbcrjgjcb ~338` [fnt,bc obyffqvltu ufvjdblf^ lfbo.j
trktcbt,blfy [fnt,bc ufvjnfyf^ [fnsf.dfybcvwtvtkb ,tht,b
vblbjlyty tvbuhfwbfib^ ifdb pqdbc xhlbkj cfyfgbhjpt^ .bhbvib^ [thcjytcib^ fhf,sf vbth lfg.hj,bk fynbjmbfcf lf
fktmcfylhbbc cfgfnhbfhmjt,ib^ cflfw fh b.j ltdyf&
,thvjyfpdyj,f ufvjw[fllf lfyfifekfl^ vfs cnfy]fdlyty lf
[jwfdlyty&
ufhlf
rjycnfynbytgjkbcf^
c[df
cfgfnhbfhmjt,ib^ hjvtkybw bv lhjc bvgthbbc ufhts
vlt,fhtj,lyty^ chekt,bs o.yfhfl e.eht,lyty ,bpfynbeh
rfvfsc ~f& rfhnfitdb^ vcjakbj rht,t,b^ gfhbpb^ 1963`&
ew[jtkb fdnjht,b cojhtl vbesbst,lyty^ hjv lfcfdkts
cfmfhsdtkjc trktcbbc ,th’yekb trktcbbcfufy
ufsfdbceakt,f erfdibhlt,f ktd bcfdhjcbc tgjmfc^ fye
[fnvt,h’jkeh thtcbc jabwbfkeh lfo.t,fc ,bpfynbfib&
,bpfynbblfy ltdybkb [fnsf.dfybcvwtvkt,b lf ,th51

vjyfpdyt,b vjfo.lyty ifdb pqdbc gbhc& cojhtl fv lhjbcfsdbc eylf xfvjijht,ekb.j ujstsbc trktcbf rjycnfynbytgjkc
_ vodfkt,tksf ltlfmfkfmc& fv lhjcdt eylf xfvjijht,ekb.j
tuhbcbcf lf f,fpubbc trktcbt,b rjycnfynbytgjkc^ cojhtl
fv lhjc lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc flvbybcnhfwbekb
ufthsbfyt,fw bo.t,f ktjy +-bc lhjc^ vfkt lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc ufthsbfyt,fv jabwbfkehb _ gjkbnbrehb cf[t vbbqj^ xfvj.fkb,lf tuhbc-fa[fptsbc cfvtaj ktjy ++-bc
vtsfehj,bs& vfhsfkbf^ tuhbc-fa[fptsbc trktcbf
cfhoveyjt,hbdb esfy[vjt,bc ufvj xfvjcwbklf rjycnfynbytgjkc^ vfuhfv cftrktcbj rfyjyt,bc sfyf[vfl^ fctsb mvtlt,f
vbeqt,tkbf^ ltlf trktcbbcfufy idbkb trktcbbc lfijht,fc
.jdtksdbc eylf vbtwtc rfyjybrehb yt,fhsdf& xdtycf lf
ew[jeh o.fhjt,ib vfhskfw fhbc lfwekb wyj,t,b bvbc
itcf[t,^ hjv cojhtl fqybiyek tgjmfib^ |+++ cfereybc ief
okt,ib fynbjmbfib xfcekf b,thbbc trktcbbc ltktufwbf^
fynbjmbbc cfgfnhbfhmjc ewdybf mdtvj b,thbbc^ fye vfhnbdfl b,thbbc trktcbbc lfvjerblt,kj,f& tc wyj,f lfwekb
.jabkf fynbjmbeh #mhjyjuhfaib@& bmblfy rb esfhuvybf
wyj,bk vjqdfotc tahtv vwbhtc ~eo.t,f vbptpcf mfhsdtksf
vjmwtdbcfcf^ 1959`^ fmtlfy rb uflfcekf #mfhskbc
w[jdht,fib@% #lqtsf rjycnfynbyt crjhbcf ~tcff rjycnfynbyt|^ 741-775` vjcf[tkbcfsf^ fynbjmbfc gfnhbfhmj,fcf ytnfhbcf stjabkfmntcf ~774-751` vjdblyty mfhskbs ~t&b&
b,thbblfy` vjwbmekfl vjyfpjyyb jhb lf vjes[htc ytnfhcf
stjabkfmntc&&& [jkj vfy ,zj,bsf rht,bcfsf&&& vbcwf mfhsdtksf ghjnhtgnbrjyb^ hjvtk fhc ufy[cybsb^ hfbsf sdbs
vfscf cfpqdfhcf tgbcrjgjcsfufy [tkyb lftc[vjlbfy ;fvfl;fvflcf rfsfkbrjccf mfhskbcfcf&&&@ ~tahtv vwbht^ eo.t,f^ ud& 9`*
tc wyj,f t[t,f fhf vw[tsbc^ fhfvtl #mdtvj b,thbbc@ cfrfsfk52

brjcjc ~tgbcrjgjcb fyfybf ]fafhb’t^ cfmfhsdtkjc cfvjwbmekj trktcbbc bcnjhbf^ n& ++`&
t&b& lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc^ fye mdtvj b,thbbc fmfvlt rjycnfynbytgjkpt lfmdtvlt,fht,ek tgbcrjgjct,c vbtwfs
eakt,f^ sfdfl fthxbfs sfdbcb rfsfkbrjcb^ fye tuhbcfa[fptsbc fye #b,thbbc@ trktcbfv |+++ c_ib vbbqj fdnjrtafkbf ,th’yt,bcfufy& vfuhfv vbcb fdnjrtafkbf fv lhjc ]th
rbltd chekb fh .jabkf bv v[hbd^ hjv vfc vbhjyb eylf vbtqj
fynbjmbbcfufy^ vbhjybc itcfc.blfl lfcfdktk mfhsdtkt,c^
fye mdtvj b,thbbc trktcbfc fynbjmbbcfsdbc eylf t’kbfs 1000
rdfvkbc ~rjvkbc` uflfcf[flb& vwbht [ybc itvltu fynbjmbfv
rdfvkbc uflfcf[flbc yfwdkfl bs[jdf fsfcb lhf/rfyb .jdtkokbehfl& vfktdt fynbjmbfv ,th’tysf vtabc iefvfdkj,bs
mdtvj b,thsf 1000 lhf/rfyb uflfcwf bthecfkbvbc cfgfnhbfhmjc& f[kf erdt vbhjybc itcfc.blb sfy[f mfhsdtkt,c bthecfkbvbcfsdbc eylf t’kbfs ~tahtv vwbht^ bmdt^ ud& 10`&
tahtvc ,th’yek o.fhjt,ib yf[ctyt,b #b,thbf@ .dtkufy #mfhskfl@ esfhuvybf&
vfifcflfvt^ tuhbc-fa[fptsbc trktcbfv^ fye fa[fptsbc
cfrfsfkbrjcjv^ hjvtkcfw ew[jtkt,b mdtvj b,thbbc^ fylf
b,thbbc trktcbfc eojlt,lyty^ vfhsfkbf^ |+++ c-bc
lfcfo.bcib vbbqj ,th’yekb trktcbbcfufy fdnjrtafkbf^ vfuhfv vfbyw tc trktcbf dfklt,ekb b.j^ vbhjyb itt’byf bthecfkbvbc cfgfnhbfhmjib&
tc bc tgjmff^ hjwf fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkj fhf,sf
itvjctdt,bc ufvj cfcnbrflff ufyflueht,ekb^ vw[tsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj lfvwbht,ekb& vfkt uhbujk [fy’stkbcf lf c[df
qbhcb vfvt,bc vjqdfotj,bc itltufl trktcbf ufyvnrbwlf lf
uf’kbthlf^ ufycfresht,bs nfj-rkfh]tsib& uhbujk
[fy’stkb lbl .ehflqt,fc fg.hj,lf fa[fptsbc cfrfsfk53

brjcjc^ bvjupfehf bm& mfhsdtksf^ fye nfj-rkfh]tsbc
cf[tkvobajvfw vbfg.hj .ehflqt,f fa[fptsbc^ fye mdtvj
b,thbbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc& 830 otkc behblbekfl cwyj vbcb
fhct,j,f lf fv lhjbcfsdbc behbclbmwbfib uflfcwf nthbnjhbf crfylf-ijhfgybc [fpblfy kb[bc vsfvlt^ t&b& fqvjcfdkts fhudtsb^ hjvtkbw fmfvlt trktcbehfl vw[tsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc tresdyjlf& uhbujk [fy’stkbc vjofatv lblvf
tahtvvf rb vjfudfhf fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjcf lf bthecfkbvc ijhbc fhct,ekb vbhjybc cfrbs[b& hjujhw bsmdf^ fmfvlt
fa[fptsc^ fye mdtvj b,thbbc trktcbfc vbhjyb bthecfkbvblfy
vj/mjylf^ f[kf rb sdbs bthecfkbvbc cfgfnhbfhmjc
sfy[vj,bs mdtvj b,thbbc ~fa[fptsbc` cfrfsfkbrjcjc vbhjyb
vw[tsblfy eylf vbtqj& se hf b.j fvbc vbptpb^ tc vjs[hj,bkb
fmdc ubjhub vthxektc _ #hfvtse gbhdtkfl f-cf rfsfkbrjcsf ~t&b& fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjct,c lf fhf fqvjcfdktsbc
rfsfkbrjct,c _ tgbcrjgjcb fyfybf ]fafhb’t` vb/hjyb bthecfkbvbs vj/.dfylf^ [jkj tahtv mhbcntcvbthbcf ,h’fyt,bsf
vb/hjybc rehs[tdf mfhskc ufyfotcf bthecfkbvbc gfnhbfhmbc ufyotct,bsf lf ofvt,bsf cb[fhekbsf^ fhfvtl^ mfhskfl
ahbflb mdt.fyfb fqbhbw[t,bc^ hjvtkcfwf ibyf mfhsekbsf
tybsf ;fvb itbobhdbc lf kjwdfyb .jdtkb fqtchekt,bc@ ~’d&
mfhs& fubjuh& kbn& ‘tu& 1978 o& ud& 182`&
+\ cfereytib tahtv vfo.dthtkbc vtwflbytj,bs^ bthecfkbvbc cfgfnhbfhmjc vbeqbf uflfo.dtnbkt,f^ hfsf fa[fptsbc
cfrfsfkbrjcjc vbhjyb vbtqj fhf bthecfkbvblfy^ fhfvtl
vw[tsblfy ~mfhskbc wtynhblfy`^ bvbnjv hjv #mfhskfl
ahbflb mdt.fyfb fqbhfw[t,bc^ hjvtkcfwf ibyf mfhsekbsf
tybsf ;fvb itbobhdbc lf kjwdfb .jdtkb fqtchekt,bc@&
fa[fpts-tuhbcbc trktcbfib rb^ fv lhjbcfsdbc erdt
lfythubkb b.j mfhsektyjdfyb cftrktcbj vcf[eht,f^
54

,th’yekb tybc yfwdkfl& vfifcflfvt^ bvbc ufvj^ hjv fa[fptsbc
cfrfsfkbrjcjib obhdf-kjwdf mfhsekbf^ bthecfkbvc vbexytdbf bc thsbfyb mfhsekb trktcbbc yfobkfl lf
uflfeo.dtnbf^ hjv fa[fptsbc ~mdtvj bdthbbc` trktcbfc
vw[tsblfy vbtqj vbhjyb& fvbs afmnbehfl fqcluf /thfrkt
rtbchbc lhjc lfhqdtekb cftrktcbj thsj,f lf mfhsekb
trktcbf ufthsbfylf&
fvbthblfy mfhsdtk thc uffxylf jhb fdnjrtafkehb trktcbf^ hjvtksf vtsfehsfufy thsc #e[ewtcb@ rfsfkbrjcb vfhsfdlf ~vw[tsbc`^ vtjht rb #evhovtc@ rfsfkbrjcfl ~,bzdbystkb` vbbxytjlf&
eylf dbabmhjs^ hjv bthecfkbvb cfdct,bs efyufhjl fh
lfsvj,lf fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjcfsdbc vbhjybc
vbojlt,bc eakt,fc& cfdfhfeljf^ hjv fvbcfsdbc bpheytc
erdt ‘kbthvf vtatt,vf^ ‘kbthb cf[tkvobajc vtsfeht,vf _
fa[fptsbcf lf nfj-rkfh]tsbc vtatt,vf^ vjqotekb
wyj,t,bs^ ,fuhfn rehfgfkfnc _ #mfhsdtksf vtatc@ eqdfobf fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcbc behblbekb wyj,bcfsdbc& vfnbfyt othc% #[jkj vfy ,fuhfn uffxbyf lf ufyfotcf rfsfkbrjcb fa[fptsc mhbcntc fmts 830 otkc@ ~mfhskbc
w[jdht,f^ +^ ud& 255`& tc wyj,f bct eylf ufdbujs^ hjv afmnbehfl 720-bfyb okt,blfy fhct,ekb tuhbc-fa[fptsbc trktcbf ,fuhfn vtabc lhjbcfsdbc erdt cfrfsfkbrjcjl bmwf^ hfw
wyj mfhsdtkvf vtatv& itb’kt,f gbhlfgbhb vybidytkj,bsfw
#uffxbyf@ lf #ufyfotcf@ vbcb rfsfkbrjcb&
[jkj vbhjysfy lfrfdibht,bs bthecfkbvbc trktcbbc
vjmvtlt,bc cbcojhtc fcf,est,c bc^ hjv +\ cfereytibdt bthecfkbvbc cfgfnhbfhmjc yt,fhsdbs bjfyt uestkb tgbcrjgjcb
mfhskib frehs[tc& vfifcflfvt^ fv lhjc mfhskbcf lf bthecfkbvbc trktcbt,c ijhbc rfhub ehsbthsj,ff lf rjycnfyn55

bytgjkib [fnvt,h’jkehb odfkt,bc ufvj rjycnfynbytgjkbc
cathjib v.jab pjubthsb trktcbf mfhsek trktcbfc uflftwf&
fvudfh ajypt ufcfut,bf^ se hfnjv lfhsj bthecfkbvvf mfhsektyjdfy fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc yt,f vbhjybc
vw[tsblfy vbqt,bcf&
hjujhw bsmdf^ fa[fptsbc^ fye mdtvj b,thbbc cfrfsfkbrjcjib itdblf cfvb cftrktcbj jkmb^ fmtlfy jhb _ f,fpubbcf
lf kfpbrbcf _ ,th’yektyjdfyb b.j cftrktcbj sdfkcfphbcbs^ [jkj tuhbc-fhudtsbc trktcbf^ fye crfylf-ijhfgybc
[fpbc fqvjcfdktsbs vlt,fht cftrktcbj jkmb .jdtksdbc
mfhsektyjdfyb b.j lf fctsfl lfhxf fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc itmvyfvlt^ hfw df[einb ,fuhfnbjybc fphbs^ vj[lf
vt-8 cfereybcfsdbc& vstk trktcbfib^ fa[fptsbc cfvtajc
.jdtk res[tib fqcluf lf sfylfsfy dhwtklt,jlf mfhsektyjdfyb obhdf-kjwdf&
,th’yekb tybc mfhsekb tybs itwdkfc lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib sfy cltdlf ecfcnbrtcb jvt,b ,bpfynbfcf lf fa[fptsbc
cfvtajc ijhbc&
#,bpfynbeh o.fhjt,ib lfwekbf wyj,f ,bpfynbtksf cfvb
cfv[tlhj tmcgtlbwbbc itcf[t, lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib &&&
vtw[ht cfereybc gbhdtk yf[tdfhib^ hfw cfv]thdt ,bpfynbtksf cfcnbrb lfvfhw[t,bs lfvsfdht,ekf@ ~g& byujhj.df^
u& vthxekt^ ud& 217`&
830-bfy okt,ib stjabkt rtbchbc lhjc fa[fptsib
ufupfdybkb ,bpfynbtksf vhfdfkhbw[jdfyb ]fhb cfcnbrfl
lfvfhw[lf^ 840-bfy okt,ib ,bpfynbfv jhb lblb kfimhj,f
ufyf[jhwbtkf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib& #]fhbc thsvf
yfobkvf [jvfklbc lfvc[dhtdf ufybwflf lf cbwjw[kt itcobhf^ c[dt,b rbltd^ sevwf [vtktspt uflfdblyty^ vfuhfv
56

e,tleht,f ufbpbfhtc& fb fct lfbqegf tc ]fhb@^ fvbc itvltu
vjvltdyj jvib ,bpfynbtkt,c 40 000 rfwb lferfhufds
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjcsfy jvib lf cfcnbrfl
lfvfhw[t,ekfy ~bmdt^ ud& 218`&
fvbc itvltu ,bpfynbfc fqfh ekfimhbf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib& tc bvfc ybiyfdc^ hjv vfy cwyj fa[fptsbc cfvtajcf lf
fuhtsdt fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc fhct,j,fw&
#fct ufvjbztlf fv ,h’jkfib mfhsdtkb [fk[bc
sfdbceakt,f@ ~bmdt^ ud& 218`&
fvbc itvltu trktcbt,blfy ,th’yekb tybc itwdkfc mfhsekb tybs [tkc dtqfh iteikblf bvgthbf& #&&&,th’yekb tyf^
,bpfynbbc [fyuh’kbdb vlujvfhtj,bc itltufl uf,fnjyt,ekb
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib^ hjujhw vsfdfhb cf[tkvobaj lf
cftrktcbj tyf^ ufyltdybk bmvyf lf ,th’yekbc flubkb vskbfyfl mfhsekvf lfbzbhf^ mfhsekb tyf ufvjw[flt,ekbf thsflths cf[tkvobaj tyfl^ mfhsekb tyf uf,fnjylf
cfpjufljt,hbdb w[jdht,bc .dtkf fcgfhtppt& ufycfresht,bs
vybidytkjdfyb b.j bc afmnb^ hjv ,th’yekb tyf ufyltdybk
bmvyf sdbs trktcbblfyfw^ fmfw ,th’yekb mfhsekvf itcwdfkf& se ufdbsdfkbcobyt,s bv ufhtvjt,fc^ se hf vjyjgjkbehb vlujvfhtj,f tzbhf trktcbfc ufyfskt,bc cfmvtib cfiefkj cfereytsf gbhj,t,ib^ hjltcfw ufyfskt,f lf
vobuyj,hj,f egbhdtktcfl trktcbbc [tk mdti dbsfhlt,jlf^
ufyfskt,bcf lf vobuyj,hj,bc vsfdfh wtynht,c evsfdhtcfl
vjyfcnht,b lf trktcbbc ufdktybc mdti v.jab cfcofdkt,kt,b
lf crjkt,b itflutylyty& fldbkfl ofhvjcflutybf^ se hf
ufycfresht,ekb vybidytkj,f /mjybf ,th’yekb tybc yfwdkfl mfhsekbc itvjqt,fc trktcbfib& tc elbltcb
vybidytkj,bc htajhvf^ itwdkf trktcbfib ,th’yekb tybcf
mfhsekbs^ itcf’kt,tkb uf[lf xfnfht,ekb.j bvbc itvl57

tu^ hjv #fa[fpsf@ cfvtajc [tkbceakt,fv lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc trktcbf^ hjvtkbw bthfhmbekfl lfrfdibht,ekb
b.j ,bpfynbbc cfbvgthbj trktcbfcsfy^ rjycnfynbytgjkbc
gfnhbfhmsfy^ xfvjfijhf rjycnfynbytgjkc lf lferfdibhf
mfhskbc ~b,thbbc` cfrfsfkbrjcjc& fvhbufl^ [fyf #fa[fpsf@
cfvtajcb _ tc fhbc tgjmf mfhsekb cfpjufljt,hbdb gjkbnbrbc chekb lf cf,jkjj ufvfh]dt,bcf lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib@ ~bmdt^ ud&220`&
eahj vtnbw^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc trktcbblfy
,th’yekb tybc ufyltdybc itvlujv bm f.dfdt,fc bo.t,c mfhsekb
reknehf^ mfhsekb kbnthfnehf^ #&&& fa[fptsbc cfvtaj fv
lhjc ufv[lfhf ths-thsb wtynhb mfhsekb cftrktcbj
vothkj,bcf^ fa[fptsbc cfvtajc [tkbceakt,bc cfufyut,j
vafhdtkj,bc mdti@ ~bmdt^ ud& 221`& g&byujhj.df sfdbc itcfybiyfd s[pekt,fib #ubjhub vthxekt@ vc]tkj,c lfcfdkts
cfmfhsdtkjib vjqdfot mfhsdtkb kbnthfnjht,bc itcf[t,
~mfhsekbc ufhlf bm c[dftyjdfyb fh bmvyt,jlf`&
#&&&mfhsek tyfpt botht,jlf fv tgjmfib hjujhw cftrktcbj vothkj,bc ‘tukt,b^ bct cfbcnjhbj vothkj,bc
‘tukt,b@ ~budt^ ud& 222`&
fa[fpsf vtatt,b sdbsdt .jabkfy itvrdtsyb lf vafhdtkyb mfhsdtkb reknehbc vjqdfott,bcf^ vj.dfhekyb mfhsekb gjtpbbcf lf vothkj,bcf ~bmdt^ ud& 222`&
w[flbf^ thsflthsb vbptpb bvbcf^ hjv ew[jtksfufy
ufsfdbceakt,bc itvltu fa[fptsbc cf[tkvobaj^ cftrktcbj^
reknehbcf lf flvbybcnhfwbbc tyfl mfhsekb tyf
ufvjw[fllf^ b.j bc^ hjv fa[fptsbc cfvtajc vjcf[ktj,f b.j
mfhsekb& fa[fptsbc cfvtaj mfhsdtksf cfvtajc ofhvjflutylf^ cojhtl fvbnjvfw eojlt,lyty lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc
ew[jtkt,b #mdtvj b,thbfc@& lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc cfrfs58

fkbrjcjc wtynhb vjsfdct,ek bmyf ,bzdbysfib& fvbc itvltu
,bzdbysfib sbsmvbc 800 otkb _ \|+ cfereytvlt v[jkjl lf
v[jkjl mfhsektyjdfyb obhdf-kjwdf ufbcvjlf lf mfhsekb
tybs flblt,lyty eafk qvthsc vqdltkvcf[ehyb& fa[fptsbc
cfrfsfkbrjcjc vsfdfhb htpbltywbf ,bzdbysfib b.j& ,bzdbysf
flht ofhvjflutylf mhbcnbfyj,bc ths-ths evsfdhtc wtynhc fa[fptsib^ +| cfereytib fm tgbcrjgjcb b]lf^ bv lhjbcfsdbc tc mdt.fyf _ f,fpubf _ dblht vlbyfht tuhbco.kfvlt
bvgthbfib itlbjlf lf^ w[flbf^ ,bzdbysbc trktcbfw ,th’yekb
b.j& mhbcnbfyj,f hjujhw tuhbcib^ bct f,fpubfib +| cfereyblfydt at[vjrblt,ekb b.j^ fvbnjvfw wyj,t,b^ hjvtkybw |+
cfereybc fv,t,c itt[t,bfy mhbcnbfyj,fcsfy lfrfdibht,bs^
fhfcojhfl fhbc f[cybkb& |+ cfereytib kfptsbc ths vtatc
rjycnfynbytgjkib mhbcnbfyj,f vbeqbf^ fvbnjvfw vbbxytdlyty^ hjv tuhbccf lf fa[fptsib |+ cfereyblfy ufdhwtklf
mhbcnbfyj,f& tuhbcbc vbvfhs fctsb cbvwlfht fhmtjkjubfv
lfflfcnehf& fa[fptsbc mfhsektyjdfyb cfrfsfkbrjcjc
lffhct,bc itvltu ‘dtkb ,th’yektyjdfyb wtynhb f,fpubbc
cffhmbtgbcrjgjcj ufeemvt,bfs^ [jkj f[fkb mfhsektyjdfyb wtynhb ,bzdbysfib lfefhct,bfs ~fctdt ybrjacbfibw
ufeemvt,bfs ,th’yektyjdfyb cftgbcrjgjcj` lf cojhtl fv
lhjbcfsdbc ~lf fhf |+ cfereytib^ becnbybfytc lhjc`^ feubfs
,bzdbysbc cfrfsfkbrjcj nf’fhb _ #mfhsekb rkfcbrehb
[ehjsvj’qdht,bc ‘tukb@&
fctdt dfhwb[bc^ hjljgjkbcbc cftgbcrjgjcj rfstlhbc
yfwdkfl mesfbcib mfhsektyjdfyb cftgbcrjgjcj
lfefhct,bfs&
#fa[fptsbc vtat ubjhub ++-bc lhjc ~922-957` ufemvt,ek
bmyf pqdbc cfyfgbhj afcbcbc rfstlhf lf bub uflfnfybk bmyf
iblf v[fhtib _ f[fk wtynhib _ z.jylblib@ ~bmdt^ ud& 249`&
59

,tlbfib uflfenfybfs ‘bqfyt,bc ~uelf.dbc` rfstlhf&
fa[fptsib bmvyt,jlf v[jkjl pjuflmfhsekb [fcbfsbc fhmbntmnehekb ‘tukt,b^ cftrktcbj lf cfvjyfcnhj ityj,t,b^
mfhsekb cfcekbthj fhmbntmnehbc cnbkbs fityt,ekb
cfvyfdbfyb ,fpbkbrt,b^ v[jkjl cfmfhsdtkjcfsdbc
lfvf[fcbfst,tkb cfvtrktcbfyb ,fpbkbrt,b^ ]dhbc nbgbc
uev,fsjdfyb nf’ht,b bv sfdbct,eht,t,bs^ hjvtkbw v[jkjl
mfhsekb ‘tukt,bcfsdbcff lfvf[fcbfst,tkb& fa[fptsib
~buekbc[vt,f cfreshbd fa[fptsb` fh xfvj.fkb,t,ekf fhw
thsb sfdbct,ehb^ v[jkjl fv htubjybcfsdbc lfvf[fcbfst,tkb
fhmbntmnehekb nbgb& vfhsfkbf^ vfs uffxylfs hfqfw kjrfkehb sfdbct,eht,t,b^ vfuhfv fhf bctsb [fhbc[bcf^ hbsfw^
dsmdfs^ rf[tsbc ‘tukt,b ufyc[dfdlt,f mfhskbc ‘tukt,bcfufy
fy nfj-rkfh]tsbcf tuhbcbc ‘tukt,bcfufy ~u& xe,byfidbkb`&
,th’yekb eqkbc uflfult,bc itvltu cfreshbd fa[fptsbc
~t&b& vlbyfht rjljhbc bmbs vw[jdht,` vjcf[ktj,fc fh itemvybf sfdbcb fy,fyb^ vfsb tyf fh .jabkf vbqt,ekb cf[tkvobaj
lf flvbybcnhfwbekb lf fhw cftrktcbj cfzbhjt,bcfsdbc& bc
ufvj.tyt,ekb fh .jabkf fhw reknehbc^ fhw flvbybcnhfwbek cathjib^ vfiby^ hjwf vstk lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc
cojhtl fv res[blfy ufvjcekb lbyfcnbf vfhsfdlf lf fvbnjvfw vstk dhwtk mdt.fyfc #fa[fpsf cfvtaj@ tojlf& fvbc
vbptpb bc .jabkf^ hjv fa[fpt,b #mfhsekb tsybrehb
thsj,bc ufye.jatk yfobkc ofhvjflutylyty bctdt^ hjujhw
tuhbctkyb^ cdfyyb^ rf[yb fy vtc[yb@ ~y& ,th’tybidbkb`& cojhtl
fvbnjv bqdojlyty fa[fpsf vtatt,b mfhsekb reknehbc^
mfhsekb cf[tkvobajt,hbj,bcf lf trktcbbc f.dfdt,bcfsdbc
~v& kjhsmbafyb’t`&
fa[fptsbc cfvtajib #&&&itbmvyf mfhsekb fubjuhfabekb^
/bvyjuhfabekb
s[pekt,t,b^
fbuj
mfhsekb
60

[ehjsvj’qdht,bc ‘tukt,b^ fa[fpsf vtatt,bc rfhpt mfhsekfl lfbothf fa[fptsbc vtatsf bcnjhbf^ fa[fpsf cfvtaj
fmnbehfl vjyfobktj,lf bv lbl thjdyek ,h’jkfib^ hjvkbc
cf,jkjj itltub mfhsekb mdt.yt,bc ths cf[tkvobajl
ufthsbfyt,f b.j@&
fa[fpsf cf[tkvobaj mfhsekb cf[tkvobaj hjv fh
.jabkb.j^ vbcb ltlfmfkfmb bmyt,jlf fhf mfhsekb
vjcf[ktj,bc iefuekib v.jab^ ‘dtkb mfhsekb
cf[tkvobajt,hbj,bcf lf reknehbc wtynhb mesfbcb^ fhfvtl
fyfrjabf ~fa[fptsbc cfthbcsfdjc wtynhb`^ trktcbf fh
ufvjt.jajlf rjycnfynbytgjkbc cfvo.cjc^ lf se
ufvjt.jajlf^ xfvj.fkb,lt,jlf cfreshbd fa[fptsbc trktcbfl^ fh lffvrdblht,lf obhdf-kjwdfc mfhsek tyfpt lf fh
itethslt,jlf vw[tsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc& bv;fvfl +\-\
cfereytt,bc itvltu rb fh uflflbc [tkbceakt,f mfhsdtkb
vtatt,bc [tkib^ fhfvtl thsbfyb atjlfkehb cfmfhsdtkjc
gbhdtkb vtat ,fuhfn ,fuhfnbjyb fa[fpsf vtatt,bc
rfyjybthb vtvrdblht b.j xfvjvfdkj,bsfw ~ltlbc [fpbs` lf
vfsb cf[tkvobajt,hbdb gjkbnbrbc ufvuh’tkt,tkbw&
\ c-bc 80-bfyb okt,blfy wyt,f #fa[fptsbc@ lf #fa[fpbc@
vybidytkj,f rbltd eahj afhsjdlt,f& thsbfyb cfmfhsdtkjc
gbhdtkb vtatt,bc nbnekfnehfib gbhdtk flubkpt bluf
#vtat fa[fpsf@^ hflufy^ hjujhw ,fuhfnbjysf cf[kbc #mfhsdtkb vtabc@^ fctdt lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc cfvtaj cf[kbc
#fa[fpsf vtabc@ thsflthsb rfyjybthb vtvrdblht ,fuhfnb
]th #fa[fpsf vtatl@ ~t&b& lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vtatl`
frehs[tc^ [jkj vbcb obyfgfhb #mfhsdtksf vtabc@
ufhlfwdfkt,bc itvltu vbbqj vfy #mfhsdtksf vtabc nbnekb&
rf[ts-/thtsbc itvjthst,bc itvltu /thsf lf rf[sf vtabc
nbnekt,b lf thsbfyb mfhsekb atjlfkehb cf[tkvobajc
61

vtatsf nbnekfnehf fv tnfgpt fct ufbvfhsf% vtat fa[fpsf^
mfhsdtksf^ /thsf^ rf[sf&
fvbc itvltu hbu ew[jeh o.fhjt,ib #fa[fptsb@ ybiyfdc
vstk cfmfhsdtkjc^ #fa[fpb@^ cfthsjl^ mfhsdtkbc
vybidytkj,bs b[vfht,jlf& fqybiyek cfrbs[pt dhwtkb
kbnthfnehf fhct,j,c lf lflfcneht,ekbf^ hjv hecekb
othbkj,bsb o.fhjt,bc #f,fcub@^ cjv[eh-fhf,ek-cgfhcekb
o.fhjt,bc #fa[fpb@ lf c[df^ pjuflfl^ hjujhw otcb^ mfhsdtkc ybiyfdc&
bvlhjbyltk mfhsek o.fhjt,ib #fa[fpb@ ybiyfdc pjuflfl mfhsdtkc^ lfcfdktk mfhsdtkc^ lf cfreshbd^ fa[fpc&@
~v& kjhsm&^ #fhf eo.bfy se&&&@^ ufp& kbn& cfm&^ 16&11&90 o&`&
itb’kt,f lfbcdfc rbs[df% cftrktcbj cfvfhskbc vb[tldbs^
hfvltyfl itcf’kt,tkb b.j^ mfhsdtk [fk[c /mjyjlf jhb
fdnjrtafkehb trktcbf^ cfrfsfkbrjcj^ sfdbcb mdt.ybc
c[dflfc[df res[tt,ib& gfce[bc ufwtvfvlt eylf bsmdfc^ hjv^
vfhsfkbf^ ,th’yek lf ew[jeh o.fhjt,ib mdtvj bdthbbc^ fye
fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj b[ctyt,f fdnjrtafkeh trktcbfl^
vfuhfv bc fdnjrtafkehb^ fye lfvjerblt,tkb b.j cojhtl
ew[jehb trktcbt,bc vbvfhs& [jkj vw[tsbc^ fye ptvj bdthbbc cfrfsfkbrjcjcsfy vfc uffxylf eahjc-evwhjcj,bsb
lfvjrblt,ekt,f^ cojhtl fvbs b.j ufvjodtekb bc^ hjv
fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj vbhjyc bqt,lf vw[tsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjlfy& fctsb lfvjrblt,ekt,f ufycfresht,bs ufvjxylf
itvlujv cfereytt,ib& hfw itt[t,f fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc lffhct,bc cfvfhskt,hbd cfae’dkt,c^ cftrktcbj
rfyjyt,bc sfyf[vfl^ .jdtkb cf[tkvobajc ibuybs
itcf’kt,tkbf lffhct,ekb bmytc trktcbf& cftrktcbj
cfpqdht,b eylf tvs[dtjltc cf[tkvobaj flvbybcnhfwbek
cfpqdht,c& fv vbptpsf ufvj fa[fptsbc cfvtajc^ hjujhw
62

mfhsekb cedthtyekb cf[tkvoba jc ofhvjmvyfv
cfvfhskt,hbdb cfae’dkt,b itemvyf fv cf[tkvobajc ibuybs
lfvjerblt,tkb trktcbbc fhct,j,fc&
thsbfyb mfhsekb cf[tkvobajt,hbj,bc fqlutybc itvlujv
\+ c& tgjmfib itbmvyf cfvfhskt,hbdb cfae’dkt,b cftrktcbj
ufthsbfyt,bcsdbcfw& thsbfy cf[tkvobajib ufthsbfylyty
fa[fptsbcf lf vw[tsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjt,b ths cfgfnhbfhmjl&
lffhct,ek bmyf cfmfhsdtkjc cfgfnhbfhmj \ cfereybc
,jkjcf lf \+ cfereybc lfcfo.bcib& gbhdtkb gfnhbfhmb b.j
vtkmbctltrb&
cfgfnhbfhmjc vjo.j,bc cnhemnehf bctsb b.j^ hjv vfcib
itlbjlf jhb cftrktcbj cfvsfdhj% vw[tsbc ~fye mfhskbc`
cfrfsfkbrjcj^ ,bzdbysbc ~fye fa[fptsbc` cfrfsfkbrjcj&
fmtlfy xfyc^ hjv cfgfnhbfhmjc itmvybc lhjc fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj fh ufemvt,ekf hjujhw flvbybcnhfwbekb thstekb& vfy itbyfhxeyf ‘dtkb ibyfufyb cnhemneht,b& cfthsjl^ mfhsek cfgfnhbfhmjib cfrfsfkbrjcjt,b bv ajhvbs
fhct,j,lyty^ hjujhflfw ,th’yek cfgfnhbfhmjib
cfvbnhjgjkbnjt,b& ,th’yek cfvbnhjgjkbnjt,ib thsthsb hjvtkbvt lblb mfkfmbc tgbcrjgjcb ofhvjflutylf
eahjcc^ fye vsfdfhc lf vfc tmdtvlt,fht,jlyty vbc [tkmdtbs
v.jab cftgbcrjgjcjt,bc vtsfeht,b _ tgbcrjgjct,b&
cfvbnhjgjkbnjt,ib fstekj,bs cftgbcrjgjcj fhct,j,lf^
[jkj vbnhjgjkbnb^ sfdbc v[hbd^ tmdtvlt,fht,jlf gfnhbfhmc& fctdt b.j vjo.j,bkb mfhsekb cfrfsfkbrjcjt,bw&
fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcc tmdtvlt,fht,jlyty lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc fstekj,bs tgbcrjgjct,b^ [jkj^ sfdbc v[hbd^ bc
tmdtvlt,fht,jlf cfmfhsdtkjc gfnhbfhmc& cfgfnhbfhmj cnhemnehf bctsb b.j^ hjv cfmfhsdtkjc gfnhbfhmb bvfdlhjekfl ofhvjflutylf mfhskbc rfsfkbrjcc& tct bub^ vfc
63

jhb nf[nb tzbhf cfmfhsdtkjc gfnbhfhmbcf lf mfhskbc
rfsfkbrjcbcf^ fvbnjvfw itvlujv eojltc rbltw rfsfkbrjcgfnhbfhmb&
cfmfhsdtkjc cfgfnhbfhmjc vjo.j,bc fctsb cnhemnehf
tae’yt,jlf mfhsekb cf[tkvobajc thsbfyj,fc^ [jkj bvbc
itvltu^ hfw \| cfereybcfsdbc cf[tkvobajc thsbfyj,fc
,pfhb ittgfhf^ cftrktcbj thsbfyj,fw vjbifkf^ hfvfw fcf[df
/gjdf ljrevtynib^ hjvtkcfw #vwyt,fb cfc]ekj@ tojlf& \|
cfereybc itvltu fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjv vw[tsbc vbvfhs
vjbgjdf ufhrdtekb flvbybcnhfwbekb lfvjerblt,kj,f vbhjybc flubkpt rehs[tdbc xfsdkbs& fqybiyekb ljrevtynbc ufy[bkdfvlt eylf bsmdfc^ hjv hjujhw |+++-\^ bct \+-\|
cfereytt,ib^ lf^ fctdt 1820 okfvlt^ hectsbc vbth vbc
ufemvt,fvlt^ fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj cfdct,bs mfhsektyjdfy trktcbfc ofhvjflutylf&
fvfc yfskfl exdtyt,c vhfdfkb vfufkbsb^ hjvtksfufy
pjubthsb firfhfl [tkitcf[t,bf& vfufkbsfl^ kb[ybc nf’hbc
ahtcrt,bc mfhsektyjdfyb ofhotht,b& cfreshbd fa[fptsib
fhct,ekb vhfdfkb mfhsektyjdfyb cftgbcrjgjcj ~wtynht,b
vobuyj,hj,f-ufyfskt,bcf`^ hjvtkybw thsbfyb cfmfhsdtkjc
cf[tkvobaj hqdtdf-lfe’keht,bc itvltu rfdrfcbbc vst,blfy
itvjzhbkb ofhvfhst,bc ~flbqt-xthmtp-facfht,bc` vbth bmyf
eo.fkjl ufyflueht,ekb& xhlbkjtkb ofhvfhst,bc
sfdlfc[vt,bc lhjc vjmdbc lblt,ekb nf’hblfy cfmfhsdtkjc
wtynht,ib^ rth’jl^ z.jylblib uflvjenfybfs ybdst,b& #vfhndbkbc nf’fhib lfwekbf iefnfybc n.fdbc cf[fht,f^ vhfdkbc cehfst,bs itvrekb lf evfqktcbc [tkjdyt,bs
lf[fnekb& lblfl wyj,bkb fhmtjkjub rjylfrjdb uffwdbahf
fv cehfst,bc evodthdfktcvfy [tkjdyt,fv^ hjvkbc vcufdcb^
vbccfdt vjovj,bs^ c[df fh bgjdt,f cfmfhsdtkjib lf bidbfs64

bf vstkc ltlfvbofpt& fqvfnt,ekbc [tkjdyt,bs fhbc
ufvj.dfybkb fuhtsdt fcjvsfdhekb fcjt,b &&&.dtkf ofhothfsfufy cxfyc^ hjv cf[fht,f lfothbkb .jabkf vjmdbc
nf’hbcfsdbc lf^ hjujhw cxfyc^ fa[fptsib mhbcnbfyj,bc
lfvwbht,bc itvltu ~\|++-\|+++ cc` tc cf[fht,f vfhndbkib
vbenfybfs& vjmdbc [fnt,b rb fcdtybf [jac lf peulblc@ ~s&
;jhlfybf^ mhjybrt,b ++^ ud& 172`&
mfhsekb tybs tdtlht,jlyty qvthsc fa[fpb
qdsbcvcf[eht,bw cfereytsf vfy’bkpt& tc xfyc ofhotht,blfy
vjmdbc cf[fht,bcf _ #vjmdbc qdsbcf vij,tkj itbo.fkt cekb
smdty obyf vlt,bcf vjmdtk vsfdfhtgbcrjgjpbcf f,hf/fvbcf@*
#.jdkfl ovblfj ltljafkj qdsbcvij,tkj lfbwtd lf
itbo.fkt jhsfdt w[jdht,fcf ibufy vjmdbcf vtnhfgtpt ubjhub ltrfyjpb@* #lblt,f qvthscf chek v.jatkcf .jdkbcf
rtsbkbcfcf^ lfbothf ovblf tct js[sfdb lfcf,fvbsufy otksf
1300@* lf ,jkjc #&&&xdtyyb cf[fht,fyb gbhdtkbsufy ovblfl
sfhuvybkbf lf rtsbkfl [fyvtnybwf lf cf,fovbylehbwf&&&@
~bmdt^ ud& 173`&
hjujhw ptvjs vj.dfybkblfy xfyc^ vjmdbc cf[fht,bc vtgfnhjytyb^ vjmdbc qdsbcvcf[ehyb #xdty cf[fht,fc@ eojlt,ty&
‘dtkmfhsekb [fyvtnb lf cf,fovblehb htlfmwbt,b wyj,bkbf
|+++ cfereybc itvltu& vjmdtkb qdsbcvcf[ehyb sfdbfys sfdc
fresdyt,lyty mfhsdtk [fk[c lf fvbnjvfw othlyty% #xdtyyb
cf[fht,fyb gbhdtksfufy ovblfl sfhuvybkbf@^ t&b& +|-|+
cfereytt,ibw [fyvtnj,bcfc lf itvltufwj&
fvfdt vjmdbc cf[fht,bc ofhotht,blfy xfyc^ hjv 1300 okfvlt vjmdtkb vsfdfhtgbcrjgjcb .jabkf f,hf/fvb^ vbc itvltu vjmdtkb vsfdfhtgbcrjgjcbf lfybtkb^ itvlujv tgjmfib \|+
cfereybcfsdbc vjmdtkb vsfdfhtgbcrjgjcbf abkbgt x[tnb’t
~eahj flht^ 1438 okbcfsdbc vjmdtkb vsfdfhtgbcrjgjcb
65

.jabkf hjvfyjpb^ \|+ cfereytib vsfdfhtgbcrjgjcb uhbujk
vfu’ybc ‘t^ tmdsbvt cf.dfhtkb’t^ hjvtkbw itvltu 1605 okblfy fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcb ufv[lfhf^ itvltu fylhbf
cf.dfhtkb’t^ \|++ c-ib _ bfrj,b ~b[& bmdt^ ud& 174`& fmtlfy xfyc^
hjv vjmdbc qdsbcvcf[eht,c fhfdbsfhb rfdibhb fhf fmds facfhek-flbqeh cfv.fhjcsfy^ bcbyb v[jkjl lf v[jkjl mfhsek tsyjcc ufytresdyt,bfy&
fa[fptsbc tsybrehb itvflutykj,bc ufycfpqdhbcfsdbc
‘fkpt vybidytkjdfybf bc afmnb^ hjv fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjpb
tmdsbvt cf.dfhtkb’t ,bzdbysbc cf[tkjdfy nf’fhc ~1600 okbcfsdbc` c[df ovblf obuyt,sfy thsfl cobhfdc #mfhskbc
w[jdht,fc@& rth’jl^ vfc ,bzdbysbcfsdbc iteobhfdc itvltub
obuyt,b% #thsb jmhjc rjylfrb vtkybs lf[fnekb^ thsb c[dfb
tnhfnbcfb rjylfrb&&& thsb ;fvyb^ thsb lfdbsyb^ thsb
rehs[tdfb&&& thsb mfhskbc w[jdht,fb lf[fnekb@ ~mfhsekb cfvfhskbc ‘tukt,b^ +++^ ud& 387`& #mfhskbc w[jdht,f@
_ ovblf obuyt,bc udthlbs^ ovblf obuyt,bc hfyuibf f.dfybkb
fa[fpsf rfsfkbrjct,bc vbth& fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc fsfcokjdfyb bcnjhbbc vfy’bkpt xdtysdbc wyj,bkb .dtkf rfsfkbrjcb mfhsdtkb b.j lf fhw itb’kt,jlf #mdtvj bdthbbc@
trktcbbc vtsfehb mfhsdtkb hjv fh .jabkb.j& fvbc thsflthsb vbptpb bc b.j^ hjv fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc vhtdkb _ thjdyt,bs^ udfhbidbkj,bs ofhvjflutylyty^ lf
cojhtl fct othc thsb fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcb sfdbc cfvo.cjc
itcf[t,& rfsfkbrjcb uhbujk kjhsmbafyb’t fa[fptsbc
trktcbbc cfvo.cjc mfhsdtkt,c eojlt,c lf othc^ hjv mfhsdtksf itvot lf vafhdtkvf qdsbcvij,tkvf mfhsdtkb
vhtdkbcfsdbc ufvjfupfdyf fa[fptsib ~t&b& mdtvj bdthbfib`
fylhbf vjwbmekbj ~b[& mdtvjs`&
66

fa[fptsbc fstekj,bs rfsfkbrjpsfufy vjqotekbf
pjubthsbc udfhb% vfkfmbf f,fib’t ~1529-1632`^ tdltvjp
x[tnb’t ~1557-1578`^ tmdsbvt + cf.dfhtkb’t ~1578-1605`^ 1600
okbcfsdbc fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcbf tdltvjy cf.dfhtkb’t ~mfhsekb cfvfhskbc ‘tukt,b^ +++^ ud& 386`^ \|++ c& 20-bfy okt,ib
fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcbf vfkfmbf uehbtkb ~1616-1639` ~bmdt^
ud& 482`* vfmcbvt vfzenf’t ~1639-1657`* \|++ c& 50-bfy okt,ib
fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcbf pfmfhbf mdfhbfyb ~1657-1660`^ cdbvjy x[tnb’t ~1660-1666`^ tdltvjp ++ cf.dfhtkb’t ~1666-1669`^
tmdsbvt ++ cf.dfhtkb’t ~1669-1673`^ lfdbs ytvcf’t ~16731696`^ uhbujk kjhsmbafyb’t ~1696-1742`^ uthvfyt
oekerb’t _ ,tcfhbjy thbcsfdb ~1755-1769` ~hfzbc inj
thbcsfdt,bcf` ~bmdt^ ud& 880`* 70-bfy okt,ib _ fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcbf bjct, ,fuhfnbjyb ~vtabc ‘t` ~bmdt^ ud&885`^ vfmcbvt fsf,fub ~1776-1795`&
bvbc itvltu^ hfw mfhskbcf lf rf[tsbc cfvtajt,b bmwf cgfhctsbc dfcfkeh mdt.yt,fl \|++ cfereytib^ lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc gjkbnbrehb thstekt,b ~bvthtsbc cfvtaj
cfvsfdhjt,b` itlfht,bs sfdbceakt,bs cfhut,kj,lyty^ fvbc
ufvj fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj^ hjvtkbw vjbwfdlf vstk
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc^ mfhskbc itlfht,bs eahj
uf’kbthlf& fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjv sfdbc sfdpt fbqj
mfhsdtkj,bc^
mfhsekb
mhbcnbfyj,bc^
fye
vfhskvflblt,kehb cfhoveyjt,bc pheydbc ndbhsb& tc bc
lhjf^ hjwf cgfhctkt,b lf jcvfkt,b s,bkbcbc cbjybc vtxtsfl uflfrtst,fc wlbkj,lyty^ [jkj mfhskbc ths rfsfkbrjcc
cnfv,jkib fgfnbvht,lyty^ [jkj vtjhtc cgfhctkt,b
s,bkbcbc wb[tib /rkfdlyty&
bv elbltcb vbcbbc ufvj^ hjvtkbw sfdbc sfdpt fbqj
fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjv^ \|++ cfereybc bthecfkbvtkb
67

gfnhbfhmt,b lf;byt,bs fvnrbwt,lyty^ hjv vfsb lhjbcfsdbc
fa[fptsbc^ fye hjujhw bcbyb eojlt,lyty^ #mdtvj b,thbbc@
rfsfkbrjcb eahjcbf #ptvj bdthbbc@ rfsfkbrjcsfy
itlfht,bs ~b[& ptvjs`& w[flbf^ fctsb vnrbwt,fyb bv oesbthb
lfrdbhdt,bc itltub b.j lf fhf j,btmnehb cehfsb&
cojhtl mfhsdtkb thbc elbltcb rhbpbcbc lhjc^ cfmfhsdtkjc thsbfyb cfvtajc lfikbc itvltu^ bthecfkbvtk-fynbjmbtkvf gfnhbfhmt,vf bcfhut,ktc vjvtynbs lf mfhsekb
trktcbbc ufthsbfyt,f-uf’kbtht,bc vfubth bcehdtc vbcb
lfmewvfwt,f-lfyfobkt,f& \| cfereybc 70-bfy okt,ib
cf[tkvobajt,hbdb rhbpbcbc lhjc lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib
xfcekf bthecfkbvtk-fynbjmbtkb gfnhbfhmb lf vfc lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc trktcbbcfsdbc #vbeybzt,bf@ fdnjrtafkbf& erehs[t,bf wfbitk-,tlbtkb vsfdfhtgbcrjgjcb bjfrbvt
fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcfl ~bmdt^ ud& 222`& wyj,bkbf^ hjv fvbc
itvltu cfereytsf vfy’bkpt fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcc bmdt^
lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjib bhxtdlyty lf cfthsjl fh
trbs[t,jlyty yt,fhsdfc fhw ths ew[jtk gfnhbfhmc^ lf fhw
fynbjmbtk-bthecfkbvtkc& \| cfereytib xfvjcekb
ew[jtkb gfnhbfhmb lfcfdktk mfhsdtkvf bthfhmt,vf
ufvjb.tytc cfmfhsdtkjc rfsfkbrjc-gfnhbfhmbcfufy eahj
vtnb lfvjerblt,kj,bc vjgjdt,bc vbpybs& fmfvlt^ hjujhw
bsmdf^ fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj ofhvjflutylf yfobkc cfmfhsdtkjc cfgfnhbfhmjcb^ fvbnjvfw fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjcbc
rehs[tdf itb’kt,jlf cfmfhsdtkjc rfsfkbrjc-gfnhbfhmbc yt,fhsdbs^ vbc vbth& f[kf^ erdt fynbjmbtk-bthecfkbvtkb gfnhbfhmbc vbth #bmvyf ufvj’bt,f lf vjrbs[df ue]fhsf
bflufhsf lf dbsfh bub gbhdtkfl mfhskbcf lf fa[fptsbc
rfsfkbrjpyb fynbjmbbcf gfnhbfhmbcfufy brehs[tjlbfy lf
;fvsf cb’dtkbcfufy lf cjakbcf cbdthfubcfufy b.dytc vhfd68

fkyb otcyb itikbs lf ufhlfmwtdbs dyf[ts &&& dfrehs[ts rfsfkbrjpb bjdfrbv vfh]dtyfb bthecfkbvbcf fa[fptsbcf rfsfkbrjpb&&& lfdf.tyts lf lfdcdbs fa[fptsc^ cf.lfhc vfc fylhbf vjwbmekbcfsf^ .jdtksf mhbcnbfysf kb[s-fvthcf^ jlbibcf^ uehbbcf lf fa[fptsbcf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 222`&
fv lhjc vj[lf fhf fa[fptsbc trktcbbc lfvjhxbkt,f
fynbjmbf-bthecfkbvpt^ fhfvtl fa[fptsbc trktcbf
eakt,hbdfl ufenjklf mfhskbc cfgfnhbfhmjc lf
lfvjerblt,tkb uf[lf vbcufy&
fvbc itvltu^ fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj ittwflf
ufv[lfhb.j kblthb cfmfhsdtkjc trktcbbcf^ vbcb vtsfeht,b
pju]th chekbfl cfmfhsdtkjc rfsfkbrjc-gfnhbfhmbc
cf[tkbs ufvjlbjlyty& vfufkbsfl^ vjqotekbf thsb cf,esb^
hjvtkcfw flfcneht,c chekbfl cfmfhsdtkjc rfsfkbrjcgfnhbfhmb uhbujkb^ hjvtkbw b.j fhf vw[tsbc^ fhvtl ,bzdbysbc vfvfvsfdfhb^ #uhbujk vo.tvcb mhbcntc vbth .jdkbcf
cfmfhsdtkjbcf rfsfkbrjpb@ ~mfhs& cfvfhskbc ‘tukt,b^ +++^
ud& 675`& fct hjv^ \| cfereybc itvltu fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj mfhskbc trktcbfc rb fh ufvjt.j^ gbhbmbs^ sfdbcb sfdb
thsflths #mhbcntc vbth@ lflutybk #.jdkbcf cfmfhsdtkjc@
vo.tvcfl ufvjfw[flf&
hjujhw bsmdf^ fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj ufhrdtekb sdfkcfphbcbs uf’kbthlf rbltw^ vfuhfv vbcb ofhvfnt,f itfxthf
vsbtkb ofhvfhsekb njvt,bc itvjctdt,vf& vsbtkb ofhvfhsb
xthmtpek-facfhekb njvt,b^ egbhdtktc .jdkbcf^ entdlyty fa[fptsib fhct,ek trktcbt,cf lf vjyfcnht,c& mfhsekb
cekbthb reknehbc e’dtktc rtht,ib^ cftgbcrjgjcj se
cfvhtdkj nf’ht,ib lfuhjdbkb b.j fehfw[tkb ufy’b^ xthmtp-facfht,b fyflueht,lyty^ bnfwt,lyty ufy’c^ fh bylj,lyty
flfvbfyt,cfw^ ’bh’dtk mfhsek vjcf[ktj,fc& xhlbkj
69

rfdrfcbblfy xfcf[kt,ekb vsbtkt,b mdt.ybc cf[tkbc vb[tldbs
bojlyty #fa[fpt,fl@ lf lfegbhbcgbhlyty ‘dtk reknehfc&
#vwyt,fb cfc]ekjib@ fqybiyfdlyty _ #&&&fa[fpyb
mhbcntfyj,bcfufy chekbfl vblhtrbk b.dytc^ mhbcntc
vwyt,fsfufy ufyijht,ek b.dytc@ ~bmdt^ ud& 222`&
fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjct,c fcts hsek dbsfht,fib vbpyfl
lfecf[fds #fa[fpsfufy@ ~fye erdt xthmtp-facfht,bcfufy`
f.hbkb mfhsekb vjcf[ktj,f lftcf[kt,byfs sfdbfys
vfvekib^ fylf cfmfhsdtkjc v.elhj res[tt,ib^ 1712 okbc
ths cf,esib fqbybiyf _ #yf;fytdc cjatkb fa[fpcf ft.fhf@
~bmdt^ ud& 670`^ c[df cf,est,ibf% #rbltd ,b,bf ,jkmdf’t fa[fpc
wjk-idbkbfyfl oft.dfyf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 677`& fvbnjvfw othlf obyf
cfereytsf thsb cf,esb% fa[fpt,vf ufh.dytc c]ekb lf
rfsfkbrjpj,fj& fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjct,b b[cybfy lf
fcf[kt,ty lfn.dtdt,ek vjcf[ktj,fc^ fvfc vbesbst,c vhfdfkb cf,esb&
ukt[t,bc
mjyt,fpt
lf[fh,t,ekb
vsbtkb
ofhvfhst,bcfsdbc cftrktcbj mjyt,f yfvldbkb pqfghekb
ufy’b b.j& mfhsdtk cfvqdltkjt,fc vhfdfk fctek okj,bs
yfuhjdt,b ufy’b /mjylf lfwekb fa[fptsbc trktcbt,ib&
v[jkjl thsb-jhb cf,esblfyfw rb xfyc^ hf fehfw[tkb ufy’b
b.j nf’ht,ib lfwekb% fb^ hf mjyt,f itcobhf mfhsdtkvf
vqdltkvsfdfhvf ,bzdbysbc nf’fhc lff[kjt,bs 1600 otkc%
#yt,bsf qdsbcfsf fhc tdltvjy rfsfkbrjpbc itobhekb% thsb
jmhjc [fnb &&& thsb jmhjc ]dfhb vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb^
thsb ,fh’bvb jmhjbcf vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb^ thsb js[sfdb
jmhjs vjztlbkb vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb&&& ~tmdsbvt rfsfkbrjpbc itobhekj,f`& yt,bsf qdsbcfsf itdcobht vt^
fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjpvfy tadsbvb cf.dfhtkbc’tvfy ,bzdbysbcf qdsbcvij,kbcf udbhudbyb jmhjbcf vjsdfkvfhufk70

bnekb^ jvjajhb v’bvtl vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb^ ,bcjyb
cf]dhbcf jmhjbc qbkt,bfyb&&& mfvfhb jmhjbcf^ tymthb cbhvbcfb v’bvtl vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb&&& jmhjc [fnb v’bvtl vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb&&& thsb ati[evb jmhjcf^ lf thsb
dthw[kbcfb& thsb mfyfhnb jmhjcf vjsdfkekb&&& jmhjc
rjylfrb&&& jmhjc ljcnfmfyb&&&@ ~bmdt^ ud& 386`^ xfvjyfsdfkb
‘dbhafcb itobhekj,t,bcf ‘fkpt lblbf& \|++ c-bc 20-bfy
okt,ib vfkfmbf uehbtkvf rfsfkbrjcvf itcobhf ,bzdbysfc _
#m& itvbobhfdc xdty fa[fptsbc rfsfkbrjpcf uehbtkbc ‘tcf
,fnjyc vfkfmbfc ,bzdbysbcf qdsbcvij,kbcfsdbc% thsb vehfcf .tkcfrblb [fnb&&& thsb lblb yfk,fmb jmhjcf js[fcbc
akehbcf&&& thsb rfhub dthw[kbc ]dfh-cfystkb^ thsb
vjvfhufkbnt,ekb vfpfhf&&& tymthb v’bvtl vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb hdf jmhjc hujkbsf^ idblbc vjvfhufkbnekbc
hujkbsf&&& ,bcjyb vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb&&& thsb jmhjc jvjajhb&&& v’bvtl vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb cfvb jmhjc qbkbsf&&&
thsb jmhjc lblbc qbkbsf^ vehfcfs yfmyfhb s[esvtnb
s[esvtnb jmhjc qbkbsf&&& vjvfhufkbnekb mfvfhb&&& ,bcjyb
cnfdhbcf vjvfhufkbnekb sdhfvtnbc jhmhjc veif,f[bc
fv,hbfybc qbkt,bsf&&& jhvjwlftmdcb .bhvbpb bfueylb&&& c[df
vhfdfkb sdkbsf lf vfhufkbnbsf&&& jhb jmhjc qbkb vehfcf
veifv,f[bcf&&&@ ~bmdt^ ud& 498`& xfvjsdkfw rb ‘ytkbf&
bvfdt okt,ib vfkfmbf uehbtkb rfsfkbrjcb rdkfd cobhfdc ,bzdbysfc vlblfh itcfobhfdc^ vfvekt,c^ cjakt,c^ .vt,c^
esdfkfd mjyt,fc^ hjvtkcfw sfdfl #vwbht itcobhfdc@
eojlt,c% #&&&ovblbc fylhbf vjwbmekbc [fnb vjvbztlbyt,bf
lf sjhvtn cfeakjc re,jib xfvbcdtyt,bf lf ,bzdbysfc
lfvbcdtyt,bf&&& fvfc ufhts thsb v’bvtl vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb
jmhjc jvjajhb fsfcbc akehbcf chekbfl gfnbjcfybc sdfkbsf lf vfhufkbnbsf itvrj,bkb lf vbcb jmhjc
71

,eint,bsf&&& v’bvt jmhjc cbhvbc&&& abhepbcf lf .bhvbpbc bfueylbc vtnb fhf pbc hf^ tc qbkt,b sdbsj fc-fc vfhxbkfl
yfc.blb fhbc&&& cfvrkfdt,b jmhjcf js[fcbc akehbcf v’bvtl
vjsdfkvfhufkbnekb&&& jmhjc vehfcf mfvfhb gfnbjcybc .bhvbpbc bfueylbsf^ kfkbsf^ ybifehbc abhepbsf lf vfhufkbnbsf@ ~ud& 499`& thsb cbn.dbs^ xfvjsdkf ite’kt,tkbf&
vsbtkb ofhvfhst,bcfsdbc^ hjvtksfw vf/vflbfyt,b
xthmtpt,c^ [jkj mfhsdtkt,b ]th facfht,c^ [jkj
fa[fptsib xfvjcf[kt,bc itvltu fa[fpt,c eojlt,lyty^ jmhjvhfdfkb^ vfhufkbnt,bsf lf ‘dbhafcb sdkt,bs fdct,ekb
,bzdbysbc nf’fhb^ fa[fptsbc c[df mfhsekb cftgbcrjgjcj
nf’ht,b^ hjvtksfw mfhsekb cf[tkvobaj dtqfh bwfdlf^
yfvldbk egfnhjyj cfufy’ehc ofhvjflutylf&
flbqt-facfht,vf cfae’dkbfyfl uf’fhwdtc ]th ,bzdbysbc
nf’fhb^ vfcib v[jkjl vfssdbc ecfhut,kj mfhsekb obuyt,b
lfnjdtc^ itvltu rb fa[fptsbc c[df mfhsekb
cftgbcjrgjcjt,b&
,bzdbysf mfhsdtkvf cfvqdltkjt,fv vbfnjdf^ vfsb lblb
yfobkb^ bct hjujhw nf’hbc .vt,b lf nf’hbc idbkt,b^
n.dtt,fl uf/.bltc& ,bzdbysf hjv xthmtp-facfht,bc
itvjctdt,bc ufvj vbenjdt,bfs^ tc wyj,bkb b.j ew[jtkbtdhjgtkb vrdktdfht,bcsdbcfw&
\+\ c-bc lfcfo.bcib fv v[fhtib vjupfehb ahfycef ufv,f
othlf ,bzdbysbc nf’hbc itcf[t, _ #fm lqtvlt itvjhxtybkbf yfyuhtdt,b^ fy eahj cojhtl sbsmvbc vskbfyb
rtlkt,b ‘dtkb vjyfcnhbcf^ hjvtkbw lblb [ybc obyfs
xthmtpt,bc itvjctdt,bc vjenjdt,bfs@ ~ufv,f^ vjupfehj,f
fvbthrfdrfcbfib^ 1987 o& ^ ud& 79`& fv lhjbcfsdbc
flubkj,hbdb vjcf[ktj,bc yfobkb sbsmvbc uffacfht,ek72

uffa[fpt,ekb b.j^ vfs rbltd itvjhxtyjlfs [cjdybc yfisb
,bzdbysbcflvb vjobot,bcf&
ufv,f othc% #xtvc vbth vj[ctyt,ekb vbnjdt,ekb vjyfcnthb vf/vflbfyb fa[fpt,bcf lf fm lfcf[kt,ekb
cjv[t,bcfsdbc ibibcf lf sf.dfybcwtvbc j,btmnc ofhvjflutyc&
fa[fpt,b whevjhoveytyb fhbfy^ hbc ufvjw fv vjyfcnthib
itvjhxtybk fdt]c^ cftrktcbj vjhsekj,fcf lf obuyt,c
lqtcfw rb tsf.dfyt,bfy& dthw thsb fa[fpb^ sehmb se cjvt[b^
hjvtkbw ,bzdbysfib xfvjlbc^ hfsf vfhbkb ,pfib ufwdfkjc^
dth ,tlfdc fv ybdst,bc vrht[tkehb [tkb f[kjc& 1821 otkc
fm cfdfzhjl xfvjcekvf dbqfw cjvt[vf ths-thsb obuyblfy
aehwtkb vjbgfhf^ hjvtkbw vbcsdbc ewyj,b fcjt,bs b.j
lfothbkb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 80`&
hfqf b.j lfhxtybkb ,bzdbysbc e,ho.bydfktcb cfrfsfkbrjcjlfy( ehoveyjsfsdbc ufvjecfltufhb mfhsekb ovblf
obuyt,b^ hjvtksfw aehwtk-aehwtk ‘fhwdfdlyty&
bmfvlt rb fhwse lblb [ybs flht ,bzdbysbcfsdbc cbc[kbc
whtvk-lfys[tekb mfhsdtkb vqdltkvsfdht,b sfdc fh bpjufdlyty fv trktcbbcf lf vfsb vhtdkbcfsdbc& v[jkjl
itobhekt,fsf cbbc xfvjothfc czbhlt,f lblb lhj lf
tythubf^ cfufyut,j vjyjuhfabf& xfvjdsdkbs v[jkjl bv
cbutkt,bc^ itobhekt,bc obuyt,bc cfsfeht,c^ hjvtkybw xdty
cfvqdltkjt,fc ,bzdbysbc cfrfsfkbrjcjcfsdbc iteobhfdc&
#fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjpj ufvjcfdfkb vjcfrht,kbc lfdsfhb@^ 1621 okbcf& #itobhekj,bc obuyb vfkfmbf rfsfkbrjpbcf ,bzdbynbcflvb@ jh]th c[dflfc[df okt,ib^ ths-thsb
1712 okbc ~bmdt^ ud& 668`^ [jkj itvlujvb itobhekj,f
vf[kj,tk otkc vjv[lfhf ~bmdt^ ud& 675`& 1731 okbcfsdbc
fhct,j,c #itobhekt,bc obuyb uf,hbtk obyfv’qdhbcf ,bzdbynbcflvb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 714`&
73

fhct,j,c 1732 okbc rbltd thsb #itobhekj,bc obuyb rfsfkbrjp uhbujk kjhsmbafyb’bcf ,bzdbynbcflvb@ ~bmdt^ ud&
716`& [jkj 1733 otkc uhbujk kjhsmbafyb’t rdkfd vhfdfkc cobhfdc ,bzdbynfc@ ~bmdt^ ud& 718`& cojhtl fv
itobhekj,bc cbutkib fqybiyfdc fa[fptsbc ytnfhb rfsfkbrjpb^ hjv ,bzdbysbc qdsbcvij,kbc^ fye fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc cfvo.cjc mfhsdtkt,b itflutylyty& rth’jl^ bc fv
cbutkib othc% #&&&dbsfhwf bub gtnht vjwbmekcf vbtwf /ehbfsf vjmwtdfb^ [jkj gfdktc ofhvfhsssf ptlf^ fuhtsdt gbhdtk ojlt,ekcf fylhtfc vjtwf xhlbkjtsbcf mdt.fyf vjmwtdfl xdtyt,bsf ovblbcf qdsbcvij,kbcfsf^ hfvtse xdty mfhsdtkyb vbcyb obk[ljvbkyb dfhs&&& fvfs rfsfkbrjpsf lf
cfztl vg.hj,tksf ,bzdbynbcf qdsbcvij,kbcfsf vcf[eht,f
cf.lhbcf lblfl tqdfofl@ ~bmdt^ ud& 727`& fmtlfy xfyc^ hjv ovbylf fylhbfc vbth vjmwtekb lfcfdkts cfmfsdtkjc^ fye
fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc vhtdkc v[jkjl lf v[jkjl
mfhsdtkt,b itflutylyty& itvlujv okt,ibw itcobhf ,bzdbysfc uhbujk kjhsmbafyb’tv itcfobhfdt,b ~bmdt^ ud& 764^ 765^
768`& itcfobhfdb rdkfd ufyvtjhlf itvlujv okt,ibw ~bmdt^
ud& 772`& fhct,j,c ,tcfhbjy rfsfkbrjcbc ~1742-1769`
itobhekj,bc obuyb ,bzdbynbcflvb ~bmdt^ ud& 880`& fhct,j,c
1770 okbc 15 bfydhbs lfsfhbqt,ekb itobhekj,bc obuyb
,bzdbynbcflvb ~bmdt^ ud& 883`^ bubdt rfsfkbrjpb 1774 otkcfw
cobhfdc itcfobhfdc ,bzdbynfc ~bmdt^ ud& 896` lf f&i&
,bzdbysbc lblt,ek nf’fhib sbsmvbc vstkb 800 okbc
vfy’bkpt^ se eahj vtnb [ybs fhf^ eafk qvthsc v[jkjl
lf v[jkjl mfhsekb tybs flblt,lyty&
se hjujh gfnbdc cwtvlyty mfhsdtkb vqdltkvsfdht,b
,bzdbynbc qdsbcvij,tkc^ tc vfsb ptfqnfwt,ekb vbvfhsdblfyfw xfyc% #t/f fcekj vidtybthj^ bjdfrbvbc yf.jaj^
74

cbnr,jt,bs fqcfdctj^ fyfc vjhxj^ hnj uflfahtybkj^
cjkjvjybc dtyf[j^ hmf vtofvekj^ lfdbsbc .dfdbkj^
lf,flt,eksf cekytkv.jaj^ btctc rdths[j^ lblt,bs
fq.dfdt,ekj^ belfc ihjifyj^ lf,flt,eksf cfvrfekj^
bfrj,bc rb,tj ptwfl vbvfhs fqvfhst,fj^ bcfrbc dfhlj
e,bojt,bs fq.dfdt,ekj^ f,hfvbc rdbhnj lblt,bs fqvjahxdybkj^ ctvbc lfcf,fvj^ yfstcfdsf vidblj,fj^ yjtc cekbcf cfvjctkj^ lfekgjkdtkj^ tdfc yfstkj lf voe[fht,bcf
exbyj v.jatkj^ flfvbc lblt,fj^ cfvjs[tj gbhvtn.dtkj
qvhsbcf vfvbcf v[jkjcf obyfsdt ufvjhxtekj lf ‘bcf
v[jkjcf gbhdtk cfereytsf vfvbcfufy ij,bkcf ltlfl
mfkoekt,bs estckjl vij,tkfl ufyotct,ekj lf cekbcf
ovblbcf nf’fhj^ hjvtkvfy thsb cfvt,bcfufyb itbo.yfht lf
efqhtc .jdtksf ,eyt,fsf itd ‘t v[jkjl ij,bkb@ ~mfhs&
cfvfhskbc ‘tukt,b^ n& +++^ ud& 640`^ hfjlty vnrbdytekb eylf
.jabkb.j mfhsdtkt,bcfsdbc ,bzdbysbc nf’hbc vjmvtlt,bc
ufemvt,f&
xthmtp-facfhsf sfdlfc[vbc itltufl ptlbptl ufemvlf
vjmdbc^ lhfylbc^ ,tlbbc cftgbcrjgjcjt,b lf^ w[flbf^ ,bzdbysbc rfstlhfw& ew[jtkb vjupfeht,b lf lfvrdbhdt,kt,b
lf,t]bst,bs othlyty^ hjv fqybiyek cftgbcrjgjcjsf
vjcf[ktj,fc ofhvjflutylyty mfhsdtkt,b&
y&,th’tybidbkb othc% #uhfy;btc vjovj,f bvbsff cfbynthtcj^ hjv bc vjmdc cfvtuhtkjib uekbc[vj,c^ vfuhfv rbltd
eahj cfbynthtcjf bvbs^ hjv fm bc cfzbhjl cwyj,c cfvjqdfotjl itbcofdkjc vtuhekb lf mfhsekb^ hjv vfifcflfvt
vjmdbc hfbjyb vtuhtkt,bs lfcf[kt,ekb tuekt,f ~mfhsekb
cf[tkvobaj lf mhbcnbfyj,bc tyff`^ hfw vbcbjythekb
vjqdfotj,bcfsdbc fewbkt,tkbf&
75

fm hjv bv lhjc c[df tybc [fk[c tw[jdhf^ uhfy;bt ~lf
vbcbjytht,b` fv [fk[bc tybc itcofdkfc fctdt^ cfabmht,tkbf^
cfzbhjl lfbyf[fdlyty&&& fct^ hjv vjmdbc hfbjyb ~vjmdbc cftgbcrjgjcj` vt-17 cfereybc lfcfo.bcc fhf vfhnj gjkbnbrehfl cfvtuhtkjf^ bc tsybrehflfw vtuhtkt,bs fhbc
lfcf[kt,ekb@ ~y& ,th’tybidbkb^ cfmfhsdtkjc bcnjhbbc
cfrbs[t,b^ 1990^ ud& 612`&
fctdt f,cjkenehfl mfhsekb b.j lhfylbcf lf ,tlbbc
cftgbcrjgjcjt,b% #w[flbf^ hjv lhfylf^ bctdt hjujhw
,tlbf^ cfvtuhtkjibf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 618`& y& ,th’tybidbkb fcts
lfcrdybc ufrtst,bc lhjc t.hlyj,f gfnhb bjfytcf lf c[dfsf
vj[ctyt,t,c lf othc% #buekbc[vt,f^ hjv lhfylbc hfbjyb^
bctdt hjujhw ,tlbbcf^ mfhsdtkt,bsff lfcf[kt,ekb@
~bmdt^ ud& 618`&
sdbs bctsb vrdktdfhbw rb^ hjujhbwff b& djhjyjdb^ hjvtkcfw fa[fptsib mfhsdtkj,bc lfyf[df fh cehc^ othc^ hjv
lhfylbc ,jkj tgbcrjgjcb ufyltdybk bmyf sfdbcb rfstlhblfy&
fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjc ufafhsjt,bc itltufl^ t&b& bvbc ufvj^
hjv lhfylbc cftgbcrjgjcj vjtmwf fa[fp vsbtksf [tkmdti
lf fvbc ufvj tgbcrjgjcc bm fqfh tlujvt,jlf& djhjyjdb
xfvjsdkbc lhfyltkb tgbcrjgjct,bc cf[tkt,c^ hjvtkybw
wyj,bkyb fhbfy o.fhjt,ib^ ,jkj tgbcrjgjcb uf,hbtkb
b’ekt,ekb ufv[lfhf \|++ cfereytib vbtnjdt,byf lhfylf^
hbc itltufw bc bthecfkbvib ofcekf^ [jkj df[einbc lhjc
rfstlhf erdt ufemvt,ekbf& vskbfyb obyflflt,f fctsbf%
«Èçâåñòíû èìåíà ÷åòûð¸õ Äðàíäñêèõ åïèñêîïîñîâ Ôåäîðà, æèâøåãî â ïåðâîé ïîëîâèíå XV âåêà, Ñàáû
(Ñàââè), îòìå÷åííîãî â íàäïèñè íà îäíîé èç èêîí,
íàéäåííûõ â Ñâàíåòèè, Ôèëèïïà, êîòîðûé â ïåðâîé
ïîëîâèíå XVI âåêà ïðèíèìàë ó÷àñòèå â ñîáîðå,
76

ñîçâàííîì ïî ñëó÷àþ ïàäåíèÿ íðàâñòâåííîñòè â
Èìåðåòèè, è Ãàâðèëà, âûíóæäåííîãî ïîêèíóòü Äðàíäó
â ðåçóëüòàòå âêëþ÷åíèÿ ýòîé òåððèòîðèè â ñîñòàâ
Àáõàçñêîãî êíÿæåñòâà â òðåòüåé ÷åòâåðòè XVII âåêà
è ñ êîí÷ àâøå ãîñÿ â È åðóñ àëèì å» ( Â ìè ðå
àðõèòåêòóðíûõ ïàìÿòíèêîâ Àáõàçèè, Ìîñêâà, 1978
ã., ñòð. 105).
fctsbdt ,tlb tobf^ hjujhw fqbybiyf^ ,bzdbysbc rfstlhfcfw& ,bzdbysf cfrfsfkbrjcj nf’fhb b.j lf #rfsjkbrt gfnhbfhmsf@ cf.lfhb ,bzdbysfib vlt,fhtj,lf& xdtyc bcnjhbjuhfabfib vbqt,ekb sdfkcfphbcbs^ #cfrfsfkbrjcj nf[nb
,bzdbysblfy utkfsib uflvjdblf 1545-1569 okt,c ijhbc@ ~,&
kjvbyf’t`& vbptpb xhlbkjtkb ofhvfhsekb njvt,bc itvjctdf .jabkf #&&&jcvfkt,bc se vfsb ufdktybc mdti v.jab xhlbkj njvt,bc eiefkj itvjntdf fa[fptspt^ vfsvf vbf[kjt,fv
,bzdbysbcfrty^ etzdtkbf^ itfath[f mhbcnbfyekb vhtdkbcf
lf vfcsfy thsfl cfrfsfkbrjcj cf.vjc yjhvfkehb
ufydbsfht,f fa[fptsib& jvt,vf itfath[tc rfsfkbrjcbc eibifhb vbcdkf-vjcdkfw cfvo.cj cftrktcbj cfmvtt,pt lf
cfahs[t itemvytc rfsfkbrjcbc abpbreh fhct,j,fc& .dtkf fv
cfibyfj lf cfufhtj gjkbnbrehvf cbnefwbfv \|+ cfereytib
b’ekt,ekb uf[flf tdltvjy x[tnb’t lftnjdt,byf ,bzdbysf
lf uflvjtyfwdkf utkfsib^ gjkbnbreh wtynhib@
~v&ht[dbfidbkb^ bvthtsbc cfvtaj^ 1989^ ud& 49`&
cfdfhfeljf^ hjv ,bzdbysfv ufyfuh’j fhct,j,f hjujhw
ths-thsvf htpbltywbfv rfsfkbrjcbcf^ .jdtk itvs[dtdfib^
cojhtl ,bzdbysf bsdkt,jlf cfrfsfkbrjcj cfcekbthj
wtynhfl \|+++ cfereytibw& fv cfrfsfkbrjcjc ths-ths
cf,esib fqybiyekb b.j^ hjv vbcb behbclbmwbbc erblehtc
cfpqdfhc xhlbkj-lfcfdktsbs ofhvjflutylf geymnb #rfaf@
77

_ ew[jtkt,b lf rth’jl bnfkbtkt,b^ hjvtksfw ifdb pqdbc
cfyfgbhjpt fv lhjbcfsdbc /mjylfs sfdbfysb afmnjhbt,b^
cfdfzhj wtynht,b^ .bhbvbc yf[tdfhrey’ekc eojlt,lyty
rfafc rey’ekc^ pju]th rb vbc fqvjcfdkts yfobkc^ cflfw
vlt,fhtj,lf mfkfmb #rfaf@& rfafcsfy cfmfhsdtkjc ifdb pqdbcgbhtsc /mjylf vzblhj rfdibhb lf vfhskfw xdtyc
mdt.fyfcsfy dfzhj,fc utyebc [tkbceakt,f rfafc cfiefkt,bs
f[jhwbtkt,lf& cfmfhsdtkjc cfvtaj rfhbw lfbynthtct,ekb
.jabkf rfafcsfy dfzhj,bs lf vfhskfw fv geymnsfy cfmfhsdtkjc ufw[jdtkt,ekb ehsbthsj,f /mjybf lf fvbc ufvj
mfkfm rfafib vhfdkfl w[jdhj,lyty mfhsdtkt,b ~t& vfvbcsdfkfidbkb^ cfmfhsdtkjc ifdb pqdbcgbhtsbc bcnjhbblfy^
ufp& #cf[fk[j ufyfskt,f@^ 18&\&89`& rfafc itvlujvib tojlf
atjljcbf lf cojhtl rfaf bsdkt,jlf fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc behbclbmwbbc ths-ths cfcfpqdhj geymnfl& #rfsfkbrjpbc cfrehs[b fhc cfvo.cj kb[bcf lf rfafc ief^ hectsbc
cfvpqdfhcf lf zfytsc ief@ ~mfhs& cfvfhs& ‘tu&^ ++^ ud& 180`&
#vwyt,fb cfc]ekjc@ lfothbc lhjbcfsdbc behbclbmwbbc
cfpqdht,b fctf ufycfpqdhekb% #kb[sf fvthbcf^ zjhj[bcf
fmts^ jctscf fmts^ pqdfb gjynjcf fmfs cflf lblbcf ,bzdbysbc cfpqdfhb vbfotdc@ ~mfhs& cfv& ‘tu&^ +++^ ud& 223`& cfereytsf
itvlujv cfrfsfkbrjcjc cfpqdfhb afmnbehfl erdt hfvltyflvt itvwbhlf^ vfuhfv^ fa[fptsbc f[fkb vjcf[ktj,fw^ hjvtkibw fhct,j,lyty ‘dtkb mhbcnbfyekb lfatyt,fyb^ fctdt
f[fkb yf[tdhfl ofhvfhsekbw^ sfdbc sfdc mhbcnbfyekc
eojlt,lf lf xdtyb trktcbbc vhtdkc ofhvjflutylf^ vfuhfv
f[fk vhtdkcf lf ‘dtk vhtdkc ijhbc lblb ufyc[dfdt,f b.j
lf lblb lhj tcfzbhjt,jlf vfc ‘dtkb fa[fptsbc vhtdkbc
cbvfqktvlt vbcfqotdfl&
fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjv lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc .jdtk
78

res[tib ~cfvtuhtkjcf^ uehbfcf^ bvthtscf^ hfzf-ktx[evcf se
cdfytsib` itbyfhxeyf ‘dtkb cblbflt lf bc qbhctekfl
fhct,j,lf hectsbc vbth lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc fytmcbfvlt&
bvbc itvltufw rb^ hfw mfhsk-rf[tsbc cfvtajc vjvwdtkb ptvj
bdthbbc trktcbbc fdnjrtafkbf hect,vf erfyjyjl uffemvtc
1811 otkc^ mdtvj b,thbbc cfrfsfkbrjcj fhct,j,fc
ufyfuh’j,lf 1820 okfvlt bvthtsbc wyj,bk cftrktcbj
f]fy.t,fvlt& vfhsfkbf^ fv lhjbcfsdbc fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcj nf[nb sfdbceafkb b.j^ vfuhfv vbc vjcf.lhtc afmnbehfl ofhvjflutylf ljcbstjc mesfstkb vbnhjgjkbnb&
vbc vbth ufwtvekb ,jkj cftrktcbj cf,est,b 1818 okbs
sfhbqlt,f^ tc vbnhjgjkbnb hecbc [tkbceakt,vf lffgfnbvhtc lf wtvbsf lf cfcnbrb nfy]dbs fvj[fltc cekb& fvbs
afmnbehfl lfvsfdhlf mdtvj bdthbbc^ fye fa[fptsbc cfrfsfkbrjcjc fsfcokjdfyb bcnjhbf& hjujhw ptvj bdthbbc^ fctdt
mdtvj bdthbbc trktcbt,b hectsbc trktcbfv vbbthsf^ vfuhfv
fvbc itvltufw^ cf,tlybthjl^ hjujhw lfcfdkts^ bct fqvjcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc trktcbt,ib obhdf-kjwdf ‘dtkt,ehfldt
mfhsek tyfpt vbvlbyfhtj,lf lf vbe[tlfdfl lblb cehdbkbcf^ ckfdehvf tyfv jlyfdflfw rb dth lfxhlbkf chekbfl
cfmfhsdtkjib ‘dtkb mfhsekb cftrktcbj tyf lf .jdtk
res[tib mfhsdtk vhtdkc rdkfd mfhsdtkb cfvqdltkjt,f
tvcf[eht,jlf&
20 bfydfhb^ 1990 o&^ m& f[fkwb[t&

79

mTieli adiRe-Cerqezuli, anu afsuaTa
tomebis Camosaxleba afxazeTSi

\|++ cfereytib jlbibc^ fye cfvtuhtkjc cfvsfdhjc
ufvjt.j fa[fptsb& cfpqdfhb fv jh cfvsfdhjc ijhbc vlbyfht
rjljhpt uflbjlf^ sevwf fhct,j,c \|++ c-bc jlbibc herf^
cflfw cfpqdfhb eahj lfcfdktsbs _ vlbyfht rtkfcehpt uflbc& fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhj fv lhjc vwbht v[fht b.j^ vbcb cfpqdfhb xhlbkjtsbc vbvfhsekt,bs fh vjbwfdlf afmnbehfl sfyfvtlhjdt ufuhbc hfbjybc vybidytkjdfy yfobkcfw rb^
hflufyfw tc nthbnjhbf fv lhjbcfsdbc cfv[htsbs ofvjotekb ]bmt,bc njvc tzbhf& [jkj hfw itt[t,f cfvtuhtkjc
cfvsfdhjc^ bc erblehtcfl b.j uf’kbtht,ekb \|++ cfereybc + yf[tdfhib^ bvltyfl^ hjv ktdfy lflbfyb bvthtsbc vtatc
nf[nc twbkt,jlf^ cfpqdfhb bvthtscf lf cfvtuhtkjc ijhbc afmnbehfl mesfbcbc vf[kj,kfl uflbjlf&
trjyjvbrehfl^ reknehekfl lf cfpjufljt,hbdb .jabs
fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjc vw[jdht,yb^ xhlbkj rfdrfcbblfy f[fkb
xfvjcf[kt,ekyb^ bvlhjbyltkb ew[jtkb lfvrdbhdt,kt,bc
fqothbs^ erblehtcfl xfvjhxtybkb b.dyty^ vbofsvjmvtlt,fc
fh totjlyty^ fh /mjylfs mfkfmt,b lf^ xfyc^ cjakt,bw rb ~b[&
mdtvjs`& fv gfnfhf mdt.ybc vjcf[ktj,f vwbhthbw[jdfyb b.j^
[jkj cfvtuhtkj ufydbsfht,ekb vbofsvjmvtlt,bc^ byntycbehb cjakbc vtehytj,bc mdt.fyfc ofhvjflutylf fa[fptssfy
itlfht,bs& jlbib rfhufl lfcf[kt,ekb^ .jdtkv[hbd
ufydbsfht,ekb^ vfs ijhbc itbfhfqt,bsf lf cfv[tlhj ntmybrbsfw vjobyfdt mdt.fyf b.j&
vbe[tlfdfl fvbcf^ \|++ cfereytib vj[lf ufcfjwfhb vjdktyf _ fa[fptsbc gfnfhf cfvsfdhjv ufwbkt,bs eahj 'kbthb
lf lblb jlbibc cfvsfdhj hfvlty]thvt lffvfhw[f^ xfvjfijhf
80

vybidytkjdfyb vbof-o.fkb^ bct^ hjv cfpqdfhb peulblc
vbef[kjdlf lf vlbyfht tyuehpt bmyf ufdkt,ekb^ cfvtuhtkjc vjcf[ktj,f lfvfhw[t,t,bs lfibylf bct^ hjv ibibs
[dlt,jlf cbn.df #fa[fpbc@ [ctyt,fcfw rb& bcvbc rbs[df^
hjujh it’kj gfnfhf^ vwbhthbw[jdfyvf^ cjakbc vtehytj,bc
fhvmjyt^ ufyedbsfht,tkvf v[fhtv ‘kbthb cfvtuhtkjc cfvsfdhjc lfvfhw[t,f lf vbcb vbot,bc lfeakt,f( fv tgjmfib
#fa[fpb@ erdt tojlt,f bv xhlbkjrfdrfcbtk vsbtkt,cfw^
hjvtkybw fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjib uf,fnjylyty&
sfyf[vfl df[einbcf^ jlbibc bcnjhbekb cfpqdfhb
bo.t,jlf fyfrjabfcsfy^ fye sfyfvtlhjdt f[fk fsjysfy& mfkfmb fyfrjabf ,fuhfnbjy vtatt,c feityt,bfs #fo j[th fhc lf
cfpqdfhb jlbibcf lf fa[fptsbcf& fv fyfrjabbc fqvjcfdkbs
pqdblfv vsfvlt itfdkj pqelt ktdfy lflbfyvfy^ fa[fpsf
ufvjecdktkj,bcfsdbc^ ufhyf fo emvfl fhc& [jkj cbuh’t jlbibcf fhc rfdrfcbc s[tvblfv pqdfvlt lf w[tybc o.kblfy pqdflvltdt lf vtjht _ tuhbcbc o.kblfv fyfrjabfvlt^ lf ufyb
vbcb hbjybc vlbyfhtlfv tuhbcbc vlbyfhtvlt lf vtjht pqdblfv rfdrfcbbc s[tvfvlt@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +|^ ud& 782`&
hjujhw ptvjs vj.dfybkblfy xfyc^ jlbib dbohj
vybidytkj,bs tojlt,jlf mdt.fyfc tuhbco.kblfy fyfrjabfvlt^ fye f[fk fsjyfvlt^ bub vjbwfdlf sfyfvtlhjdt ufkbc^
jxfvxbhbcf^ uekhbai-cj[evbcf lf yfobkj,hbd uelfesbc
hfbjyt,c^ [jkj afhsj vybidytkj,bs jlbib dhwtkb mdt.fyf
b.j lf vbcb fqvjcfdktsb cfpqdfhb vlbyfht w[tybco.fkpt^
cfv[htsb rb hbjypt uflbjlf& xhlbkjtsb cfpqdfhb rfdrfcbbc vst,b b.j& fyfrjabf ~f[fkb fsjyb` jlbibc lfcfdkts cfpqdfhc ofhvjflutylf^ vfifcflfvt^ w[evb^ lhfylf^ vjmdb^
bkjhb se ,tlbf jlbiib itlbjlf& ktdfy ++ lflbfybc lhjc
erdt bo.t,f jlbibc cfpqdht,bc wdkbkt,f^ xhlbkjtkb vs81

btkb njvt,bc itvjctdt,b bvltyfl lblb lf byntycbehb
.jabkf^ hjv cfvtuhtkjc vsfdfhc #fa[fpsf
ufvjecdktkj,bcfsdbc@ feubf lblb 60-100 rv& cbuh’bc rtltkb^ hjvtkbw rtkfcehsfy bo.t,jlf&
fv rtlkbc itcf[t, eylf bsmdfc^ hjv vbc fut,fc vhfdfk
ew[jtk bvgthfnjhcf lf cf[tkvobajc vbfothlyty^ vfuhfv
sdbs b& djhjyjdbw rb ~hjvtkbw f& ,fmhf’bc sfyf[vfl^
wlbkj,c hjujhvt lffhoveyjc vrbs[dtkb^ sbsmjclf cfmfhsdtkjc bcnjhbek ghjdbywbfc^ fa[fptsc^ cfmfhsdtkjcsfy fhfdbsfhb rfdibhb fhf fmdc` othc^ hjv wb[t-cbvfuhtsf tc
cbcntvf fut,ekbf ktdfy ++ lflbfybc lhjc lf vbcb
lfybiyekt,f b.j #fa[fpt,bc@^ fye xhlbkjtkb vsbtkt,bc
jlbipt itvjntdbc itxtht,f& rtkfcehb^ hjvtkbw fv lhjbcfsdbc cfpqdfhb ufv[lfhf ktdfy lflbfybcf fa[fptsbc
cfvsfdhjt,c ijhbc^ w[evsfy f[kjc^ vbc fqvjcfdktsbs
vlt,fhtj,c& vfifcflfvt^ fv lhjbcfsdbc jlbic erdt lfrfhuekb fmdc fyfrjabf lf w[evb& rtltkb ktdfy ++-bc lhjc
feubfs lblb cbxmfhbs^ pjubthsb rjirb gbhlfgbh vbofpt
lfelufvs eaeylfvtynjl^ pjubthsbcfsdbc rb cfsjaeht,bw
rb fh lfenfyt,bfs& vnthc wb[t-rjirbc vityt,kt,b tkjlyty
lfcfdktsbcf lf xhlbkjtsbc v[hblfy^ hjujhw fvfc fv
yfut,j,bc fhmbntmnehf exdtyt,c& b& djhjyjdb othc% Êàê
âûÿ ñíèë îñü, îáù àÿ ä ëèíà ëèí èè î áîðî íû
Êåëàñóðñêîé ñòåíû ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî ñòà êèëîìåòðîâ.
Ýòà ëèíèÿ ïðîñëåæèâàåòñÿ îò óñüÿ ðåêè Êåëàñóðè
äî ñåëà Ëåêóõîíà (ïðàâîáåðåæüå Èíãóðè) ... âðàãà
æäàëè ñ Ñåâåðî-Çàïàäà ñî ñòîðîíû Ñóõóìè è
Öåáåëüäû ... Áîéíèöû â áàøíÿõ ðàñïîëîæåíû âî
âòîðîì ýòàæå, îáû÷íî â Ñåâåðíîé è Çàïàäíîé ñòåíàõ
... Íåñîìíåííî ïðåäíàçíà÷åíû äëÿ îãíåñòðåëüíîãî
82

îðóæèÿ... Ñîîðóæåíèå âî ìíîãèõ ñâîèõ ÷àñòÿõ
ñðàáîòàíî íà ñêîðóþ ðóêó. Â îäíèõ áàøíÿõ çàáûëè
ñäåëàòü áîéíèöû. ... Èíîãäà áàøíè ñòàâèëèñü áåç
ôóíäàìåíòà ïðÿìî íà òðàâó èëè ïîëóñîæåííûé
êóñòàðíèê ... íåêîòîðûå ó÷àñòêè ñòåíû âîîáùå
íåçàâåðøåíû _ óñïåëè âûðèòü òîëüêî òðàíøåþ äëÿ
ôóíäàìåíòà ... Â ïîñëåäíèé ïåðèîä ñâîåãî ïðàâëåíèÿ
(1640-1657) Ëåâàí áûë âûíóæäåí ïåðåéòè ê
îðã àíèç îâàí íîé îáîð îíå ñâîè õ âë àäåí èé,
âûð àçèâ øåéñ ÿ â âîçâ åäåí èè è óêð åïëå íèè
ôîðòèôèêàöèîííûõ ñîîðóæåíèé íà ãðàíèöå ñ
Àáõàçèåé. Àðêàíäæåëî Ëàìáåðòè ñîîáùàë, ÷òî
âëàäåòåëè Ìåãðåëèè «î âåñüìà áîëüøèìè ðàñõîäàìè
âîçâåëè ñòåíó äëèíîþ â 60 òûñÿ÷ øàãîâ, è íà
èçâåñòíîì ðàññòîÿíèè â íåé íàõîäÿòñÿ áàøíè, 
îõðàíÿåìûå çíà÷èòåëüíûìè îòðÿäàìè ñòðåëêîâ». Íà
êàðòå äðóãîãî èòàëüÿíñêîãî ìèññèîíåðà, Êàñòåëëè, íàä
âûðàçèòåëüíûì èçîáðàæåíèåì Êåëàñóðñêîé ñòåíû
èìååòñÿ íàäïèñü: «Ñòåíà â 60 òûñÿ÷ øàãîâ, äëÿ
ñäåðæèâàíèÿ àáõàçîâ ïðåäíàçíà÷åííàÿ» ( ìèðå
àðõèòåêòóðíûõ ïàìÿòíèêîâ Àáõàçèè, Ì., 1978, ñòð. 104).
hjujhw ptvjs fqybiyf b& djhjyjdvf^ rtkfcehbc rtltkb
ofhvjflutylf cfvtuhtkjc cfvsfdhjcfsdbc #jhufybpt,ekb
sfdlfwdbc@ cfajhnbabrfwbj yfut,j,fc& tc cbvfuhtsf vstkb
cbcntvf jlbipt fa[fpt,bc itcfxtht,kfl b.j ufycfpqdhekb^
fut,ek bmyf \|++ cfereybc 40-50-bfy okt,ib lf bwfdlf sfyfvtlhjdt uekhbaibc^ jxfvxbhbc^ ufkbc lf yfobkj,hbd peulblbc hfbjybc pqdbcgbhf^ e[dvjcfdkbfy^ cfvbofsvjmvtlj
v[fhtt,c^ [jkj fv v[fhtsf vjvwdtkb rfdrfcbjybc vsbfytsb
erdt ezbhfds vsbtk ofhvfhst,c^ cojhtl fvbnjv uh’tklt,f
83

tc rtltkb pqdbcgbhtsbc gfhfktkehfl^ sbsmvbc 100 rv-bc
cbuh’tpt& fv lhjbcfsdbc^ vfhsfkbf^ vlbyfht rjljhbc pqdbcgbhfc vlt,fht cfyfgbhjt,b rdkfd mfhsekb vjcf[ktj,bsff
lfcf[kt,ekb^ vfuhfv vsbcobytscf lf vst,ib vlt,fht fv vlbyfhbc vfh]dtyf cfyfgbhj erdt fa[fp-vsbtkt,bs .jabkf
lfrfdt,ekb lf cfpqdfhbw fm uflbjlf jh cfvsfdhjc ijhbc&
lfcvek rbs[dfpt^ se hjujh it’kj vwbht cfvsfdhjv
‘kbthb cfvtuhtkjc cfvsfdhjc itdbohjt,f lf vbc [fh]pt
sfdbcb nthbnjhbt,bc ufphlf^ eylf degfce[js^ hjv fhf
v[jkjl fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjc vwbhthbw[jdfyb vjcf[ktj,f
t,h’jlf jlbicf lf lfcfdkeh-mfhsek cf[tkvobajt,hbj,fc^
fhfvtl vstk xhlbkj-bvbthrfdrfcbfib vw[jdht,b xthmtpekflbqehb njvt,b^ hjvtksfw ,fpf fa[fptsib uffxylfs&
xhlbkjrfdrfcbtkb vt,h’jkb njvt,bc ,h’jkf cfmfhsdtkjc res[tsf obyffqvltu wyj,bkb afmnbf& rf[tsbcf lf mfhskbc cfvtajt,c t,h’jlf xhlbkj-fqvjcfdktsb bvbthrfdrfcbf^ fye lfqtcnfyb^ ktrt,bc cfthsj cf[tkojlt,bs& vfs
,fpf ufbxbytc lfg.hj,bk fqvjcfdkts rf[tsib^ hjvtkcfw
zfh-,tkfmfyb tojlf& fctdt t,h’jlyty bv gthbjlbcfsdbc mfhskbc vsbfytsc jct,b&
fa[fptsib flbqtehb^ fye xthmtpekb njvt,bc vfcbeh
xfvjcf[kt,fc \|++ cfereybc 20-bfyb okt,blfy uffxylf sfdbcb bcnjhbekb ofyfv’qdht,b& flbqtt,bc njvt,c ~f,fpt,bc^
facet,bc lf c[df cf[tkt,bs` hfvltybvt [ybs flhtw
itvjeqotdbf fa[fptsib^ vfuhfv \|++ c-ib vsbtkb
vt,h’jkt,b rdkfd vjeodtdbf ktdfy lflbfybcfufy erblehtcfl itehfw[.jabk fa[fptsbc vsfdfhc&
ktdfy lflbfyc wjkfl /.fdlf fa[fptsbc vsfdhbc cjht[
ithdfib’bc mfkb& vfkt qfkfnbc se wbkbcofvt,bc ufvj ktdfyvf wjkb uffulj^ w[dbhb lf .eht,b lffzhf vfc lf vfvfc
84

lfe,heyf^ [jkj vfcsfy it’tybkb jhb df;b vjofvdkbs vjfrdktdbyf^ hfvfw cfibykfl fqfiajsf fa[fptsb& tc vjv[lfhf
1623 okbcfsdbc&
fhmfy]tkj kfv,thnbc wyj,bs^ fa[fpt,b #lflbfybcfufy
sfdc itehfw[.jabkfl csdkblyty^ hflufy vfy uffulj wjkb^
vfsb vsfdhbc mfkb^ fvbc ufvj fa[fpt,b bct uf,hfpt,ekb b.dyty
lflbfypt^ hjv bv lhjc^ hjwf lflbfyb ufhsekb b.j ‘vbcfufy
lfo.t,ekb fv,j[t,bc lfw[hj,bc cfmvtib^ cek sfdc tc[vjlyty
cfvtuhtkjc cfpqdht,c^ hjvtkbw sbsmvbc chekbfl
vjfj[htc^ vw[jdht,kt,b lffn.dtdtc lf fa[fptsib
uflffcf[ktc@&
lflbfyb sfdblfy itntdfpt uflfcekf^ fa[fptsb
hfvlty]thvt lfekfimhfdc lf [fhrbw lfeldbf^ 40-bfyb
okt,bcfsdbc cehfsb itbwdfkf^ fa[fpt,b itntdfpt uflfcekfy bct^ hjv ktdfyc cfvtuhtkjc lfcfwfdfl fqybiyekb rtlkbc fityt,f lfczbhlf&
#ufycfresht,bs uf’kbthlf fa[fp atjlfksf sfdlfc[vt,b
jlbipt 40-bfy okt,ib^ cojhtl bv lhjc^ hjwf jlbibc vsfdfhb bvthtssfy ,h’jkbs b.j lfrfdt,ekb& lflbfyvf fa[fpb
atjlfkt,bc itvjntdbc itcfxtht,kfl cbvfuhtsf vstkb cbcntvf itmvyf fa[fptsbc cfpqdfhpt&&& fv rtltkc^ hjvtkibw
ibuflfibu lfnfyt,ekb b.j [bc rjirt,b^ vjhbutj,bs bwfdlyty jlbibc sfdflt,bcf lf tgbcrjgjct,bc ]fht,b&&& fv lbl
qjybc’bt,fsf ufnfht,bc itvltu lflbfyvf lhjt,bs it’kj
fa[fp atjlfksf itvjctdt,bc itxtht,f@ ~yfhrd&^ +|^ ud& 340`&
jlbibc itntdf 20-bjlt otkboflib qhvf sfdlfwdbs itbwdfkf& eylf dbabmhjs^ hjv lhjbc fv vjyfrdtsib \|++ c-bc
20-40-bfy okt,ib fa[fpvf sfdflt,vf cfidtkfl b[vtc xhlbkjrfdrfcbtkb njvt,b& vfsb itrfdt,f jlbivf dth it’kj lf
cek 40-bjlt otkib cfpqdfhb vlbyfht rjljhblfy vlbyfht
85

tyuehfvlt bmyf uflfnfybkb& fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjc nthbnjhbbc afhsj,b 2-]th ufbpfhlf jlbibc [fh]pt&
xhlbkjrfdrfcbtkt,b^ rth’jl^ xthmtpek-flbqehb
njvb ]bmt,b flht jlbibc vsfdhbc vbth ufvjb.tyt,jlf^ f[kf
rb jlbibc obyffqvltu bmvyf ufvj.tyt,ekb& ktdfy lflbfyb
#tvtuj,ht,jlf fa[fpsf^ ]bmsf lf cdfysf^ hfsf itvot t.jy&&&
1621 okbcfsdbc@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +|^ ud& 826`^ vfs
b.tyt,lf bvthtsbc vtatcsfy jvib _ #vjdblf ktdfy lflbfybwf cgbsf jlbifh-fa[fp-]bmsf lf bmvyf ,h’jkf ‘kbthb@
~bmdt^ ud& 826`&
fmtlfy xfyc^ hjv fa[fp-]bmt,bc cfv[tlhj ‘fkt,c flhtw
b.tyt,lyty iblf jvt,bcfc^ [jkj fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjcsfy
ehsbthsj,bc lf’f,dbc itvltu ]bmt,b lf c[df xhlbkjrfdrfcbehb flbqehb njvt,b sdbs fa[fpt,c ufvje.tyt,bfs
jlbibc obyffqvltu& cfthsjl^ ew[j cfv[tlhj ‘fkbc
ufvj.tyt,f bv lhjc f[fcbfst,lf cfmfhsdtkjc cfpjufljt,fc&
vfufkbsfl^ 1666 okbcfsdbc bvthtsbc vtabc obyffqvltu
ufyo.j,bkvf ct[ybf x[tb’tv #vjb.dfyf cgfyb jcvfksf^ vjbgfhf wb[t mesfbcbcf lf itf.tyyf jcvfkyb@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^
+|^ ud& 838`^ vcufdcb vbptpt,bc ufvj jlbibc obyffqvltu
vt,h’jk fa[fpt,c ]bmt,bcf se xthmtp-facfht,bcfsdbc^ fye
xhlbkj rfdrfcbtkb vt,h’jkb njvt,bcfsdbc rfht,b
ufe[cybfs lf bcbyb fa[fptsib vbeodtdbfs& sehmt,bw jlbifhsf obyffqvltu uflvjcekfy^ vbv[hj,bfy fa[fpt,c& #1634 okbcfsdbc vfbcib sehmt,b itbzhyty cfvtuhtkjib^ lffh,btc
f[kj-vf[kj cjakt,b lf uf’fhwdtc lhfylbc vjyfcnthb@ ~v&
ht[dbfidbkb^ bvthtsbc cfvtaj^ 1989^ ud& 95`&
vfhskfw^ bv;fvbyltkb gjkbnbrehb vlujvfhtj,bc ufvj
sehmt,b jlbibc .dtkf vnthc tv[hj,jlyty& ktdfy lflbfyvf
yfstcfehb rfdibhb lffv.fhf mfhskbc vtat hjcnjv [fysfy^
86

cgfhctsbc dfcfksfy^ hfvfw sehmtsb jlbibc obyffqvltu
ufyfo.j lf lfef[kjdf fa[fpt,c&
fa[fp-xthmtpsf itvjctdt,b uhbufkbct,ehb b.j^ fvbnjvfw \|++ cfereybc 60-bfyb okt,bcfsdbc vfs erdt lfezthbfs cfvtuhtkjc nthbnjhbf rjljhblfy tuhbco.fkqfkb’ufvlt^ [jkj 80-bfyb okt,bcfsdbc vfs erdt qfkb’uftyuehbc ief vjmwtekb nthbnjhbf lfbzbhtc lf jlbibc iefuekc vbef[kjdlyty&
#b.j zbhb lblb jlbibcf^ dbsfhwf fqdothts lf evtntc
fa[fpsfufy^ hfvtse vjdbljlbfy yfdt,bsf lf [vtkbsf lf
cn.dtdlbfy^ lfbg.htc dblht tuhbcbc vlbyfhtlvlt lf
lftityt,jlty sdbs fa[fpyb lf fhqfhf b.j lhfylfc lf vjmdc
tgbcrjgjcjyb^@ _ othc df[einb ~mfhs& w[jdht,f^ +|^ ud& 845`&
#ufhyf b.j jlbic zbhb&&& rdkbsf lf .bldbsf n.dbcfsf lf
evtntc fa[fpsfufy^ hfvtse vjdblbfy kfimhfl lf fj[ht,lbfy
mdt.fyfsf fdfpfrj,bs lf w[flfl@ ~bmdt^ ud& 850`&
bnfkbtkb vbcbjythb othlf% #cfvtuhtkj cfvtuhtkj fqfh
fhbc^ hflufy jvt,bc ufvj erfyfcrytk cbukf[tibf xfdfhlybkb^ lfmwtekb lf fj[ht,ekbf& fqfhfdbc /.fdc cfmjytkb lf
.dtkfc cfhxj frkbf&&& f[kf rfwc fqfh ite’kbf eibihfl b.jc^
velfv fa[fpt,bc ibibf@&&& fqybiyekvf dbsfht,fv ‘kbth
itfh.bf jlbibc sfdlfwdbseyfhbfyj,f& fv ufhtvjt,bs
bcfhut,ktc fa[fpvf atjlfkt,vf lf sfylfsfyj,bs lfbrfdtc
nthbnjhbf vl& rjljhblfy vl& tyuehfvlt& fv nthbnjhbfpt
uf,fnjylf fa[fptsbc vsfdhbc cecnfh ithdfib’bc df;b cjht[
ithdfib’t^ hjvtkvfw sfdb vsfdhfl ufvjfw[flf& vjcf[ktj,bc
lblb yfobkb^ hf smvf eylf^ flubkj,hbdyb^ jlbifhyb b.dyty^
atjlfksf ohtib rb uf,fnjyt,ekb vlujvfhtj,f sfylfsfy
fa[fpvf atjlfkt,vf vjbgjdtc&
87

cjht[ ithdfib’tv lf vbcvf cf[kbrfwt,vf .dfgev vfsb
vjv[ht fa[fpb atjlfkt,bc lf[vfht,bs hfvlty]thvt cwfltc
tyuehbc lfcfdkts cfyfgbhjpt uflfcdkf^ vfuhfv .jdtksdbc
ereult,ek bmyty& cfvfubthjl vnrbwtl lfvrdblhlyty jlbibc
vsfdfh yfobkib tyuehbc vfh]dtyf v[fhtc& fct itbmvyf \|++
c-bc ,jkjc vl& tyuehb fa[fptsbcf lf jlbibc cfvsfdhjc cfpqdhfl ~yfhrd&^ +|^ ud& 354`&
ew[jtkb lfvrdbhdt,kt,b^ itvltu cfereytsf vjupfeht,b^
mfhsdtkb bcnjhbrjct,b fqothty^ se hjujhb erblehtcb
cbcfcnbrbs tg.hj,jlyty facef lfvg.hj,t,b jlbibc vrdblh
mfhsek vjcf[ktj,fc^ fye lqtdfyltkb uelfesbc^ cj[evuekhbaibc^ jxfvxbhbc lf ufkbc nthbnjhbfpt vw[jdht,
vjcf[ktj,fc& vfsb sfhtib itt[j vstk lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc^ ufycfresht,bs pqdbcgbhtsc lf tyuehbc vfhw[tyf cfyfgbhjcfw& vsbtkb xthmtp-]bm-facfht,b fn.dtdt,lyty^ .bllyty^ [jwfdlyty vjcf[ktj,fc^ vtehytj,fc rb eo.fkjl
fyflueht,lyty^ fvbc ufvj rjljhcf lf tyuehc ief vjmwtekb
ths lhjc f.dfdt,ekb v[fht erfwhbtk ufelf,eht,ek
res[tl bmwf^ hjvtkcfw erdt fhf jlbib^ fhfvtl fa[fptsb
tojlt,jlf& bc erdt fa[fptsbc vsfdhbc vbth bvfhst,jlf&
#’fkbfy uf’ytklf w[jdht,f ifdb pqdbc yfgbht,pt^ cflfw
n.dbc vc.bldtkt,b sfhtij,lyty^ ufycfresht,bs
fmnbehj,lyty ufvf/vflbfyt,ekb fa[fpb atjlfkt,b&
df[einb ,fuhfnbjybc wyj,bs^ fa[fpt,b #lfe[dlt,bfy
jcvfksf yfdsf lf kfp-zfysf lf eahjcfl jlbi-uehbfcf@^
fa[fpt,b lblb yfdt,bs vjekjlytkfl vbflut,jlyty yfgbhc^
dbcfw vjf[tkt,lyty^ bnfwt,lyty lf sehmt,pt .bllyty fy
fa[fpt,ib .vt,fl fcf[kt,lyty^ fa[fp vtrj,htt,c sehmt,bw
rb eahs[jlyty@ ~yfhrd&^ +|^ ud& 460`&
88

bcts ‘kbth ‘fkfc ofhvjflutylyty rfdrfcbbc vsbfytsib
lfvrdblht,ekb flbqehb njvt,b^ hjv vfsb lfvjhxbkt,f bctdt ezbhlf sehmtsc^ hjujhw bhfytkt,c ezbhlfs lfqtcnybc lfvjhxbkt,f&
1730 otkc sehmt,vf vjfo.dtc lblb kfimhj,f ]bmt,bcf
lf vsbtkt,bc lfcfvjhxbkt,kfl^ vfs v[fhc bvthtsbc vtatw
ezthlf& tc kfimhj,f xfbifkf^ sehmt,b ]bmtsib dtqfh itdblyty& vlbyfht tuhbco.fkcf ~qfkb’uf` lf tyuehc ijhbc vjmwtekb jlbibc .jabkb nthbnjhbbc itvjvnrbwt,bc vbpybs
fa[fptsbc vsfdhbc ‘tv .dfge ithdfib’tv^ hjvtkcfw tc nthbnjhbf thuj^ xfvjfcf[kf ,pbabc [tj,tkb fa[fpt,b& fct ufxylf gbhdtkfl lqtdfyltkb ufkbc hfbjyib facef vjcf[ktj,f&
vfsb xfvjcf[kt,f vj[lf \|+++ c-bc lfcfo.bcib& jlbibc vtjht
yfobkb^ eahj xhlbkjtsbs vlt,fht vlbyfht rjljhcf lf
qfkb’ufc ief vjmwtekb nthbnjhbf^ fa[fptsbc vsfdhbc
vtjht ‘tc thuj& hjujhw bsmdf^ #.dfge ithdfib’tv sfdbc
cfvakj,tkjib ,pbabc [tj,blfy uflvj.dfybkb fa[fpt,b
xfvjfcf[kf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 468`&
]bmtibf ithdfib’tc^ hjvtkcfw vl& rjljhbcf lf qfkb’ufc
ief vjmwtekb vbof-o.fkb thuj^ sfdbc cfvakj,tkjibw^ xfyc^
xfvjecf[kt,bf facfh-fa[fpt,b^ fvbnjvfw ‘dtk vrdblh
vjcf[ktj,fcsfy thsfl lqtdfyltk jxfvxbhbc hfbjyib
facet,bw ufxylyty&
\|+++ c-bc 30-bfyb okt,bcfsdbc fa[fptsbc vjcf[ktj,bc
ptlfatyfc vf/vflbfyj,f vbfqt,bytc& fmfehb vjcf[ktj,f fmfvlt jh cfhoveyjt,hbd ]ueafl b.j uf.jabkb^ ‘dtkb vrdblhb vjcf[ktj,f^ vfs ijhbc ptlfatyf^ vrdblhb sfdflfpyfehj,f lf mdtlfatyf mhbcnbfyekb b.j^ f[kfl
xfvjcf[kt,ekb vhfdfkhbw[jdfyb flbqtdtkt,b ~facet,b`
ofhvfhst,c ofhvjflutylyty& xfvjcf[kt,bc itvltu
89

fa[fptsib afmnbehfl ufbvfh]df ofhvfhsj,fv lf
mhbcnbfyj,f itcecnlf^ vfuhfv vfbyw ptlfatyf^ ithdfib’tsf
cfvsfdhj cf[kb^ vrdblhb sfdflt,b mhbcnbfyt,b b.dyty lf fvbnjvfw sfdbfys sfdc mfhsekb trktcbbc yfobkfl lf mfhsekb
reknehbc vfnfht,kt,fl vbbxytdlyty&
vfqfk atyfib vf/vflbfyj,bc lfythudfv tc ‘dtkmfhsekb
ptlfatyf eahj lfef[kjdf evhfdktcj,fc _ ofhvfhsek
atyt,c^ f[fk vjcf[ktj,bcfc _ facet,c^ vjco.dbnf mfhsek
atcdt,c& sevwf vf/vflbfyj,f qhvf fh .jabkf lf fa[fpb
vsfdht,bc lf sfdflt,bc j]f[t,c mfhsek cfv.fhjcsfy rfdibhb vskbfyfl fh lferfhufds^ fm ‘dtkt,ehfldt bwjlyty sfdbfysb ‘dtkb ltlf-mfhsekb tyf^ lf,fk atyt,ib mfhsekb tybc
wjlyf vfkt uflfafhf facefsf tyfv& sevwf^ yfvldbk ‘bh-’dtk
fa[fpt,c \|+++ cfereybc lfcfo.bcib ]th rbltd fh /mjylfs
lfdbo.t,ekb mfhsekb tybc wjlyf^ hjujhw fvfc exdtyt,c
cek[fy-cf,f jh,tkbfybc vfufkbsb^ hjwf vfy ijhtek vfknfib mfhsekb tybc vwjlyt fa[fpb n.dt b[bkf& sehmsf ufyltdybc itvltu ufvf/vflbfyt,ekb fa[fpt,bc lblb yfobkb _
mhbcnbfyj,fc lfe,heylf& fvfc [tkb fh iteikbf vfssdbc ‘fhwdf-ukt]fib& #fa[fpt,b [ibhfl uflvjlbjlyty itntdfpt
cfvtuhtkj-bvthtsbc vbvfhsekt,bs& fcts itvjctdfsf evsfdhtcb vbpfyb ,fhbc vlblfhb hfbjyt,bc ‘fhwdf-ukt]f lf
n.dtt,bc ijdyf b.j@ ~bmdt^ ud& 469`&
cfabmht,tkbf^ hjv flbqtdtkt,b^ fye xthmtpekb njvt,b
fa[fptsib xfvjcf[klyty jhb upbs& sfdlfgbhdtkfl \|+
cfereybcfsdbc^ xfyc^ ]bmt,b xfvjcf[kt,ekfy ifdb pqdbc cfyfgbhjc upbs lf ,bzdbysfvlt vbeqotdbfs^ itvlujv hfqfw
vbptpbc ufvj ]bmsf f[fk nfkqfc lf fa[fptsib bmfvlt
xfvjcf[kt,ek erdt #fa[fpt,fl@ cf[tklt,ek ‘dtk ]bmsf
ijhbc obyffqvltuj,f ofhvjij,bkf^ fvbnjvfw ktdfy lfl90

bfybcf lf cjht[ ithdfib’bc jvbc lhjc \|++ c-bc lfcfo.bcib
xthmtpt,bc eahj f[fkb nfkqf xhlbkj rfdrfcbblfy ,pbabc
[tj,fib rfdrfcbbc eqtknt[bkbc upbs& vfs itcfrfdt,kfl^
hjujhw fqbybiyf^ ktdfy lflbfyc 100-rbkjvtnhbfyb wb[tcbvfuht feubf^ vfuhfv eitltujl& ‘dtk mfhsek ghjdbywbf
fa[fptsib lfvrdblht,ek flbqt-xthmtpt,c mfhsdtkt,vf
#fa[fpt,b@ eojltc bcnjhbek-utjuhfabekb ghjdbywbbc
#fa[fptsbc@ cf[tkbc vb[tldbs^ bctdt hjujhw tudbgntib
lfvrdblht,ek fhf,t,c fv;fvfl tojlt,fs tudbgntkt,b^
[jkj cbhbfib^ fcbhbtksf vbof-o.fkpt lfvrdblht,ek
fhf,t,c _ cbhbtkt,b& mfhsdtkt,bw vcufdcfldt bmwtjlyty^
.dtkf lfqtcnyeh njvc xdtyb obyfght,b #ktrt,c@
eojlt,lyty #ktput,bc@^ xdtysfy vt,h’jkb ths-thsb
lfqtcnyehb njvbc^ cf[tkbc vb[tldbs^ fctdt c[dflfc[df xthmtp-facfhek njvt,c^ fa[fptsib lfvrdblht,eks _
fa[fpt,b tojlfs^ sevwf rb ‘dtk fa[fpt,cf lf f[fk
#fa[fpt,c@ ijhbc tsybrehb c[dfj,f b.j&
]bmt,b^ bctdt hjujhw ktrt,b^ erdt \|+ cfereyblfydt
vjbotdlyty cfmfhsdtkjib lfcfcf[kt,kfl^ vfs sehmt,b
eo.j,lyty [tkc&
#bvthtsbc vtat rfhufl [tlfdlf^ hjv sehmt,b vbc mdt.fyfc
cfvb v[hblfy entdlyty% cfv[hts-lfcfdktsblfy pqdbcgbhtsbs _ ujybjc upbs^ xhlbkj lfcfdktsblfy ]bmtsfa[fptsbc upbs lf cfv[htsblfy _ cfvw[t-cffsf,fujc upbs&
sevwf^ itvjctdbcfufy hjv mdt.fyf t[cyf^ fvbcfsdbc cfzbhj b.j
cfvbdt upbc xfrtndf& fvbc ufycf[jhwbtkt,kfl^ egbhdtktc
.jdkbcf^ ,fuhfn vtatv .ehflqt,f vbfg.hj xhlbkj-lfcfdktsbc cfpqdfhc& ]bmyb^ hjvtkybw flhtdt vjtmwyty sehmt,bc
ufdktyfib^ sfdc tc[vjlyty uehbf-jlbi-fa[fptsbc pqdbc cfyfgbhj pjkc lf fj[ht,lyty& ,fuhfnbc sfjcyj,bs uflfo.lf
91

kfimhj,f vfs lfcfc]tkfl lf xhlbkj-lfcfdktsbc v[hblfy
upbc xfcfrtnfl& 1533 okbc bfydfhib vfvbf uehbtkb lf vfvbf
lflbfyb uftvfhsyty cfkfimhjl^ gbhdtkb ,h’jkf vj[lf ufuhfcsfy 30 bfydfhc& fv ,h’jkfib ]bmt,b lfvfhw[lyty^ vfuhfv
vtjht lqtc 31 bfydfhc^ qfkfnbc itltufl lflbfybcf lf uehbtkbc ]fhb cfcnbrfl lfvfhw[lf& sdbs lflbfyb fv ,h’jkfib
lfbqegf^ [jkj uehbtkb sfdbcb cfvb ‘vbs^ tgbcrjgjcbs lf
]fhbs n.dtl xfdfhlf@ ~v& ht[dbfidbkb^ lfc& yfih&^ ud& 33`&
tgbcrjgjcbc vjyfobktj,f fv jvib vjovj,c^ se hf lbl
.ehflqt,fc esvj,lf trktcbf mfhsekb vbof-o.kbc lfwdfc
fv vbvfhsekt,bs& vfhskfw^ fv vfhw[bc itvltu xdtyb erblehtcb cftrktcbj wtynhb ,bzdbysf^ cflfw mfhsdtkb thbc
vfnthbfkehb ufy’b b.j lfuhjdbkb^ lfewdtkb lfhxf& hfvltybvt fstekb okbc itvltu ,bzdbysbc cfyf[t,b erdt ofhvfhs ]bm-facfht,c /mjylfs lfzthbkb& cftgbcrjgjcj nf[nb
,bzdbysblfy utkfsib bmyf uflfnfybkb& fct vjcgtc
flbqtdtkt,vf mfhsekb mhbcnbfyj,bc cfereyjdfyb ltlfmfkfmb^ vw[tsbc njkb ,bzdbysf^ hjvtkbw v[jkjl vqdlkbc
fyf,fhfl bmyf vbnjdt,ekb& sevwf^ flbqt-xthmtpt,bc vtjht
nfkqfv \|++ c-ib ufwbkt,bs eahj evjo.fkjl vjcgj mfhsektyjdfyb cftgbcrjgjcjt,b lhfylbcf^ vjmdbcf^ ,tlbbcf^ c[df
trktcbf-vjyfcnht,b^ vfs cfhoveyjt,f chekbfl dth
fqvja[dhtc^ vfuhfv erblehtcfl rb lfcwtc&
fhct,j,lf vjcfpht,f^ hjv ‘dtkb lf f[fkb fa[fpt,b thsb
tsybrehb ofhvjij,bc [fk[bf lf vfsb reknehbc rtht,b
b.dyty ,bzdbysbc^ ,tlbbc^ lhfylbc se vjmdbc cftgbcrjgjcjt,b^
se fct b.j^ vfi^ hfnjvqf uffyfluehtc bcbyb \|+-\|++
cfereytt,ib fa[fpt,vf(
y& ,th’tybidbkb vbelujvtkbf fv cfrbs[ib& bc othc^ hjv
#'dtkb fa[fpt,b c[df [fk[b b.j^ [jkj f[fkb fa[fpt,b c[df
92

tsybrehb resdybkt,bc [fk[bf& 'dtkb fa[fpt,b reknehekrjyatcbehfl mfhsdtkt,b b.dyty^ fvbnjv |+++-\ cfereytt,ib
vstkb lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,fc tojlf fa[fpt,b@
~y& ,th’tybidbkb^ cfm& bcn& cfrbs[t,b^ 1990^ ud& 584`& lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc vjcf[ktj,bc f,cjkenehb evhfdktcj,f
ufycf[bkdtk lhjc mfhsdtkt,b b.dyty^ eahj vtnbw^ \+-\+++
cfereytt,ib ew[jtkt,bc thsb yfobkb vstkb cfmfhsdtkjc
vjcf[ktj,fc eojlt,lf fa[fpt,c& y& ,th’tybidbkbc fphbs^
fa[fptsib ief cfereytt,ib vj[lf #vsbc xfvjojkf@^ fye
xhlbkjrfdrfcbtkt,bc xfvjcf[kt,f ~bmdt^ ud& 593`^ hbc
itltuflfw vj[lf fa[fptsbc vjcf[ktj,bc ufew[jt,f& fmfvlt rb _ #&&&/thjcbc^ mfhskjcbc lf tuhjcbc [dtlhb mdt.yt,b _
vfs ijhbc cdfytsb^ fa[fptsb&&& .dtkf tctyb mfhsdtkt,b b.dyty
lf tc fhf vfhnj rjyatcbehb sdfkcfphbcbs^ fhfvtl
atjlfkehb reknehbc sdfkcfphbcbs& fv it[tlekt,bs^ fvltyfldt fm fh itb’kt,f c[dflfc[df thjdyt,fpt^ hjujhw
tsyjreknehek wyt,fpt cfe,fhb^ hjujhw atjlfkehb
mdt.fyf fa[fptsb bctsbdt cfmfhsdtkj b.j lf fa[fpb bctsbdt
mfhsdtkb b.j^ hjujhw tuhbcb lf vtuhtkb^ hjujhw /thtsb
lf /thyb^ hjujhw mfhskb lf mfhsktkb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 608`& cfmfhsdtkjc xhlbkj vsbfytsib [lt,f ktrt,bc se jct,bc
xfvjcf[kt,f& fctdt #vsbekb fa[fpt,b njvj,hbd xfvjdblyty^
lfv[dlehb fa[fpehb vjcf[ktj,f t’vj vjceks rkfcj,hbdb
,h’jkbc ybflfupt& vfifcflfvt^ fa[fpt,bc njvj,hbdb xfvjcdkf lf vfsb ,h’jkf mfhsekb atjlfkehb ehsbthsj,bc obyffqvltu b.j fvfdt lhjc ,h’jkf #mfhsekbc@ obyffqvltu lf
fa[fptsb #vjbmwf ofhvfhsfl@&&& fa[fpb sfdfl-fpyfehj,f
itehbulf itmvybk vlujvfhtj,fc&&& lf bo.j #uffa[fpt,f@ fhf
vfhnj vj’vt fa[fpt,vf ~,fhtkt,vf`^ fhfvtl ,fhb-pqdbcgbhtsbc .dtkf ukt[vf& itbmvyf fa[fpj,f& #mfhsek@
93

,fnjy.vj,fib cekfvj[esekb ukt[j,f fhf vfhnj pqdbcgbhtsbcf vbtnfyf fa[fpj,fc^ fhfvtl fa[fptsb .dtkf
,fnjy.vj,bc obyffqvltu vt,h’jkb mfhsdtkb ukt[bc sfditcfafhb uf[lf lf itbmvyf f[fkb fa[fptsb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 610`&
#atjlfkeh [fyfib vsbtkb fa[fpt,b hfvltybvt yfrflfl
xfvjlbfy fa[fptsbc nthbnjhbfpt&&& \|++ cfereybcfsdbc vsbtk fa[fpsf f[fkb yfrflbc xfvjcdkff cfdfhfelt,tkb^ hjvtkvfw erdt uff’kbthf fa[fptsbc f[fkb vjcf[ktj,f&&&
atjlfkehb eqkbc mdti v.jab fldbkfl ehbult,jlf vsblfy
xfvjceks^ hjvtksfw ghbvbnbek .jafcsfy thsfl cjwbfkehb sfdbceakt,fw vj/mjylfs& fa[fptsib uf,fnjyt,ekb
f[fkb .jaf hjv cfcehdtkb b.j atjlfkeh eqtkib xf,vek
cfpjufljt,bcfsdbc^ rfhufl xfyc bmblfy^ hjv \+\ cfereytib
cfvtuhtkjc vjcf[ktj,f vybidytkjdfyb hfjltyj,bs uflflbc fa[fptsib lf bm #fa[fplt,f@ v[jkjl bvbnjv^ hjv tc vfs
cjwbfkeh sfdbceakt,fc fybzt,lf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 616`& vsbtkb
njvt,bc itvjcdkfvlt rb vlbyfht rjljhfvlt vlt,fht mdt.fyf
b.j vtuhektyjdfyb^ y&,th’tybidbkb bvjovt,c f&kfv,thnbc
~bmdt^ ud& 594`&
hjujhw fqbybiyf^ uhfy;btc wyj,bs^ vjmdbc cfyf[t,ib
cfvjqdfotjl cfzbhjf mfhsekbcf lf vtuhekbc wjlyf^ fm
fa[fpehb tybc itcf[t, fhfdbsfhb vbsbst,f fhff ~bmdt^ ud&
611`& kfv,thnbc lhjc rjljhbc lfcfdktsbs fa[fptsbf^
fa[fpb vjcf[ktj,ff^ fa[fpehb tyf ,fnjyj,c&
f& kfv,thnb #xfvjsdkbc rjk[blbc vlbyfhtt,c lf%
«Ïîñëåäíÿÿ èç âñåõ ðåê Êîääîðà, ýòà äîëæíî áûòü
Êîðàêñ, ïîòîìó, ÷òî âñÿ Êîëõèäà ðàñïîëîæåíà ìåæäó
Ôàçèñîì è Êîðàêñîì è ñîâåðøåííî òàê, êàê Ôàçèñ
îòäåëÿåò Ìèíãðåëèþ îò Ãóðèè, òàê è Êîðàêñ îòäåëÿåò
å¸ îò Àáõàçèè, à êàê çà Ôàçèñîì Ìèíãðåëüñêèé ÿçûê
94

ñðàçó ñìåíÿåòñÿ ãðóçèíñêèì òàê çà Êîðàêñîì
ñìåíÿåòñÿ àáõàçñêèì. Îòñþäà ÿñíî, ÷òî Êîäîð
Ìèíãðåëüöåâ åñòü äðåâíèé Êîðàêñ, ïîòîìó, ÷òî ñåé÷àñ
ïîñëå ïåðåïðàâû ÷åðåç Êîäîð æèâóò àáõàçöû (àâñàññè)
ñî ñâîèì îñîáåííûì ÿçûêîì» ~bmdt^ ud& 613`&
se hjujhb .jabs w[jdhj,lyty f[fkb fa[fpt,b lf dbc
tvudfyt,bfy bcbyb^ othc kfv,thnb% «Â ãîðîäàõ è êðåïîñòÿõ
àáõàçöû íå æèâóò, íî (îáûêíîâåííî) ñîáèðàþòñÿ
äåñÿòü èëè äâàäöàòü ñåìåéñòâ îäíîé ôàìèëèè,
âûáèðàþò êàêîå-íèáóäü âîçâûøåííîå ìåñòî, ñòðîÿò
çäåñü èç ñîëîìû íåñêîëüêî øàëàøåé è îáâîäÿò âñå
êðåïêèì çàáîðîì è ãëóáîêèì ðâîì. Ïîñëåäíåå
äåëàþò ïîòîìó, ÷òî ó íèõ îáû÷àé ãðàáèòü äðóã äðóãà»
cf[kib fhfathb fmds vjhsekj,bcf ~#endfh@`& thsbvtjhtc
/.blbfy vjyt,fl& itbfhfqt,eks c’byfds&&& tcff fa[fpt,b&
v[jkjl vsbtkj,bs itb’kt,f fb[cyfc vfsb vtehytj,f^ .jaf
lf c[df vsbtkt,sfy vcufdct,f& vstkc bcnjhbfc ufvjlbc bct
ufedkbf^ hjv fa[fpt,c fv reknehek vityt,kj,fib
vjyfobktj,f fh vbeqbfs&
#ptvjs vj.dfybkb lf;byt,ekb vjovj,fyb bvbc itcf[t,^
hjv fa[fpt,b fuht /udfyfy rfdrfcbbc vsbtk [fk[t,c .jafib^
cfhoveyjt,bs^ hjv bcbyb wb[tt,cf lf mfkfmt,ib fh
w[jdhj,lyty^ hjv^ hjujhw xfyc^ vt[jh,ktj,f fy cek fhf
fmds^ fy vtnfl vwbht^ hjv bcbyb vtuhtkt,c fh /udfyfy .jafw[jdht,bs& .dtkfathb tc vjovj,ff^ hjv \|+++ cfereybc
fa[fpt,b vfhskfw rfdrfcbfyt,bf^ cfrvfjl udbfy xfvjcekb
,fhib^ vfs ]th rbltd dth fesdbct,bfs ,fhb lf vsbekeh
w[jdht,fc ufyfuh’j,ty& hf smvf eylf^ bcbyb fh fhbfy
f,jhbutyt,b^ vfs dth itesdbct,bfs mhbcnbfyj,f^ bctdt
hjujhw dth itesdbct,bfs atjlfkehb vtehytj,f ~fv .jd95

kfl e[dcf lf yj.bth mdt.fyfib`^ bctdt hjujhw dth
itesdbct,bfs atjlfkehb cjwbfkehb o.j,f lf ujhfrt,pt
udfht,bs ~thsb udfhbc [fk[b` lfcf[kt,ekyb w[jdhj,ty&&&
evsfdhtcfl vt]jutj,fc vbcltdty lf fhf vbofsvjmvtlt,fc&&&
.dtkfahblfy xfyc^ hjv fa[fpt,b \|++ cfereytib sfdbcsfdflb [fk[bf^ rfdrfcbtksf vjyfstcfdtf^ ghbvbnbekb .jabs lf
ofhvfhsekb htkbubbs& vtjht v[hbd^ hjujhw fqybiyekb
b.j^ vjvobat,ek cfiefkj cfereytt,ib ~|++-\` fa[fptsb
fhbc ufydbsfht,ekb atjlfkehb mdt.fyf^ cfblfyfw
mhbcnbfyj,f vsfib dhwtklt,jlf&&& lf ew,fl [lt,f ‘bhatcdbfyb ufhlfnt[f& vt-15 cfereytib fa[fptsb #ofhvfhsj,c@^
fa[fptsib emvlt,f ptlbptl cftgbcrjgjcjt,b^ mht,f
mhbcnbfyj,f&&& hf eylf .jabkb.j fvbc vbptpb(&&& vfi hf
vj[lf( vj[lf bc^ hfcfw flubkb /mjylf fhfthsufy cfmfhsdtkjc vsbcf lf ,fhbc ehsbthsj,fib& atjlfkehb ,fhbc
lfcecnt,bc itvltu xfvjodf vsf& chekbfl ite’kt,tkbf^ hjv
fa[fptsib byntycbehb atjlfkehb vtehytj,f tmcntycbeh
vsbc vtehytj,bs itwdkbkb.j^ lfobyfeht,ekb atjlfkehb reknehf vsbc .jabs itwdkbkb.j^ hjv fa[fptsb
mhbcnbfyj,bcfufy vbmwtekb.j^ se bm vsbc xfvjojkfc fh /
mjylf flubkb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 614-615`&
hjujhw fqybiyekb b.j^ cojhtl vsbtkb ofhvfhst,bc
itcfrfdt,kfl bmyf fut,ekb jlbiib t&o& #fa[fptsbc lblb
rtltkb@&
#hjujh itb’kt,f fa[fptspt vtwybthekb cfe,fhb^ fv
mdt.ybc bcnjhbfpt vc]tkj,f lf rtkfcehbc rtlkt,bc fh
ufsdfkbcobyt,f& tc rtltkb [jv vstkb tgjmbc vfxdtyt,tkbf&&&
ufyf tc rtltkb tsybrehb cfrbs[t,bc ‘bt,bcfc vwbht
lfcf.hltyc vjudwtvlf( &&&tc rtltkb lfcfdkts rfdrfcbbcf lf
.e,fybc fepbc njvsf vj’hfj,bc obyffqvltu^ vfsb vjojkbc
96

obyffqvltu fut,ekb qjybc’bt,f xfyc lf rfdibhb fmdc
lfhe,fyl-lfhbfk lf se uyt,fds cfbyubkjib fctsbdt
rtltksfy@ ~bmdt^ ud& 617`&
cojhtl vsbtk ew[jtksf uf,fnjyt,bs fb[cyt,f #rjljhtyuehbc ijhbcb cfvtuhtkjc fctsb vnhekb ufyflueht,f^
[fk[bc cek thsbfyfl f.hf-lf.bldf ~1672 okblfy lf itvltu`&&&@ ~bmdt^ ud& 618`&
w[flbf^ xfvjcek flbqt-facet,bcfsdbc chekbfl ew[j
b.j vrdblhsf reknehf^ nhflbwbt,b^ vfs bcnjhbf fh uffxylfs& fvbnjvff^ hjv #cfresfh bcnjhbfc ufeh,bfy&&& fmds se
fhf bcnjhbekb uflvjwtvt,b( se bcbyb bv fa[fpt,bc utytnbrehb vtvrdblhtyb fhbfy vfs ajkrkjhib sfvfhb lf c[df
fctst,b eylf xfyltc&&& yfhst,bc tgjcb vfs vsbtkj,fpt
vbesbst,c@ ~bmdt^ ud& 618`&
sfvfh vtatcsfy lfrfdibht,bs eylf bsmdfc^ hjv sfvfhbc
df;c facfhekb cf[tkb _ #kfif@ thmdf& vtvfnbfybc wyj,f bvbc
itcf[t,^ #kfif@ fhbc facfhekb lf fhf fa[fpehb cbn.df _
‘fkpt vybidytkjdfybf lf .ehflcfqt,b& tc vbesbst,c bvbc
itcf[t,^ hjv \+++ cfereybcfsdbc fa[fpt,bc tyf lf facfht,bc
tyf c[dflfc[df b.j& ths lhjc facfhekfl vbxytekb cbn.df
#kfif@^ fv;fvfl fa[fpehb tybc vb[tldbs b[ctyt,f^ tctw thsb
cf,esbf bvbcf^ hjv lqtbcfsdbc fa[fpt,c deojlt,s bv [fk[c^
hjvtksfw ths lhjc #facfht,b@ thmdfs^ lqtdfyltkb
#fa[fpt,bc@ sdbs cf[tkojlt,f [jv vfhskfw #faceff@&
facefcfufyff yfofhvjt,b #facfhb@& facef [fk[c mfhsdtkt,b
#facfht,c@ eojlt,lyty lf bcbyb xhlbkj rfdrfcbfib
,byflhj,lyty& fa[fptsib xfvjcf[kt,bc itvltu vfs
#fa[fpt,b@ tojlfs&
#mfhskbc w[jdht,fib@ yfsmdfvbf% sfvfh vtabc df;bc
lf,flt,bcfc mfhsdtkvf v[tlhbjyvf f[fkij,bkc vbe’qdyf
ths-thsb kfimhj,f #,tlcf lf cdtcf ptlf kfifcf^ hjvtkb
97

ufyvfyfskt,kfl cjakbcf bsfhuvyf facfhsf tybsf@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ ++^ 1959^ ud& 58`^ vfifcflfvt^ kfif facfhekb
cbn.dff lf mfhsekfl ufyvfyfskt,tkc ybiyfdc&&& #f-kfif-hf@
xbhfqlfyc ~ufyvfyfskt,tkc` /mdbf sfyfvtlhjdt fa[fpehfl&&&
xdtyb 'dtkb vtvfnbfytyb lf vtbcnjhbtyb rfhufl bwyj,lyty
fa[fpt,cf lf fa[fptsc^ #kfif@ vfs lhjc fa[fpehb cbn.df
hjv .jabkb.j^ facfhek cbn.dfl fh vbbxytdlyty& cfmvt bcff^
hjv 'dtk lhjc fa[fpt,c eojlt,lyty fa[fptsbc vrdblh mfhsdtkeh njvc^ [jkj facfht,c vbc vtpj,kfl rfdrfcbfib
lfvrdblht,ek xthmtp-flbqeh tyfpt vjkfgfhfrt njvc& xhlbkj rfdrfcbbc lfcfdkts yfobkb lfcf[kt,ekb b.j xthmtpekb njvt,bs& bv lhjc xthmtpsf cfthsj hbw[jdyt,f cfrvfjl
lblb .jabkf& xthmtpekb b.j facfhsf^ f,fpsf^ flbqtsf^
.f,fhljtksf^ e,b[sf ~lf c[df` njvt,b& .dtkf bcbyb tyfsf ths
]ueac ufytresdyt,jlf lf vfsb cfthsj cf[tkb b.j
xthmtpt,b&&& sfvfhbc lhjc xhlbkj rfdrfcbfib w[jdhj,lyty
jct,bc vtpj,kfl^ fvbnjv hjwf jcsf vtatc lfdbs cjckfyc
df;b ufexylf _ ubjhub sfvfhbc ‘t^ cfvtaj rfhvf^ xfyc^
uflfco.dbnf^ jcsf vtpj,kfl vw[jdht,b xhlbkj rfdrfcbbc
elbltcb [fk[b lftvj.dht,byf lf vtabc ‘bc vfvfv’e’t facfh
ofhxbyt,eksf ijhbc ufvjthxbfs& xfyc^ vfvfv’e’ev eojlf
rbltw cf[tkb kfif sfvfhbc df;c@ ~tg& fyfybf ]fafhb’t^ sfvfh
ltljakbc df;bc cf[tkb^ ]dfhb dfpbcf^ 1989^ ud& 43^ 50`&
v& kjhsmbafyb’t othc fa[fptsbc itcf[t,% \|+-\|++
cfereytt,blfy fm hsekb ghjwtct,b vbvlbyfhtj,c^
lfcnehlt,f xhlbkjrfdrfcbblfy vjvsf,fht njvt,bc
xfvjcf[kt,f&&& ew[jtkb fdnjht,b^ hjvtkybw \|-\|+ cfereytvlt cfmfhsdtkjc cfthsj mfhsek cjwbfkeh-reknehek cfv.fhjl fqbmdfvlyty^ ufycfresht,bs \|++ cfereyblfy
vrdtshfl ufvj.jaty lf ufyfc[dfdt,ty thsvfytsbcfufy rjl98

jhbc cfv[htsbs lf vbc xhlbkjtsbs vw[jdht,sf .jafc&
cojhtl \|++ cfereyblfy xylt,f gbhdtkb wyj,t,b rjljhbc
xhlbkjtsbs mfhsekbcfufy ~vtuhekbcfufy` ufyc[dfdt,ekb
cfkfgfhfrj tybc itcf[t, ~f,ekablf^ gbtnhj uthfklb^ ]jdfyb ]ekbfyj lf kerf^ fhmfy]tkj kfv,thnb^ tdkbf xtkt,b
lf c[dt,b` ~v& kjhsmbafyb’t^ fhf eo.bfy se&&&^ ufp& kbn& cfmfhsdtkj^ 16&++&90`&
t& vfvbcsdfkfidbkb othc ew[jtk fdnjhsf xfyfotht,pt
lf.hlyj,bs% #xdtyc [tks fhct,ekb o.fhjt,bc vb[tldbs
lubylt,f^ hjv \+|-\| cfereytt,ib cfmfhsdtkjc ifdb pqdbc xhlbkj-lfcfdkts yfobkib ~lqtdfyltkb fa[fptsbc fcch
nthbnjhbfpt` jlbibc cfvsfdhjcfufy lfvjerblt,tkb gjkbnbrehb thstekb fh fhct,j,lf& bm fhct,ek vybidytkjdfy
trjyjvbreh lf reknehek rtht,ib^ ufycfresht,bs w[evib^
‘bhbsfl vjcf[ktj,fc mfhsdtkt,b itflutylyty&&& 1630 o&
ufpfa[ek-pfa[ekib fa[fptsib bvjupfehf bnfkbtkvf
]jdfyb ]ekbfyj lf kerfv^ bub othc% #fa[fpt,b ufafynekyb
fhbfy pqdbc cfyfgbhjpt^ vfsb w[jdht,bc otcb bctsbdtf^
hjujhw xthmtpt,bc& fhf fmds fhfdbsfhb lfothbkb rfyjyt,b
lf lfvothkj,bc ufvj.tyt,fw fh bwbfy^ hovtybs bcbyb
mhbcnbfyt,b fhbfy^ hfbvt mhbcnbfyekb otc-xdtekt,t,bc ufhtit&&& n.tt,b vfs tvcf[eht,fs^ hjujhw v.elhj flubkb^
hjltcfw bcbyb fbhxtdty ths flubkc cfw[jdht,kfl^ vtht vfc
fh njdt,ty&&& hflufyfw vfs fh fmds c[df cfw[jdht,tkb
flubkb^ ufhlf n.bcf^ fvbnjv /.fds vwbht hfjltyj,bc ]jub&&&
rvf.jabklt,bfy sfakbcfufy ufrtst,ekb qdbyjsb^ yflbhbs
lf n.tib ufphlbkb yf.jabs^ [jh,fkb vfssfy fh vjlbc^ vfhbkc fh [vfhj,ty@ ~b& nf,fqef^ cfmfhsdtkj tdhjgbc
fhmbdt,cf&&&^ +++^ ud& 169-171` ~t& vfvbcsdfkfidbkb^ cfmfhsdtkjc&&&^ 18&\&90^ ufp& c&u&`&
99

#\|++ cfereybc 80-bfyb okt,blfy jlbibc cfvsfdhjc xhlbkjtsb cfpqdfhb vjbifkf lf fa[fpt,vf lfbg.htc nthbnjhbf vlbyfht tyuehfvlt& bthecfkbvtkb gfnhbfhmbc ljcbstjcbc wyj,bs^ fa[fpt,vf vjfj[htc nthbnjhbf cj[evblfy
w[tybco.kfvlt& w[flbf^ bcbyb sfdbfys nthbnjhbfc hjlb
fj[ht,lyty@ ~b& fystkfdf^ fa[fpehb ghj,ktvbc&&&^ ufp&
vfvekb^ =6^ 1989`&
rfdrfcbbc vst,blfy fa[fptsib xfvjcf[kt,bc itcf[t,
facefsf ijhbc lfhxtybkf tsyjutytnbrehb uflvjwtvt,b&
#thsb ]ueab ktutylt,bcf vbesbst,c yfhst,bc^ t&b& vsbc vbsbehb njvt,bc lf vfsb uvbht,bc vjcdkfc fa[fptsbc vbofpt
vfyfvlt vjcf[kt rfwbzfvbf ujkbfst,bc se ]e]f #fwfyt,bc@
vjcgj,fc lf fm lfvrdblht,fc^ ths-thsb ktutylbs fa[fpsf
obyfght,b fhf,tsblfy uflvjcekfy^ ,jkjc lf ,jkjc vl&
.e,fybc ~+` dtkpt vjcekfy^ vfuhfv fmfeh wbd /fdfc dth
ituet,bfy lf fmtlfy fa[fptsbc vbofpt uflfcf[kt,ekfy^
sevwf vfsb yfobkb bmdt lfhxtybkf lf tctyb fhbfy
f,fpbytkt,b ~i-byfk-baf^ fa[fpt,b^ 1965^ ud& 103-105^ y&
kjvjehb^ gfce[fl^ ufp& #k&c@^ 20&\&89`&
#fwfyt,bc@ mdti vjcekb vsbtkt,b [jv fh uekbc[vj,lyty
#cfyt,c@ ~pfyt,c`^ hjvtksfw ,th’yt,b #cfybut,c@ eojlt,lyty(
#sdbsjy fa[fpt,c itvjhxfs ,eyljdfyb ofhvjlutyt,b
vfsb obyfght,bc fv vbofpt cfblfyqfw ~tn.j,f lqtdfyltkb
flbqtlfy` vjcdkbc itcf[t,&&& bvfsb vybidytkjdfyb yfobkb^
dbyw sfdbc sfdc lqtc fa[fpc eojlt,c^ eylf vbdbxybjs fv
cek wjnf [ybc obyfyltkb xhlbkjtkb lfvg.hj,kt,bc
isfvjvfdkt,fl@ ~h& tdljrbvjd-djufrb^ fa[fptsbc&&&^ ufp&
cf[& ufyfsk&^ 29&\&89`&
y& aja[f’bc cfbynthtcj lfrdbhdt,bs^ ew[jehb o.fhjt,b
vbesbst,ty^ hjv xhlbkj rfdrfcbfib^ rfcgbbc pqdbc gbhfc
100

fhct,ekf mdt.fyf #f,cef@^ fhct,ekf #f,cef@ [fk[bw& fvfc
vbesbst,c gkbybecb& y& aja[f’tc vj/.fdc gkbybecbc ntmcnbc kfsbyehb ltlfyb lf sfhuvfyb byukbceh tyfpt^ .dtkufy
#f,cef@ [fk[ptf cfe,fhb& cojhtl fv #f,cet,bc@ itcf[t,
ufyew[flt,bf \|++ c& lfcfo.bcib ths bnfkbtk ,thc^ bcbyb
xhlbkj-rfdrfcbblfy f[kf[fy xfdblyty rfdrfcbfibj&
y& aja[f’t othc% #gkbybecvf rfdrfcbbc fqcfothfl 20-pt
vtnb fdnjhbc yfihjvb ufvjb.tyf&&& fdnjhc cfdct,bs w[flfl
fmdc ufhrdtekb^ hjv gbhdtk cfereytib f,cef mdt.fyf
vlt,fhtj,lf rfdrfcbbc pqdbc xhlbkjts cfyfgbhjcsfy& gkbybecb fqybiyfdc f,cef [fk[bc tsybreh resdybkt,fcfw& f,cef
[fk[b crdbsb [fk[b b.j& + cfereytt,ib bc fqfh b.j vjvsf,fht
[fk[b&&& f,cef [fk[b w[jdhj,lf rfcgbbc pqdbc xhlbkjlfcfdkts yfobkib vlt,fht vjvwhj .ehbc ths yfgbhpt&&&
gkbybecbc fv wyj,bc cfyljj,f tzdc fh bodtdc& fhfdbsfhb
rth’j bynthtcb f,cef mdt.ybc vlt,fhtj,bc fqothbc lhjc vfc
fh tmyt,jlf& vfy j,btmnehfl vbesbsf afmnb _ f,cef mdt.fyf
rfcgbbcgbhtsbc xhlbkj yfobkib vlt,fhtj,lf&&& f,cef tyfpt
vjkfgfhfrt [fk[b xhlbkj rfdrfcbblfy cfv[hts rfdrfcbfib
eqtknt[bkbs uflvjlbjlf lf bmdt cfvehpf.fyjc xhlbkjtsbs brfdt,lf vbot,c& eahj xhlbkjtsbs pqdbc yfgbhpt flbqt [fk[t,b xfvjcf[klyty& cf[tkojlt,f #xfhmfcb@
sehmt,vf eojltc flbqt [fk[c lf ybiyfdc ifhfupbc .fxfqt,c&&&
.dtkf tdhjgtkb vrdktdfhb fqybiyfdlf^ hjv flbqt [fk[t,b^
f,cef [fk[bw \+\ cfereytibw bv ljytpt bluf sfdbcb .jabs^
hjujhw 2000 okbc oby f[fcbfst,lf dfylfkt,c^ uest,c^
fkfyt,c& rjk[t,b 3000 okbc obyfsfw vfqfkb wbdbkbpfwbbs
ufvjbhxtjlyty@ ~y& aja[f’t^ ifd pqdfc rjk[tsbc pqdf thmdf^ ufp& #f[& bdthbtkb@^ 14&|+&90`&
101

hjujhw fqbybiyf^ facet,c itvjhxtybkb fmds ktutylt,b
vfsb ew[jtsblfy fa[fptsib xfvjcf[kt,bc itcf[t,& [ibhfl
fv ew[j mdt.fyfc^ sfdlfgbhdtkb cfvij,kjc cf[tkc bcbyb
ufvj[fnfdty cbn.dbs^ hjvtkcfw xfvothyb othty^ hjujhw
#f,bcbybf@& cfabmht,tkbf^ hjv ktutylt,bc vsmvtkyb fv,j,ty
cf[tkc #f,cyb@^ hjvtkbw vcufdcbf gkbybecbc #f,cefcb@^ [jkj
xfvotht,c tcvbs f,bcbybf& #,fnjy i-byfk-bafc vj/.fdc
uflvjwtvf bvfcsfy lfrfdibht,bs^ hjv fa[fpt,b f,bcbybblfy
uflvjcf[klyty vbecthfib@ ~s& vbx,efyb^ dby b.dyty&&&^ ufp& #cf[&
ufy&@^ 6&\++&89`&
flbqtdtk njvsf fa[fptsib xfvjcf[kt,bc itcf[t,
uflvjwtvt,b lfwekbf xhlbkj rfdrfcbfibw& itvjyf[ekbf
fl bqt .f,f hljc cf[ fk[j uvb hbc byfk bc i tcf[ t,
uflvjwtvf^ cflfw fqothbkbf^ se hjujh itvjbzhf bc \|+
c-bc lfcfo.bcib fa[fptsbc nthbnjhbfpt vhfdfkfsfcbfyb
kfimhbs^ itvjb.dfyf bm vjcf[ktj,f _ «Â ëåãåíäå îá
Èíàëå ãîâîðèòñÿ, ÷òî ïîñëå ïîêîðåíèÿ Àáõàçèè
íàõëîäÿñü íà Äçèáå (áçèáè) äëÿ çàêëþ÷åíèÿ ìèðà ñ
àáõàçñêèìè ïëåìåíàìè Èíàë ñêîí÷àëñÿ. Ñòàðèêè
àáõàçèíöû ïîìíÿò, ÷òî â XIX â. Íà òåðèòîðèè
àáõàçñêîãî îáùåñòâà Ïñõó (â ãîðàõ Àáõàçèè) áûëî
ïî÷èòàåìîå ìåñòî, ãäå ïî ïðåäàíèþ ïîõîðåíåí Èíàë.
Îíî íàçûâàëîñü Èíàëêúáà, ò.å. «Èíàëîâ ìàâçîëåé»
(Èñòîðèÿ Êàáàðäèíî-Áàëêàðñîé ÀÑÑÐ ò. I, Ì., 1967,
ñòð. 83; k& ne[fidbkb^ e’qt,b idbkb^ ufp& #f[& bdthbtkb@^
5&|+++&89`&
byfkb sehvt xhlbkjrfdrfcbtkb #f,fpbyt,bc@ sfdflt,c
fitc lf ifitc fmwtdlf .ehflqt,fc& fv f,fpbyt,cf lf facet,c
thsb tyf /mjylfs^ xfyc^ fa[fptsib xfvjcf[kt,bc itvltu
lfv[dtlh mfhsdtk ufvjxtybk cfsfdflj cfudfhtekjt,c
102

sfdbct,ehfl eojltc #fit@ lf #ifit@& #fit lf ifit ufvjbsmvbc [ibhfl^ hjujhw fxt^ fmtlfy fx-,f lf xfxt _ fmtlfy xfx-,f@
~bmdt& ithdfib’tt,cf lf fyxf,f’tt,c sfdbfyst,ehfl fx,f lf
xfx,f eojltc& [jkj itvltu mfhsdtkt,bcfufy cbn.df #sfdflbw@ itbsdbctc lf ufvjsmdfvlyty hjujhw #f-sfefl@&
fa[fptsbc itcf[t, vjqotekbf sehmb bcnjhbrjcbc tdkbf xtkt,bcf lf mfsb, xtkt,bc wyj,t,b& \|++ c-bc 20-40-bfy
okt,bcfsdbc mfsb, xtkt,bc wyj,bs^ cj[evb _ fa[fpt,c fh
tresdybs lf fa[fpt,b vst,ib w[jdhj,ty cj[evbc xhlbkjfqvjcfdktsbs thsb rbkjvtnhbc vfy’bkpt& fa[fpsf
vf[kj,kfl kfpt,bc njvb ,byflhj,c& fa[fpt,bc cfpqdfhb
rjljhfvltf _ ptvj otkb& fa[fpt,b bubdt xthmtpt,bf^ hflufyfw mfsb,bc wyj,bs^ xthmtpt,bc cfpqdfhb cfvtuhtkjf^
xthmtpt,ib cojhtl fa[fpt,c uekbc[vj,c& eahj vtnbw^ bc
gbhlfgbh vbesbst,c^ hjv xthmtpt,b lf fa[fpt,b thsb
[fk[bf& vbcb fphbs^ f,fpf fhff mfhsdtkb^ vtuhtkb lf lflbfyb rb #yfvldbkb mfhsdtkbf@&
mfsb, xtkt,b flfcneht,c^ hjv vfcfw ufewdybf
uflvjwtvt,b f,fpt,bc ~f[fkb fa[fpt,bc` ew[j v[fhblfy vjcdkbc itcf[t,& wyj,bkbf^ hjv [fpfht,b^ vj,byflhtyb xhlbkj
rfdrfcbfib^ |+++-\ cfereytt,ib belfehb cfhoveyjt,bc
fqvcfht,tkyb uf[lyty& bcbyb itvltu ufyb,yty eahj vtnfl
lfcfdktsbc vbvfhsekt,bs^ belfehb cfhoveyjt,bc ufvj vfs
t,hftkt,cfw eojlt,ty& mfsb, xtkt,b othc% #fv,j,ty^ hjv tctyb bchfbktkt,bcfufy ofhvjbidyty& sbsmvbc fv v[fhtib cfvb
t,hfekb njvb vjdblf lf lfcf[klf& xthmtpt,b lf f,fpt,b fv
cfvb njvbcfufy ufdhwtklyty@ ~mfsb, xtkt,bc wyj,t,b cfmfhsdtkjcf lf rfdrfcbbc itcf[t,^ 1978^ ud& 132`&
[fpfht,b^ vfhskfw^ rfcgbbcgbhf bv flubkt,ib
w[jdhj,lyty^ cflfw flht f,cet,bc njvbc cfw[jdhbcc
103

vbesbst,lf gkbybecb& itcf’kt,tkbf^ [fpfhtsib belfbpvbc
ufdhwtkt,bc itvlujv +\-\ cfereytt,ib [fpfht,vf
uflfyfwdkt,f lfbo.tc sfdbfysb cfw[jdhbcblfy&
cfabmht,tkbf^ hjv lfcfdkts xhlbkjrfdrfcbfib ufvjxtybk
xthmtpt,c hfbvt rfdibhb /mjylfs vfssfy^ .jdtk itvs[dtdfib^
|+++-\ cfereytt,ib xhlbkjrfdrfcbbc lfcfdkts yfobkib fhf
xthmtpt,b^ fhfvtl jc-fkfyt,b vrdblhj,lyty& fa[fptsbc ths
vsbfy res[tc #fkfybfw@ rb thmdf& itvltu^ xfyc^ vj[lf njvsf
uflfflubkt,fyb^ .jdtk itvs[dtdfib^ mfsb, xtkt,bc wyj,f
bvbc itcf[t,^ hjv xthmtpt,b lf f,fpt,b fa[fptsib vjcekb
njvt,b fhbfy^ cf.ehflqt,jf& f,fpf _ f[fkb fa[fpt,bc cbyjybvehb cf[tkbf& #f,[fpb _ ‘bhbsflfl njvbc cf[tkbf& tc njvb^
hjvtkbw xdtyc lhjib bckfvbc mdt.yt,ib f,fpfc eojlt,ty^
.fhf f;lf/fybc vfw[jdht,kt,bcfufy ofhvjlut,f& mfkfmb
vlt,fhtj,c ifdb pqdbc yfgbhpt^ vsfpt^ pqdbc .ehtib^ f,[fpb
_ cj[evblfy thsb vbkbc vfy’bkpt^ xhlbkj fqvjcfdktsbsff& f,[fpsf vf[kj,kfl kfpt,bc njvb&&&@ ~bmdt^ ud& 133`&
mfsb,b rbltd ths[tk bvtjht,c^ hjv vbcb lhjbc fa[fpt,b fhf
vrdblhyb fhbfy fa[fptsbcf^ fhfvtl #.fhf f;lf/fybc
vfw[jdht,kt,bcfufy@ ofhvjlut,bfy&
hjujhw bsmdf^ xthmtpt,b lf f,[fpt,b ~fa[fpt,b` sehm
bcnjhbrjcc thsb [fk[bc njvfl vbfxybf& #njvt,b thsvfytsc
gfhfdty [fk[c lf dfzht,c vb/.blbfy& ltlf-vfvf se uf.bldbc
itvltu sfdbc df;c dfzfhc lfeyf[fdc^ dtqfh ufvjbc.blbfy& vfs
ijhbc fctsb flfsbf&&& thsvfytsc gfhfdty lf ,tut,c f’ktdty@
~bmdt^ ud& 132`& f,fpfc [fk[bc #sfdlfgbhdtkb cfpqdht,b
cjzblfy rjljhc fqotdc@ ~ud& 132`&
f,fpfc mdt.fyf cfmfhsdtkjc vjcfpqdhtf& cfmfhsdtkjib
rb vlt,fhtj,c f,fpfc vjcfpqdht lflbfybc mdt.fyf% #lflbfyb
ifdb pqdbc cfyfgbhjcsfy f[kjc^ f,fpfc vjcfpqdht mdt.fyff&
104

vbcb ufvut,tkb .jdtksdbc t,h’dbc f,fpfc& vbcb thsb v[fht
ajsc fqotdc@ ~ud& 136`&
mfsb,b othc% #cfmfhsdtkj _ dbkfbtsbf &&& ibhdfybc pqdfcf lf ifd pqdfc ijhbc^ vbcb cfpqdht,bf% fqvjcfdktsbs _
lth,tylb lf ibhdfyb^ cfv[htsbs _ xbklbhbc^ .fhcbc lf fhphevbc tbktst,b^ lfcfdktsbs ifdb pqdf^ xhlbkjtsbs rb
f,fpfcf lf lfqtcnfybc dbkfbtst,bs fhbc itvjcfpqdhekb&
lfvjerblt,tkb ufvut,tkb /.fdc& vstkb vjcf[ktj,f mhbcnbfyb mfhsdtkt,b fhbfy&&& fxbr-,fic^ lflbfyc^ vtuhtkc lf c[dt,c
mfhsdtkt,c eojlt,ty& yfvldbk mfhsdtkt,fl fxbr-,fib lf
lflbfyb bsdkt,bfy@ ~bmdt^ ud& 136`&
hjujhw fqbybiyf^ #f,fpt,b@ lf #lflbfyb@ velfv t,h’dbfy
thsvfytsc^ f,fpt,b _ vbcb fphbs^ bubdt xthmtpt,b fhbfy^ [jkj
#lflbfyb@ yfvldbkb mfhsdtkbf^ vfifcflfvt^ mfsb,bc fphbs^
jvb vbvlbyfhtj,c xthmtpt,cf lf mfhsdtkt,c ijhbc^ fye xhlbkj rfdrfcbbc elbltc [fk[cf lf xdtyc [fk[c ijhbc& vfhskfw^ xhlbkj rfdrfcbtkb vsbtkt,bc fa[fptsib lfvrdblht,fc
oby fqeluf vstkb lfcfdkts cfmfhsdtkjc cfvtajcfvsfdhjt,b^ vfuhfv eitltujl& vfs sehmtsbw ezthlf v[fhc&
ktdfy ++ lflbfybc lhjc ~1611-1657` cfpqdfhb cfvtuhtkjcf lf fa[fptsc ijhbc vl& rtkfcehsfy bo.t,f
~bmdt^ ud& 58`&
vlbyfht hbjyc mfsb,b eojlt,c _ #ajsbc vlbyfhtc@^ fvbnjvfw cfabmht,tkbf^ hjv sehmb bcnjhbrjcb \|++ cfereybcf tdkbf xtkt,b #afi@ cf[tkc eojlt,lf fhf vlbyfht hbjyc^
fhfvtl bv lhjbcfsdbc cf[tkufysmvek yfdcfluehc^ vlt,fhtc
aiflbc .ehtcsfy^ hjvkbc itcf[t,fw othlyty itvlujvb lhjbc
vjupfeht,bw ;& ufv,f lf cgtycthb& fqybiyekb #aiflbc@
.ehtib xfvfdfk vlbyfhtc thmdf #afi@& .jdtk itvs[dtdfib^
hbjyb fhfcjltc .jabkf ufv.jab fa[fpt,cf lf vtuhtkt,c
105

ijhbc^ tdkbf xtkt,bc sfyf[vfl rb^ vlbyfht afif^ hjvkbc
o.kt,bw brhb,t,f #&&&cjzfc vst,bc [tdbc o.kt,bcfufy^ itvltu
gbhlfgbh cfv[htsbcfrty vbtlbyt,f lf cfvtuhtkjcf lf f,fpfc
mdt.fyfc ief pqdfc thsdbc& fqvjcfdkts cfyfgbhjpt vskbfyfl ehxb cfvtuhtkjc cjakt,bf& lfcfdktsbc yfgbhb f,fpfc
xfxt,bc njvbc mdt.fyff@ ~tdkbf xtkt,b^ vjupfehj,bc obuyb^
1971^ ud& 96`& fhfdbsfh itvs[dtdfib vl& #afib@ hbjyb fhff^ bc
fy vlbyfht rjljhbf^ fylf^ hjujhw fqbybiyf^ aiflbc .ehbc
ityfrflbf& fqcfybiyfdbf^ hjv y& ,th’tybidbkb lffcrdybc% #fct^
hjv tdkbfc wyj,f fhw bct ae’tvlt,kehb xfyc@ ~y&
,th’tybidbkb^ lfcf[& yfih&^ ud& 606`& fv lfcrdybs sbsmjclf y&
,th’tybidbkvf obyfcofh ufcwf gfce[b ]& /bebnc^ hjvtkbw
tdkbf xtkt,bc fqybiyekb wyj,bc fhfcojhb ufut,bc itltufl
fcrdyblf^ sbsmjclf fa[fpt,b vlbyfht hbjysfy w[jdhj,lyty^
hfw f,cehlbf& ajsb fv lhjbcfsdbc fh .jabkf yfdcfluehb^
thsflthsb yfdcfluehbf rjljhsfy vlt,fht _ #bcfuehb@ ~c&
]fyfibf^ |+^ 1988^ ud& 281`&
tdkbf xtkt,b b’ktdf ufcfjwfh wyj,t,c& vfufkbsfl^ othc
_ #vjcrjdb mfhsdtkt,bc mfkfmbf@ ~t& xtkt,b^ lfcf[& yfih&^ ud&
98`^ hjv sehvt tcgfytkt,b^ ahfyut,b^ kfsbyt,b sfshekb
ofhvjij,bc [fk[bf^ [jkj byukbctkt,b _ cgfhcekb ~bmdt^
ud& 98` lf f&i&
cfthsjl^ fqybiyekb bcnjhbrjct,b dth ittlht,bfy xdtyc df[einb ,fnjybidbkc&
tdhjgtkb vjupfeht,bw [ibhfl bvtjht,lyty .ehvjrhek
fv,t,c^ vfuhfv vfsb fyfkbpb ~buekbc[vt,f ;& ufv,f lf cgtycthb`
eahj lfvf]tht,tkbf& cgtycthb f[fk fa[fpt,c gbhlfgbh
eojlt,c xthmtpt,c^ xthmtptsb^ vbcb fphbs^ bo.t,f fyfgfib
lf ,bzdbysf vbcb yfobkbf& ufuhfw xthmtptsibf lf ,bzdbysbc
nf’fhbw^ ufv,jhb _ kb[yb xthmtptsbc iefuekbf^ ithdfib’t
106

_ xthmtpt,bc njvbc vsfdfhbf^ cfthsjl& bc facet,c eojlt,c
fhf fa[fpt,c^ fhfvtl xthmtpt,c& #cfvtuhtkjc vtcfvt ghjdbywbf uflfzbvekbf xhlbkjtsbs rjljhbc rjyw[fvlt lf cfpqdhfl eltdc fvfdt cf[tkojlt,bc vlbyfht^ 'dtkb fdnjht,bc
rjhfmcb^ fqvjcfdktsbs rb ob,tkb _ cfrvfjl vfqfkb vst,b&
tc ghjdbywbf fnfht,c fuhtsdt cfvehpf.fyjcf lf fa[fptsbc
cf[tkc& bub lflbfyt,bc cf[tkvobajc yfobkc itflutyc^ vfuhfv itb’kt,f bsmdfc^ hjv bub fhw ths [tkbceakt,fc fh
tvjhxbkt,f& fm bidbfsfl se dyf[fds lfveifdt,ek vbot,c lf
chekbfl fh fhbc vjcf[ktj,f& tc flubkt,b yfvldbkb
elf,yjf^ hjvtkbw sfdlfwdbc flubkc ofhvjflutyc lf ,fhbthfl ufvjb.tyt,f fa[fpt,cf lf vtuhtkt,c ijhbc&&& ktrt,bcf
lf fa[fpt,bc cf[tkvobajsf cfpqdfhpt elf,yjt,bf uflfzbvekb& fvltyfl^ ufcfrdbhb fh fhbc^ hjv tyuehcf lf rjljhbc
rjyw[c ijhbc mdt.fyf chekbfl lfecf[kt,tkb lf tdhjgbcf
se nhjgbrt,bc .jdtkudfhb vwtyfhtekj,bcfsdbc ufvjcfltub
vbcb vbot,b ufvje.tyt,tkbf@ ~;fr ufv,f^ vjupfehj,f
fvbthrdrfcbfib^ 1987^ ud& 112`&
cfvehpf.fyj lf^ cfthsjl^ nthbnjhbf vlbyfht rjljhfvlt .jdtksdbc cfvtuhtkjl bsdkt,jlf^ hjujhw tdhjgtkb vjupfehbc fqothblfyfw xfyc^ cojhtl fvbnjv uffyfluehtc bub vjv[lehvf vsbtkvf njvt,vf& ufv,fc itevxytdbf bcbw^
hjv fa[fpt,b utytnbrehflfw rb ithtekb c[dflfc[df
tsybrehb [fk[t,bc yfhtdc ofhvjflutylf^ bc othc%
#fa[fpt,b^ hjvkt,bw cj[ev-rfktib cfrvfjl ,tdhyb dyf[ts^
vtnobkfl cecnb fqyfuj,bcf lf lf,fkb nfybcfyb b.dyty^
at[t,b lf ,fh’f.t,b odhbkb lf vj[hbkb /mjylfs&&& ,tdhb
lblt,ekb dyf[ts cj[evib lf heltc rfktib .jaybc lhjc&
bcbyb cfiefkjpt vfqfkb nfybcfyb^ qjybtht,b b.dyty lf rfhub ufhtuyj,f /mjylfs^ utujyt,jlfs^ c[df ofhvjij,bcfyb
107

fhbfyj^ dblht bc fa[fpt,b^ hjvtksf gjhnhtnbw vt tc-tc
fhbc fqdotht@ ~bmdt^ ud& 90`&
cfthsjl^ fa[fptssfy vbvlt,fht ifdb pqdbcgbhtsib thsthsb cfertstcj yfdcf.eltkbf aiflbc .eht _ #fa[fptsbc cfpqdfhsfy ntkty]brblfy lff[kjt,bs cfvjw dthcpt _ aiflbc .ehtf&&& aiflbc .eht ecfahs[jf otkboflbc w[hf sdbc
ufyvfdkj,fib vbcb cfthsj cbqhvt 7-9 cf;tybf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 76`&
cgtycthb othc% #xthmtptsbc vhfdfkhbw[jdfy .ehtsf lf
yfdcfluehsfufy ths-thsc aiflc vbdfqobts^ aiflb vybidytkjdfyb yfdcfluehbf@ ~r& rj[bcf lf j& cgtycthbc wyj,t,b cfmfhsdtkjcf lf rfdrfcbbc itcf[t,^ 1981^ ud 115`&
tc yfdcfluehb ufzbhdt,bs feqbfs hect,c lf cbvfuhtl
emwtdbfs 1840-41 okt,ib ~bmdt^ ud& 116^ itybidyf`&
fdnjhb othc% #yfdcfluehib itcdkf ‘fkbfy ‘ytkb b.j^
xthmtpb kjwvfybc ufhtit^ ufhlf fvbcf^ fmfehb
vhfdfkhbw[jdfyb vw[jdht,kt,b rfdrfcbbc .dtkf njvc ijhbc wyj,bkyb b.dyty^ hjujhw .dtkfpt vtjvfhb ,eyt,bcf lf
hectsbc lfe’byt,tkb vnht,b^ hjwf xthmtpt,b sdfkc vj/
rhfdlyty yfgbhbcfrty vjf[kjt,ek utvc cf,h’jkdtkfl
fqzehdbkb yfdt,bs^ sbsmjclf ]fljcyehb ]j[bc lfmytdfpt^
yfdcfluehbc vstkb itcfcdktkb lf bhudkbd vlt,fht
ujhfrt,b sdfkbclf[fv[fvt,fib bdct,jlf itbfhfqt,ekb
[fk[bs^ pjub rb yfgbhbcrty ufh,jlf&&& vfsb rbdbkb thsudfhfl offufdc neht,bc .vebkc& bub bvltyfl itvfphptyb lf
fhfflfvbfyehbf^ hjv se bc gbhdtkfl tcvbc flfvbfyc^ itb’kt,f
ujyt,fw rb lfrfhujc& fldbkb ofhvjcflutybf^ hjujhb gfybrehb ibib bg.hj,c xthmtpt,bc cf,h’jkj .b;byfpt^
whevjhoveyt lf ufeyfskt,tkb ukt[t,bcfufy itvlufh fhvbfc^ ufycfresht,bs cfpfhtkbf ufv’dbydfht,ek vsbtksf
,h,jc .b;byf&&&@ ~bmdt^ ud& 116`&
108

1980-bfyb okt,bc ,jkjc mfhsdtksf obyffqvltu
lfvrdbhdt,kt,b ufjwt,bs fqothlyty^ se hjujh cohfafl^
sbsmjclf e[bkfdb [tkbc lfmytdbs brhb,t,jlf fsfcj,bs
fa[fpb c[dflfc[df hfbjyt,blfy rjyakbmnbc flubkfc&
;ehyfkbcnt,bc fqotht,b cfjwhfl tvcufdct,f cgtycthbc
wyj,fc& njvj,hbj,bc ituh’yt,f lf vt,h’jkb ,eyt,f lqtcfw
fh itwdkbkf&
j& cgtycthb othc% #qepf xfdeidbs xthmtptsbc gbhdtk yfdcfluehib _ fyfgfib&&& fhwthsb hecekb cflujvb xthmtptsbc
cfyfgbhjpt fh .jabkf bctsb cfibib^ hect,bc ]fhbcfsdbc
hjujhw ufuhf& ,bzdbysblfy ufv,jhib ufdtvupfdhts&&& xdty
uflfdo.dbnts xthmtptsbc iefuekib ufvupfdht,f^ fvbcfsdbc
vsfdfhvf sfdflvf ithdfib’tv erdt lblb [fybf vbbqj hectsbc
vsfdhj,bc mdtitvhljvj,f&&& xdty gfnfhf mfkfm ufv,jhbc^ fye
kb[ybc lfsdfkbtht,fc itdeltmbs&&& fv ‘kbthb njvbc sfdflb
fa[fpb vb[tbk ithdfib’tf&&&tc sfdflb thsflthsb vfufkbsb
fh fhbc xthmtptsib cfvij,kjcflvb fctsb sfdlflt,ekb
cb.dfhekbcf&&& cj[ev-rfkt bcnjhbekb sdfkcfphbcbs vjvltdyj cfbynthtcj flubkbf xthmtptsbc cfyfgbhjpt&&& cj[evrfktibw^ bct^ hjujhw xthmtptsbc cfyfgbhjc c[df cbvfuhtt,cf
lf ,kjrgfept,ib&&&@ ~bmdt^ ud& 106-130`& fmtlfy xfyc^ hjv bv
[fk[c^ hjvtksfw xdty fa[fpt,c deojlt,s^ vjupfeht,b
xthmtpt,c eojlt,ty^ sevwf bwbfy cbn.df #fa[fpbw@& vfufkbsfl^ fa[fpb sfdflbf xthmtpt,bc vsfdfhb ithdfib’t& tc vfhskfw fct b.j bcnjhbekflfw& fmfehb 'dtkb mfhsdtkb
sfdflt,b^ hjvtkybw njvj,hbdfl 'dtkb fa[fpt,b^ fye
mfhsdtkt,b b.dyty^ xthmtpsf itvjctdbc itvltufw sfdbc
cfvsfdhj-cfsfdflj nf[npt lfhxyty lf fa[fpb ~mfhsdtkb`
sfdflb ithdfib’t fmfehb xthmtpt,bc ~f[fkb fa[fpt,bc` vsfdhfl bmwf&
109

fctsb b.j vlujvfhtj,f \+\ cfereybc + yf[tdfhib% #1866
okbc f]fy.t,bc itvltu sehmtscf lf cbhbfib uflfcf[kt,ekb
bmyf fv vjcf[ktj,bc vybidytkjdfyb yfobkb^ hjvtksfw xdty
fv;fvfl deojlt,s fa[fpt,c& fqcfybiyfdbf^ hjv bcbyb lf vfsb
isfvjvfdkt,b sfdbfys sfdc eojlt,ty fhf fa[fpt,c^ fylf
facfht,c^ fhfvtl xthmtpt,c^ bcbyb fhw fhfcjltc vbbxytdlyty
sfdbfys sfdc fa[fpt,fl&&& sehmtsbc jabwbfkehb cnfnbcnbrbs^ bcbyb fqbhbw[yty fhf fa[fpt,fl^ fhfvtl xthmtpt,fl&
vjcrjdib lfcnfv,ekb tsyjltvjuhfabekb wyj,fhb #yfctktybf vbhf@ cfthsjl fh fcf[tkt,c sehmtsib fv;fvfl vw[jdht,
fa[fpeh-flbqeh [fk[sf ijhbc fa[fpt,c^ cfvfubthjl
fcf[tkt,c xthmtpt,cf lf f,fpt,c& sehmtsib w[jdhj,c 150
000 xthmtpb lf 10 000 f,fpb ~#f,fpbyb@` ~c& ,her^ yfctktybf
vbhf^ 1981& ud& 526`& bcbyb fa[fptsblfy uflfcf[kt,eksf
isfvjvfdfkyb fhbfy^ v[jkjl mfhsdtkt,b eojlt,ty
fa[fptsblfy sehmtsib uflfcf[kt,eks fa[fpt,c& sehmtsib
vw[jdht, fv fa[fpt,bc hbw[dc mfhsekb tywbrkjgtlbf 100
000-bs cfpqdhfdc ~mct n&c cnfnbf #fa[fpt,b@`& vfiby^ hjwf
vcjakbjc fhw thsb mdt.ybc cnfnbcnbrbs ~vfs ijhbc vjcrjdib lf,tzlbkb #yfctktybf vbhf@` fa[fptsblfy sehmtsib
uflfcf[kt,ekb vjcf[ktj,f fa[fpt,fl fh fqbhbw[t,f^ .dtkufy vfsb yfvldbkb cfnjvj cf[tkb xthmtpt,b tojlt,fs&
vcufdcfl sehmtsbcf^ cbhbfib fa[fptsblfy uflfcf[kt,ek
vjcf[ktj,fc xthmtpt,b tojlt,fs& bm 35 000 xthmtpb
w[jdhj,c& cfthsjl^ vhfdfkb ufeut,hj,bcf lf e[th[ekj,bc
o.fhjf bc^ hjv mfhsdtkt,b fa[fptsib lfvrdblht,ek
vjcf[ktj,fc sfdbfys tsyjcf[tkc facet,c^ facfht,c fylf
xthmtpt,c fh eojlt,ty& fv cfrbs[c rb cbw[flbs fcf[fdc fpbbcf lf vcjakbjc c[df mdt.yt,bc tsyjcnfnbcnbrf@ ~tgbcrjgjcb
fyfybf ]fafhb’t^ lfcf[& yfih&^ ud& 25`&
110

rdkfd lfde,heylts cgtycthbc wyj,t,c xthmtpt,bc
itcf[t,^ hjvtksfw xdty #fa[fpt,c@ deojlt,s&
xthmtptsbc fqothfc bc fvsfdht,c cj[evsfy^ [jkj cj[evrfktlfy #vj.jkt,ekb bo.t,f cfvtuhtkj@& xthmtptsbc
#kfvfpb ,eyt,bc itvltu^ hjvtkvfw fct ufudfjwf^ xdtyc sdfkoby etwhfl itcfybiyfdb cfyf[fj,f uflfbifkf& tc uf[kfds
qhe,kt,fvlt fn.jhwybkb rfdrfcbbc fkgehb pjkb^ hjltcfw
sdfkc uflffdkt, cfvtuhtkjc ufedfk n.tt,c&&&@ ~r& rj[bcf lf
j& cgtycthbc wyj,t,b cfmfhsdtkjcf lf rfdrfcbbc itcf[t,^ 1981^
ud& 136`&
lfvrdbhdt,tkb othc^ hjv vlbyfht tyuehfvlt mdt.fyf
ufyflueht,ekbf xthmtpt,bc vbth^ hfcfw sfdbc f[cyfc
e’t,ybfy% #xthmtpt,bc xdtekt,ff uffyfluehjy .dtkfathb
bc hbcb ofqt,fw fh itb’kt,f vfqfkvsbfy hfbjyib@ ~bmdt^
ud& 134`&
,bzdbysbc^ lhfylbc^ ,tlbbc^ vjmdbc cfrfstlhj nf’ht,ib
se c[df trktcbt,ib lfey]t,ekb cfereyjdfyb ufy’b lf mjyt,f^
xfyc^ fct uffyfluehtc&
rtkfcehb^ rjljhb^ bkjhb^ fyfrkbf^ vlt,fhtj,c fhf xthmtptsib^ fhfvtl cfvtuhtkjib& bc bmblfy xfyc^ hjv vfspt
r&rj[b vc]tkj,c mdtsfdib #cfvtuhtkj lf cdfytsb@ ~bmdt^ ud&
136`& fv cfyfgbhjpt #fhfdbsfhb ybifyo.fkb fh fhbc bvbcf^ hjv
fv elf,eh flubkfc dbyvt w[jdhj,ltc@ ~bmdt^ ud& 138`& mdt.fyf
#fa[fp@-xthmtpsf vbthf ufyflueht,ekb&
cgtycthb^ bctdt hjujhw .dtkf ew[jtkb vjupfehb lf vtwybthb^ lfhoveyt,ekbf^ hjv tc xthmtpt,b fhbfy fhf vrdblhb
vjcf[ktj,f^ fhfvtl xfvjcf[kt,ekb xhlbkjtsblfy _
.e,fyblfy&
#vjcf[ktj,f hectsbc .dtkfpt cfibib lf itehbut,tkb
vnthbf^ bcbyb yfobkj,hbd .bhbvbcf lf .e,fybc [fyt,bcf lf
111

ceksfyt,bc xfvjvfdkt,b fhbfy^ hjvkt,bw sfdbc njvt,sfy
thsfl lfcf[klyty fv flubkt,ib@ ~bmdt^ ud& 135`&
.dtkf ew[jtkb vtwybthb^ \|++-\+\ cfereytt,bc
lfvrdbhdt,kt,b^ fqybiyfdty^ hjv t&o& f[fkb #fa[fpt,b@^ fye
fa[fptsib ,jkj fcoktekt,ib uf,fnjyt,ekb vjcf[ktj,f
xfvjcekbf njvj,hbdfl xhlbkjrfdrfcbblfy se flbqtlfy&

gaafxazebulTa gvarebi

mfhsdtksf uffa[fpt,f ~buekbc[vt,f uffacet,f` bctsb
firfhf lf sdfkbs[bkekb afmnbf^ hjv vfc fh efh.jaty^
sevwf rb xdtyib fhbc vblhtrbkt,f^ efh.jy^ fylf fh lfbyf[jy
mfhsdtksf ltyfwbjyfkbpfwbbc c[df afmnt,b^ dsmdfs^ mfhsdtksf ufcjv[t,f^ ufktrt,f^ ufjct,f lf f&i& hjujhw bsmdf^
mfhsdtksf uffa[fpt,f sdfkyfstkb afmnbf^ vbcb lfyf[df
.dtkfc ite’kbf^ .dtkfv bwbc^ hjv xfrdtnf’t^ zfdzfyb’t se
c[df vhfdfkb^ hjvtkybw fa[fpt,fl fw[flt,lyty sfdc^
ofhvjij,bs mfhsdtkt,b fhbfy& fvfc sdbsjyfw fctsb
udfht,bc vfnfht,kt,bw fqbfht,ty& itb’kt,f mfhsdtksf
uffa[fpt,f gbhj,bsfl tnfgt,fl fylf gthbjlt,fl lfd.js^
hfvtse c[dflfc[df tnfgt,pt uffa[fpt,bc ghjwtcc
c[dflfc[df cjwbfkeh-cfpjufljt,hbdb gbhj,t,b tlj
cfae’dkfl& vfufkbsfl^ uffa[fpt,fc cf,zjsf gthbjlib^
uffa[fpt,fc fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjc ufemvt,bc itvltu \+| cbc 70-bfyb okt,blfy 1921 okfvlt^ uffa[fpt,fc eahj flht
fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjc gthbjlib^ cfvtuhtkjc vbot,bc
vbthst,f-fytmcbbc lhjc&
112

1921 okblfy mfhsdtksf uffa[fpt,bc itcf[t, othc vhfdfkb vrdktdfhb& b&fystkfdf^ rth’jl^ othc _ #cf,zjsf
[tkbceakt,fv fa[fptsbc fcch itvflutykj,fib vjfmwbf
'bh’dtkb mfhsdtkb vbot,b^ hfvfw itvlujvib cfae’dtkb
lfelj evwbhtcj,bc lbmnfnc& sfyfvlt,j,t,bc ufyfobkt,bc
yjvtyrkfnehekb cbcntvbc gbhj,t,ib fa[fpj,f ghbdbktubfl bmwf& fv ghbdbktubbc vbcfqt,fl ,tdhb sfdfyrfhf mfhsdtkb fa[fpfl xftothf& thjdyt,f ghjatcbfl ufb[flf& fhfvwbhtlbf fctsb fa[fp tmcnhtvbcnsf kbltht,c ijhbcfw@ ~b&
fystkfdf^ #fa[fpehb ghj,ktvbc&&&^ #vfvekb@^ =6^ 1989`&
h& vbvbyjidbkb lf u& afy]brb’t othty% #&&&fa[fpvf [fk[vf
xdtyc lhjib bvltyb egbhfntcj,f lf ghbdbktubf vbbqj^ hjv
fv ghbdbktubt,bc uekbcfsdbc ,tdhvf cekvjrkt mfhsdtkvf
bo.j uffa[fpt,f&&& fa[fpt,b fhbfy fa[fptsib fhf v[jkjl
thb^ fhfvtl ghbdbktubht,ekb rkfcb^ hjvkbc hbut,blfyfw
.fkb,lt,f fdnjyjvbehb htcge,kbrbc vstkb flvbybcnhfwbf
cfjkmj rjvbntnbc gbhdtkb vlbdfyblfy lfo.t,ekb^
lfvsfdht,ekb gfnfh-gfnfhf cfofhvjt,bc lbhtmnjht,bs^
vfsb vjflubktt,bs lf lbcgtxtht,bsfw rb@ ~cbvfhskt^
v[jkjl cbvfhskt^ kbn& cfm&^ 1&\++&1989`& y& kfrj,fc cbn.dbs^
20-30-bfy okt,ib #vvfhsdtkj,f fa[fptsib b.j v[jkjl
fa[fpsf [tkib@ ~bmdt`&
fdnjht,b othty% #fa[fpj,f cjwbfkehb ghbdbktubf
uf[lf^ c[dfsf ijhbc^ f[kf rb fhf^ vtabc hectsbc lhjcfw^
hjwf fa[fpt,b ]fhib fh vb/.fdlfs^ vfiby lfbo.j mfhsekb
vjcf[ktj,bc vfcj,hbdb uffa[fpt,f lf tc ghjwtcb itvlujvfw
fh ito.dtnbkf& tc seylfw bmblfy xfyc^ hjv fa[fpt,c
,eyt,hbdb vfnt,bc thsj, lf,fkb ghjwtynb fmds lf^
vbe[tlfdfl fvbcf^ se 1939 otkc vfsb hfjltyj,f 56^2 fsfcc
elhblf lblb cfvfvekj jvbc itvltu^ hjvtkcfw fa[fpsf ijh113

bcfw vj/.df vc[dthgkb lf vjvfdfk sfj,fib fvfy gjgekfwbfptw bvjmvtlf& 1970 okbc fqothbs^ fa[fpsf hfjltyj,fv 83
fsfcc vbfqobf^ tc hjv ,eyt,hbdb vfnt,bc ofhvjelutytkb ,evb
fh b.j^ bmblfyfw xfyc^ hjv 1979 okbc fqothbc vb[tldbs^
fa[fpsf hfjltyj,f bubdt lfhxf& hbs itb’kt,f fb[cyfc bc
ufhtvjt,f^ hjv 30 okbc ufyvfdkj,fib 50 ghjwtynbs ufbpfhlf^ se fhf [tkjdyehb vfnt,bs( vfnt,f rb cojhtl mfhsekb
vjcf[ktj,bc [fh]pt vj[lf bvbc ufvj^ hjv^ hjujhw fqdybiyts^ fa[fpj,f cjwbfkehb ghbdbktubf uf[lf&&& pjubthsb
mfhsdtkbc uffa[fpt,f itevxytdtkb fh lfhxtybf fhw y&
kfrj,fc& fb^ hfc othc bub 1927 otkc% #fa[fpt,b lblb
ufzbhdt,bs fqotdty lff[kjt,bs 57-60 fsfc cekfvlt&&& hfnjv
lblb ufzbhdt,bs( bvbnjv^ hjv hfvltybvt fsfcb rfwb sfdbc
sfdc fa[fpeh thjdyt,fc vbfresdyt,c^ vfuhfv vfsb tyf fhbc
fhf fa[fpehb^ fhfvtl vtuhekb ~bmdt`&
uffa[fpt,fc 1921 okfvlt c[df cfae’dkt,b /mjylf% y&
,th’tybidbkbc qhvffphjdfyb lfrdbhdt,bs mfhsdtksf ltyfwbjyfkbpfwbbc ~ufktrt,f lf c[df` vbptpb eylf dt’bjs fhf
vjv[lehb njvbc hbw[j,hbd fylf njvj,hbd egbhfntcj,fib^
fhfvtl cfpjufljt,hbd ~cjwbfkeh lf c[df` vjvtynt,ib^
lfdevfnt,s^ hjv cfhoveyjt,hbd wdkbkt,t,cfw elbltcb
vybidytkj,f /mjylf^ fa[fptsbc ufofhvfhst,f xdtyc ‘dtk bcnjhbjuhfabfc itevxytdtkb fh lfhxtybf^ sfdbc v[hbd^
fa[fptsbc ufofhvfhst,fv esejl iteo.j [tkb mfhsdtksf
ltyfwbjyfkbpfwbfc^ hfvtse \|+-\|+++ cfereytt,ib #mfhsdtkc@ v[jkjl lf v[jkjl cfmfhsdtkjc cfvjwbmekj trktcbbc otdhc^ vfhskvflblt,tk mhbcnbfyc eojlt,ty^ fvbnjvfw
bv lhjbcfsdbc fa[fpeh ofhvfhsj,fc yfpbfht,b mfhsdtkb
erdt fqfhw ufyb[bkt,jlf mfhsdtkfl& fa[fpehb
cfhoveyjt,bc^ fye fa[fpehb ofhvfhsj,bc vfnfht,tkb erdt
114

fa[fpb b.j^ sevwf hectsbc itvjcdkbc itvltu oby ofvjbobf
cjwbfkehvf vjvtynvf& fv lhjbc itvltu vhfdfkvf
uffa[fpt,ekvf mfhsdtkvf mhbcnbfyj,f itbyfhxeyf&
y& ,th’tybidbkbc fphbs^ hjujhw bsmdf^ mfhsdtkt,bc
ufktrt,f^ ufjct,f lf c[df vcufdcb vjdktyt,b mfhsdtksf
uflfudfht,bcf^ cjwbfkehb vbptpt,bs _ #rkfcsf ,h’jkbs@
fb[cyt,f& tc bvfc ybiyfdc^ hjv ufktrt,bs se uffa[fpt,bs mfhsdtkb ukt[b b’tylf sfdbceakt,fc lf afmnbehfl sfdbceafkb [lt,jlf& ,fnjy.vj,bc v’bvt eqkbcfufy sfdlf[cyf
]bkljl tkjlf uflfudfht,ek mfhsdtkc& fvbnjvfw jcb^
ktrb se facef vsbtkt,bc itvjcdkbc lhjc vfs v[fhtpt
uflflbjlyty^ vfs ‘fkt,c f’kbtht,lyty&
#ufyf jct,bc xfvjojkf mfhskib \+| c-ib evfkdt rkfcsf ,h’jkfl fh bmwf( ufyf rf[tkt,bc ufktrt,f ~lfdbs
bvfv.ekb[fybc othbkt,b df[nfyusfy` rkfcsf ,h’jkf fh b.j(
lf ufyf \|+++ c& afmnb^ #cfbyubkjc ufxtyf@^ bvfdt rkfcsf
,h’jkbc ybflfupt fh fb[cyt,f( ufyf ktrsf egbhfntcj,f
njvj,hbdb vjvtynb b.j( ufyf xfvjcek jct,c^ hjwf bcbyb
njvt,fl hxt,bfy lf fh mfhsdtklt,bfy^ hjwf bcbyb mfhsek
atjlfkeh ehsbthsj,fc uflfityt,bs tvemht,bfy^ mfhsekb
atjlfkehb [tkbceakt,f fh bylj,c #fqb a[ehbc@ ~ubjhub
,ho.bydfkt`& [jkj bubdt atjlfkehb [tkbceakt,f ~vtat^
sfdfl-fpyfeht,b` [bpyt,fl lfbcdfvc vfs lf ,fnjy.vj,fc
csfdfpj,c^ hjwf bcbyb njvj,hbdfl rb fhf^ ukt[ehfl vjlbfy( ufyf fctsbdt fhff cehfsb /thtsib(&&&
lf hfnjv fh udfmdc cf,esb fctsbdt cehfsb fa[fptsibfw
dbdfhfeljs( vsbekb fa[fpt,b njvj,hbd xfvjdblyty&
lfv[dlehb fa[fpehb vjcf[ktj,f t’vj vjceks rkfcj,hbdb
,h’jkbc ybflfupt ~ufmfhsdtkt,ek fa[fp sfdfl-fpyfehj,bc
obyffqvltu ,h’jkfib`&vfifcflfvt^ fa[fpt,bc njvj,hbdb
115

xfvjcdkf lf vfsb ,h’jkf mfhsekb atjlfkehb
ehsbthsj,bc obyffqvltu b.j fvfdt lhjc ,h’jkf #mfhsekbc@ obyffqvltu lf fa[fptsb #vbbmwf ofhvfhsfl@^ fqluf
flhtekb atjlfkbpvb^ fa[fpehb vbobcvakj,tkj,f
~ithdfib’t bctd xfx,f uf[lf^ [jkj fyxf,f’t _ fx,f`&
fa[fpb sfdfl-fpyfehj,f itehbulf itmvybk dbsfht,fc lf
bo.tc #uffa[fpt,f@ fhf vfhnj vj’vt fa[fpt,vf ~,fhtkt,vf`^
fhfvtl ,fhb-pqdbcgbhtsbc .dtkf ukt[vf& itbmvyf fa[fpj,f
~flhtekb atjlfkbpvb`& #mfhsek@ ,fnjy.vj,fib
cekfvj[esekb ukt[j,f fhf vfhnj pqdbcgbhtsbcf vbtnfyf
fa[fpj,fc^ fhfvtl fa[fptsb .dtkf ,fnjy.vj,bc obyffqvltu
vt,h’jkb mfhsdtkb ukt[bc sfditcfafhb uf[lf lf itbmvyf
f[fkb fa[fptsb@ ~y& ,th’tybidbkb^ cfmfhsdtkjc bcnjhbbc
cfrbs[t,b^ 1990^ ud& 609-710`&
hjujhw ptvjs vj.dfybkblfy xfyc^ fa[fptsib vhfdkfl
uflflbjlyty mfhsdtkb ukt[t,b lf fa[fpt,fl totht,jlyty&
hjujhw wyj,bkbf^ fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjc nthbnjhbt,bc
ufafhsjt,fcf lf cfvtuhtkjc ~jlbibc` vbot,bc fytmcbbc lhjc
fa[fptsbc vsfdhbc [tkmdti fqvjxylf mfhsdtkt,bs
lfcf[kt,ekb dhwtkb vbot,b^ vfsb chekbfl uffa[fpt,f dth
vjfcohtc^ vfkt tc nthbnjhbt,b hectsbc [tkmdti itdblf&
hecsf obyffqvltu f]fy.t,fib vjyfobktj,f fh vbbqtc
cfvehpf.fyjtkvf ~jlbitkvf` mfhsdtkt,vf lf bcbyb fh uf/
.dyty sehmtsib uflfcf[kt,ek ve/f]bht,c& #1877-1878
hects-sehmtsbc jvbc okt,ib^ cfvij,kj fh lfenjdt,bf cek
19&273 fa[fpb thjdyt,bc flfvbfyc& hfw itt[t,f 24&461
cfvepf.fyjtkc^ vfsufy vfvf-gfgehb vbof-o.fkb fh
vbenjdt,bf fhw ths flfvbfyc^ hfw yfskfl flfcneht,c vfs^
hjujhw thjdyek^ fctdt cfhoveyjt,hbd ~mfhsek mhbcnbfyek` resdybkt,fc ~c& ktrbidbkb^ mfhsdtksf ,h’jkf( ufp&
#cf[& ufyfsk&@^ 15&++&90`&
116

hects-sehmtsbc jvbc itvltu^ hjwf fa[fpt,vf fynbhecekb gjpbwbf lfbzbhtc^ hectsb fqfh tylj,jlf vfs lf
fvbnjvfw ]fhib fh vb/.fdlf& ]fhib cfvcf[ehb rb cfibytkb
,tufhf b.j cfmfhsdtkjc ~cfvtuhtkjc` vjcf[ktj,bcfsdbc^
fa[fptsc sfdc fafht,lyty lf fa[fpt,fl fw[flt,lyty sfdc
odtdfvltkt,b% #tsybrehb vtnfvjhajpbc upbs ,fnjyj,bc
eqkbc sfdblfy fwbkt,f^ fuhtsdt ]fhib cfvcf[ehblfy sfdbc
fhblt,f^ hflufy vtabc vsfdhj,fc fa[fpt,b ]fhib fh vb/.fdlf
lf c[d& _ fa[fptsib vw[jdht,b mfhsdtkt,bc yfobkb
uffa[fplf@ ~f& sjsf’t^ cbrtsbc cfo.fekb^ 18&|++&1989`&
fvbs .jabkf ufvjodtekb bc^ hjv 1926 otkc sbsmvbc .jdtkb vttmdct fa[fpb vij,kbeh tyfl mfhsekc sdkblf ~bmdt`&
xdtyb sfyfvtlhjdt lfvrdbhdt,tkb othc% #sbsmvbc fh
fhct,j,c mfhsekb udfhb^ hjvtkbw fa[fpfl fh b.jc xfothbkb@ ~l& mt,ehbf^ vtnbc vjsvtyf ite’kt,tkbf^ ufp& #f[& bdthbtkb@^ 4&\++&90 _ +`& fvfcdt fqybiyfdty c[df lfvrdbhdt,kt,bw%
ufp& #cjak& w[jdht,f@^ d& [dbcnfyb lf ]& uf,tkbf _ ~++`^ v&
xfxef^ ufp& #k& c&@^ 28&|+&89& _ ~+++`^ ]&rdbobybf^ ufp& #c&w&@^
21&|+&89& _ ~+|`^ u&.jhfyfidbkb^ ufp& #s,bkbcb@^ 7&|+++&89& _
~|`^ d&mbhbf lf c[dt,b^ f[& rjv&@^ 25&+&90& _ ~|+`^ y&tsthbf^ #k&c&@^
2&++&90& _ ~|++`^ ufp& #f[&rjv&@^ 29&|++&89& _ ~|+++`^ ufp& #k&c&@^
1&\++&89& _ ~+\` lf c[dfyb&
uffa[fpt,ekfy itvltub udfht,bc vfnfht,tkyb%
1& f,fib’t _ ~|+++^ +\`
2& f[dktlbfyb _ ~+\`
3& ,fhfstkbf _ ~++`
4& ,jrexfdf _ ~|+`
5& ,t,bf _ ~+^ |+`
6& uekbf _ ~+\`
7& udfhfvbf _ ~|++`
117

8& ujuef _ ~+\^ +^ |++`
9& uehuekbf _ ~+++`
10& lfhfctkbf _ ~|+`
11& sf.bfidbkb _ ~|`
12& rfhfyf’t _ ~+++`
13& regfnf’t _ ~+\`
14& rj,f[bf _ ~|++`
15& kjhsmbafyb’t _ ~|`
16& kjvbf _ ~+++`
17& kfqb’t _ ~+++`
18& vf[fhf’t _ ~|`
19& vfhifybf _ ~+++`
20& vtkf’t _ ~+`
21& yfz.t,bf _ ~+|`
22& yjlbf _ ~+\`
23& yjpf’t _ ~|++`
24& ht[dbfidbkb _ ~|+`
25& cbzbyfdf _ ~|+`
26& x[fb’t _ ~|+`
27& zfdzfdf’t _ ~|+`
28& zfdzfyb’t - ~|+++`
29& zfyrdtnf’t _ ~|++`
30& zrflef _ ~|++`
31& othtstkb _ ~+\^ +++^ +`
32& ‘jotyb’t _ ~+++`
lf c[dfyb&
uffa[fpt,bc cehfsc rfhufl fqothc pjubthsb fvjyfothb%
vfufkbsf^ dbyvt yfz.t,bt,b ~fa[fptsib vw[jdht,yb`
fa[fpt,fl bvbnjv bsdkt,bfy^ hjv mfhsekb fh bwbfy^ sevwf
rb mfhsekb ofhvjij,bcfyb fhbfy% #tctyb ofhvjij,bs
118

mfhsdtkt,b fhbfy^ vfuhfv afmnj,hbdfl fa[fpt,b fhbfy^ mfhsekb fh bwbfy@ ~+|`&
,fhfstkbfc udfhc udfhvfofhvjt,tkb jhvfub mfhsekb
ceabmcb fmdc _ #tk@ lf #bf@& udfhbc ofhvjij,f firfhfl mfhsekbf&
fa[fpb zfdzfyb’t fv,j,c% #xtvb udfhb jhfcb otkbf^ hfw
fa[fptsib w[jdhj,c@ ~|+++`& fhf vfhnj fv;fvfl^ \\ c-bc
vboehekc^ fhfvtl sbsmvbc fcb okbc obyfsfw fctdt fa[fptsbc
vjcf[ktj,bc #lblb yfobkb@ fqbfht,lf sfdbc mfhsek
ofhvjij,fc^ hjujhw fvfc vbesbst,ty 1870 okbc vbvfhsdfib
fa[fpb sfdfl-fpyfeht,b% «Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü æèòåëåé
ïðèçíàåò ñâîå ìèíãðåëüñêîå èëè Ãðóçèíñêîå
ïðîèñõîæäåíèå è ñîõðàíèëè äàæå ñâîè Ãðóçèíñêèå
è ìèíãðåëüñêèå ôàìèëèè», ~ufp& Äîêëàäíàÿ çàïèñêà.
#cf[& ufy&@^ 20&|+^90`&
ufycfresht,bs eylf bsmdfc fa[fptsbc vsfdfh
ithdfib’tsf udfhbc itcf[t,& fa[fptsbc vsfdht,b
bsdkt,jlyty fa[fpb [fk[bcf lf vbcb cf[tkvobajt,hbdb ofhvjyfmvybc vtsfeht,fl& w[flbf^ fa[fpsf vsfdht,b fa[fpt,b
eylf .jabkb.dyty tsybrehflfw^ vfuhfv fhf& sdbs fa[fpt,b
othty fv sbsmvbc fcbjlt okbc obyfs _ «Âî ãëàâå ñâîåãî
Àáõàçñêîãî íàðîäà ñòîèò âëàäåòåëü Àáõàçèè è
ôàìèëèè ñòàðèííîãî Ãðóçèíñêîãî ðîäà Øàðâàøèäçå.
Âëàäåòåëü êàê è âñå ãðóçèíñêèå ìòàâàðè, ñäåëàâøèåñÿ
ïîñëå ðàçäåëåíèÿ Öàðñòâà ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíûìè,
ñîåäèíÿë â ñâîèõ ðóêàõ âåðõíþþ ïîëèòè÷åñêóþ è
ãðàæäàíñêóþ âëàñòü íàä âñåì Àáõàçñêèì íàðîäîì»
(òàì æå, ñòð. 11).
y& ,th’tybidbkbw othc^ hjv ithdfib’tt,c fa[fpt,b
mfhsdtkt,c t’f[lyty& #&&&lfvf[fcbfst,tkbf fv v[hbd bc
119

ufhtvjt,f^ hjv ithdfib’tt,c udbfy sdbs fa[fpt,b mfhsdtkt,c
t’f[lyty^ xfyc^ fvbnjv tctyb 'dtk mfhsek nhflbwbt,c vbcltdlyty^ fvfcsfy lfrfdibht,bs fqcfybiyfdbf^ hjv \|+++-\+\
cfereytt,ibw fa[fpsf uf,fnjyt,ekb ohtt,bc cfvothkj,j
tyf mfhsekb b.j&@ ~y& ,th’tybidbkb^ cfmfhsdtkjc bcn&
cfrbs[t,b^ ud& 616`&
vjqotekbf sdbs fa[fpt,bc cfvsfdhj,j cf[kbc erfyfcrytkb vtvrdblhbc ubjhub ithdfib’bc xfyfotht,b^ cfblfyfw xfyc^
hjv vfc sfdbcb sfdb mfhsdtkfl vbfxybf& fqcfybiyfdbf^ hjv fhf
vfhnj ithdfib’tsf wyj,bkb cfudfhtekj^ fhfvtl fa[fptsbc
vfqfk atyfc cfthsjl elbltcb rfdibhb /mjylf mfhsek
tsyjcsfy^ reknehfcsfy^ se fhfc dbn.dbs vfsb mfhsekb
udfht,bc itcf[t,& cfthsjl^ vsblfy xfvjcek ofhvfhs xthmtp-flbqt,pt lblb ufdktyf vje[ltybf lfv[dleh mfhsekvtuhek vjcf[ktj,fc^ fye fa[fptsbc f,jhbutyt,c& fvbc ufvj
fa[fpvf [fk[vf «...äî ïîñëåäíåãî âðåìåíè ñîõðàíèë ó
ñåáÿ äðåâíåéøèå ãðóçèíñêèå îáû÷àè» (Äîêëàäíàÿ
çàïèñêà, òàì æå, ñòð. 11).
y& ,th’tybidbkb cothc% #&&&tc afmnb bvbc vjovj,ff^ hjv fv
lhjc fa[fpb atjlfkbc cf[kb #mfhsekbf@ lf tc fctf fhf
vfhnj v[jkjl mhbcnbfyj,bc sdfkcfphbcbs^ fhfvtl cfthsj reknehbc sdfkcfphbcbs ~fa[fpb mfkb fa[fptsib ufphlbkb cf[tkufysmvekbf^ sfdb vjfmdc bv #phlbkj,bs@^ hfw
cfmfhsdtkjcsdbc lfvf[fcbfst,tkbf^ sfdb vjfmdc
dta[bcn.fjcybc reknehbc vfnfht,kj,bs& fa[fptsbc vsfdhbc cfcf[kt dta[bcn.fjcybc reknehbc rthff% mfhsekb
atjlfkehb rkfcbrehb #phlbkj,f@ ceatdc fa[fpb vsfdhbc cfcf[ktib` lf iefcfereytt,bc fa[fptsib fh fhct,j,lf
atjlfkehb reknehf ufhlf mfhsekbcf^ ufhlf
dta[bcn.fjcybc reknehbcf&&& ~ufb[ctyt fktmcfylht
120

ithdfib’bc ghjntcnb% ß íå àáõàçñêèé à ãðóçèíñêèé
êíÿ çü.. . kfv,thnbv rfhufl bwbc fa[fpsf vfct,bc
ufyc[dfdt,ekj,f vtuhekb vfct,bcfufy^ fa[fpt,bc
ghbvbnekj,f^ tybc c[dfj,f^ .jaf-w[jdht,bc c[dfj,f&&&
fa[fpsf vsbtkt,bc xfvjojkf^ t&b& flhtatjlfkehb
ehsbthsj,bc fqlutyf@ ~lfcf[& yfih& 611`& hjujhw fqbybiyf^
xfvjojkbc itvltu fa[fptsbc f,jhbutyekb^ t&b& mfhsekb
vjcf[ktj,f facefl bmwf t&b& sfyfvtlhjdt nthvbyjkjubbs
_ uffa[fplf^ sevwf rb mfhsek reknehfc vskbfyfl dth
vjco.lf& uffa[fpt,bc cjwbfkeh vbptpsf itcf[t, y&
,th’tybidbkb othlf% #fa[fptsib uf,fnjyt,ekb f[fkb .jaf^
hjv cfcehdtkb b.j atjlfkeh eqtkib xf,vekb
cfpjufljt,bcfsdbc^ rfhufl xfyc bmblfy^ hjv \+\ cfereytib
cfvtuhtkjc vjcf[ktj,f vybidytkjdfyb hfjltyj,bs uflflbc fa[fptsib lf bm #fa[fplt,f@ v[jkjl bvbnjv^ hjv tc vfs
cjwbfkeh sfdbceakt,fc fybzt,lf@ ~bmdt^ ud& 616`& wyj,bkbf^
hjv fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjc ofhvjmvyfvlt ~\|++ c&` nthbnjhbf vstkb ifdbpqdbcgbhtsbcf dblht ]bmtsfvlt itlbjlf cfvtuhtkjc cfvsfdhjib^ ]bm-facfh-xthmtpt,bc itvjctdt,bc
itvltu #lflbfyt,b ]th b’ekt,ekyb b.dyty uflvjtobfs sfdbcb cfpqdfhb ~]bmtsblfy` fyfrjabfvlt fv jhb cfereybc obyfs^
t[kf rb uflvjbnfytc qfkb’ufptj@^ _ othlf lbe,ef sfdbc
vjupfehj,fib@ ~c& ]fyfibf^ +|^ 1988^ ud& 281`&
vsbtkb njvbc itvjcdkf^ xfyc^ [lt,jlf fa[fpsf vsfdhbcf lf fa[fptsbc sfdflfpyfehsf sfy[vj,bsfw^ hflufyfw
fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjc sbsmvbc ofhvjmvybcsfyfdt lfbo.j ecfcnbrtcb lf ufesfdt,tkb jvt,b cfvtuhtkjc cfvsfdhjcsfy^
hjvkt,ibw .jdtksdbc bvfh]dt,lf lflbfyb& fa[fptsbc
v[fhtc tcfzbhjt,jlf kfimfhb^ vt,h’jkt,b^ [jkj xthmtpt,b
cojhtl vt,h’jkt,b b.dyty^ sfyfw itcfybiyfdb&
121

xthmtpsf xfvjcf[kt,fc fh itt’kj vskbfyfl ittwdfkf
cf[t fa[fptsbc tsyjcbcfsdbc^ fm vhfdkfl lfhxyty
flubkj,hbdb mfhsdtkt,b^ sevwf vhfdfkb xthmtpekb tktvtynb itbsdbctc& mfhsekb cf[t ithxf fa[fptsbc sfdfl-fpyfehsf 'bhbsfl yfobkc^ gbhdtk hbuib^ tc b.j vfsb
mhbcnbfyj,f^ mfhsekb udfht,b^ mfhsekb tybc wjlyf lf hfw
vsfdfhbf^ sfdbfysb sfdbc vbresdyt,f mfhsekb reknehbcf
lf tsyjcbcflvb& fvbc lfvfvnrbwt,tkb vfufkbsbc vjnfyfvlt
eylf bsmdfc^ hjv^ vfhsfkbf^ xthmtp-facfht,c ezbhlfs sfdbfysb sfdflt,bc uh’tkb mfhsekb udfht,bc ofhvjsmvf lf sfdbfysb tybc ,eyt,bc itcf,fvbcfl vfs fvjrkt,lyty^ vfuhfv sfdfl-fpyfeht,vf ,jkjvlt itvjbyf[tc sfdbfysb mfhsekb
udfht,b% ithdfib’t ~fa[fpehfl itvjrkt,ekb _ xfx,f`^ vfhifybf^ fyxf,f’t ~fx,f`^ tv[efhb ~tv[ff`^ x[jnef^ vfhqfybf lf
c[df& sfdflj,bc bycnbnenbc mfhsdtkj,fc fa[fptsib
flfcneht,c bcbw^ hjv fa[fpehfl ~facfhekfl` sfdflc _ fsefl _ mfhsekb cbn.df thmdf& fhf vfhnj sfdfl-fpyfehj,fc^
fhfvtl fa[fptsbc ofhxbyt,ekt,cfw lbl[fyc iteyfhxeyt,bfs
mfhsekb tybc wjlyf& df[einb othlf sfdbcb lhjbc fa[fpt,bc
itcf[t,% #tyf cfresfhb sdbcb fmds^ fhfvtl eo.bfy
ofhxbyt,eksf mfhsekb@ ~mfhskbc w[jdht,f^ +|^ ud& 786`&
hjujhw xfyc^ fa[fptsbc sfdfl-fpyfehj,f cek ,jkj
lhjvlt ~t&b& htdjkewbbc vbth vfs ufyflueht,fvlt` sfdbfys
sfdc mfhsdtkt,fl vbbxytdlf& fctsb b.j^ vfufkbsfl^
fa[fptsbc erfyfcrytkb vsfdhbc 't _ ubjhub ithdfib’t& fh
itb’kt,f bc vbdbxybjs ufvjyfrkbcfl^ hflufyfw bub b.j vsfdhbc 't lf bwjlf^ se hf cfgfce[bcvut,kj b.j vbcb .jdtkb
ufvjcdkf^ cbn.df se cfmvt& afmnbehfl bc ufvj[fnfdlf sfdbc
cfvsfdhj j]f[ib lfwek cfereyjdfy nhflbwbt,c lf fuhtsdt fa[fptsbc ofhxbyt,eksf bltt,cfw& ubjhub ithdfib’t cfm122

fhsdtkjc #xdtyc cfvij,kjc@ eojlt,c ~c& ]fyfibf^ |+^ ud& 18`&
mfhsek tyfc eojlt,c #cfvij,kj tyfc@~bmdt^ ud& 20`^ #xdtyc
tyfc@ ~ud& 21`^ #mfhsek vecbrfkeh tyfc@ ~ud& 19`& mfhsek
reknehfc eojlt,c #xdtyc reknehfc@ ~ud& 19`& bc pheyfdc
#bdthsf lfreoekb [fk[bc@ thsj,bcfsdbc^ #ereqvfhsfl
lfnhbfkt,ekb thbc fhct,f@ vbcb pheydbc cfufybf& #trfvfst,f
bvfs^ dbyw tobyffqvltut,f cfmfhsdtkjc fdnjyjvbbc bltfc^
#,ho.bydfkt vptc thbc ufysfdbceakt,bcf^ ufvjwjw[kt,bc@&
tc ituyt,f fhbc ubjhubc vjmfkfmtj,hbdb gbhjdyt,bc
cf’bhrdtkb@ ~bmdt^ ud& 19`&
vcufdcb bltt,b uffxylfs fa[fptsbc ofhxbyt,ekt,cfw&
cojhtl fvbnjv bwjlyty vfs mfhsekb tyf^ /mjylfs mfhsekb
udfht,b^ eahj vtnbw^ vfs fhf se bwjlyty mfhsekb tyf^ fhfvtl cojhtl mfhsekb tyf b.j vfsb vij,kbehb tyf _ ltlf
tyf& bcbyb ltlbc 'e’ecsfy thsfl bsdbct,lyty mfhsek tyfc^
sdbs xdtyc cfereytibw rb fa[fpb sfdflfpyfehj,bc j]f[t,ib
,fdidb ltlfc mfhsekfl vbvfhsfdlf _ #ltlf@& #hecb vrdktdfhb ctktpytdb^ hjvtkbw 1841 o& b.j fa[fptsib^ othc^ hjv
fv ohbc ofhvjvflutytkvf ,tdhvf bwbc mfhsekb lf jcvfkehb othf-rbs[df@ ~tgbcrjgjcb fyfybf ]fafhb’t^ sfvfh ltljakbc df;bc cf[tkb^ ]dfhb dfpbcf^ =4^ 1989^ ud& 47`&
ithdfib’tsf vcufdcfl mfhsekb reknehbc vfnfht,tkyb
b.dyty fa[fpb sfdflb x[jnet,bw& u& ithdfib’bcf lf x[jnefc
itcf[t, othc c& ]fyfibf% Îáà îíè áûëè âîñïèòàíû íà
ïî÷âå äðåâíåãðóçèíñêîé êóëüòóðû, ñ êîòîðîé áûëè
ïðåêðàñíî çíàêîìû. Îáà ñîòðóäíè÷àëè â ãàçåòå
«Äðîåáà» ~bmdt^ ud& 80`&
fa[fptsbc cfvsfdhjib vsbtkt,bc xfvjcf[kt,bcf lf
ufvfh]dt,bc itvltu^ bcbyb ufyeo.dtnkbd tc[vjlyty sfdc mfhsek vjcf[ktj,fc^ vhfdfk mfhsdtkc fn.dtdt,lyty lf
123

bvjyt,lyty fv cbn.dbc gbhlfgbhb vybidytkj,bs^ cfukt[j
htajhvbc lhjc fa[fptsib vjyt,bw /.fdlfs%
«...îáðàçîâàëñÿ îñîáûé êëàññ áåñïðàâíûõ ðàáîâ... â
Àáõ àçèè ïîä îáù èì í àçâà íèåì _ À ãûðâ à»
(Äîêëàäíàÿ çàïèñêà, òàì æå, ñò. 12). fubhdf vjyfsf
rkfcbc cfthsj cf[tkb b.j^ tc rkfcb lbathtywbht,ekb b.j&
cfthsj cf[tkb fqybiyekb cbn.df b.j^ vfuhfv fubhdf^ fye
fubhef _ vtuhtkc tojlt,jlf fa[fpehfl^ fctsbdt vjyfvcf[ehb b.j #fuehb@ fye uehekb&
«...Àãèðâà, Îáûêíîâåííî âîåííîïëåííûå, åñëè íå
âûêóïèëèñü ñâîèìè ðîäíûìè, îáðàùàëèñü â ðàáñòâî
è òîãäà îíè îñòàâàÿñü õîëîñòûìè, ïåðåïðîäàâàÿñü èç
ðóê â ðóêè, ñëóæèëè ðàçìåííîé ìîíåòîé è íîñèëè
íàçâàíèå àõàøâàëà (â ïåðåâîäå íà ðóññêèé ÿçûê
çíà÷èò îäíà ãîëîâà õîëîñòàÿ)» (òàì æå, ñò. 12).
fa[fptsib cek ukt[sf js[b rfntujhbf .jabkf^ vfs
ijhbc f[jbe lf f[fidfkf^ _ mfhsekb ~vtuhtkb^ uehekb`
lfn.dtdt,ekb vfcf^ fmtlfyfw xfyc^ se hfjltyj,bc
mfhsdtkj,f fa[fplt,jlf& #f[jbe& nthvbyb f[jbe ybiyfdc
#cfzvkbc vjvpflt,tkc@ ~vjcfvcf[ehtc`&&& f[jbec pju]th
eojlt,ty #fubhefc@ ~vtuhtkb` fy rbltd #fuehc@ ~uehekb`&&&
f[fidfkf^ fye fsdb vofhvjt,tkb rkfcbc .dtkfpt lf,fkb rfntujhbf b.j@ ~cfm& bcn& yfhrd&^ +|^ ud& 200`&
vbe[tlfdfl bvbcf^ hjv fa[fptsib \|+ c& itvltu c[dflfc[df
xthmtpekb ofhvjij,bc t&b& fhfmfhsekb njvb xfcf[klf^
vfspt lfv[dlehb mfhsekb vjcf[ktj,bc ufdktyf 'fkpt lblb
b.j& lhjsf ufyvfdkj,fib mfhsekb cf[tkvobaj it’kt,lf
fv [fk[bc vjmwtdfc mfhsdtkb [fk[bc reknehbc ohtib^ hjv
fhf hectsbc bvgthbbc vbth cfmfhsdtkjc fytmcbf&
124

vhfdfkb mfhsekb cbn.df^ flfsb^ otc-xdtekt,f^
vbofsvjmvtlt,bc reknehf lf c[df itbsdbctc vjcekvf
vsbtkt,vf mfhsdtkb f,jhbutyt,bcfufy& cojhtl fvbnjv othlyty fa[fpb sfdflt,b hectsbc [tkbceafkc% «...êàê â
äðåâíèå âðåìåíàá òàê è òåïåðü æèëèùà, îäåæäà, ïèùà,
ýåìëåäåëü÷åñêèå îðóäèÿ, ñïîñîáÿ âåäåíèÿ ñåëüñêîãî
õîçÿéñòâà â Àáõàçèè ñîâåðøåííî òå æå êàê è â
Ìåíãðåëèè, áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ìàñòíîñòåé íîñèò
ãðóçèíñêèå íàçâàíèÿ, áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü æèòåëåé,
ïðèçíàåò ñâîå ìèíãðåëüñêîå èëè ãðóçèíñêîå
ïðîèñõîæäåíèå è ñîõðàíèëè äàæå ñâîè ãðóýèíñêèå
è ìèíãðåëüñêèå ôàìèëèè. Îäíî òîëüêî ìîæåò äàòü
ïîâîä ñ÷èòàòü Àáõàçèþ îòäåëüíî îò Ãðóçèè. Ýòî ÿçûê,
íî è â íåì ìû íàõîäèìíà ïîëîâèíó ñëîâ ìèíãðåëüñêèõ
è ãðêçèíñêèõ, ïðàâäà ÷àñòî ñèëüíî èçìåíåííûõ, íî íå
ïðåäñòàâëÿþùèõ îñîáîãî ýàòðóäíåíèÿ â îòûñêàíèè
ïåðâîíà÷àëüíîãî êîðíÿ ìèíãðåëüñêîãî èëè
ãðóçèíñêîãî» (Äîêë. Çàïèñêà, ñòð. 11).
vfufkbsfl^ fa[fpehb cbn.df fiyfrvef _ ibyf.vf^ frfi,fi
_ rfvtxt,b^ f]fvb _ ]fvb^ #z.jylfh@ _ tgbcrjgjcb
~z.jylbltkb`^ fcfrevfk _ cfrvtkb^ f,th _ ,thb^ fcfrhbfk _
cfhtrtkb ~pfhb`^ f]fh _ ]dfhb ~f& ,fmhf’t` lf c[df vcufdcyb^
fctdt vcufdcfldt itbwdfkf mfhsekb njgjybvt,b& vfufkbsfl^
#w[tkrfhb@ _ mfhsekb njgjybvb fa[fptsib fct itewdkbfs fa[fpehb tybc ,eyt,bc itcf,fvbcfl #fwrfh@ ~t&b& cbn.df
itevjrkt,bfs`^ njgjybvb #cfsfvfij@ ­_ #nfvbifl@ lf f&i&
.jdtkbdt ptvjs xfvjdkbkbc ufvj f[fk fa[fp [fk[cfw rb
fa[fpb sfdflt,b #mfhsek j]f[ib itvfdkfl@ vbbxytdlyty lf
hect,bcfufy bs[jdlyty& «Ìû ñìååì íàäåÿòüñÿ, ÷òî â
ïðèìåíåíèè ê Àáõàçèè è Ñàìóðçàêàíî êðåñòüÿíñêîé
125

ðåôîðìû ìû íå áóäåì èñêëþ÷åíû èç îáùåé  ñåìüè
Ãðóçèíñêèõ íàðîäîâ ê êîòîðîé ïðèíàäëåæàëè» (òàì
æå, ñò. 12).
mfhsdtkb lf fa[fpb [fk[t,b vj’t,yblyty
ehsbthscb.dfhekbcfsdbc cfthsj atcdt,c^ hjv fhf ew[j
'fkbc vbth itmvybkb lf,hrjkt,t,b^ hjujhw ief
cfereytt,ib^ bct vbc itvlujv&
tc obuyb lfbothf 1992 okfvlt& fv;fvfl xdtyb e,tleht,bc
ufvj cfmfhsdtkjv lfrfhuf fa[fptsb^ bm^ fa[fptsib xfhxf
fsb fsfcj,bs mfhsdtkb^ mfkb lf ,fdidb^ vj[ewb lf
f[fkufphlf^ vfssdbc thsflths upfc uflfhxtybcf ofhvjflutyc sfdbfysb mfhsdtkj,bc efh.jaf lf fa[fpt,fl sfdbc
ufvjw[flt,f^ fvbnjvfw mfhsdtkt,bc uffa[fpt,bc ghjwtcb
lqtclqtj,bs rbltd eahj ufv’faht,ekbf lf ufqhvfdt,ekb&
cfvoe[fhjl^ tc afmnbf&

126