You are on page 1of 20

Introduction to Project Management

Unit 15

Unit 15

Project Management Software

Structure 15.1 Introduction Objectives 15.2 Features of Project Management Software 15.3 Different Approaches in Project Management Software Criticisms of Project Management Software 15.4 Different Types of Software Management Tools Types of Project Management Software 15.5 Management of Multi-Project Environments Managing a Multi-Project Organisation Organising for Success Examples of Tools/Software for Multi Project Environments 15.6 Summary 15.7 Terminal Questions 15.8 Answers 15.9 Glossary

15.1 Introduction
Project Management software consists of many types of software which help in scheduling, cost control and budget management, resource allocation, collaboration software, communication, quality management and documentation or administration systems. These software are used to deal with large, complex projects and help in smooth management of projects. Scheduling involves setting up a series of events or tasks. Complexity of the schedule can differ considerably depending on how the tool is used. The Project Management software can also be implemented as a Web application which can be accessed through an intranet or an extranet using a web browser. An integrated system aggregates project management or project planning, with many other aspects of the company life. This unit discusses project management software available in the market today.

Sikkim Manipal University

Page No.: 313

Introduction to Project Management

Unit 15

Learning Objectives After studying this unit, you will be able to:  Identify the features of Project Management software.  Evaluate various approaches in Project Management software.  Analyse the various types of software management tools available in the market.  Identify tools/software for multi-project environments.

15.2 Features of Project Management Software
The features of Project Management software are scheduling, calculating critical path, and providing information which are discussed in detail below: Scheduling This is one of the most common requirements of managing any project. This involves scheduling a series of events or tasks. The complexity of the schedule can differ considerably depending on how the tool is used. Some common challenges include:  Events can depend on one another in different ways or dependencies.  Tasks can be scheduled to various resources this is commonly termed resource scheduling.  Uncertainties and estimation of the duration of each task will have to be dealt. Calculating the critical path When there are complex schedules, there is bound to be a critical path. There can also be a series of events that depend on each other and whose durations directly determine the length of the whole project. Some software applications, for example Dependency Structure Matrix solutions, highlight these tasks, which are often considered as a good choice for any optimisation effort. Providing the information The Project Management Software is expected to provide information to various people and stakeholders. It can be used to measure and justify the level of effort required from various resources to complete the project. The essential requirements include:  Task lists for people, and the allocation of schedules for resources.
Sikkim Manipal University Page No.: 314

although some have the power to collaborate with other users. 15. tools and techniques which will help meet the needs and expectations of the stakeholders of a project. 2. The desktop applications typically store data in a file. _______ are used to highlight the tasks in critical path. On a networked drive even the file-based project can be shared between users and only one user can access it at a time. There are different approaches in Project Management software. Web-based The Project Management software can be applied as a Web application and can be accessed through the intranet or the extranet using a web browser. Optimum utilisation of the available resource. Scheduling the task to various resources is termed as _________. All the regular advantages and disadvantages of web applications are applicable. Information on workload and holiday planning Historical information on progress of projects. Any Project Management software should help to predict and prevent possible problems and not to recognise and react. Self Assessment Questions 1.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15      Overview of information on the time taken to complete the task. knowledge.3 Different Approaches in Project Management Software The purpose of Project Management software is to apply the skills. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. This basically gives the most responsive and graphically-intense style of interface.: 315 . They include: Desktop The project management software can be used as a program that runs on the desktop of each user. and the deviation between the planned and actual performance. or store their data in a central database. Early warning of any risks the project might face. Although it is unusual. the desktop applications can be written to run in a heterogeneous environment of multiple operating systems.

For example. These are designed to help multiple users who are working on different parts of a project. Single user The single-user system is programmed with the presumption that only one person will ever be required to edit the project plan at once.  Easy access-control can be obtained. There is also considerable overlap with single user systems. The Server-based Project Management systems hold the data centrally and also incorporate collaboration tools so that the users can share knowledge and expertise.Server There are Server-based combined Project Management applications which are available. basically to manage lifestyle or home projects. The disadvantages of the web applications are as follows:  Provides only one software version and installation to maintain it  Responds slower than desktop applications  Project information is not available when user or server goes offline.  Centralised data repository can be achieved.  Many-users can use it. For example a to-do list application is a personal project management. Client . Collaborative The collaborative system is designed to support multiple users and can help in modifying different sections of the plan at once. the web application can be accessed from any type of computer. Personal The personal Project Management application is one which is used at home.  Solutions offered allows user to go offline with a copy of the data. The desktop applications generally fall into this category. This can be used in small companies or can be used where only a few people are involved in top-down project planning.: 316 . updating Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 The advantages of the web applications are as follows:  Without installing software on user’s computer. although personal Project Management software typically involves simple interfaces.

diverting from a sound project management philosophy. so that each piece of information can be combined into the same system. Morris. For example. The following are some criticisms of Project Management software:  May not be obtained from a sound Project Management method. There are tools available which allow team members to check their schedules so that they can work on them and not on the network. by default allows the users to 1 Peter W. G.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 the areas they personally are responsible in order that the estimates get incorporated into the overall plan. While reconnecting to the database. calendars. unable to differentiate between the pre-planning and post-planning phases and unable to keep up with the project progress. and messaging functionality related with their projects.: 317 . To address this limitation.1 Criticisms of Project Management Software There are many criticisms of Project Management software which vary from concentrating on the schedules rather than on the project objectives. For example. This will give a client that run on user’s desktop computer to duplicate project and task information to other project team members through a central server where the users can connect periodically to the network. displaying the Gantt chart1 view. Generally Web-based tools including extranets fall into this category. there must be some software tools which use the client – server architecture. specialised tools like Source Forge combines Project Management software with source control software and bug-tracking software. projects can have bug tracking issues given to each project. and each person on the project plan has their own task lists. 15. but with the limitations they can only be used when the user has live Internet access. all changes have to be synchronised with the other schedules. Thomas Telford Sikkim Manipal University Page No. with many other aspects of the company life. In the same way. Integrated An integrated system aggregates Project Management or project planning. the list of project customers will become a customer relationship management module.3. The Management of Projects.

which can simply be a snapshot at one moment in time. For example. (example. shortening the duration of a task when an extra human resource is assigned to it while the project is still being planned. Better results can be achieved using simpler technique. It uses desktop project management software. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. High dependency on the first draft of a project plan.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15          focus on timed task scheduling at an early stage. leading to user confusion and frustration when the software does not behave as expected. Project Management software may shield the manager from important interpersonal contact as it is similar to PowerPoint.: 318 . Often users of Project Management software are not actually managing a discrete project. Activity 1: SFX Software Solutions is a reputed company which delivers projects on time. deliverables and the imposed logical progress of events May not be consistent with the type of Project Management method. Complicated features unable to meet the needs of Project Management or project scheduling professionals effectively and often of no use. Good management software will not only facilitate this. Focus is primarily on the planning phase and does not offer enough functionality for project tracking. pen and paper). but assists with the impact assessment and communication of plan changes. control and in particular planadjustment. agile (Scrum method). List the essential requirements necessary for project planning software. for example. For example. and the overallocation is often solved manually. New software is challenging the conventional definition of Project Management. No clear distinction between the planning phase and the post planning phase. can produce results that will not make intuitive sense. and yet feel the pressure in using project management software by company policy. traditional (Waterfall method) vs. rather than identifying objectives. Prioritisation of complex task and resource levelling algorithms. Project Management software is helpful in multiple large projects but cannot be used if only a single small project is involved – Project Management software attains a larger time-overhead than is worthwhile.

______________ can be used as a program that runs on desktop. 4. Target Audience The target audience in project management software are the people involved in controlling and monitoring the project. project managers. Project Management applications also help in carrying out scheduling.: 319 . testers.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 Self Assessment Questions 3. developers and other software project stakeholders who are involved in estimating and planning the software projects become the target audience. There are even free and open source Project Management tools available which can be downloaded or used through a web browser. Multiple Functions Project management software has been in use for a number of years now and offers far more than just manage the projects themselves. The main goal is to handle all the aspects and complexities of larger projects and help in reducing the costs.4 Different Types of Software Management Tools Project Management products help the organisation manage projects from the beginning to the end and also allow employees at different levels to contribute into the process. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Some are provided by well known companies like Microsoft while some are provided by small firms. cost control and budget management. quality management and documentation or administration. The Project Management software helps determine events that depend on one another what is the exact dependency level and the repercussions of things change or go wrong. For example in software projects the software measurement and metrics specialists. 15.1 Types of Project Management Software Many types of project management software and tools are available in the market. functional managers. 15. communication. Project management software is used as _____________. In web-based application. collaboration.4. resource allocation.

There are different types of Project Management software applications available. Microsoft Project. This is an easy-touse Project Management package that communicates with other applications like PowerPoint. financial. aims.  Matchware MindView: This project management software is developed by MatchWare Company. assign resources to tasks. etc is required. scheduling people to work on various tasks. significant of brainstorming bubbles. It has an interactive Gantt chart which is normally available only in higher-end suites. as part of an overall objective. Word. Project Management Software is used to deal with uncertainties in the estimation and duration of each task. arrangement of tasks to meet various deadlines and juggling of multiple projects simultaneously. managing tasks. and is known as resource scheduling. and detailing the resources – physical. solving problem. Excel. organising ideas. track progress. It allows the project managers to develop plans.It has features that help manage resources and budgets as well as multiple projects. managing time. It is one of the most accepted packages and offers a web interface and deep Office. obstacles and also the personnel assignments for projects and also use a calendar to generate a Gantt chart which will feature the project’s phases and the goals. and Microsoft Project. Inc. meeting agendas and so on. It is easy-to-use spreadsheet-like layout and its mind map option allows the project in visuals. This helps in taking notes. This tells the users to identify the phases. planning reports and proposals.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 Further.  Project Kickstart: This project management software is desktop software developed by Experience in Software. Outlook.: 320 . The different types of Project Management software are as follows:  Microsoft Project: This is the project management software developed and sold by Microsoft. This also helps the Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Outlook and also Share point integration. Primavera are some of the popular tools.  Rational Plan Multi Project: This is a Project Management Software developed by StandBySoft. manage budgets and also analyse workloads.

: 321 . and secondly studying the success factors in multiple project management.1 Managing a Multi-Project Organisation There are different models and approaches to project organisation’s structure and management.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15  managers to manage the company’s projects and resources in a centralised manner. Self Assessment Questions 5. time tracking and messaging system. 15. They are:  Strategy: This refers to the organisational strategy. Microsoft Project offers _____________. now let us discuss about the successful management principles in multi-project environment. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. influence/communication and dual authority. Project Management Software is used by people to deal with_______. responsibility. This provides to-do lists. file sharing. Though this approach is rather general it gives important rules about managing project based organisations. It is a low-cost web-based Project Management and collaboration package which is gaining momentum. The common characteristics of the matrix organisation are vertical hierarchy overlaid by lateral power. wiki style web-based text documents. milestone management.5 Management of Multi-Project Environments In the previous section we have discussed about different Project Management applications available. There are many general approaches to manage the organisations. The successful management principle in multi-project environment involves firstly focusing on organisational structures and management models in multiple projects organisations. The main point of interest is to find out what is the most appropriate environment structure in different business environments and business contexts of companies. The Matrix organisational viewpoint to management in multi-project environment was found in the 1960’s as a solution to manage complex and exceptional cross-functional efforts in the conventional hierarchical organisation. and accountability. 6.5. Basecamp: This is a Project management Software developed by 37 signals. The main organisational elements to be managed come into five categories. 15.

resource allocation and monitoring. especially from the point of effectiveness. There is a new customerbased approach to project-based organisations. A project reflects the overall business processes. The company’s business objectives and goals should be interrelated. The term project portfolio management is conceptualised and referred to as the set-up of managing projects and project business. Rewards: This refers to the system that provides motivation and incentives for the completion of the strategic direction People: This refers to management of human resources to create talent and skills necessary for the organisation. as they are included in organisational management context. The project portfolio management focuses on the management of the project environment by aligning projects to business objectives.: 322 . The foundation of the approach depends on managing relationships between customers and suppliers.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15     Structure: This determines the placement of power and authority in the organisation. organisational and process development. portfolio evaluation and selection. Managing project-businesses successfully requires successful management of projects. project financing. 15. research. Therefore. The management of project-oriented corporation includes:  The company or business-level administrative components such as general administration. new product development. Different approaches and factors affect the project success and the success of different types of Sikkim Manipal University Page No.5. training and education. Processes: This includes information and decision processes cutting vertically and horizontally across organisation’s structure. sales and marketing.2 Organising for Success Project success plays a crucial role in managing the overall business of a project based company. Project portfolio management refers to the dynamic management process of portfolio correlated to strategic planning.  Balancing the resources as well as the risk aspects across the projects.  Providing guidelines and instructions about general business practices in projects. the project portfolio management is a process used to manage organisations in multi-project environment.

reliability. For example.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 projects has been the main point of interest and there are success domains by which the success is assessed. and team relationships. development of new competitive advantage or attainment of reference value for the clients. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. for example satisfied users. Also. the processes related to the project or the resources related to the project.  The product. product quality and commercial success. for example cost and schedule related factors.  The project implementation. commercial benefit for the project service providers. for example. example. The project’s success is defined using four success domains. strategic goals. Thus. client (or customer) satisfaction. professional learning.  The stakeholder relationships. and quality related information. the customer and the supplier organisations have different viewpoint.  Technical success. improved effectiveness. and economic impact on the surrounding community. learning-by-doing.  Benefits for the stakeholders.  Benefits for the organisation. the success and success measures may relate to the wide interpretation of the results of a project. for example time. increased profits. the evaluation of success depends on the viewpoint or the stakeholder. organisational learning and reduced waste. and a company executive’s viewpoint differs from those of the individual project managers.: 323 .  The learning situation. example. social and environmental impact. for example improved efficiency. for example system maintainability. personal development. they are:  Commercial success of the project. client’s (or customer’s) present and future value. for example. content project team. for example.  Project results. validity and information-quality use. These success domains are connected to:  The strategy. the client satisfaction on a product and the competitiveness of the product. cost. The results reveal that the success can be grouped into four areas such as:  Project performance. for example.

 Senior management support. without considering the relation of project success to the success of the project-based organisation. managing risks and resources (both tangible and intangible). the management of project-based organisation is extended to 2 "The Balanced Scorecard . The first form is the instant and commercial success of the project. customer.  Powerful project leaders. internal business-process and also learning and growth. The four different perspectives for translating the organisation’s strategy in operational terms are financial. The Balanced Scorecard2 is aimed to achieve the objectives and the measures from the company’s vision and strategy which can finally be obtained further to the projectspecific objectives related to the business strategy. sharing information. and the second form relates the future business possibilities created by the project. and on technical specifications. These are responsible for the project success and the success of the corporation emphasise the difference between the short term and the long term profits of the company. on schedule.: 324 . The project success has an effect on the success of project-based organisation in two different forms. and enhancing organisational learning.  Effective internal and external communication. for example project management on budget. Furthermore. Many studies have focused only on the effective and the successful management of a single project. determining the placement of power and authority within the organisation.Measures that Drive Performance".Introduction to Project Management Unit 15   Project management success. The challenges and characteristics of management of project-oriented organisation are related to the issues such as linking projects to strategy and business objectives. and on how to integrate the success of the corporation with the project success. Learning of project stakeholders. The study on product development projects show that successful projects are usually characterised by:  Cross-functional teams consisting of members from more than one functional area. Harvard Business Review Sikkim Manipal University Page No.

the project portfolio management issue is focused mostly on business unit’s specific projects.: 325 .  Project performance and resources aspects such as project’s costs. and project product related quantities. as it is typical that the projects in the specific business unit portfolios cross the boundaries of several business units. which includes both financial and customer perspectives. and in complex project networks. program development specific portfolios. and cross-functional IT project portfolios. Data analysis The data from the workshops and from the group discussions are analysed. Moreover. the individuals represent the different functions and roles which give a cross-functional view to projects. and management’s support and commitment.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 cover external perspective to organisation. but. The empirical data is gathered using group discussions in well-planned systematic development workshops. however. time. The idea is to recognise the main characteristics necessary for the successfully managing multi-project environment. management of customer relations in projects. benefits for stakeholders and company. Moreover. The empirical data is continuously linked to the existing theory and the body of knowledge of Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Thus. The investigated portfolios include organisation’s unit specific portfolios. we can conclude that there are three different success areas related to management in multi-project environment. and scope. In the participating organisations. many projects and portfolios are cross-functional. Several individuals participate in each workshop. the organisations ultimate aim is to improve the capability to manage successfully the project-oriented organisation as a whole.  Learning and communicating at individual and organisational levels. The results can be measured by the terms of strategy. quality. Material and methods Data gathering The participating organisations have a long-term objective of implementing systematic project portfolio management with their projects across the whole corporation. Their job assignments are related directly or indirectly to the project process. these areas are:  Results.

Such responsibilities and roles consist of a project portfolio board.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 project portfolio management. An analysis has revealed the following general observation as important determinants while managing multi-project environment which are:   The planned placement of projects along with the business objectives is important from the starting phases.: 326      Sikkim Manipal University . along with careful planning or the production start by ensuring user involvement. a portfolio manager. Also the responsibilities should be integrated to the existing organisational bodies and structures to ensure top management involvement by managing transparency across projects. and a support providing party for example a project support office. The time and resources is very important to be considered in all the organisations The evaluation and supervision of the changes in the external factors and in the environment is important throughout the project. Results The analysis shows that the organisational solution to manage multi project environment consists of management by project portfolios. The decision-making should be organised in both organisation unit specific and also in cross-functional project portfolio groups. The required information should be delivered to support decision-making. The organisational structure should consist of several project portfolios and the individuals responsible for their follow-up. and to a larger theoretical context of management of project-oriented activities in an organisation as a whole. The organisational ownership of the project and its deliverable is important. The continuation in the production or operation phase must be ensured by further developing plans already in the execution. in case of companies it is essential to organise for project portfolio specific responsibilities and roles for effective multi-project management. The alternative solutions are essential to be considered simultaneously for potential alternative decisions. The companies should consider the functional effectiveness of the project product (deliverable) in the operation phase as the first important issue to be evaluated is already in the ideation phase. However. This occurs Page No.

thus gaining commitment locally.: 327 .1: Managing Multiple Projects Priority 4 3 2 1 Description Less Than 3 Large projects with less than 12 projects overall. This happens because it becomes impossible to kill or change the content of ideas that have been prepared in the organisational units for months or years. This involves tracking baseline data for all projects. with less than 40 projects overall.    The follow-up of the effectiveness of the project product in the operations phase is essential for feedback and learning. The learning from the operations phase links to new project ideas. with less than 100 projects overall. using project categorisation. Table 15.  Table 15. a scaleable methodology.1 shows the techniques required for managing multiple projects. Very large complex multi-project environment with substantial organisational reliance on project success. The need to bring new ideas to become transparent throughout the organisation as early as possible. Less than 20 large projects. and re-plan approvals.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 as changes in the environment might put pressure on making new changed decisions. Less than 8 projects. milestone reviews. 3 Require Project Management disciplines to be applied and maintained for all projects along with oversee baseline controls. baseline reporting. Priority 4 Require Project Management principles be applied to all the projects and also participate in project selection. Involves organisational level Project Management tracking. metrics tracking. which makes it advisable to include considerations of portfolios of already executed projects. The new projects should be carefully matched against the existing systems and the products in the operations phase. approval. and exception management. Area Management Leadership Sikkim Manipal University Page No.

Assigning senior management POC for oversight of project methodologies. Policies and Procedures 4 Insist on the application of project management principles and techniques such as documented requirements. training. This can be used to classify projects and revoke scalable Project Management requirements. realistic plans.10% of project efforts. approval. This helps in building Project Management support infrastructure. 1 Supporting project management as a core competency and show senior leadership and commitment in words and deeds. Also prioritise approval levels. summary metrics and exception reporting. Helps to build project control and support staff. This provides administrative infrastructure for reviews. and tools. and trend analysis. This helps to build infrastructure of policies. 1 Dedicate the senior leadership to project management oversight where strong matrix for Project Management organisation.: 328 . This helps Project Management in budgets for staffing. 3 Document Project Management methodology for flexible application to all projects along with establishment of policies for project selection. 2 Identifying and managing the sponsors for all Project Managements. expect Project Management budget at 6% . and technical goals. baseline control. 3 Define explicit Project Management functions defined in the organisation to provide staffing to support metrics. and support systems. systems. schedule. and results. 1 Establishing a baseline exception management process. organisation and management practices. systems.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 2 Maintain Project Management principles and disciplines from the top management down and also requires implementation of Project Management policy and practices. and baseline management for cost. periodic reviews. Organisation and staffing 4 Include project management in organisational priorities and align organisation to support Project Management objectives. milestone reviews. and metrics. tracking. This helps to maintain dedicated Project Management support functions. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 2 Document Project Management methodology explicitly for each project. definition. methodologies.

flexible licensing.3 Examples of Tools/Software for Multi Project Environments There are many tools available for multi-project environment. 2 Provide automated Project Management tools and methodology templates. methods. data management. with strong project management functionality. they are:  Project portfolio management  Projects and Resources planning  Tracking time  Collaboration around the projects PSNext’s rich graphical interface is multi-lingual in nature. and tools has to be maintained along with track user requirement requests. and simple automatic deployment to allow a smooth startup and a rewarding journey to the project management success. Sharing support tools for administration and controls. The repository of systems. cost estimating. 1 Establish enterprise-wide cost and resource tracking which provides family of tools for schedule tracking.: 329 . historical data bases. PSNext: It is a full-featured and a very easy to use enterprise Project and Portfolio Management (PPM) solution which gives wide insight into all the projects and resources across the enterprise. It has high degree of configurability. 15.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 Systems and Tools 4 Provide software for integrated schedule and resource estimate. The tracking of project budget. the operating system or the browser. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. It seeks ways to summarise data and share support systems. Genius inside. We will go through some major features of two of these tools/software. AceProject are some of the tools available.5. making it an ideal choice for the organisations with single or mixed IT environments. action item tracking. The tool has four main functional areas. and can be used from any computer which is connected to internet irrespective of the geographical location. 3 Provide software tools capable of exchanging data and rolling up multi-project summaries and resource levelling. etc. CredAbility. PSNext. schedule and staff requirements. PSNext is a web-based.

There are three different areas related to the success of management of multi-project environment.6 Summary In Project Management the features are scheduling. Main organisational elements can be managed into_____ categories. project tracking. Activity 2: CSC Software company has been into web-development. There are five popular project management applications. invoicing.and resource-related success factors. and deploy. What are the steps to be followed by the project manager to make the project a success? Self Assessment Question 7. _____ factors are used to categorise the success associated with multiproject environment. The features of this software are that it provides portfolio management.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 It is easy to configure. Matrix organisational viewpoint in multi-project environment was found in _______. It helps the global organisation by giving a user interface adapted to each role. 9.: 330 . resource allocation. The purpose of project management is to predict and prevent and not to recognise and react. cost control and budget management. resource management. 10. collaboration. The Project Management applications also help in carrying out scheduling. team collaboration and dashboard and reporting. quality management and documentation or administration. The Project Management software has been in use for a number of years now and therefore it does far more than just manage the projects themselves. communication. Genius inside: It is Web-based Project Management software which provides all the functionality of desktop software. The results-related success Sikkim Manipal University Page No. timesheets. 15. cost and budget tracking. These are: results-related success factors and process. calculating critical path and providing information. It now wants to do multiple projects. document management. 8. Project portfolio management refers to _________________. Gnatt chart. integrate.

Name the different type of software management tools 4. Uncertainties 6. Refer section 15.and resources-related success factors are more enabler like success determinants.2 2.8 Answers Answers to Self Assessment Questions 1.3 3.4 4. Explain the different approaches in project management. Refer section 15. Dependency Structure Matrix Solutions 3. Refer section 15. Two 8. 1960s 9.7 Terminal Questions 1.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 factors contribute directly to the project business’ success. 15.5 5. Five 10. Project Management software 4.: 331 . Dynamic management process Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 15. 3. How to manage multi-project organisation? 5. List the related success domains. What are the features of project management software? 2.5 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. while t he processes. Resource scheduling 2. Web interface 7. Web-application 5. 15. Refer section 15.

Harvard Business Review 3. and therefore capable of being assigned a value in monetary terms. Critical path Balanced scorecard Tangible References 1. government. Thomas Telford 2. Something having actual physical existence. Morris.9 Glossary Term Collaboration Description The act of working with another or others on a joint project where multiple users can join together to modify different sections. "The Balanced Scorecard – Measures that Drive Performance". as real estate or chattels. –––––––––––––––––––– Sikkim Manipal University Page No. and non-profit organisations worldwide to align the business activities to the vision and the plan of the organisation.: 332 . to improve the internal and the external communications. It is a strategic planning and management system which is used widely in business and industry. The series of activities that must be completed on schedule for the entire project to be completed on schedule. The Management of Projects. Peter W. This is the longest duration path available through the workplan.Introduction to Project Management Unit 15 15. Eric Uyttewaal: Dynamic Scheduling With Microsoft(r) Project 2000: The Book By and For Professionals. G. and also monitor the organisation performance against the strategic goals.