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A unique characteristic of Indian astrology are the yoga’s. Yoga’s are planetary positions that lead to a certain result. We have already discussed one yoga, that of raja yoga. This was mentioned in diagram 8. This is a simple yoga. It was a matter of one planet and the houses over which it was lord. There are literally thousands of these kinds of yogas. In India, an astrologer must know them of by heart. Then it is said that the first thing an astrologer needs, is a good memory. During this course, we shall discuss a number of yogas. Studying a horoscope for the presence of yogas presents an astrologer with new dimensions in horoscope interpretation. When you analyse a horoscope for the presence of yogas, as discussed below, you will quickly obtain insight into the principle components of a horoscope.

Pancha mahapurusha yogas are yogas that are easy to find in a horoscope. To begin our analysis for this group of yogas, we note the position of the ascendant and the Moon. The Moon is an exceptionally important planet in Indian astrology, and for this reason, we can use the sign the Moon is in as an alternative ascendant. So if we look for yoga’s we can look for them from the ascendant but we can also take the Moon as a starting point in our search for yoga’s. For instance, if we say that a certain planet must be placed in a kendra house to be considered as a planet making a yoga, the kendra house is calculated from either the ascendant or from the sign the Moon is in. Example: We have a Moon placed in the fifth house. Kendra houses calculated from the ascendant are the first, fourth, seventh and tenth houses. Kendra houses calculated from the Moon in this example, are the fifth (first house calculated from the Moon), eighth (fourth house calculated from the Moon), eleventh (seventh house calculated from the Moon) and the second (tenth house calculated from the Moon) houses. And now to the yogas and their consequences:
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Ruchaka yoga: Mars in its own sign or in exaltation, and in a kendra house brave, arrogant, the victor. Bhadra yoga: Mercury in its own sign or in exaltation, and in a kendra house intellectual, learned, rich. Hamsa yoga: Jupiter in its own sign or in exaltation, and in a kendra house religious, very fortunate.

Malavaya yoga: Venus in its own sign or in exaltation, and in a kendra house wealthy, loves life, sometimes self-indulgent, good marriage, strong sense of justice. Shasya yoga: Saturn in its own sign or in exaltation, and in a kendra house powerful, strict, position of authority.

In short, the characteristics of a certain planet are strongly emphasised in a pancha mahapurusha yoga. Example of a ruchaka yoga: Adolf Hitler had Mars in Aries in the seventh house. Mars is in its own sign (also a moolatrikona sign) and in a kendra house (the seventh house). How he used the ruchaka yoga is evident. This yoga need not be used is this manner. Many sports people have a ruchaka yoga in their horoscope. A bhadra yoga enables a person to become good in commerce and communicating. A hamsa yoga could be seen in the horoscope of a learned person, a clergyman or someone who has a lot of good fortune in his life. We could expect a malavaya yoga in the horoscope of a millionaire or a beauty queen. We can see a malavaya yoga in John F. Kennedy's horoscope (which has been enclosed with the course). In his horoscope, Venus is in its own sign, in the ninth house (this is a kendra house as seen from the Moon). In his horoscope, this resulted in great riches and because of meeting many beautiful women, a great deal of sexual enjoyment. However, we can see this yoga also in the horoscope of the peaceable Gandhi. In this horoscope, Venus is in the first house in a moolatrikona sign. In both examples, we see expressions of Venus (peace, sexual enjoyment, riches) but, depending on the rest of the horoscope, the malavaya yoga has unfolded in different ways. A shasya yoga is fitting for the horoscope of a politician or a director. Let us not forget we find pancha mahapurusha yogas in the horoscopes of approximately of half the population, and certainly not everyone is famous. Only the appearance of such a yoga is by no means enough to warrant fame. Other aspects in the horoscope must also support this.

A parivartana yoga occurs when planet A is in the sign of planet B, and planet B is in the sign of planet A.

If this is beneficial or not depends of the character of both planets and especially the houses they rule. if Mars is in Taurus and Venus is in Aries. However. that is not always the case. These are dushtana houses that generally have an unfavourable influence. Example: When Sagittarius is on the ascendant. the Sun will be damaged because it has to battle with the difficult energy of the eighth house. If this position occurs in your own horoscope. the Moon is lord of the eighth house and the Sun is lord of the ninth house. Should the Moon be in Leo and the Sun in Cancer. which has to do with all kinds of problems. the lord of the sixth. Mars is in the sign of Venus and Venus is in the sign if Mars. eighth or twelfth house.  Kahala yoga: This occurs when one of the planets of this yoga is lord of the third house. A kahala yoga would mean that the person involved would invest a lot of energy and vigour in improving his circumstances. A possible interpretation for the lord of the eighth house when it is favourably influenced: Perhaps the person involved here will receive an inheritance (eighth house) from his father (ninth house). or he may be a teacher (ninth house) of psychology (eighth house). eighth or twelfth house will be strengthened by the benefic influence of the other planet. the other planet involved in this yoga is always damaged. The third house is the house of energy and strength. the Moon is lord of the third house and Saturn lord of the ninth and tenth houses. this position is called ‘in reception'.  Dainya yoga: This yoga occurs when one of the planets participating in the yoga is lord of the sixth. then we have a dainya parivartana yoga. Example: If Taurus is on the ascendant. eighth or twelfth house (because we then have a dainya yoga). it is indicated by a small wave (˜. Although the computer programme that we use for our printouts regards this as a beneficial condition code. In most cases. We can ascertain that the influence both planets have on each other is similar to that of a conjunction. will get a boost from the influence of the favourable ninth house energy. it is possible that his good fortune (lord of the ninth house) will be tainted (influence of the lord of the eighth house). In Western (horary) astrology. There are three kinds of parivartana yogas. The Moon however. In addition. A possible interpretation for the lord of the ninth house when it is unfavourably influenced: Probably this person's father (ninth house) has had a problematical life because the lord of the ninth house has been affected by the influence of the lord of the eighth house.For example. In this case. The other planet may not be lord of the sixth. Supposing the Moon is in Capricorn . in mutual reception with another planet).

and also for containment with positive consequences. In Indian astrology. but not Rahu and Ketu. sixth.and Saturn in Cancer. then Venus will function exceptionally well.3 SCISSORS YOGAS (KARTARI YOGAS) This group of yogas is caused by planets being placed around a certain house and/or planet. Venus will not be able to function optimally. the fifth house encounters a papa kartari yoga. However. everything pertaining to the fifth house will be beneficially influenced. Example: Mars is in the fourth house. A house can also be enclosed. In this case. This yoga enriches the planets involved. second. although there is no planet in that house. the fifth house is strengthened by the occurrence of a shubka kartari yoga. The lords of the third. which is used when a planet in enclosed by two malefics. Jupiter (a benefic) in Aries. In Western horary astrology. the term enclosed is used for containment in a negative sense. The most generally occurring scissors yoga is when two benefics or malifics enclose a planet or a house. we know the term enclosed. We call enclosure by benefics of a planet or a house shubha kartari yoga. This person will put a lot of energy (third house) into his career (tenth house) and into broadening his horizons (ninth house). . fifth. because two malefics enclose the fifth house. In this situation. Then we have a kahala yoga. Therefore.   We call enclosure by malefics of a planet or a house papa kartari yoga. because then we would have either a dainya yoga or a kahala yoga. when Venus is in the fourth house and Jupiter in the sixth house. This can have awkward consequences for the children. fourth. the fifth house is empty and Saturn is in the sixth house. ninth. we have a maha yoga. Saturn (a malefic) in Aries and Mars (a malefic) in Gemini. Two malefics enclose Venus. seventh. Example: Let us assume that Venus is in Taurus. Scissors yogas can also be called kartari yogas. Example: If Venus is in Taurus. Kartari means scissors. The planets can form these scissors yogas. This is shubha kartari yoga. eighth or twelfth houses may not be involved. and the Moon (a benefic) in Gemini. 9. tenth or eleventh houses.  Maha yoga: When a parivartana yoga occurs between the lords of the first.

    Sunapha yoga: Planets in the second house (other then the Sun) calculated from the Moon – richness. One could say that the first house is the horoscope in miniature. or there will be no effect at all. the effect is limited or non-effective. He was not known to be a particularly religious man. Other planets do not support the functions of the Moon. An example: should the Moon be in either a kendra or a trikona house. financial benefits. In Kennedy's horoscope. However. This effect increases if there are benefics in the twelfth house calculated from the Moon. This is a papa kartari yoga. the Moon is in the tenth house (a kendra house). Planets in the second or the twelfth house calculated from the Sun. When the first house is enclosed. Kemadruma yoga: There are no planets in either the twelfth or the second house calculated from the Moon. Should there be one or more malefics in this second house from the Moon. . The person will feel lonely and lead a rather difficult life. because there are no planets in either the twelfth or the second house calculated from the Moon. SCISSORS YOGAS OF THE SUN Now we shall discuss the scissors yogas of the Sun. The effects of this are stronger if benefics are situated in the second house calculated from the Moon. SCISSORS YOGAS OF THE MOON There are a number of scissors yogas that apply specifically to the Moon or the Sun. it is of particular importance. There are many ways in which this difficult yoga can be neutralised. In Gandhi's horoscope we can see that the first house is enclosed by the Sun (malefic in the twelfth house) and Saturn (malefic in the second house). the effect will be limited. will strengthen the Sun (naturally in their own and high morals (especially if it concerns beneficial planets). which caused a certain number of problems in his life. but should it concern one or more malefics. according to their character). Anapha yoga: Planets in the twelfth house (other then the Sun) calculated from the Moon . which is the twelfth house calculated from the Moon. Gandhi had Kemadruma yoga in his horoscope. This greatly neutralises the Kemadruma yoga. Durudhura yoga: Planets (other then the Sun) in both the twelfth and the second house calculated from the Moon .This type of scissors yoga is common. Saturn is in the eleventh house. This is because the first house is so important. in conjunction with another planet or being aspected by Jupiter this yoga will be greatly neutralised.

The Sun is in itself. that can only lead to sizeable results. This is not the case. If it is formed by malefics it can lead to all kinds of problems. Voshi yoga: This occurs when a planet (other then the Moon) is placed in the twelfth house calculated from the Sun. The book written by Hart deFouw also gives a lot of attention to this subject. when they are related to other indications. S. When a person has both a Veshi and Voshi yoga. A benefic in the vicinity is always appreciated. A malefic in the twelfth house calculated from the Sun will give us problems. The Voshi yoga increases the above effects. but the fact that he was murdered had something to do with the powerful malefic Mars (in a moolatrikona house) in the eighth house. I refer to the list of books for further reading. they are yoga’s. This yoga supports spiritual development and intelligence. Several of the aforementioned yoga’s will appear in everyone's horoscope. at least when it is formed by a benefic. This brings good fortune in many areas.4 VARIOUS YOGAS I have already explained that there are literally thousands of yogas. at least when this yoga is formed by benefics. Charak contains especially good descriptions of yoga’s. but again only if it involves benefics. he actually has Ubhayachari yoga. It would be logical to expect a yoga when there are no planets in the second or the twelfth house calculated from the Sun. 9. This very same Mars also gave him his sex appeal. This yoga gives riches and status. without the support of other planets. He was intelligent (the influence of Mercury). and it can function very well alone. Kennedy had both a benefic and a malefic in the twelfth house calculated from the Sun. The eighth house represents death as well as sexual charisma. For those who wish to learn more on this subject. . The following list is of particularly important yoga’s. but it is not necessary. it forms a veshi yoga. The book 'yogas in Astrology' by K. which is the twelfth house calculated from the Sun.  Ubhayachari yoga: There is a planet (other then the Moon) in both the second and the twelfth house calculated from the Sun. A powerful Mars in that house can lead to a violent death (Mars as powerful malefic) as well as a lot of sexual charisma. a powerful planet. One must realise that this is only a very small selection. Because they appear so often.  Veshi yoga: When a planet (other then the Moon) is in the second house calculated from the Sun. Malefics will create trouble.

so take advantage of it. it also has consequences for the functioning of the ascendant. Raja yoga: The lords of a kendra and a trikona house are in conjunction. which will therefore lead to positive results. Explanation: Benefics in the sixth and/or eighth house support the seventh house (refer to scissors yoga’s). career in the social sector If a malefic is placed in this position. the Moon is lord of the fourth house and the Sun is lord of the fifth house. However. the seventh house is opposite the Ascendant. The Moon is the most important planet in Indian astrology. However. This is a combination of good fortune (trikona house) and action (kendra house).leadership. eighth and twelfth houses . This is the reason that a strong seventh house also gives us a strong first house. a strong first house is of particular importance. mutually aspected or in reception.philanthropic and benevolent attitude towards mankind. benefics in the sixth. and also by two planets. the two planets then form a raja yoga.  Adhi yoga: There must be art least two.  Ashubha mala yoga: When all the benefics are placed in the sixth. . will also allow the Moon to function much better. Example: With an Aries ascendant. he will not be very particular in choosing the avenues leading to social success. Inasmuch as the first house is the whole horoscope in short. a difficult life. it may mean. that he attains a highranking position at the cost of others. the Moon is lord of a kendra house (the fourth) and the Sun is lord of a trikona house (the fifth). I would like to point out that a raja yoga could be formed by one planet. At the very least. it will aspect the first house. That the Moon should function well is therefore of great importance. When a planet is placed in the seventh house. it may be favourable for the owner of the horoscope (explanation: malefics in upachaya houses are good and the tenth house is an upachaya house). seventh and eighth house calculated from the Moon . but preferably more. It then follows that the consequence of adhi yoga is a strong first house. Because of this. A benefic in the seventh house will of course lead to a better functioning of that house. amala yoga calculated from the ascendant (Moon in the tenth house) and amala yoga calculated from the Moon (Jupiter in the tenth house from the Moon). Should the Sun and the Moon be in conjunction in a horoscope with an Aries ascendant. Gandhi has in his horoscope.the benefics become powerless: misfortune.  Amala yoga: A benefic placed in the tenth house calculated from the ascendant or the Moon . Analogically an adhi yoga calculated from the Moon. In this case.

the natural benefics will be very influential in life. Both Gandhi and Kennedy have Gaja Kesari yoga in their horoscope. they aspect the ascendant. is very positive.good reputation and good fortune (better when it is formed by benefics). but it can only be publicly displayed with the greatest difficulty. J. and high morals. the Moon. probably made by unscrupulous means. which is the most important for our life on earth. the Moon and Jupiter influence each other. which in most cases. Gaja Kesari yoga: The Moon and Jupiter are either conjunct. intelligence. but the person involved will find it difficult to convince the public of his good ideas. has favourable effects. which of course. they aspect the fifth house. will be a good thing (especially when it concerns natural or temporary benefics). When the Sun and Mercury are placed in the eleventh house. Explanation: When there is srik yoga.good luck. Planets placed there are extremely effective.W. calculated from Jupiter . The intellectual combination of the Sun and Mercury is favourable for the intellect. square or in opposition . . Jupiter. their energy will be powerfully felt. both the Moon and Jupiter are placed in kendra houses.fluctuating fortunes. eighth or twelfth house. Charussagara yoga: Planets placed in all the kendra houses . Explanation: The first house is the most important house in Indian astrology. and Mangala is the name for Mars. and the planet of good luck and fortune. The connection between the planet. It can also cause problems with the mother. and when the Sun and Mercury are placed in the seventh house.   Sarpa yoga: Only malefics are placed in the kendra houses . fifth or eleventh house . seventh. abundance. When planets are occupying all the kendra houses.    Chandra Mangala yoga: The Moon and Mars in conjunction or opposition riches (often caused by women). Srik yoga: This occurs when only natural benefics placed in the kendra houses comfort. The kendra houses are the pillars of the horoscope. the budhatiya yoga remains intact. good luck. If Mercury is in combustion.misfortune. That of Gandhi is the stronger because in his horoscope. Budhatiya yoga: The Sun and Mercury are in conjunction and are placed in the first. Chandra is the Indian name for the Moon. The intellect is a facet of the fifth house. whilst in the Kennedy horoscope the Moon in placed in a dushtana intellectual. Goethe had this combination in his horoscope. a difficult life.  Shakata yoga: When the Moon is placed in the sixth. In this yoga. The budhatiya yoga will manifests.

neutral signs. 9. learned person. Kennedy had Jupiter and Venus in the tenth house calculated from the Moon. tenth or eleventh houses) houses calculated from the Moon or the ascendant . When they are in a favourable position. Still many people lead lives which shine in their mediocrity. in the second house – writer. Even signs are negative. Jupiter. Two out of three benefics in upachaya houses calculated from the Moon provide reasonably strong vasumathi yoga. and she is born during the night .  Maha Bhagya yoga: For a man: The ascendant. speaker. or aspect benefices. In Gandhi's horoscope. When the Moon is placed in a dushtana house calculated from Jupiter. for them. sixth. The night is feminine. masculine signs (the air and fire signs). Venus and Mercury are placed in kendra houses. or even better. If we want to form an opinion as to just how a yoga expresses itself. However the Moon is in her fall and Jupiter is in a dushtana . 1. we have a difficult relationship between these two planets. but as all the named planets are either in conjunction with each other. For a woman: The ascendant. feminine signs (the earth and water signs). the Sun and the Moon are placed in even signs. Venus and Mercury are placed in kendra houses.This is more or less the opposite of the Gaja Kesari yoga. It is true that Jupiter and Mercury are placed in.5 THE POSITION OF YOGAS No horoscope is without yogas. by the way. the Saraswati yoga here is extremely powerful. positive. the Sun and The Moon are placed in uneven signs and he is born in the daytime . Daytime is also masculine.  Vasumathi yoga: Benefics placed in upachaya (the third. Jupiter. How strong are the planets connected to the yoga? Example: Let us assume that the Moon is placed in Scorpio in the third house and Jupiter is placed in Aquarius in the sixth house.very fortunate. Uneven signs are. We could say that there is a Gaja Kesari yoga. Persons with favourable yogas are not always rich and famous.riches. intellectual. Venus and Mercury can provide wisdom. The cause of this lies in just how a certain yoga is placed in the horoscope.very fortunate. Favourable yogas are frequent. in a friendly sign.  Saraswati yoga: When Jupiter. we shall have to examine the following.

Both planets are in trouble. A planet placed in a house. in the previously example of a Gaja Kesari Yoga. if only for the reason that there is no budget for the upkeep of the house. both the Moon and Jupiter are under pressure. then yoga will hardly be visible. Mahatma Gandhi 2-10-1869. The yoga can hardly be felt.11 8th Taurus 9th Gemini 5th Aquarius Rasi Chart 10th Cancer Rahu 13.40 Moon 27. How strong are the rulers of the signs where the yoga planets are placed? If the (positive) promises made by a planet are to be kept. The ruler is the owner of a house. 2.33 GMT. 9.6 EXERCISE Study your horoscope for the occurrence of the above mentioned yoga’s. and Mars (also a malefic) aspects Jupiter. then the occupants of that house will be affected as well. Refer to my comments about the Gaja Kesari yoga (yoga number 27) of Gandhi and Kennedy. Example: When the Moon is in Scorpio and Jupiter in Taurus.56 . study the above material. it will not be very favourable if Mars (ruler of the house where the Moon is placed) is in fall in Cancer and Venus (ruler of the house where Jupiter is placed) is in fall in Virgo. 3. lives in and rents that house. 21. 2. 6th Pisces 7th Aries Jupiter 28.. If the owner of a house runs into problems. Please send in a list of these yoga’s and make a short interpretation of them.40 N. Before you forecast great fortunes and fame based on certain yoga‘s. it is of great importance that the ruler of the sign where that planet is placed has a favourable profile in the horoscope. What aspects do the planets forming the yoga receive? When. This is the reason the yoga is threatened with failure. Saturn (a malefic) aspects the Moon. Because of the aspects from unfavourable planets. E. Again the yoga will become almost invisible.

4th Capricorn Ketu 13.21 Sun 15.25 Mars 26.13.40 Mahatma Gandhi 11th Leo 3rd Sagittarius 2nd Scorpio Saturn 20.36 4th Sagittarius Rahu 18.43 In Vedic astrology there are methods which especially in this age of computers can give a quick insight in the state of planets and houses.29 6th Aquarius 11th Cancer Saturn 4. Chart Kennedy 5th Capricorn 12th Leo Moon 24.23 12th Virgo Sun 16. It gives a value to each planet.07 W.20 N. . One such method is treated here.04 10th Gemini Ketu 18.17 Ascendant 4.27 Rasi John F. Kennedy 29-5-1917 GMT: 20.29 3rd Scorpio 2nd Libra 1st Virgo Ascendant 29. This is the method of Shadbala.71. 7th Pisces 8th Aries Mars 25.43 Mercury 27..53 9th Taurus Jupiter 0. Only if you know the method followed by this system of calculation you can have an opinion about the value of it. 42.45 Venus 24.34 Mercury 11. The more points a planet gets in Shadbala the stronger it is. It is important to have some insight in how the Shadbala value is calculated.55 John F.09 Venus 24.

When it occupies the opposite point. Raman’s method go to the options menu and select ‘B.5 Shashtiamsas. Like the Moon is exalted at 3 degrees Taurus.When you started the first course you were given a printout of your chart. There are slight variances on how Shadbala is calculated. in the sign of a friend 15 Shashtiamsas. it does not get any Shashtiamsas. It is possible that other astrologers in the future will develop their own version of Shadbala. The concept of friends and enemies has been explained . In that case the points that it will get will be calculated according to its position from the point of exaltation and fall. in the sign of a great friend 22. In all these charts we look at what kind of sign a certain planet is located. Personally I welcome new and innovative approaches.V. 1. If a planet occupies in the rashichart its Moolatrikona sign it gets 45 Shashtiamsas (this is a special rule for the rashi chart only). In this course I will follow the method of the late B. in a neutral sign 7. Raman as explained in his book ‘graha and bhava balas’. This is the positional strength of a planet. In this printout you see an overview of the Shadbala calculations. 2.75 Shashtiamsas and in the sign of a great enemy 1.875 Shashtiamsas. in the sign of an enemy 3. Saptamsa. In the first course you learned that in Vedic Astrology all planets have exact degrees of exaltation. its exact point of fall. The Moon at 3 degrees Leo will get 30 Shashtiamsas (this is exactly between 3 degrees Scorpio and 3 degrees Taurus).V. Of course most of the time a planet will occupy a position somewhere in between these points. Now I will explain these. The second one is called Saptavargaja Bala. if it is in its own sign (of whatever varga) it gets 30 Shashtiamsas. Hora. Sthana Bala consists of five components: 1. The first one is called Ocha Bala.V. Dwadasamsa and Trimsamsa. However.5 Shashtiamsas. Navamsa. This makes it much easier to follow the explanations. Drekkana. When a planet occupies it exact degree of exaltation the planet gets 60 Shashtiamsas (Shashtiamsas are points). Example: The Moon at 3 degrees Scorpio will get 0 Shashtiamsas. before we can develop something new we should exactly know how the traditional system works. I would suggest you have the printout of the Shadbala calculation of your personal chart in front of you while I explain the calculations. To calculate this we will have to look at the following seven harmonic charts: Rasi. If you use Haydn’s Jyotish and you want to follow B. STHANA BALA We start with calculating the sthana bala of a planet.Raman’ under Shadbala style.

6. You can see it on the computer printout. The reasoning is that planets in kendrahouses can easily express themselves and are therefore strong. Jupiter and Mars). 3.5. Now we have to add up all the Shashtiamsa values. the middle drekkana for neutral planets and the last drekkana for female planets. Sun. You are in the priviliged position that you do not have to calculate all this by hand. They also can get 15 Shashtiamsas when they are in an uneven navamsa. a planet in the house 2. but in a certain house. If a neutral planet is in the middle drekkana of whatever sign (that means it is located between 10-20 degrees of whatever sign) it gets 15 Shashtiamsas. DIG BALA This principle has similarities with the principle of Ocha Bala. a planet in the house 3. The reasoning is that the first drekkana of each sign is good for male planets. Ojayyugma Bala The idea behind this concept is that a planet gains strength because it is in an even or uneven sign or the first course.9 or 12 gets 15 Shashtiamsas.8 or 11 gets 30 Shashtiamsas.4. neutral planets (Saturn and Mercury) and female planets (Venus and the Moon). Only now the decisive factor is not the location of the planet in a certain sign. If a male planet is in the first drekkana (0-10 degrees) of whatever sign it gets 15 Shashtiamsas. 5. The reason behind this is that the Moon and Venus are female planets and are strong when they are in female (even) signs or navamsas. . This is one of the most important parts of Shadbala because Saptavargaja bala can give a lot of Shashtiamsas. These planets also get 15 Shastiamsas when they are in an even navamsa. 2. Mars. In totality the Moon or Venus may gain 30 Shashtiamsas if they are located in an even sign AND even navamsa. If a female planet is located in the last drekkana (the last 10 degrees) of whatever sign it gets 15 Shashtiamsas. Kendra Bala A planet in a kendra house (1. Drekkena Bala To calculate this the planets are divided into masculine planets (Sun.7 and 10) gets 60 Shashtiamsas. The result is the total Sthana Bala. Mercury and Saturn get 15 Shastiamsas when they are in an uneven sign. The Moon and Venus get 15 Shashtiamsas when they are in an even sign. Jupiter. 4. These planets are male or neutral and are strong in male (uneven) signs. When you know what the different strengths and weaknesses mean you can easily assess the strengths and weaknesses of your chart just by looking at the Shadbala printout.

The Bhava Chart is a chart which has unequal houses. Saturn is the planet of shades. The Sun and Mars are energetic planets which need the energy that is available around noon (at that time the Sun is in the tenth house). Saturn is given maximum Dig Bala when it is in the West. That is why Mercury and Jupiter. Moon and Venus get maximum Dig Bala when the are in the North (fourth house). The Bhava Chart is explained later. . It is strength of time. planets which have to do with studying and learning. These are planets which function especially well in the tenth house (the tenth house is the Southern part of the sky). It is comparable to the way we work with houses in Western Astrology (and in particular the Porphyry house system). Dig Bala means directional strength. The midpoint of the houses in the bhava chart may differ from the midpoint of the houses in the rashi chart (which is always 15 degrees of a certain sign).Each planet is powerful when it is located in a certain direction. Dig bala gives a good indication for how strong a planet is in its house. Mercury and Jupiter function well in the first house (the East). 3. A reason for this is that the morning is a great time for studying and learning. A slight complication is that for determining this BV Raman works with the bhava chart and not with the rashi chart. The Sun and Mars are powerful in the South. the seventh house. KALA BALA This has to do with the strength which a planet has because of the time of the day. If for example the Moon is located right in het middle of the fourth house he gets maximum Dig Bala and is given 60 Shashtiamsas. are strong during that time of day (at that time the Sun is near the ascendant). Moon and Venus are soft planets which function good during the time that is meaned for sleeping and making love (at midnight the Sun is in the fourth house). If the Moon is in the middle of the tenth house it is given 0 Shashtiamsas. which are at its maximum during the evening (when the Sun is opposite the ascendant). A planet gets maximum Dig Bala when it is in middle of the bhava (house) where it functions especially well.

badly influenced Mercury and the Moon (from the 8th day of the dark half of the lunar month to the 8th day of the bright half of the lunar month). When the Moon is increasing it is Sukla Paksha. Sun. Noon is seen as good for activities which have to do with the . The maximum amount of Shashtiamsas to be gained is 60. These beneficial planets are powerful during Sukla Paksha. 2. 3. This is an example. Mars. If born during the first part of the night the Moon is given 60 Shashtiamsas. Jupiter and Venus get 60 Shastiamsas if the person is born at noon and zero if he is born at midnight. Of course if the person is born at a time somewhere in between the value is interpolated. Paksha Bala A Paksha is equal to 15 lunar days. In addition.The benefics are Jupiter. Jupiter and Venus are powerful during noon and are powerless during midnight. The Moon. if someone is born during the first part of the day Mercury gets 60 Shashtiamsas. Divaratri Bala According to this system the Moon. Venus. If born during the last part of the day Saturn gets 60 Shashtiamsas. Saturn and Mars are given 60 Shashtiamsas only if the person is born at midnight and 0 if the person is born at noon. The Sun. If someone is born during the second part of the day the Sun gets 60 Shashtiamsas. The benefics get more Shastiamsas if a person is born on Sukla Paksha and the malefics less. If born during the second part of the night Venus gets 60 Shashtiamsas.It consists of different factors: 1. Saturn. Thribhaga Bala Sometimes in Shadbala you see things which look a bit curious. Adaptable Mercury is considered to be always powerful. When the Moon is decreasing it is Krishna Paksha . Moon (from the 8th day of the bright half of the lunar month to the 8th day of the dark half of the lunar month) and good influenced Mercury. This means that in every chart Mercury gets the maximum of 60 Shashtiamsas which can be gained by this factor. In the reasoning behind Dig Bala the first part of the day is seen as particularly good for Mercurial activities. The Shastiamsas of the Moon are always doubled. In this system Jupiter is always given 60 Shastiamsas. At noon they are powerless. Saturn and Mars are powerful during midnight. The day (that means the period of daylight) is divided into three equal parts and the night (the period without daylight) is divided into three equal parts. These are the natural benefics + the Sun. The value of the Shastiamsas of the malefics + the value of the Shastiamsas of the benefics is always 60. They are powerful during Krishna Paksha. The malefics are Sun. If born during the last part of the night Mars gets 60 Shashtiamsas. I see some connection between this system and the system of Dig Bala. These are the natural malefics + the Moon. If a person is born during Krishna Paksha the malefics get more points.

The period of daylight contains 12 horas and the period without daylight contains 12 horas. Saturn is strong when he is opposite the ascendant (at the place of the evening Sun). First we have to calculate the total Sthana bala value + Dig Bala + Kala Bala till Hora Bala of the two fighting planets. If you are born at some distance from the equator the horas are not of equal length. Ayana Bala This is a somewhat exotic concept in Shadbala. Hora Bala A day is divided into 24 hours or horas. the Sun. 6. This planet is found without calculations. 7. The ruler of the hora when you were born gets 60 Shashtiamsas. the value attached to the late night Mars is something which cannot be found in Dig Bala. Masa Bala The planet which is the lord of the first day of the month in which a person is born receives 30 Shashtiamsas. Therefore we only encounter Yuddha bala values if there are planets at war in the chart. Mars and Jupiter the Northern declinations are added to his value and the Southern declinations subtracted (the consequence of this is that a planet has a low ayana bala if the planet has a Southern declination and a high ayana bala if the planet has a Northern declination). For Mercury declinations are always added. Raman does not look at the calender but tries to find this planet by making a calculation (in which he uses the 360 day year) it is very well possible that the year began on another day then is seen on the Abda Bala printout. 9. For Saturn and the Moon it is the other way around. Abda Bala The planet which is the lord of the year will get 15 Shahtiamsas. In finding this planet more or less the same problems appear as when calculating Abda Bala. Then the order is according to the days of the week (next hora will be of Mars then of Mercury and so on). The lord of the year is the planet which belongs to the first day of the year. To really explain it would take a lot of space. Vara Bala The planet which rules the day at which the person is born receives 45 Shashtiamsas. 8. Yuddha Bala This concept has to do with planets which are in war.4. Each hora is ruled by a planet. Then we must calculate the difference between these two values. Also the Moon and Venus are strong during nighttime. Raman uses a duration of the month of 30 days. The value a planet gets according to Ayana Bala has to do with the declination it has from the equator. For Venus. For example if the first day of a certain year is Sunday the year is ruled by the Sun. 5. because Mr. The ayana bala of the Sun is always doubled. However. This . The first hora is ruled by the planet which rules the day. Sun. The maximum amount of Shashtiamsas to be gained is 60. I have not succeeded in finding an explanation why these rules are the way they are. If a planet has 0 declination the ayana bala is 30. Mr. For example at Monday the first hora is ruled by the Moon. However. which receives 15 Shashtiamsas according to this method.

They move in a fairly regular pattern and do not go retrograde ever. 5. Maybe you experience this to be a difficult concept. I would like to stress that it is the relative speed I am talking about here: relative to the average speed of a planet. 6. If a planet is aspected by . You can also look at it simply from the point of view that a planet which wins a war gets some bonus Shashtiamsas. DRIK BALA Drik Bala is called aspect strength.57 Shashtiamsas. NAISARGIKA BALA Each planet gets a certain amount of Shashtiamsas according to the luminosity it has. When you see a value higher than 1 it moves faster than its average speed. If a planet is aspected by benefics the planet receives a positive Shashtiamsa value. while a relatively slow moving Mercury gets a high Chesta Bala. when you see a value lower than 1 it moves slower. Saturn is the faintest and gets 8. On the computer outprint of Haydn’s Jyotish you see the average speed (at the top of the printout). This means that the amount of Shashtiamsas a planet receives according to Naisargika Bala is in every chart the same. 4. Therefore it is possible that a relatively fast moving Saturn gets a low Chesta Bala. This must be added to the Kala Bala total of the winning planet and subtracted to the Kala Bala of the loosing planet. The maximum amount of Shashtiamsas to be earned is 60. Because the Sun is the brightest planet it is given 60 Shashtiamsas. The reasoning is that slow moving planets are able to focus their energy more because they stay in one place. The result of this calculation is the Yuddhabala. When you see a 1 behind a planet it is moving at its average speed. Planets which are relatively slow (among them retrograde planets) get a high Chesta Bala value. After everything has been calculated we add it all up and get the total Kala Bala. I suggest we take a shortcut.difference must be divided by the difference between the diameters of the two planets as seen in the sky. CHESTA BALA Again we encounter a concept which is not easy to explain without a lengthy introduction about astronomy. while the planet which looses the war looses some Shashtiamsas. The Sun and Moon do not get Chesta Bala values. Planets which are relatively fast get a low chesta bala value.

the point which is 60 degrees gets a 25% aspect and the point which is 30 or 150 degrees from the planet gets no aspect at all. Venus needs 5 ½ Rupas. According to the Shadbala rules every planet needs a certain amount of Rupas to be strong. 7. We know that the Sun. Venus and Mercury aspect the planet in the seventh sign from it. but for this purpose we work with partial aspects (that means aspects which are weaker than full aspects). Saturn. Therefore I think the Drig Bala value is very interesting. The point which is 120 degrees from these planets get a partial aspect of 50%. The Moon needs 6 Rupas.2 for which planets are considered benefics and malefics. Jupiter needs 6 ½ Rupas. This makes the calculation of Drik Bala quite cumbersome. I will give one example of this. According to these rules Mercury needs 7 Rupas. We get the Shadbala value in Shashtiamsas. Moon. By looking at the Shadbala printout we can immediately see if a planet is mainly under the influence of benefics or malefics and how strong this influence is. What is important to know is that if a certain planet has a negative Drig Bala value than it is mainly under the influence of malefics and if it has a positive Drig Bala value it is under the influence of benefics. It is important to realize that the influence of certain Shadbala factors is much greater than others. These . Simply because the amount of Shashtiamsas to be gained by certain Shadbala factors is much greater than by others. Thank God we have computers. the Sun and Mars need 5 Rupas. TOTAL SHADBALA Finally. As an example: the amount of Shashtiamsas which can be gained by the factor Sthana Bala is a lot more than what can be gained by Dig Bala. The calculation of the Drik Bala value is a bit complicated because we also take partial aspects in account. the point which is 90 degrees from the planet gets a 75% aspect. Something else happens. At the printout you can see the Shadbala value in Rupas. Most Jyotishis only work with full (100%) aspects.malefics than it gets negative Drik Bala points. Then we get the Shadbala values in Rupas. Therefore the six Shadbala factors are not equally important. Now for this purpose we say that these planet aspect the zodiacal degree in opposition (180 degrees from it). the Shashtiamsas are added up. Next they are divided by 60. See paragraph 3.

17 7. which is also fairly strong and indeed he always seems to talk his way out of problems. ISHTA PHALA AND KASHTA PHALA On the printout you see some other factors mentioned. If we look at the planets which have a low Shadbala value we see Venus and especially Saturn.03 1. lovemaking and financial deals (Venus).65 9.07 1. SATURN Total Shad Bala : 8. The total Shad Bala in Rupas is divided by this minimum requirement and then we get the Shad Bala ratio. +--------------------------------. The strongest planet according to Shadbala is the Sun. which has a total Shadbala of 8.66 6. Next comes Mercury. . I have never seen an explanation of why this is so. EXAMPLE: BILL CLINTON As an example let us take a quick look at the Shadbala printout of Bill Clinton (chart is shown in the section about the Nakshatras).Shad Bala ----------------------------------+ FULL SHADBALA PRINTOUT IS GIVEN IN THE COURSE MATERIAL SUN MOON MERC. The most interesting about this Shad Bala ratio is to see whether a planet has more or less than the minimum requirement and how much that is. 8.73 1.02 1.25 Shad Bala Ratios : 1. In general most astrologers attach more value to the total Shad Bala.62 6.30 1. a lot of his problems have to do with sexuality.51 6.47 5. Because I have some difficulties in seeing the logic behind the minimum requirements I also attach more value to the total Shadbala. It is good to know what they mean. Indeed.66. This is something to be expected from a person who is president of the USA.values are seen as the minimum requirement for a certain planet to be strong.53 3. It also seems that he has a difficulty in keeping limits (Saturn).VENUS MARS JUP.00 0.

If the value we get is more than 180 degrees it will be subtracted from 360.The Ishta Phala value of a certain planet is calculated as follows: the Ocha Bala (see paragraph 1. Again if the value we get is more than 180 degrees it will be subtracted from 360. Then we get the Chesta Bala value in Shashtiamsas. . It may be wiser to evaluate the functioning of the planet in its dasa and bhukti by looking at the Total Shadbala value. For this we have to calculate the Bhava Chakra (House Chart) which is dealt with in another tutorial. The idea is that if a planet has a higher Ishta Phala than Kashta Phala value it is inclined to do good in its dasa and bhukti and if it has a higher Kashta Phala than Ishta Phala value it is inclined to do evil in its dasa and bhukti. The Sun’s longitude is subtracted from that of the Moon. The logic of this may be clear.1) is multiplied by the Chesta Bala (see paragraph 4). as the Shadbala system shows there are more factors to be considered how a planet performs. To get a Chesta Bala value for the Sun and Moon we make the following calculation: we add 90 degrees to the Sun’s longitude. We calculate 60-Ocha bala and 60-Chesta Bala. Anyway. The result is the Moon’s Chesta Bala value for this purpose. I hope by this time you are not overwhelmed by calculations. we have to explain the Kashta Phala. To calculate the Chesta Bala value of the Moon we make another calculation. We get a value between 0 and 60. 10. Again to get the value in Shastiamsas the value is divided by three. Then the value of Ishta Phala will also be large and the amount of Kashta Phala value will be small. This value is divided by three. The Sun and the Moon do not have a Chesta Bala. Next we calculate the product of this and then the square root of this product will be the Kashta Phala value. Yet we need to have a Chesta Bala value for these planets otherwise we cannot calculate the Ishta Phala. Then the square root of the product is extracted. However. RESIDENTIAL STRENGTH This is the last factor we have to consider. Of course it is good if a planet has a big Ocha Bala and Chesta Bala value. Personally I feel Ishta Phala/Kashta Phala is perhaps not one of the most interesting points of Shadbala but you should have some idea of way it is calculated. The result is the Sun’s Chesta Bala value (at least the Chesta Bala value for this purpose).

Dig Bala (2).1. Indeed I am aware of some astrologers (like Ranjan Bose) who have come up with other systems to measure the strength of planets. 11. A planet with a high Residential Strength is powerful while a planet with a low Residential Strength is weak.The Bhava Chart is a Chart which works with unequal houses which are comparable to the housesystem of Porphyry. For example: there is no Shadbala factor which considers whether a planet is in a dushtana house (houses 6.). while it is generally known that this is important for a planet. Chesta Bala (4). Vedic Astrology is traditional. Saptavargaja Bala (1. However I consider some factors of Shadbala to be more useful than others. The reasoning is that if a planet is close to the midpoint of a certain Bhava (house) it is given a high Residential Strength and if it is located at the edge of a Bhava (house) it gets a low Residential Strength. CONCLUSION It is my opinion that Shadbala is a useful and interesting system. . Of course this has its advantages.4).8 or 12) or not. All kinds of different strenghts are summarized in a single figure. Ishta/Kashta Phala values and Residential Strength are values which stand on their own and are not used to calculate the total Shadbala. In that system of Indian astrology we find systems which have the same goal that Shadbala has (to measure the strength of planets) but are quite different. I would also like to modernize the way factors like Abda Bala and Masa Bala are calculated. which is the same in all charts and probably Thribhaga Bala) and probably add one or two new factors. Factors which I consider to be especially interesting are Ocha Bala (1.2). Also there are authors which have developed slight variances of Shadbala. We can look at the total strength of a planet and analyze from which factors this strength comes from. These other systems can also be found in Tajika Astrology (which will be dealt with later in this course). Drik Bala (6). If I would be so bold as to redesign the system I would skip some factors (like Naisargika Bala. Kendra Bala (1. As far as Ishta/Kashta Phala and Residential Strength is concerned I would skip Ishta/Kashta Phala and integrate Residential Strength in the calculations of the Shadbala ratio. but we should always evaluate whether a system could be improved.

2. but also have characteristics. The weakest planet first and the strongest planet last and the others in between. Again make an overview which planet has the highest Kala Bala and which planet has the least. 12. In fact. Most systems that can be an alternative to Shadbala are simpler. Look at the Shadbala ratios and again put them in order of strength. For each of these factors look at which planet has the strongest value and which planet has the weakest value. 4. Look also at the Residential Strength. We will deal with the Bhava Chart later.1. Sometimes I wonder whether this factor does not weigh to heavily in the system as the amount of Shashtiamsas to be gained by this factor are sometimes very high indeed. Kendra Bala (1. but when you analyze a certain factor try to realize what this factor means. Put the planets in order of Residential Strength (9). Look at the following factors: ocha bala (1. Dig Bala (2). the alternatives are not necessarily better. Saptavargaja Bala (1. Do not do this exercise by ‘automatic pilot’. Look especially at which planets have a value bigger than one and which planets have a value which is less than one.2). which can be criticized. 5. Chesta Bala (4). Try to realize that if the differences are extreme this may have a big influence on the endresult (the total Shadbala ratio).However. this will be explained in a later tutorial). therefore easier to calculate. Look at the Total Shadbala values of the planets in your chart. 3. Take a look a the total Kala Bala value (3) of the planets. . We are going to look at some particular interesting factors of the Shadbala factors. EXERCISE 1. but untill now you have to realize that planets which have a high Residential Strength can disperse their energy better in the houses then planets which do not have much Residential Strength (it is possible that planets are located in a different house in the Bhava Chart than in the Rashi. untill this day Shadbala is the most complete and sophisticated system to measure the strength of planets and therefore highly useful.).4). Put them in an order of strength. Drik Bala (6). Are the results surprising or do you recognize the results in the way you experience the planets.